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Sample records for bond overlap plasmon

  1. Analysis of Bonding between Conjugated Organic Molecules and Noble Metal Surfaces Using Orbital Overlap Populations.

    PubMed

    Rangger, Gerold M; Romaner, Lorenz; Hofmann, Oliver T; Heimel, Georg; Ramsey, Michael G; Zojer, Egbert

    2010-11-09

    The electronic structure of metal-organic interfaces is of paramount importance for the properties of organic electronic and single-molecule devices. Here, we use so-called orbital overlap populations derived from slab-type band-structure calculations to analyze the covalent contribution to the bonding between an adsorbate layer and a metal. Using two prototypical molecules, the strong acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) on Ag(111) and the strong donor 1H,1'H-[4,4']bipyridinylidene (HV0) on Au(111), we present overlap populations as particularly versatile tools for describing the metal-organic interaction. Going beyond traditional approaches, in which overlap populations are represented in an atomic orbital basis, we also explore the use of a molecular orbital basis to gain significant additional insight. On the basis of the derived quantities, it is possible to identify the parts of the molecules responsible for the bonding and to analyze which of the molecular orbitals and metal bands most strongly contribute to the interaction and where on the energy scale they interact in bonding or antibonding fashion.

  2. Adsorbate-metal bond effect on empirical determination of surface plasmon penetration depth.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Laurel L; Menegazzo, Nicola; Booksh, Karl S

    2013-05-21

    The penetration depth of surface plasmons is commonly determined empirically from the observed response for adsorbate loading on gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) substrates. However, changes in the SPR spectrum may originate from both changes in the effective refractive index near the metal surface and changes in the metal permittivity following covalent binding of the adsorbate layer. Herein, the significance of incorporating an additional adsorbate-metal bonding effect in the calculation is demonstrated in theory and in practice. The bonding effect is determined from the nonzero intercept of a SPR shift versus adsorbate thickness calibration and incorporated into the calculation of penetration depth at various excitation wavelengths. Determinations of plasmon penetration depth with and without the bonding response for alkanethiolate-gold are compared and are shown to be significantly different for a thiol monolayer adsorbate system. Additionally, plasmon penetration depth evaluated with bonding effect compensation shows greater consistency over different adsorbate thicknesses and better agreement with theory derived from Maxwell's equation, particularly for adsorbate thicknesses that are much smaller (<5%) than the plasmon penetration depth. The method is also extended to a more practically applicable polyelectrolyte multilayer adsorbate system.

  3. An experimental correlation study between field-target overlap and sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance biosensors based on sandwiched immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yeonsoo; Moon, Seyoung; Oh, Youngjin; Kim, Yonghwi; Kim, Donghyun

    2012-10-01

    In this report, we have studied the effectiveness of field-target overlap to evaluate detection sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. The investigation used theoretical analysis based on the transfer matrix method, which was experimentally confirmed by thin film-based detection in sandwich and reverse sandwich immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Both theoretical and experimental results show that strong correlation exists between the overlap and the sensitivity with the coefficient of correlation higher than 95% in all the cases that we have considered. We have also confirmed the correlation in diffraction grating-based SPR measurement of IgG/anti-IgG interactions. The correlation elucidates the mechanism behind the far-field detection sensitivity of SPR biosensors and can lead to the enhancement of SPR biosensing with molecular scale sensitivity.

  4. Singular diffraction-free surface plasmon beams generated by overlapping phase-shifted sources.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shibiao; Lin, Jiao; Wang, Qian; Yuan, Guanghui; Du, Luping; Wang, Rong; Xu, Le; Hong, Minghui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2013-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the singular surface plasmon beam that presents a dark channel generated by a point dislocation and a long diffraction-free propagation distance up to 70λ(sp). The singular surface beam is the result of the interference of two surface plasmon polariton (SPP) plane waves, which are launched by two coupling gratings with lateral displacement. An aperture-type near-field scanning optical microscope is used to map the intensity distribution of the singular SPP waves. The propagating point dislocation embedded in the beam is shown by full-wave calculations and is later verified by near-field interference in the experiment.

  5. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding). PMID:26763719

  6. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding).

  7. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-14

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding).

  8. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Chen, Xiaowei; Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-11-27

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of thioanisole are experimentally investigated in an electrochemical environment in this study. Two Raman peaks, which depend strongly not only on electric potential but also on the local surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), have been observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that thioanisole is first dissociated from thiophenol via the S-CH3 bond; plasmons then drive the dimerisation of thiophenol via the S-S bond, which is strongly potential dependent. One Raman peak corresponds to the S-S vibrational mode of the thiophenol dimer, and the other corresponds to the asymmetric C-C stretching modes of the benzenyl of the thiophenol dimer. The potential-dependent two Raman modes is the potential-dependent dimerisation dynamics of thiophenol via the S-S bond. Our experimental findings provide insight into the structural elucidation of adsorbed molecules and molecular surface reaction dynamics.

  9. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Chen, Xiaowei; Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of thioanisole are experimentally investigated in an electrochemical environment in this study. Two Raman peaks, which depend strongly not only on electric potential but also on the local surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), have been observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that thioanisole is first dissociated from thiophenol via the S-CH3 bond; plasmons then drive the dimerisation of thiophenol via the S-S bond, which is strongly potential dependent. One Raman peak corresponds to the S-S vibrational mode of the thiophenol dimer, and the other corresponds to the asymmetric C-C stretching modes of the benzenyl of the thiophenol dimer. The potential-dependent two Raman modes is the potential-dependent dimerisation dynamics of thiophenol via the S-S bond. Our experimental findings provide insight into the structural elucidation of adsorbed molecules and molecular surface reaction dynamics. PMID:25427897

  10. Onset of bonding plasmon hybridization preceded by gap modes in dielectric splitting of metal disks.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Maj; Bochenkov, Vladimir E; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric splitting of nanoscale disks was studied experimentally and via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations through systematic introduction of multiple ultrathin dielectric layers. Tunable, hybridized dark bonding modes were seen with first-order gap modes preceding the appearance of bonding dipole-dipole disk modes. The observed bright dipolar mode did not show the energy shift expected from plasmon hybridization but activated dark higher order gap modes. Introducing lateral asymmetry was shown to remodel the field distribution resulting in 3D asymmetry that reoriented the dipole orientation away from the dipole of the elementary disk modes.

  11. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Backes, Claudia; Vaynzof, Yana; Benamara, Mourad; Roper, D. Keith

    2017-07-01

    Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au) nanoparticles (NP) physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch's t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i) direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii) AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii) lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  12. Features of chemical bonds based on the overlap polarizabilities: diatomic and solid-state systems with the frozen-density embedding approach.

    PubMed

    Moura, Renaldo T; Duarte, Gian C S; da Silva, Thiago E; Malta, Oscar L; Longo, Ricardo L

    2015-03-28

    The chemical bond overlap properties were obtained for alkali halides NaY (Y = F, Cl, Br), alkaline-earth chalcogenides MX (M = Ca, Mg and X = O, S, Se) and alkali and alkali-earth metals (Li, Na, and Mg) in diatomic and solid-state systems using an embedding approach based on the frozen density functional theory to simulate the crystalline effects. The computational protocol established provides errors for bond distances smaller than 1%. The results indicate that larger chemical bond covalency leads to larger absorption or scattering by the overlap region. The ionic specific valence and overlap polarizability are closely related to the valence orbital compactness measured by the sum of Mulliken electronegativities. The embedding approach used in this work makes it possible to quantify the effects of the crystalline environment on the chemical bond overlap properties. In the solid-state, the bond overlap charges are less polarizable, in cases of well-known ionic systems (provided by electronegativity differences), leading to smaller chemical bond covalency in solids than in diatomics. The spectroscopic properties of the polarizability of the electron density in the overlap region of a chemical bond could be measured in the 1-20 eV spectral region and could be used to characterize some bands in several spectra whose assignments are ambiguous or not available.

  13. Visual Identification of Light-Driven Breakage of the Silver-Dithiocarbamate Bond by Single Plasmonic Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng Fei; Yuan, Bin Fang; Gao, Ming Xuan; Li, Rong Sheng; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hong Yan; Li, Yuan Fang; Li, Ming; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Insight into the nature of metal-sulfur bond, a meaningful one in life science, interface chemistry and organometallic chemistry, is interesting but challenging. By utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of silver nanoparticles, herein we visually identified the photosensitivity of silver-dithiocarbamate (Ag-DTC) bond by using dark field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique at single nanoparticle level. It was found that the breakage of Ag-DTC bond could be accelerated effectively by light irradiation, followed by a pH-dependent horizontal or vertical degradation of the DTC molecules, in which an indispensable preoxidation process of the silver was at first disclosed. These findings suggest a visualization strategy at single plasmonic nanoparticle level which can be excellently applied to explore new stimulus-triggered reactions, and might also open a new way to understand traditional organic reaction mechanisms. PMID:26493773

  14. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV–vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV–vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  15. Low-Cost High-Efficiency Solar Cells with Wafer Bonding and Plasmonic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanake, Katsuaki

    -metal direct bonding have been fabricated. These metallic back structures could incouple the incident light into surface plasmon mode propagating at the semiconductor/metal interface to increase the optical path, as well as simply act as back reflector, and we have observed significantly increased short-circuit current relative to reference cells without these metal components. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Label free checkerboard assay to determine overlapping epitopes of Ebola virus VP-40 antibodies using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Zabetakis, Dan; Legler, Patricia M; Goldman, Ellen R

    2017-03-01

    Immunoassay formats, in which antibodies provide sensitivity and specificity, are often utilized to provide rapid and simple diagnostic tests. Surface plasmon resonance is frequently used to evaluate the suitability of antibodies by determining binding kinetics to agents or surrogate antigens. We used SPR to evaluate a number of commercial monoclonal antibodies as well as single domain antibodies produced in-house. All the antibodies targeted the Ebola virus viral protein 40 (VP40). We determined the ability of each antibody to bind to immobilized VP40, and ensured they did not bind Ebola glycoprotein or the nucleoprotein. A subset of the monoclonal antibodies was immobilized to characterize antigen capture in solution. It can be advantageous to utilize antibodies that recognize distinct epitopes when choosing reagents for detection and diagnostic assays. We determined the uniqueness of the epitope recognized by the anti-VP40 antibodies using a checkerboard format that exploits the 6×6 array of interactions monitored by the Bio-Rad ProteOn XPR36 SPR instrument. The results demonstrate the utility of surface plasmon resonance to characterize monoclonal and recombinant antibodies. Additionally, the analysis presented here enabled the identification of pairs of anti-VP40 antibodies which could potentially be utilized in sandwich type immunoassays for the detection of Ebola virus.

  17. Singular characteristics and unique chemical bond activation mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions on plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Phillip; Xin, Hongliang; Marimuthu, Andiappan; Linic, Suljo

    2012-12-01

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has almost exclusively focused on semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, we show that plasmonic metallic nanostructures represent a new family of photocatalysts. We demonstrate that these photocatalysts exhibit fundamentally different behaviour compared with semiconductors. First, we show that photocatalytic reaction rates on excited plasmonic metallic nanostructures exhibit a super-linear power law dependence on light intensity (rate ∝ intensity(n), with n > 1), at significantly lower intensity than required for super-linear behaviour on extended metal surfaces. We also demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to semiconductor photocatalysts, photocatalytic quantum efficiencies on plasmonic metallic nanostructures increase with light intensity and operating temperature. These unique characteristics of plasmonic metallic nanostructures suggest that this new family of photocatalysts could prove useful for many heterogeneous catalytic processes that cannot be activated using conventional thermal processes on metals or photocatalytic processes on semiconductors.

  18. Is There a Need to Discuss Atomic Orbital Overlap When Teaching Hydrogen-Halide Bond Strength and Acidity Trends in Organic Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarajan, Deepa; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Ess, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate organic chemistry textbooks and Internet websites use a variety of approaches for presenting and explaining the impact of halogen atom size on trends in bond strengths and/or acidity of hydrogen halides. In particular, several textbooks and Internet websites explain these trends by invoking decreasing orbital overlap between the…

  19. Is There a Need to Discuss Atomic Orbital Overlap When Teaching Hydrogen-Halide Bond Strength and Acidity Trends in Organic Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarajan, Deepa; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Ess, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate organic chemistry textbooks and Internet websites use a variety of approaches for presenting and explaining the impact of halogen atom size on trends in bond strengths and/or acidity of hydrogen halides. In particular, several textbooks and Internet websites explain these trends by invoking decreasing orbital overlap between the…

  20. Matching plasmon resonances to the C=C and C-H bonds in estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbomson, Ifeoma G.; McMeekin, Scott; De La Rue, Richard; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2015-03-01

    We tune nanoantennas to resonate within mid-infrared wavelengths to match the vibrational resonances of C=C and C-H of the hormone estradiol. Modelling and fabrication of the nanoantennas produce plasmon resonances between 2 μm to 7 μm. The hormone estradiol was dissolved in ethanol and evaporated, leaving thickness of a few hundreds of nanometres on top of gold asymmetric split H-like shaped on a fused silica substrate. The reflectance was measured and a red-shift is recorded from the resonators plasmonic peaks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is use to observe enhanced spectra of the stretching modes for the analyte which belongs to alkenyl biochemical group.

  1. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization.

    PubMed

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2015-03-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation for the resonance energies.

  2. Citrate-hydrazine hydrogen-bonding driven single-step synthesis of tunable near-IR plasmonic, anisotropic silver nanocrystals: implications for SERS spectroscopy of inorganic oxoanions.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Satarupa; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Priyam, Amiya; Bhalerao, Gopal M

    2014-08-21

    A simplified, single-step aqueous synthesis route to tunable anisotropic silver nanocrystals (NCs) has been developed by tailoring the hydrogen-bonding interactions between a mild stabilizer, sodium citrate, and a mild reductant, hydrazine hydrate. The structure directing ability of the H-bonding interaction was harnessed by keeping a stoichiometric excess of hydrazine under ambient conditions (pH 7, 25 °C). Decreasing the synthesis temperature to 5 °C imparts rigidity to the citrate-hydrazine H-bonding network, and the plasmon peak moves from 500 to 550 nm (using 40 mM hydrazine). On lowering the pH from 7 to 5, the H-bonding is further strengthened due to partial protonation of citrate and the plasmon peak is tuned to 790 nm. Further, we found that, at 5 °C and pH 5, there also exists a sub-stoichiometric regime in which maximum tunability of the plasmon peak (790→1010 nm) is achieved with 1 mM hydrazine. HR-TEM reveals that the near-IR plasmonic NCs are nanopyramids having a pentagonal base with edge length varying from 15 nm to 30 nm. Through second derivative FTIR analysis, a correlation between hydrogen-bonded molecular vibrations and the plasmon tunability has been established. The anisotropic NCs exhibit significant Raman enhancement on the citrate molecules. Further, a solution-phase, non-resonant SERS spectroscopic detection method for an inorganic contaminant of ground water, arsenite, has also been developed.

  3. Plasmonic band gap engineering of plasmon-exciton coupling.

    PubMed

    Karademir, Ertugrul; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2014-10-01

    Controlling plasmon-exciton coupling through band gap engineering of plasmonic crystals is demonstrated in the Kretschmann configuration. When the flat metal surface is textured with a sinusoidal grating only in one direction, using laser interference lithography, it exhibits a plasmonic band gap because of the Bragg scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on the plasmonic crystals. The contrast of the grating profile determines the observed width of the plasmonic band gap and hence allows engineering of the plasmonic band gap. In this work, resonant coupling between the molecular resonance of a J-aggregate dye and the plasmonic resonance of a textured metal film is extensively studied through plasmonic band gap engineering. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements probe the spectral overlap occurring between the molecular resonance and the plasmonic resonance. The results indicate that plasmon-exciton interaction is attenuated in the band gap region along the grating direction.

  4. Plasmonics in buried structures.

    PubMed

    Romero, I; García de Abajo, F J

    2009-10-12

    We describe plasmon propagation in silica-filled coupled nanovoids fully buried in gold. Propagation bands and band gaps are shown to be tunable through the degree of overlap and plasmon hybridization between contiguous voids. The effect of disorder and fabrication imperfections is thoroughly investigated. Our work explores a novel paradigm for plasmon photonics relying on plasmon modes in metal-buried structures, which can benefit from long propagation distances, cancelation of radiative losses, minimum crosstalk between neighboring waveguides, and maximum optical integration in three-dimensional arrangements.

  5. Observation of quantum tunneling between two plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Jonathan A; García-Etxarri, Aitzol; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-02-13

    The plasmon resonances of two closely spaced metallic particles have enabled applications including single-molecule sensing and spectroscopy, novel nanoantennas, molecular rulers, and nonlinear optical devices. In a classical electrodynamic context, the strength of such dimer plasmon resonances increases monotonically as the particle gap size decreases. In contrast, a quantum mechanical framework predicts that electron tunneling will strongly diminish the dimer plasmon strength for subnanometer-scale separations. Here, we directly observe the plasmon resonances of coupled metallic nanoparticles as their gap size is reduced to atomic dimensions. Using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we manipulate pairs of ~10-nm-diameter spherical silver nanoparticles on a substrate, controlling their convergence and eventual coalescence into a single nanosphere. We simultaneously employ electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to observe the dynamic plasmonic properties of these dimers before and after particle contact. As separations are reduced from 7 nm, the dominant dipolar peak exhibits a redshift consistent with classical calculations. However, gaps smaller than ~0.5 nm cause this mode to exhibit a reduced intensity consistent with quantum theories that incorporate electron tunneling. As the particles overlap, the bonding dipolar mode disappears and is replaced by a dipolar charge transfer mode. Our dynamic imaging, manipulation, and spectroscopy of nanostructures enables the first full spectral mapping of dimer plasmon evolution and may provide new avenues for in situ nanoassembly and analysis in the quantum regime.

  6. The resonant, near-resonant, and off-resonant plasmon coupling effects for the bonding modes in two types of asymmetric dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanshui; Hu, Jianling; Wang, Ziya; Wang, Fengping; Bao, Yongjun

    2014-07-01

    The resonant, near-resonant, and off-resonant plasmon coupling effects for the bonding modes in asymmetric dimers are illustrated by two types of configuration, one formed by a gold nanoparticle and a TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticle and the other formed by two TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with suitable sizes. The redshift and blueshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes with decreasing gap are found under longitudinal and transverse polarization of light for these dimers in the resonant situation, respectively. Under the near-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes still remain under longitudinal polarization, whereas the two separated modes of monomers after coupling under transverse polarization exhibit no obvious peak-shift behaviours, and the one on the lower frequency side shows an apparent attenuation in the strength. Under the off-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours not only occur in the coupled modes under longitudinal polarization, but also occur in two separated modes under transverse polarization.

  7. Aluminum plasmonic photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qi; Wang, Chenxi; Huang, Hao; Li, Wan; Du, Deyang; Han, Di; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic processes is dictated largely by plasmonic materials with the capability to enhance light absorption as well as the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate how to improve the plasmonic photocatalytic properties of TiO2/Al nano-void arrays by overlapping the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes with the TiO2 band gap. The plasmonic TiO2/Al arrays exhibit superior photocatalytic activity boasting an enhancement of 7.2 folds. The underlying mechanisms concerning the radiative energy transfer and interface energy transfer processes are discussed. Both processes occur at the TiO2/Al interface and their contributions to photocatalysis are evaluated. The results are important to the optimization of aluminum plasmonic materials in photocatalytic applications. PMID:26497411

  8. Plasmonic quantum dot solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmed, H.; Doran, J.; McCormack, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    The quantum dot solar concentrator optical efficiency is undermined by the parameters of re-absorption, scattering, and escape cone losses. These losses can be address through enhancing quantum dot (QDs) absorption and emission. This have been achieved through plasmonic coupling between QDs and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The plasmonic composite of various concertation of QDs and Au NPs were studied. The spacing between QDs and Au NPs is controlled through concentration distribution of both QD and Au NPs in the plasmonic composite, and it showed a significant increase in absorption and which is more pronounced for higher spectral overlap of QDs and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) frequency. The optimum plasmonic coupling showed a 17 % increase in the fluorescence emission for QDs in plasmonic composite. The results have shown significant enhancement in absorption, fluorescence emission for the p-QDSC.

  9. Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Willets, Katherine A

    2016-06-12

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  10. Plasmonic Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The “gold standard” film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming LSPR-based and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. PMID:25377594

  11. Shake for Sigma, Pray for Pi: Classroom Orbital Overlap Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    An introductory organic classroom demonstration is discussed where analogies are made between common societal hand contact and covalent bond formation. A handshake signifies creation of a [sigma] bond ("head-on" orbital overlap), whereas the action of praying illustrates "sideways" overlap and generation of a [pi] bond. The nature of orbital and…

  12. Shake for Sigma, Pray for Pi: Classroom Orbital Overlap Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    An introductory organic classroom demonstration is discussed where analogies are made between common societal hand contact and covalent bond formation. A handshake signifies creation of a [sigma] bond ("head-on" orbital overlap), whereas the action of praying illustrates "sideways" overlap and generation of a [pi] bond. The nature of orbital and…

  13. Coexistence of Scattering Enhancement and Suppression by Plasmonic Cavity Modes in Loaded Dimer Gap-Antennas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Li, Meili; Han, Dezhuan; Gao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantenna is of promising applications in optical sensing and detection, enhancement of optical nonlinear effect, surface optical spectroscopy, photoemission, etc. Here we show that in a carefully-designed dimer gap-antenna made by two metallic nanorods, the longitudinal plasmon antenna mode (AM) of bonding dipoles can compete with the transverse plasmonic cavity modes (CMs), yielding dramatically enhanced or suppressed scattering efficiency, depending on the CMs symmetry characteristics. More specifically, it is demonstrated that an appropriately loaded gap layer enables substantial excitation of toroidal moment and its strong interaction with the AM dipole moment, resulting in Fano- or electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like profile in the scattering spectrum. However, for CMs with nonzero azimuthal number, the spectrum features a cumulative signature of the respective AM and CM resonances. We supply both detailed near-field and far-field analysis, showing that the modal overlap and phase relationship between the fundamental moments of different order play a crucial role. Finally, we show that the resonance bands of the AM and CMs can be tuned by adjusting the geometry parameters and the permittivity of the load. Our results may be useful in plasmonic cloaking, spin-polarized directional light emission, ultra-sensitive optical sensing, and plasmon-mediated photoluminescence. PMID:26611726

  14. Aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  15. Aluminium plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we present an overview of 'aluminium plasmonics', i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  16. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  17. Gold nanodisk array surface plasmon resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xueli

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated for sensing applications over the last decade. The resonance wavelengths of the nanostructures are usually measured in the transmission or reflection spectrum for chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, I introduce a nanoscale gap mediated surface plasmon resonance nanodisk array for displacement sensing and a super-period gold nanodisk grating enabled surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor. The super-period gold nanodisk grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  18. Absorption-induced scattering and surface plasmon out-coupling from absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between absorbers and plasmonic metasurfaces can give rise to unique optical properties not present for either of the individual materials and can influence the performance of a host of optical sensing and thin-film optoelectronic applications. Here we identify three distinct mode types of absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces: localized and propagating surface plasmons and a previously unidentified optical mode type called absorption-induced scattering. The extinction of the latter mode type can be tuned by controlling the morphology of the absorber coating and the spectral overlap of the absorber with the plasmonic modes. Furthermore, we show that surface plasmons are backscattered when the crystallinity of the absorber is low but are absorbed for more crystalline absorber coatings. This work furthers our understanding of light–matter interactions between absorbers and surface plasmons to enable practical optoelectronic applications of metasurfaces. PMID:26271900

  19. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  20. Aluminium plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-05-01

    We present an overview of ‘aluminium plasmonics’, i.e. the study of both fundamental and practical aspects of surface plasmon excitations in aluminium structures, in particular thin films and metal nanoparticles. After a brief introduction noting both some recent and historical contributions to aluminium plasmonics, we discuss the optical properties of aluminium and aluminium nanostructures and highlight a few selected studies in a host of areas ranging from fluorescence to data storage.

  1. Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Lauchner, Adam; Schlather, Andrea E; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Cui, Yao; McClain, Michael J; Stec, Grant J; García de Abajo, F Javier; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2015-09-09

    Graphene supports surface plasmons that have been observed to be both electrically and geometrically tunable in the mid- to far-infrared spectral regions. In particular, it has been demonstrated that graphene plasmons can be tuned across a wide spectral range spanning from the mid-infrared to the terahertz. The identification of a general class of plasmonic excitations in systems containing only a few dozen atoms permits us to extend this versatility into the visible and ultraviolet. As appealing as this extension might be for active nanoscale manipulation of visible light, its realization constitutes a formidable technical challenge. We experimentally demonstrate the existence of molecular plasmon resonances in the visible for ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which we reversibly switch by adding, then removing, a single electron from the molecule. The charged PAHs display intense absorption in the visible regime with electrical and geometrical tunability analogous to the plasmonic resonances of much larger nanographene systems. Finally, we also use the switchable molecular plasmon in anthracene to demonstrate a proof-of-concept low-voltage electrochromic device.

  2. Plasmonic photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Chen, Yu Lim; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into semiconductor photocatalysts and possesses two prominent features-a Schottky junction and localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR). The former is of benefit to charge separation and transfer whereas the latter contributes to the strong absorption of visible light and the excitation of active charge carriers. This article aims to provide a systematic study of the fundamental physical mechanisms of plasmonic photocatalysis and to rationalize many experimental observations. In particular, we show that LSPR could boost the generation of electrons and holes in semiconductor photocatalysts through two different effects-the LSPR sensitization effect and the LSPR-powered bandgap breaking effect. By classifying the plasmonic photocatalytic systems in terms of their contact form and irradiation state, we show that the enhancement effects on different properties of photocatalysis can be well-explained and systematized. Moreover, we identify popular material systems of plasmonic photocatalysis that have shown excellent performance and elucidate their key features in the context of our proposed mechanisms and classifications.

  3. Chiral plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes. PMID:28560336

  4. Chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-05-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes.

  5. Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Aric W; Routenberg, David A; Wiley, Benjamin J; Xia, Younan; Dufresne, Eric R; Reed, Mark A

    2006-08-01

    We report the coupling of free-space photons (vacuum wavelength of 830 nm) to surface plasmon modes of a silver nanowire. The launch of propagating plasmons, and the subsequent emission of photons, is selective and occurs only at ends and other discontinuities of the nanowire. In addition, we observe that the nanowires redirect the plasmons through turns of radii as small as 4 microm. We exploit the radiating nature of discontinuities to find a plasmon propagation length >3 +/- 1 microm. Finally, we observe that interwire plasmon coupling occurs for overlapping wires, demonstrating plasmon fan-out at subwavelength scales.

  6. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  7. Plasmonics in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Zhu, Xing

    2013-07-26

    Plasmonics has developed into one of the rapidly growing research topics for nanophotonics. With advanced nanofabrication techniques, a broad variety of nanostructures can be designed and fabricated for plasmonic devices at nanoscale. Fundamental properties for both surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and localized surface plasmons (LSP) arise a new insight and understanding for the electro-optical device investigations, such as plasmonic nanofocusing, low-loss plasmon waveguide and active plasmonic detectors for energy harvesting. Here, we review some typical functional plasmonic nanostructures and nanosmart devices emerging from our individual and collaborative research works. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Corrugated plasmonic cavity for enhanced intersubband photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chuanling; Qu, Ri; Cao, Jun; Yu, Haochi; Gou, Peng; Zou, Yuexin; Yang, Le; Qian, Jie; Zhao, Ziyi; Xu, Jie; An, Zhenghua

    2017-06-01

    We study the optical properties of a corrugated plasmonic cavity consisting of a perforated metal film and a flat metal sheet separated by a semiconductor spacer. Corrugation enhances dramatically the coupling between the propagating surface plasmon and the Fabry-Perot mode and induces Rabi-like splitting forming bright bonding and dark anti-bonding modes. The anti-bonding mode exhibits considerably higher volume-averaged field enhancement factors (˜16.5 for E-field and ˜14.1 for Ez-component) than its bonding counterpart as well as a very high polarization conversion ratio (˜85.5%) from transverse electric to transverse magnetic waves. These characteristics make the corrugation induced anti-bonding mode particularly suitable for semiconductor quantum well intersubband photodetectors. Our work may provide a general guideline to the design of metamaterial-coupled intersubband hybrid devices for practical applications.

  9. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling mediated energy transfer across stratified metal-dielectric nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Golmakaniyoon, Sepideh; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) coupling has been successfully applied to nonradiative energy transfer via exciton-plasmon-exciton coupling in conventionally sandwiched donor-metal film-acceptor configurations. However, these structures lack the desired efficiency and suffer poor photoemission due to the high energy loss. Here, we show that the cascaded exciton-plasmon-plasmon-exciton coupling in stratified architecture enables an efficient energy transfer mechanism. The overlaps of the surface plasmon modes at the metal-dielectric and dielectric-metal interfaces allow for strong cross-coupling in comparison with the single metal film configuration. The proposed architecture has been demonstrated through the analytical modeling and numerical simulation of an oscillating dipole near the stratified nanostructure of metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor. Consistent with theoretical and numerical results, experimental measurements confirm at least 50% plasmon resonance energy transfer enhancement in the donor-metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor compared to the donor-metal-acceptor structure. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling enables record high efficiency for exciton transfer through metallic structures. PMID:27698422

  10. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling mediated energy transfer across stratified metal-dielectric nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Golmakaniyoon, Sepideh; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2016-10-04

    Surface plasmon (SP) coupling has been successfully applied to nonradiative energy transfer via exciton-plasmon-exciton coupling in conventionally sandwiched donor-metal film-acceptor configurations. However, these structures lack the desired efficiency and suffer poor photoemission due to the high energy loss. Here, we show that the cascaded exciton-plasmon-plasmon-exciton coupling in stratified architecture enables an efficient energy transfer mechanism. The overlaps of the surface plasmon modes at the metal-dielectric and dielectric-metal interfaces allow for strong cross-coupling in comparison with the single metal film configuration. The proposed architecture has been demonstrated through the analytical modeling and numerical simulation of an oscillating dipole near the stratified nanostructure of metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor. Consistent with theoretical and numerical results, experimental measurements confirm at least 50% plasmon resonance energy transfer enhancement in the donor-metal-dielectric-metal-acceptor compared to the donor-metal-acceptor structure. Cascaded plasmon-plasmon coupling enables record high efficiency for exciton transfer through metallic structures.

  11. Transformation plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Guenneau, Sébastien; Enoch, Stefan; Huidobro, Paloma A.; Martín-Moreno, Luis; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Renger, Jan; Quidant, Romain

    2012-07-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons (SPPs) at metal/dielectric interfaces have raised lots of expectations in the on-going quest towards scaling down optical devices. SPP optics offers a powerful and flexible platform for real two-dimensional integrated optics, capable of supporting both light and electrons. Yet, a full exploitation of the features of SPPs is conditioned by an accurate control of their flow. Most efforts have so far focused on the extrapolation of concepts borrowed from guided optics. This strategy has already led to many important breakthroughs but a fully deterministic control of SPP modes remains a challenge. Recently, the field of optics was stimulated by a novel paradigm, transformation optics, which offers the capability to control light flow in any desired fashion. While it has already significantly contributed to the design of metamaterials with unprecedented optical properties, its versatility offers new opportunities towards a fully deterministic control of SPPs and the design of a new class of plasmonic functionalities. Here, we review recent progress in the application of transformation optics to SPPs. We first briefly describe the theoretical formalism of transformation plasmonics, focusing on its specificities over its three-dimensional optical counterpart. Numerical simulations are then used to illustrate its capability to tame SPP flows at a metal interface patterned with a dielectric load. Finally, we review recent experimental implementations leading to unique SPP functionalities at optical frequencies.

  12. Steganalysis of overlapping images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, James M.; Ker, Andrew D.

    2015-03-01

    We examine whether steganographic images can be detected more reliably when there exist other images, taken with the same camera under the same conditions, of the same scene. We argue that such a circumstance is realistic and likely in practice. In `laboratory conditions' mimicking circumstances favourable to the analyst, and with a custom set of digital images which capture the same scenes with controlled amounts of overlap, we use an overlapping reference image to calibrate steganographic features of the image under analysis. Experimental results show that the analysed image can be classified as cover or stego with much greater reliability than traditional steganalysis not exploiting overlapping content, and the improvement in reliability depends on the amount of overlap. These results are curious because two different photographs of exactly the same scene, taken only a few seconds apart with a fixed camera and settings, typically have steganographic features that differ by considerably more than a cover and stego image.

  13. Towards Plasmonic Solar to Fuel Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Dayton Thomas

    The need to renewably store and utilize energy from chemical bonds has grown with recent economic and environmental concerns. Plasmonically-enabled devices have shown promise in various photosynthetic processes due to their scalable, cost-effective, and robust performance. Utilizing charge carriers derived from localized surface plasmons, these devices can drive various photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactions, however at limited efficiencies due to incomplete solar absorption. To improve broadband solar absorption in wide bandgap semiconductors, the plasmon resonance of different metal nanostructures in the visible are synthesized using anodic and sol-gel templating methods. Preliminary results suggest that gold nanoparticles and helical metal nanowires are well suited for photosensitization of titania for visible light absorption. Characterization by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that these templated methods can be utilized as the basis for synthesizing a variety of photoelectrochemical devices as well as unique plasmonic materials for applications including energy storage, sensing, and catalysis.

  14. Illusion induced overlapped optics.

    PubMed

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin

    2014-01-13

    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  15. Overlap among Environmental Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Betty

    1981-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study comparing the overlap of Enviroline, Pollution, and the Environmental Periodicals Bibliography files through searches on acid rain, asbestos and water, diesel, glass recycling, Lake Erie, Concorde, reverse osmosis wastewater treatment cost, and Calspan. Nine tables are provided. (RBF)

  16. Overlap among Environmental Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Betty

    1981-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study comparing the overlap of Enviroline, Pollution, and the Environmental Periodicals Bibliography files through searches on acid rain, asbestos and water, diesel, glass recycling, Lake Erie, Concorde, reverse osmosis wastewater treatment cost, and Calspan. Nine tables are provided. (RBF)

  17. Distal tibiofibular radiological overlap

    PubMed Central

    Sowman, B.; Radic, R.; Kuster, M.; Yates, P.; Breidiel, B.; Karamfilef, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Overlap between the distal tibia and fibula has always been quoted to be positive. If the value is not positive then an injury to the syndesmosis is thought to exist. Our null hypothesis is that it is a normal variant in the adult population. Methods We looked at axial CT scans of the ankle in 325 patients for the presence of overlap between the distal tibia and fibula. Where we thought this was possible we reconstructed the images to represent a plain film radiograph which we were able to rotate and view in multiple planes to confirm the assessment. Results The scans were taken for reasons other than pathology of the ankle. We found there was no overlap in four patients. These patients were then questioned about previous injury, trauma, surgery or pain, in order to exclude underlying pathology. Conclusion We concluded that no overlap between the tibia and fibula may exist in the population, albeit in a very small proportion. PMID:23610666

  18. Plasmon transmission through excitonic subwavelength gaps.

    PubMed

    Sukharev, Maxim; Nitzan, Abraham

    2016-04-14

    We study the transfer of electromagnetic energy across a subwavelength gap separating two co-axial metal nanorods. In the absence of spacer in the gap separating the rods, the system exhibits strong coupling behavior between longitudinal plasmons in the two rods. The nature and magnitude of this coupling are studied by varying various geometrical parameters. As a function of frequency, the transmission is dominated by a split longitudinal plasmon peak. The two hybrid modes are the dipole-like "bonding" mode characterized by a peak intensity in the gap and a quadrupole-like "antibonding" mode whose amplitude vanishes at the gap center. When the length of one rod is varied, this mode spectrum exhibits the familiar anti-crossing behavior that depends on the coupling strength determined by the gap width. When off-resonant 2-level emitters are placed in the gap, almost no effect on the frequency dependent transmission is observed. In contrast, when the molecular system is resonant with the plasmonic line shape, the transmission is strongly modified, showing characteristics of strong exciton-plasmon coupling. Most strongly modified is the transmission near the lower frequency "bonding" plasmon mode. The presence of resonant molecules in the gap affects not only the molecule-field interaction but also the spatial distribution of the field intensity and the electromagnetic energy flux across the junction.

  19. Plasmon transmission through excitonic subwavelength gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Nitzan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    We study the transfer of electromagnetic energy across a subwavelength gap separating two co-axial metal nanorods. In the absence of spacer in the gap separating the rods, the system exhibits strong coupling behavior between longitudinal plasmons in the two rods. The nature and magnitude of this coupling are studied by varying various geometrical parameters. As a function of frequency, the transmission is dominated by a split longitudinal plasmon peak. The two hybrid modes are the dipole-like "bonding" mode characterized by a peak intensity in the gap and a quadrupole-like "antibonding" mode whose amplitude vanishes at the gap center. When the length of one rod is varied, this mode spectrum exhibits the familiar anti-crossing behavior that depends on the coupling strength determined by the gap width. When off-resonant 2-level emitters are placed in the gap, almost no effect on the frequency dependent transmission is observed. In contrast, when the molecular system is resonant with the plasmonic line shape, the transmission is strongly modified, showing characteristics of strong exciton-plasmon coupling. Most strongly modified is the transmission near the lower frequency "bonding" plasmon mode. The presence of resonant molecules in the gap affects not only the molecule-field interaction but also the spatial distribution of the field intensity and the electromagnetic energy flux across the junction.

  20. The Plate Overlap Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-31

    INTRODUCTION 1 II. NOTATION 2 III. THE GNOMONIC PROJECTION 4 IV . THE PLATE OVERLAP TECHNIQUE 6 A. MOTIVATION 6 B. FORNULATION 9 C. ON STATISTICAL RIGOR 14 D...and new hardware. Since this aim was clearly recognized long ago, wherever possible in earlier documents or software development flexibility was...reader should see 1, 2, and 3. The procedures one should use to update stellar positions are discussed in 4 with applica- tions to the SAOC in 5. Non

  1. Plasmon and compositional mapping of plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringe, Emilie; Collins, Sean M.; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, co-reduction of Au and Pd has allowed the synthesis of complex Au core/AuPd shell nanoparticles with elongated tips and cubic-like symmetry. Optical studies have shown strong plasmonic behavior and high refractive index sensitivities. In this paper, we describe the composition and the near-field plasmonic behavior of those complex structures. Monochromated STEM-EELS, Cathodoluminescence, and EDS mapping reveals the different resonant modes in these particles, and shows that Pd, a poor plasmonic metal, does not prevent strong resonances and could actually be extremely helpful for plasmon-enhanced catalysis.

  2. Long Range Surface Plasmon Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasry, Amal; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Surface plasmon modes, excited at the two sides of a thin metal layer surrounded by two (nearly) identical dielectric media interact via the overlap of their electromagnetic fields. This overlap results in two new-coupled modes, a short and a long-range surface plasmon (LRSP). We demonstrate that combining the LRSP optics with fluorescence spectroscopy can result in a huge enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to the enhanced optical field of the LRSP at the metal dielectric interface, and to its increased evanescent depth into the analyte. This was demonstrated for the detection of the fluorescence intensity of chromophore labeled protein bound to the surface sensor. Beside that, some fundamentals were studied leading to some interesting difference between SPFS and LRSPFS.

  3. HUNTing the Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Iancu, Costin; Parry, Husbands; Hargrove, Paul

    2005-07-08

    Hiding communication latency is an important optimization for parallel programs. Programmers or compilers achieve this by using non-blocking communication primitives and overlapping communication with computation or other communication operations. Using non-blocking communication raises two issues: performance and programmability. In terms of performance, optimizers need to find a good communication schedule and are sometimes constrained by lack of full application knowledge. In terms of programmability, efficiently managing non-blocking communication can prove cumbersome for complex applications. In this paper we present the design principles of HUNT, a runtime system designed to search and exploit some of the available overlap present at execution time in UPC programs. Using virtual memory support, our runtime implements demand-driven synchronization for data involved in communication operations. It also employs message decomposition and scheduling heuristics to transparently improve the non-blocking behavior of applications. We provide a user level implementation of HUNT on a variety of modern high performance computing systems. Results indicate that our approach is successful in finding some of the overlap available at execution time. While system and application characteristics influence performance, perhaps the determining factor is the time taken by the CPU to execute a signal handler. Demand driven synchronization at execution time eliminates the need for the explicit management of non-blocking communication. Besides increasing programmer productivity, this feature also simplifies compiler analysis for communication optimizations.

  4. 3D Plasmon Ruler

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    In this animation of a 3D plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)

  5. Plasmonic optical interference.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dukhyun; Shin, Chang Kyun; Yoon, Daesung; Chung, Deuk Seok; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Luke P

    2014-06-11

    Understanding optical interference is of great importance in fundamental and analytical optical design for next-generation personal, industrial, and military applications. So far, various researches have been performed for optical interference phenomena, but there have been no reports on plasmonic optical interference. Here, we report that optical interference could be effectively coupled with surface plasmons, resulting in enhanced optical absorption. We prepared a three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructure that consists of a plasmonic layer at the top, a nanoporous dielectric layer at the center, and a mirror layer at the bottom. The plasmonic layer mediates strong plasmonic absorption when the constructive interference pattern is matched with the plasmonic component. By tailoring the thickness of the dielectric layer, the strong plasmonic absorption can facilely be controlled and covers the full visible range. The plasmonic interference in the 3D nanostructure thus creates brilliant structural colors. We develop a design equation to determine the thickness of the dielectric layer in a 3D plasmonic nanostructure that could create the maximum absorption at a given wavelength. It is further demonstrated that the 3D plasmonic nanostructure can be realized on a flexible substrate. Our 3D plasmonic nanostructures will have a huge impact on the fields of optoelectronic systems, biochemical optical sensors, and spectral imaging.

  6. Plasmonics and Electron Optics in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Min Seok

    The field of plasmonics has been attracting wide interest because it has provided routes to guide and localize light at nanoscales by utilizing metals as its major building block. Meanwhile, graphene, a two-dimensional lattice of carbon atoms, has been regarded as an ideal material for electronic applications owing to its remarkably high carrier mobility and superior thermal properties. Both research fields have been growing rapidly, but quite independently. However, a closer look reveals that there are actually numerous similarities between them, and it is possible to extract useful applications from these analogies. Even more interestingly, these research fields are recently overlapping to create a new field of research, namely graphene plasmonics. In this thesis, we present a few examples of these intertwined topics. First, we investigate "rainbow trapping" structures, broadband plasmonic slow light systems composed of single or double negative materials. We clarify the mode-conversion mechanism and the light-trapping performance by analyzing the dispersion relation. We then show that electrons in graphene exhibit photonlike dynamics including Goos- Hanchen effect and the rainbow trapping effect, but quantitatively differently. To study the dynamics of graphene electrons numerically, we develop a finite-difference time domain simulator. We also present a way to enhance electron backscattering in graphene by engineering the dispersion of electron eigenmodes in a Kronig-Penney potential. Finally, we discuss physics of graphene plasmon cavities. We report the resonant mid-infrared transmission across a plasmonic waveguide gap that is governed by the Fano interference between transmission through plasmon modes in graphene and nonresonant background transmission. An ultracompact graphene plasmon cavity, which resonates at near-infrared telecommunication frequencies, is also proposed.

  7. Near-infrared hybrid plasmonic multiple quantum well nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiamin; Wei, Wei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-04-17

    The lasing characteristics of hybrid plasmonic AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowire (NW) lasers beyond diffraction limit have been investigated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results show that the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has lower threshold gain over a broad diameter range in comparison with its photonic counterpart. Beyond the diffraction limit, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lowest threshold gain of 788 cm-1 at a diameter of 130 nm, and a cutoff diameter of 80 nm, half that of the photonic lasers. In comparison with the hybrid plasmonic core-shell NWs, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NWs exhibit significantly lower threshold gain, higher Purcell factor, and smaller cutoff diameter, which are attributed to the superior overlap between the hybrid plasmonic modes and gain medium, as well as a stronger optical confinement due to the grating-like effect of MQW structures. Moreover, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lower threshold gain than that of the core-shell NW over a broad wavelength range. The hybrid plasmonic MQW NW structure is promising for ultrasmall and low-consumption near-infrared nanolasers.

  8. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  9. Single-plasmon interferences

    PubMed Central

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W.; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons. PMID:26998521

  10. Single-plasmon interferences.

    PubMed

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons.

  11. Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; Jonker, Berend T.; Lüpke, Gunter

    2015-10-19

    Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics (NMP) describes systems where nonlinear optics, magnetics and plasmonics are all involved. In such systems, nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (nonlinear MOKE) plays an important role as a characterization method, and Surface Plasmons (SPs) work as catalyst to induce many new effects. Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation (MSHG) is the major nonlinear magneto-optical process involved. The new effects include enhanced MSHG, controlled and enhanced magnetic contrast, etc. Nanostructures such as thin films, nanoparticles, nanogratings, and nanoarrays are critical for the excitation of SPs, which makes NMP an interdisciplinary research field in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we organize recent work in this field into two categories: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) representing propagating surface plasmons, and localized surface plasmons (LSPs), also called particle plasmons. We review the structures, experiments, findings, and the applications of NMP from various groups.

  12. Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics (NMP) describes systems where nonlinear optics, magnetics and plasmonics are all involved. In such systems, nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (nonlinear MOKE) plays an important role as a characterization method, and Surface Plasmons (SPs) work as catalyst to induce many new effects. Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation (MSHG) is the major nonlinear magneto-optical process involved. The new effects include enhanced MSHG, controlled and enhanced magnetic contrast, etc. Nanostructures such as thin films, nanoparticles, nanogratings, and nanoarrays are critical for the excitation of SPs, which makes NMP an interdisciplinary research field in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we organize recentmore » work in this field into two categories: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) representing propagating surface plasmons, and localized surface plasmons (LSPs), also called particle plasmons. We review the structures, experiments, findings, and the applications of NMP from various groups.« less

  13. Raman Scattering at Plasmonic Junctions Shorted by Conductive Molecular Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Apkarian, V. Ara; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-04-10

    Intensity spikes in Raman scattering, accompanied by switching between line spectra and band spectra, can be assigned to shorting the junction plasmon through molecular conductive bridges. This is demonstrated through Raman trajectories recorded at a plasmonic junction formed by a gold AFM tip in contact with a silver surface coated either with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol or biphenyl-4-thiol. The fluctuations are absent in the monothiol. In effect, the making and breaking of chemical bonds is tracked.

  14. Measurements of the femtosecond relaxation dynamics of Tamm plasmon-polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afinogenov, B. I.; Popkova, A. A.; Bessonov, V. O.; Fedyanin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the lifetime of Tamm plasmon-polaritons (TPPs) excited in a 1D photonic-crystal/thin-metal-film structure. A femtosecond pulse reflected from a structure of this kind is found to be significantly distorted if its spectrum overlaps with the Tamm plasmon resonance. It is shown that the TPP lifetime possesses strong polarization and angular dependence. It varies from 20 fs for p-polarized light to 40 fs for s-polarized light at a 45° angle of incidence. The reported lifetime of Tamm plasmons is several times smaller than the previously reported lifetime of surface plasmons.

  15. Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-03-14

    We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.

  16. Multi-directional plasmonic surface-wave splitters with full bandwidth isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-03-01

    We present a multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter with full bandwidth isolation experimentally based on coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. In contrast to conventional plasmonic surface-wave frequency splitters with polaritonic dispersion relations that overlap at low frequencies, this multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter based on coupled defect surface modes can split different frequency bands into different waveguide branches without bandwidth overlap. Transmission spectra and near-field imaging measurements have been implemented in the microwave frequencies to verify the performance of the multidirectional plasmonic surface-wave splitter. This surface wave structure can be used as a plasmonic wavelength-division multiplexer that may find potential applications in the surface-wave integrated circuits from microwave to terahertz frequencies.

  17. Plasmon field effect transistor: A novel sensing platform for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri Kojori, Hossein

    The interest in plasmons, associated with nanostructured metals, has remarkably increased in the past decade. A Recent improvement in fabrication techniques to create well-controlled nanostructures also contributed to the rapid development of plasmonic applications, such as meta-materials, nonlinear optics, photovoltaic devices, biomedical sensors, medical therapies and spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is one of the successful applications, which is widely used in biomedical research. On the other hand, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is also widely studied in a broad range of applications. The distinct property of LSPR is a tailored and sharp absorption/scattering peaks depending on the shape and sizes of the metal nanostructures. In addition, plasmonics can enable integration of high speed optical circuit by taking the advantages from the current electronics and optics technologies. Thus, plasmonics is considered as a solution for the next generation systems that offers ultra-high speed data processing. In this dissertation, we will introduce a novel plasmon field effect transistor (FET) that enables direct detection and efficient amplification of plasmon energy. This FET has several advantages such as electrical isolation of plasmon absorber nanostructures from a sensing and drug screening. Currently, we have proof of concept for the antigen-antibody bonding using the plasmon field effect transistor. We will develop a multiplexing capable plasmon FET sensing platform by integrating an array of plasmon FETs with microfluidic channels to detect cancer biomarkers.

  18. Plasmon-controlled fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Chowdhury, Mustafa H.; Ray, Krishanu; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Badugu, Ramachandram; Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Nowaczyk, Kazimierz; Szmacinski, Henryk; Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence is widely used in biological research. Future advances in biology and medicine often depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. In this overview paper we describe how a combination of fluorescence, and plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. This change will be based on the use of surface plasmons which are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmon resonance is now used to measure bioaffinity reactions. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We have shown that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons which radiate into the far field; additionally fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to this technology as plasmon-controlled fluorescence. We predict that plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF) will result in a new generation of probes and devices. PCF is likely to allow design of structures which enhance emission at specific wavelengths and the creation of new devices which control and transport the energy from excited fluorophores in the form of plasmons, and then convert the plasmons back to light. PMID:20953312

  19. Low-dimensional gap plasmons for enhanced light-graphene interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunjung; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2017-02-01

    Graphene plasmonics has become a highlighted research area due to the outstanding properties of deep-subwavelength plasmon excitation, long relaxation time, and electro-optical tunability. Although the giant conductivity of a graphene layer enables the low-dimensional confinement of light, the atomic scale of the layer thickness is severely mismatched with optical mode sizes, which impedes the efficient tuning of graphene plasmon modes from the degraded light-graphene overlap. Inspired by gap plasmon modes in noble metals, here we propose low-dimensional hybrid graphene gap plasmon waves for large light-graphene overlap factor. We show that gap plasmon waves exhibit improved in-plane and out-of-plane field concentrations on graphene compared to those of edge or wire-like graphene plasmons. By adjusting the chemical property of the graphene layer, efficient and linear modulation of hybrid graphene gap plasmon modes is also achieved. Our results provide potential opportunities to low-dimensional graphene plasmonic devices with strong tunability.

  20. Low-dimensional gap plasmons for enhanced light-graphene interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjung; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2017-02-27

    Graphene plasmonics has become a highlighted research area due to the outstanding properties of deep-subwavelength plasmon excitation, long relaxation time, and electro-optical tunability. Although the giant conductivity of a graphene layer enables the low-dimensional confinement of light, the atomic scale of the layer thickness is severely mismatched with optical mode sizes, which impedes the efficient tuning of graphene plasmon modes from the degraded light-graphene overlap. Inspired by gap plasmon modes in noble metals, here we propose low-dimensional hybrid graphene gap plasmon waves for large light-graphene overlap factor. We show that gap plasmon waves exhibit improved in-plane and out-of-plane field concentrations on graphene compared to those of edge or wire-like graphene plasmons. By adjusting the chemical property of the graphene layer, efficient and linear modulation of hybrid graphene gap plasmon modes is also achieved. Our results provide potential opportunities to low-dimensional graphene plasmonic devices with strong tunability.

  1. Low-dimensional gap plasmons for enhanced light-graphene interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjung; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2017-01-01

    Graphene plasmonics has become a highlighted research area due to the outstanding properties of deep-subwavelength plasmon excitation, long relaxation time, and electro-optical tunability. Although the giant conductivity of a graphene layer enables the low-dimensional confinement of light, the atomic scale of the layer thickness is severely mismatched with optical mode sizes, which impedes the efficient tuning of graphene plasmon modes from the degraded light-graphene overlap. Inspired by gap plasmon modes in noble metals, here we propose low-dimensional hybrid graphene gap plasmon waves for large light-graphene overlap factor. We show that gap plasmon waves exhibit improved in-plane and out-of-plane field concentrations on graphene compared to those of edge or wire-like graphene plasmons. By adjusting the chemical property of the graphene layer, efficient and linear modulation of hybrid graphene gap plasmon modes is also achieved. Our results provide potential opportunities to low-dimensional graphene plasmonic devices with strong tunability. PMID:28240230

  2. Evaluating Plasmonic Transport in Current-carrying Silver Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingxia; Stolz, Arnaud; Zhang, Douguo; Arocas, Juan; Markey, Laurent; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Dujardin, Erik; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging technology capable of simultaneously transporting a plasmonic signal and an electronic signal on the same information support1,2,3. In this context, metal nanowires are especially desirable for realizing dense routing networks4. A prerequisite to operate such shared nanowire-based platform relies on our ability to electrically contact individual metal nanowires and efficiently excite surface plasmon polaritons5 in this information support. In this article, we describe a protocol to bring electrical terminals to chemically-synthesized silver nanowires6 randomly distributed on a glass substrate7. The positions of the nanowire ends with respect to predefined landmarks are precisely located using standard optical transmission microscopy before encapsulation in an electron-sensitive resist. Trenches representing the electrode layout are subsequently designed by electron-beam lithography. Metal electrodes are then fabricated by thermally evaporating a Cr/Au layer followed by a chemical lift-off. The contacted silver nanowires are finally transferred to a leakage radiation microscope for surface plasmon excitation and characterization8,9. Surface plasmons are launched in the nanowires by focusing a near infrared laser beam on a diffraction-limited spot overlapping one nanowire extremity5,9. For sufficiently large nanowires, the surface plasmon mode leaks into the glass substrate9,10. This leakage radiation is readily detected, imaged, and analyzed in the different conjugate planes in leakage radiation microscopy9,11. The electrical terminals do not affect the plasmon propagation. However, a current-induced morphological deterioration of the nanowire drastically degrades the flow of surface plasmons. The combination of surface plasmon leakage radiation microscopy with a simultaneous analysis of the nanowire electrical transport characteristics reveals the intrinsic limitations of such plasmonic circuitry. PMID:24378340

  3. Evaluating plasmonic transport in current-carrying silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingxia; Stolz, Arnaud; Zhang, Douguo; Arocas, Juan; Markey, Laurent; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Dujardin, Erik; Bouhelier, Alexandre

    2013-12-11

    Plasmonics is an emerging technology capable of simultaneously transporting a plasmonic signal and an electronic signal on the same information support. In this context, metal nanowires are especially desirable for realizing dense routing networks. A prerequisite to operate such shared nanowire-based platform relies on our ability to electrically contact individual metal nanowires and efficiently excite surface plasmon polaritons in this information support. In this article, we describe a protocol to bring electrical terminals to chemically-synthesized silver nanowires randomly distributed on a glass substrate. The positions of the nanowire ends with respect to predefined landmarks are precisely located using standard optical transmission microscopy before encapsulation in an electron-sensitive resist. Trenches representing the electrode layout are subsequently designed by electron-beam lithography. Metal electrodes are then fabricated by thermally evaporating a Cr/Au layer followed by a chemical lift-off. The contacted silver nanowires are finally transferred to a leakage radiation microscope for surface plasmon excitation and characterization. Surface plasmons are launched in the nanowires by focusing a near infrared laser beam on a diffraction-limited spot overlapping one nanowire extremity. For sufficiently large nanowires, the surface plasmon mode leaks into the glass substrate. This leakage radiation is readily detected, imaged, and analyzed in the different conjugate planes in leakage radiation microscopy. The electrical terminals do not affect the plasmon propagation. However, a current-induced morphological deterioration of the nanowire drastically degrades the flow of surface plasmons. The combination of surface plasmon leakage radiation microscopy with a simultaneous analysis of the nanowire electrical transport characteristics reveals the intrinsic limitations of such plasmonic circuitry.

  4. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A. Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  5. Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guowei; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Qian; Hui, Rongqing; Chen, Zhijun; Maroni, Victor A; Wu, Judy

    2012-03-08

    Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

  6. Color changing plasmonic surfaces utilizing liquid crystal (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Daniel; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Plasmonic structural color has recently garnered significant interest as an alternative to the organic dyes standard in print media and liquid crystal displays. These nanostructured metallic systems can produce diffraction limited images, be made polarization dependent, and exhibit resistance to color bleaching. Perhaps even more advantageous, their optical characteristics can also be tuned, post-fabrication, by altering the surrounding media's refractive index parallel to the local plasmonic fields. A common material with which to achieve this is liquid crystal. By reorienting the liquid crystal molecules through external electric fields, the optical resonances of the plasmonic filters can be dynamically controlled. Demonstrations of this phenomenon, however, have been limited to modest shifts in plasmon resonance. Here, we report a liquid crystal-plasmonic system with an enhanced tuning range through the use of a shallow array of nano-wells and high birefringent liquid crystal. The continuous metallic nanostructure maximizes the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal while also allowing full reorientation of the liquid crystal upon an applied electric field. Sweeping over structural dimensions and voltages results in a color palette for these dynamic reflective pixels that can further be exploited to create color tunable images. These advances make plasmonic-liquid crystal systems more attractive candidates for filter, display, and other tunable optical technologies.

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  8. Coupling Emission from Single Localized Defects in Two-Dimensional Semiconductor to Surface Plasmon Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Dutta, Subhojit; Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Yang, Zhili; Nah, Sanghee; Fourkas, John T; Waks, Edo

    2017-10-10

    Coupling of an atom-like emitter to surface plasmons provides a path toward significant optical nonlinearity, which is essential in quantum information processing and quantum networks. A large coupling strength requires nanometer-scale positioning accuracy of the emitter near the surface of the plasmonic structure, which is challenging. We demonstrate the coupling of single localized defects in a tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayer self-aligned to the surface plasmon mode of a silver nanowire. The silver nanowire induces a strain gradient on the monolayer at the overlapping area, leading to the formation of localized defect emission sites that are intrinsically close to the surface plasmon. We measured an average coupling efficiency with a lower bound of 26% ± 11% from the emitter into the plasmonic mode of the silver nanowire. This technique offers a way to achieve efficient coupling between plasmonic structures and localized defects of two-dimensional semiconductors.

  9. Plasmonic nanoantenna hydrophones

    PubMed Central

    Maksymov, Ivan S.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is a valuable biomedical imaging modality and diagnostic tool. Here we theoretically demonstrate that a single dipole plasmonic nanoantenna can be used as an optical hydrophone for MHz-range ultrasound. The nanoantenna is tuned to operate on a high-order plasmon mode, which provides an increased sensitivity to ultrasound in contrast to the usual approach of using the fundamental dipolar plasmon resonance. Plasmonic nanoantenna hydrophones may be useful for ultrasonic imaging of biological cells, cancer tissues or small blood vessels, as well as for Brillouin spectroscopy at the nanoscale. PMID:27612092

  10. Plasmonic colour generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-11-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk-hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large-area printing and nanoscale lithography compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies, including nanoimprint lithography and self-assembly. Finally, we review recent developments in dynamically reconfigurable plasmonic colours and in the laser-induced post-processing of plasmonic colour surfaces.

  11. Tunable random lasing behavior in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Cheng, Gary J.; Chi, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Random lasing is desired in plasmonics nanostructures through surface plasmon amplification. In this study, tunable random lasing behavior was observed in dye molecules attached with Au nanorods (NRs), Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Au@Ag nanorods (NRs) respectively. Our experimental investigations showed that all nanostructures i.e., Au@AgNRs, AuNRs & AuNPs have intensive tunable spectral effects. The random lasing has been observed at excitation wavelength 532 nm and varying pump powers. The best random lasing properties were noticed in Au@AgNRs structure, which exhibits broad absorption spectrum, sufficiently overlapping with that of dye Rhodamine B (RhB). Au@AgNRs significantly enhance the tunable spectral behavior through localized electromagnetic field and scattering. The random lasing in Au@AgNRs provides an efficient coherent feedback for random lasers.

  12. Infrared surface plasmon resonance hosts for sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhi, Gautam; Cleary, Justin W.; Peale, Robert E.; Boreman, Glenn; Buchwald, Walter R.; Wentzell, Sandy; Edwards, Oliver; Oladeji, Isaiah

    2010-12-01

    A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor that operates deep into the infrared (3-11 μm wavelengths) is potentially capable of biomolecule recognition based on both selective binding and characteristic vibrational modes. The goal is to operate such sensors at wavelengths where biological analytes are strongly differentiated by their IR absorption spectra and where the refractive index is increased by dispersion. This will provide enhanced selectivity and sensitivity, when biological analytes bind reversibly to biomolecular recognition elements attached to the sensor surface. This paper investigates potentially useful IR surface plasmon resonances hosts on lamellar gratings formed from various materials with plasma frequencies in the IR wavelength range. These materials include doped semiconductors, CuSnS, graphite and semimetal Bi and Sb. Theoretical results were compared with the experimental results. Penetration depth measurement from the experimental complex permeabilities values shows the tighter mode confinement than for usual Au giving better overlap with biological analytes.

  13. Overlapping clusters for distributed computation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrokni, Vahab; Andersen, Reid; Gleich, David F.

    2010-11-01

    Scalable, distributed algorithms must address communication problems. We investigate overlapping clusters, or vertex partitions that intersect, for graph computations. This setup stores more of the graph than required but then affords the ease of implementation of vertex partitioned algorithms. Our hope is that this technique allows us to reduce communication in a computation on a distributed graph. The motivation above draws on recent work in communication avoiding algorithms. Mohiyuddin et al. (SC09) design a matrix-powers kernel that gives rise to an overlapping partition. Fritzsche et al. (CSC2009) develop an overlapping clustering for a Schwarz method. Both techniques extend an initial partitioning with overlap. Our procedure generates overlap directly. Indeed, Schwarz methods are commonly used to capitalize on overlap. Elsewhere, overlapping communities (Ahn et al, Nature 2009; Mishra et al. WAW2007) are now a popular model of structure in social networks. These have long been studied in statistics (Cole and Wishart, CompJ 1970). We present two types of results: (i) an estimated swapping probability {rho}{infinity}; and (ii) the communication volume of a parallel PageRank solution (link-following {alpha} = 0.85) using an additive Schwarz method. The volume ratio is the amount of extra storage for the overlap (2 means we store the graph twice). Below, as the ratio increases, the swapping probability and PageRank communication volume decreases.

  14. A Model for the Chemical Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnasco, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    Bond stereochemistry in polyatomic hydrides is explained in terms of the principle of bond energies maximization, which yields X-H straight bonds and suggests the formation of appropriate sp hybrids on the central atom. An introduction to the electron charge distribution in molecules is given, and atomic, overlap, gross and formal charges are…

  15. A Model for the Chemical Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnasco, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    Bond stereochemistry in polyatomic hydrides is explained in terms of the principle of bond energies maximization, which yields X-H straight bonds and suggests the formation of appropriate sp hybrids on the central atom. An introduction to the electron charge distribution in molecules is given, and atomic, overlap, gross and formal charges are…

  16. Plasmons in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, F.; Knezevic, I.

    2017-09-01

    We calculate the dielectric function and plasmonic response of armchair (aGNRs) and zigzag (zGNRs) graphene nanoribbons using the self-consistent-field approach within the Markovian master equation formalism (SCF-MMEF). We accurately account for electron scattering with phonons, ionized impurities, and line-edge roughness and show that electron scattering with surface optical phonons is much more prominent in GNRs than in graphene. We calculate the loss function, plasmon dispersion, and the plasmon propagation length in supported GNRs. Midinfrared plasmons in supported (3N+2)-aGNRs can propagate as far as several microns at room temperature, with 4-5-nm-wide ribbons having the longest propagation length. In other types of aGNRs and in zGNRs, the plasmon propagation length seldom exceeds 100 nm. Plasmon propagation lengths are much longer on nonpolar (e.g., diamondlike carbon) than on polar substrates (e.g., SiO2 or hBN), where electrons scatter strongly with surface optical phonons. We also show that the aGNR plasmon density is nearly uniform across the ribbon, while in zGNRs, because of the highly localized edge states, plasmons of different spin polarization are accumulated near the opposite edges.

  17. Ultra hybrid plasmonics: strong coupling of plexcitons with plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-07-15

    We report a ternary-coupled plasmonic system consisting of excitons of J-aggregated dye, localized surface plasmon polaritons of Ag nanoparticles, and propagating surface plasmon polaritons of continuous Ag film. J-aggregate dyes are uniformly self-assembled on colloidally synthesized Ag nanoprisms forming plexcitonic nanoparticles, which are placed at a distance nanometers away from the Ag thin film. The reflection measurements, corroborated by theoretical predictions, reveal that the strong coupling of plasmon polaritons and plexcitons results in a newly formed plasmon-exciton-plasmon hybridized state that we call here, reportedly for the first time, a plexcimon state. The hybrid plasmonic system shows dispersion characteristics similar to a coupled resonator optical waveguide. The group velocity of the plexcimon state approaches zero at the band edges. The ultrahybrid plasmonic system presented here is promising for a variety of light-matter interaction studies, including polariton lasers, plasmonic devices, plasmonic waveguiding, and spectroscopy.

  18. Complex Plasmonic Nanostructures: Symmetry Breaking and Coupled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, J. Britt

    Metallic nanostructures support resonant oscillations of their conduction band electrons called localized surface plasmon resonances. Plasmons couple efficiently to light and have enabled a new class of technology for the manipulation of light at the nanoscale. Nanostructures that support plasmon resonances have the potential for a wide range of applications such as enhanced optical spectroscopy techniques for chemical- and bio-sensing, cancer diagnosis and therapy, metamaterials, and energy harvesting. As the field of plasmonics has progressed, these applications have become more sophisticated, requiring increasingly complex nanostructures. For example, coupled nanostructures of two or more nanoparticles are used extensively in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy techniques because they exhibit extremely large optical field enhancements. Asymmetric nanostructures, such as nanocups (metallic semishells), have been shown to support magnetic modes that could be used in metamaterials applications. This class of complex plasmonic nanostructures holds great potential for both the observation of new physical phenomena and practical applications. This thesis will focus on the fabrication and characterization of several examples of these complex nanostructures using darkfield spectroscopy. The plasmon modes of a dimer consisting of two nanoshells are investigated in both the separated and conductively overlapping regimes and are interpreted using the plasmon hybridization model. Next, coupled nanoclusters of seven particles arranged in a hexagonal pattern are studied. It is found that these nanoclusters support Fano resonances due to the coupling and interference of degenerate subradiant and superradiant plasmon modes. These structures are found to have an extremely high sensitivity to the local dielectric environment, making them attractive for biosensing applications. Variations on the nanocluster geometry are then explored, and it is observed that by adding more particles and

  19. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  20. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  1. Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    30 Sept. 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reconfigurable Nano -Plasmonics Holography 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...of plasmonic holography by Reconfigurable Surface Plasmon Phase Modulators from micro -electromechanical devices. High dielectric constant...integration of the above components in a SP modulator device. 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, nano -photonics, phase modulation, reconfigurable Air Force

  2. Ultraviolet surface plasmon-mediated low temperature hydrazine decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Siying; Sheldon, Matthew T.; Atwater, Harry A.; Liu, Wei-Guang; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William Andrew

    2015-01-12

    Conventional methods require elevated temperatures in order to dissociate high-energy nitrogen bonds in precursor molecules such as ammonia or hydrazine used for nitride film growth. We report enhanced photodissociation of surface-absorbed hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) molecules at low temperature by using ultraviolet surface plasmons to concentrate the exciting radiation. Plasmonic nanostructured aluminum substrates were designed to provide resonant near field concentration at λ = 248 nm (5 eV), corresponding to the maximum optical cross section for hydrogen abstraction from N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. We employed nanoimprint lithography to fabricate 1 mm × 1 mm arrays of the resonant plasmonic structures, and ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy confirmed resonant extinction at 248 nm. Hydrazine was cryogenically adsorbed to the plasmonic substrate in a low-pressure ambient, and 5 eV surface plasmons were resonantly excited using a pulsed KrF laser. Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the photodissociation products and indicated a 6.2× overall enhancement in photodissociation yield for hydrazine adsorbed on plasmonic substrates compared with control substrates. The ultraviolet surface plasmon enhanced photodissociation demonstrated here may provide a valuable method to generate reactive precursors for deposition of nitride thin film materials at low temperatures.

  3. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  4. Active quantum plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K.; M. Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics. PMID:26824066

  5. Active quantum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Marinica, Dana Codruta; Zapata, Mario; Nordlander, Peter; Kazansky, Andrey K; M Echenique, Pedro; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G

    2015-12-01

    The ability of localized surface plasmons to squeeze light and engineer nanoscale electromagnetic fields through electron-photon coupling at dimensions below the wavelength has turned plasmonics into a driving tool in a variety of technological applications, targeting novel and more efficient optoelectronic processes. In this context, the development of active control of plasmon excitations is a major fundamental and practical challenge. We propose a mechanism for fast and active control of the optical response of metallic nanostructures based on exploiting quantum effects in subnanometric plasmonic gaps. By applying an external dc bias across a narrow gap, a substantial change in the tunneling conductance across the junction can be induced at optical frequencies, which modifies the plasmonic resonances of the system in a reversible manner. We demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Thus, along with two-dimensional structures, metal nanoparticle plasmonics can benefit from the reversibility, fast response time, and versatility of an active control strategy based on applied bias. The proposed electrical manipulation of light using quantum plasmonics establishes a new platform for many practical applications in optoelectronics.

  6. On the Neuberger overlap operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriçi, Artan

    1999-04-01

    We compute Neuberger's overlap operator by the Lanczos algorithm applied to the Wilson-Dirac operator. Locality of the operator for quenched QCD data and its eigenvalue spectrum in an instanton background are studied.

  7. Plasmonic induced transparency in a coupled system composed of metal-insulate-metal stub and trapezoid cavity resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengfei; Yang, Huimin; Jiao, Linsen; Fan, Meiyong; Yun, Binfeng; Cui, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    A plasmonic induced transparency system constructed by a metal-insulate-metal stub coupled with a trapezoid cavity resonator was proposed. The results show that the spectra of different narrow modes in the trapezoid resonator can overlap with the broad stub mode and induce the plasmonic induced transparency effect. However, some of them cannot produce a plasmonic induced transparency effect because there is hardly any near field overlap between the trapezoid cavity mode and the stub mode, which was proved by the mode field distributions in the coupled resonator system. The ;disappeared; plasmonic induced transparency can be reproduced by changing the relative position between the stub and trapezoid resonator. Also the coupling strength can be modulated by this method to manipulate the plasmonic induced transparency and slow light effect.

  8. Flexible Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023

  9. Plasmonic-Electronic Transduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-31

    Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena...Nov. 2009, Singapore. 4. “ Terahertz Plasmons in Grating-Gate AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs,” A.V. Muravjov, D.B. Veksler, V.V. Popov, M.S. Shur, N. Pala, X. Hu, R...CA (2009). 9. “Plasmon grating-gate GaN HEMT structures for terahertz applications,” A.V. Muravjov, D.B. Veksler, V.V. Popov, M.S. Shur, N. Pala

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on terahertz plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Marco; Nahata, Ajay; Akalin, Tahsin; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonics is one of the growing fields in modern photonics that has garnered increasing interest over the last few years. In this focus issue, the specific challenges concerning terahertz plasmonics have been addressed and most recent advances in this specific field have been highlighted. The articles demonstrate the diversity and the opportunities of this rich field by covering a variety of topics ranging from the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on artificially structures surfaces, 2D manipulation of surface plasmons and SPPs, plasmonic focusing, plasmonic high-Q resonators for sensing applications, plasmonically enhanced terahertz antennas to terahertz field manipulation by use of plasmonic structures. The articles substantiate the impact of plasmonics and its great innovative potential for terahertz technology. In memory of Professor Mario Sorolla Ayza.

  11. Toward quantum plasmonic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Holtfrerich, M. W.; Dowran, M.; Davidson, R.; Lawrie, B. J.; Pooser, R. C.; Marino, A. M.

    2016-08-30

    Here, we demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantum network across separate solid-state substrates.

  12. Toward quantum plasmonic networks

    DOE PAGES

    Holtfrerich, M. W.; Dowran, M.; Davidson, R.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Here, we demonstrate the transduction of macroscopic quantum entanglement by independent, distant plasmonic structures embedded in separate thin silver films. In particular, we show that the plasmon-mediated transmission through each film conserves spatially dependent, entangled quantum images, opening the door for the implementation of parallel quantum protocols, super-resolution imaging, and quantum plasmonic sensing geometries at the nanoscale level. The conservation of quantum information by the transduction process shows that continuous variable multi-mode entanglement is momentarily transferred from entangled beams of light to the space-like separated, completely independent plasmonic structures, thus providing a first important step toward establishing a multichannel quantummore » network across separate solid-state substrates.« less

  13. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  14. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    visible region of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. This extended response, combined with its natural abundance, low cost, and amenability to...plasmon resonances spanning much of the visible region of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. This extended response, combined with its natural ...in plasmon-enhanced light harvesting,14 photocatalysis ,511 surface- enhanced spectroscopies,1216 optics-based sensing,1722 nonlinear optics,2326

  15. Plasmonic Graphene Transparent Conductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    www.MaterialsViews.com www.advopticalmat.de FU LL P A P ER Guowei Xu,* Jianwei Liu, Qian Wang , Rongqing Hui, Zhijun Chen, Victor A. Maroni, and Judy Wu Plasmonic...decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, graphene, transparent conductors Guowei Xu, Jianwei Liu, Qian

  16. Plasmonics for nanoimaging and nanospectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    The science of surface plasmon polaritons, known as "plasmonics," is reviewed from the viewpoint of applied spectroscopy. In this discussion, noble metals are regarded as reservoirs of photons exhibiting the functions of photon confinement and field enhancement at metallic nanostructures. The functions of surface plasmons are described in detail with an historical overview, and the applications of plasmonics to a variety of industry and sciences are shown. The slow light effect of surface plasmons is also discussed for nanoimaging capability of the near-field optical microscopy and tip-enhanced Raman microscopy. The future issues of plasmonics are also shown, including metamaterials and the extension to the ultraviolet and terahertz regions.

  17. Modern Introduction to Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Challener, William

    2010-05-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetics of planar surface waves; 3. Single-interface modes in the microwave regime; 4. Single-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 5. Double-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 6. Single-interface surface plasmons; 7. Double-interface surface plasmons in symmetric guides; 8. Quasi one-dimensional surface plasmons; 9. Localized surface plasmons; 10. Techniques for exciting surface plasmons; 11. Plasmonic materials; 12. Applications; Appendixes; Index.

  18. Continuing Relationships with the Deceased: Disentangling Bonds and Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schut, Henk A. W.; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Boelen, Paul A.; Zijerveld, Annemieke M.

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the relationship between continuing bonds and grief intensity have claimed that continuing bonds lead to poor adaptation to bereavement. However, operationalizations of continuing bonds and grief intensity appear to overlap conceptually. Thus, it is still unclear what character the connection between continuing bonds and grief…

  19. Plasmonic Enhancement of Selective Photonic Virus Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mina; Xi, Min; Lerch, Sarah; Alizadeh, M H; Ettinger, Chelsea; Akiyama, Hisashi; Gillespie, Christopher; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Reinhard, Björn M

    2017-09-20

    Femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser irradiation techniques have attracted interest as a photonic approach for the selective inactivation of virus contaminations in biological samples. Conventional pulsed laser approaches require, however, relatively long irradiation times to achieve a significant inactivation of virus. In this study, we investigate the enhancement of the photonic inactivation of Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) via 805 nm femtosecond pulses through gold nanorods whose localized surface plasmon resonance overlaps with the excitation laser. We report a plasmonically enhanced virus inactivation, with greater than 3.7-log reduction measured by virus infectivity assays. Reliable virus inactivation was obtained for 10 s laser exposure with incident laser powers ≥0.3 W. Importantly, the fs-pulse induced inactivation was selective to the virus and did not induce any measurable damage to co-incubated antibodies. The loss in viral infection was associated with reduced viral fusion, linking the loss in infectivity with a perturbation of the viral envelope. Based on the observations that physical contact between nanorods and virus particles was not required for viral inactivation and that reactive oxygen species (ROS) did not participate in the detected viral inactivation, a model of virus inactivation based on plasmon enhanced shockwave generation is proposed.

  20. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  1. Exploring Coupled Plasmonic Nanostructures in the Near Field by Photoemission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-11-22

    The extraordinary optical properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures make these materials potentially useful in many applications; thus, they have received enormous attention in basic and applied research. Coupled plasmon modes have been characterized predominantly using far-field spectroscopy. In near-field spectroscopy, the spectral response of local field enhancement in coupled plasmonic nanostructures remains largely unexplored, especially experimentally. Here, we investigate the coupled gold dolmen nanostructures in the near field using photoemission electron microscopy, with wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser pulses as an excitation source. The spatial evolution of near-field mapping of an individual dolmen structure with the excitation wavelength was successfully obtained. In the near field, we spatially resolved an anti-bonding mode and a bonding mode as the result of plasmon hybridization. Additionally, the quadrupole plasmon mode that could be involved in the formation of a Fano resonance was also revealed by spatially resolved near-field spectra, but it only contributed little to the total near-field enhancement. On the basis of these findings, we obtained a better understanding of the near-field properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures, where the plasmon hybridization and the plasmonic Fano resonance were mixed.

  2. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  3. Disposable Plasmonics: Plastic Templated Plasmonic Metamaterials with Tunable Chirality.

    PubMed

    Karimullah, Affar S; Jack, Calum; Tullius, Ryan; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Barron, Laurence D; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2015-10-07

    Development of low-cost disposable plasmonic substrates is vital for the applicability of plasmonic sensing. Such devices can be made using injection-molded templates to create plasmonic films. The elements of these plasmonic films are hybrid nanostructures composed of inverse and solid structures. Tuning the modal coupling between the two allows optimization of the optical properties for nanophotonic applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Surface plasmon modes management by Thompson plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Nai Jing; Chau, Cheung Wai; Kit Yung, Sai; Yu, Kin Wah

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the dispersion and propagation of the surface plasmons in a structure consisting of a metal slab and a dielectric slab, the latter of which contains randomly distributed small metal particles. In our model, the metal material is characterized by the Drude model and the pudding structure is studied with Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. This construction of material can bring a new hybridized band in the dispersion relation where light has a relatively small group velocity. The geometric profile of volume fraction of metal balls in pudding structure can effectively change the behaviour of the plasmon propagation. For example, by adding a parabolic confinement, it is shown by the Hamiltonian optics that the light propagation is trapped, i.e., the light experiences an oscillation in a small space. Experimentally, the confinement condition can be achieved with various means, thus it may be useful in development of new mechanism of solar cell.

  5. Overlap-Based Cell Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Joe; Cardone, Antonio; Dima, Alden A.; Allen, Daniel P.; Halter, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the extraction of quantitative data from live cell image sets, automated image analysis methods are needed. This paper presents an introduction to the general principle of an overlap cell tracking software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This cell tracker has the ability to track cells across a set of time lapse images acquired at high rates based on the amount of overlap between cellular regions in consecutive frames. It is designed to be highly flexible, requires little user parameterization, and has a fast execution time. PMID:27134800

  6. Harnessing plasmonics for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.; Pillai, Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Plasmons are free-electron oscillations in a conductor that allow light to be manipulated at the nanoscale. The ability of plasmons to guide and confine light on subwavelength scales is opening up new design possibilities for solar cells.

  7. Revealing the effect of plasmon transmutation on charge transfer plasmons in substrate-mediated metallodielectric aluminum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshnab, Vida; Golmohammadi, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum nanoparticle nanocomplexes have extensively been utilized for sustaining ultrastrong plasmonic bonding and antibonding resonant modes across the ultraviolet to visible spectrum. In this study, we analyze the plasmon response for two conventional symmetric heptamer and antisymmetric octamer antennas mediated by conductive film as a substrate to induce very sharp Fano-resonant mode at the high energy states. Besides, presence of an underlying conductive film in touching regime with the plasmonic nanoantennas leads to formation of charge transfer plasmons (CTPs) across the deep-UV band. It is also shown that presence of dielectric carbon nanospheres in the gap spots between proximal nanodisks gives rise to breaking the symmetry of the assemblies, while the new magnetic multipolar modes are induced and divided the Fano dip in two parts as well as formation of a couple of charge transfer plasmon resonant shoulders. The compactness and geometries of the clusters allow for inducing substantially strong resonant modes across the deep-UV domain. Our investigations provide new pathways and features for designing multifunctional molecular probes, biochemical sensors, and cathodoluminescence antennas across the UV spectrum. The proposed analysis were done using a blend of Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations and transfer of plasmonic charges in nanoscale systems.

  8. Plasmonic polymers with strong chiroptical response for sensing molecular chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dawei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Rong-Yao; Tian, Xiaorui; Ji, Yinglu; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Luming; Wei, Hong; Wu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman ``fingerprint'' information for identifying the molecular identity but also the CD signatures for (i) resolving the enantiomeric pairs of cysteine molecules at a small quantity level, and (ii) quantifying the enantiomeric purity of the chiral analytes. Chiral analyses by chiroptically responsive plasmonic polymers may find important applications in bioscience and biomedicine.We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman ``fingerprint

  9. Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeonho; Hong, Soongweon; Lee, Luke P

    2009-11-01

    Precisely constructed nanoscale devices and nanoarchitectures with high spatial resolution are critically needed for applications in high-speed electronics, high-density memory, efficient solar cells, optoelectronics, plasmonics, optical antennas, chemical sensors, biological sensors, and nanospectroscopic imaging. Current methods of classical optical lithography are limited by the diffraction effect of light for nanolithography, and the state of art of e-beam or focused ion beam lithography limit the throughput and further reduction less than few nanometers for large-area batch fabrication. However, these limits can be surpassed surprisingly by utilizing the overlap of two shadow images. Here we present shadow overlap of ion-beam lithography (SOIL), which can combine the advantages of parallel processing, tunable capability of geometries, cost-effective method, and high spatial resolution nanofabrication technique. The SOIL method relies on the overlap of shadows created by the directional metal deposition and etching angles on prepatterned structures. Consequently, highly tunable patterns can be obtained. As examples, unprecedented nanoarchitectures for optical antennas are demonstrated by SOIL. We expect that SOIL can have a significant impact not only on nanoscale devices, but also large-scale (i.e., micro and macro) three-dimensional innovative lithography.

  10. Aspects and the Overlap Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn M.; Levine, Leonard P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents system for automatic handling of ordered sets, states based on these sets, and differing points of view regarding Universe of Discourse. Aspects are represented by new logical "overlap" function with examples taken from Ranganathan's horse and carriage parable and several books involving four main concepts (history, geography,…

  11. Plasmon device design: Conversion from surface to junction plasmons with grating-couplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Scaling calculations and numerical studies are used to show that grating couplers provide effective energy transfer between surface plasmons and slower modes localized in the tunnel diodes. Within first order perturbation theory in grating amplitude, 90% efficiency energy transfer occurs within micrometers for realistic structures and materials parameters. Scaling laws are derived. Seventy to 90% of the electromagnetic field energy is concentrated in the oxide layer of an MOM diode after the energy is distributed by longer range modes that have less than 0.1% overlap with the tunneling region. The mode conversion allows the requirements separation for energy transport and power production by inelastic tunneling.

  12. Plasmons: Why Should We Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    The physical phenomenon of plasmons and the techniques that build upon them are discussed. Plasmon-enhanced applications are well-suited for introduction in physical chemistry and instrumental analysis classes and some methods of fabrication and analysis of plasmon-producing structures are simple for use in labs in general, physical and inorganic…

  13. Plasmons: Why Should We Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Xia, Younan

    2007-01-01

    The physical phenomenon of plasmons and the techniques that build upon them are discussed. Plasmon-enhanced applications are well-suited for introduction in physical chemistry and instrumental analysis classes and some methods of fabrication and analysis of plasmon-producing structures are simple for use in labs in general, physical and inorganic…

  14. Quantum plasmonic nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie M.; Azadi, Sam; Giannini, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    We study plasmonic excitations in the limit of few electrons, in one-atom-thick sodium chains. We compare the excitations to classical localized plasmon modes, and we find for the longitudinal mode a quantum-classical transition around 10 atoms. The transverse mode appears at much higher energies than predicted classically for all chain lengths. The electric field enhancement is also considered, which is made possible by considering the effects of electron-phonon coupling on the broadening of the electronic spectra. Large field enhancements are possible on the molecular level allowing us to consider the validity of using molecules as the ultimate small size limit of plasmonic antennas. Additionally, we consider the case of a dimer system of two sodium chains, where the gap can be considered as a picocavity, and we analyze the charge-transfer states and their dependence on the gap size as well as chain size. Our results and methods are useful for understanding and developing ultrasmall, tunable, and novel plasmonic devices that utilize quantum effects that could have applications in quantum optics, quantum metamaterials, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, and controlling chemical reactions, as well as deepening our understanding of localized plasmons in low-dimensional molecular systems.

  15. Coherent Plasmon and Phonon-Plasmon Resonances in Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Farmer, Damon B; Cao, Qing; Tersoff, Jerry; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Avouris, Phaedon; Han, Shu-Jen

    2017-06-23

    Carbon nanotubes provide a rare access point into the plasmon physics of one-dimensional electronic systems. By assembling purified nanotubes into uniformly sized arrays, we show that they support coherent plasmon resonances, that these plasmons couple to nanotube and substrate phonons, and that the resulting phonon-plasmon resonances have quality factors as high as 10. Because nanotube plasmons intensely strengthen electromagnetic fields and light-matter interactions, they provide a compelling platform for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and tunable optical devices at deep-subwavelength scales.

  16. Toward Quantum Plasmonics with Plasmon Drag Effect. Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Lepain, Matthew; Mapes, Zoe; Rono, Vincent; Noginova, Natalia

    Giant plasmon drag effect observed in plasmonic metal films and nanostructures brings new fundamental insights into ways in which light-matter interaction occurs. We demonstrate analytically, numerically and experimentally that rectified drag forces acting upon electrons in plasmonic metals are intimately related to the absorption of plasmonic excitations. The plasmon energy quanta absorbed by the metal plasma are associated with momentum quanta, which are also transferred to electrons upon energy absorption. We show that this picture directly applies to plasmon drag effect in a variety of systems, and, to our knowledge for the first time, is capable to explain and predict the magnitude of the effect not only qualitatively, but with close quantitative agreement. The plasmon drag effect opens new avenues for plasmonic-based electronics providing opportunities for incorporation of plasmonic circuits into electronic devices, and for optical sensing offering a new operational principle and an opportunity to substitute the bulky optical set-ups with diffraction limited sensing by electronics. Our work not only adds more clarity into the mechanism behind the plasmon drag effect but also contributes to the emerging field of quantum plasmonics.

  17. Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Toma, Mana; Toma, Koji; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří; Knoll, Wolfgang; Dostálek, Jakub

    2012-06-18

    Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) from emitters in a close proximity to a plasmonic Bragg grating is investigated. In this study, the directional fluorescence emission mediated by Bragg-scattered surface plasmons and surface plasmons diffraction cross-coupled through a thin metallic film is observed by using the reverse Kretschmann configuration. We show that controlling of dispersion relation of these surface plasmon modes by tuning the refractive index at upper and lower interfaces of a dense sub-wavelength metallic grating enables selective reducing or increasing the intensity of the light emitted to certain directions. These observations may provide important leads for design of advanced plasmonic structures in applications areas of plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy and nanoscale optical sources.

  18. Gap plasmon excitation in plasmonic waveguide using Si waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Koji; Kamada, Shun; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Haraguchi, Masanobu

    2016-08-01

    Plasmonic waveguides have attracted considerable attention for application in highly integrated optical circuits since they can confine light to areas smaller than the diffraction limit. In this context, in order to realize a highly integrated optical circuit, we fabricate and evaluate the optical characteristics of a poly(methyl methacrylate) junction positioned between Si and plasmonic waveguides. For the plasmonic waveguide, we employ a gap plasmonic waveguide in which the energy of the plasmonic wave can be confined in order to reduce the scattering loss at the junction. By experimental measurement, we determine the coupling efficiency between the Si and gap plasmonic waveguides and the propagation length at the gap plasmonic waveguide to be 52.4% and 11.1 µm, respectively. These values agree with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. We believe that our findings can significantly contribute to the development of highly integrated optical circuits.

  19. Hyperbolic spoof plasmonic metasurfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yihao; Jing, Liqiao; Shen, Lian; ...

    2017-08-25

    Hyperbolic metasurfaces have recently emerged as a new research frontier because of the unprecedented capabilities to manipulate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and many potential applications. But, thus far, the existence of hyperbolic metasurfaces has neither been observed nor predicted at low frequencies because noble metals cannot support SPPs at longer wavelengths. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate spoof plasmonic metasurfaces with a hyperbolic dispersion, where the spoof SPPs propagate on complementary H-shaped, perfectly conducting surfaces at low frequencies. Therefore, non-divergent diffractions, negative refraction and dispersion-dependent spin-momentum locking are observed as the spoof SPPs travel over the hyperbolic spoof plasmonic metasurfacesmore » (HSPMs). The HSPMs provide fundamental new platforms to explore the propagation and spin of spoof SPPs. They show great capabilities for designing advanced surface wave devices such as spatial multiplexers, focusing and imaging devices, planar hyperlenses, and dispersion-dependent directional couplers, at both microwave and terahertz frequencies.« less

  20. Plasmonic fluorescent quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu

    2009-09-01

    Combining multiple discrete components into a single multifunctional nanoparticle could be useful in a variety of applications. Retaining the unique optical and electrical properties of each component after nanoscale integration is, however, a long-standing problem. It is particularly difficult when trying to combine fluorophores such as semiconductor quantum dots with plasmonic materials such as gold, because gold and other metals can quench the fluorescence. So far, the combination of quantum dot fluorescence with plasmonically active gold has only been demonstrated on flat surfaces. Here, we combine fluorescent and plasmonic activities in a single nanoparticle by controlling the spacing between a quantum dot core and an ultrathin gold shell with nanometre precision through layer-by-layer assembly. Our wet-chemistry approach provides a general route for the deposition of ultrathin gold layers onto virtually any discrete nanostructure or continuous surface, and should prove useful for multimodal bioimaging, interfacing with biological systems, reducing nanotoxicity, modulating electromagnetic fields and contacting nanostructures.

  1. Active Nanorheology with Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Mark, Andrew G; Lee, Tung-Chun; Alarcón-Correa, Mariana; Eslami, Sahand; Qiu, Tian; Gibbs, John G; Fischer, Peer

    2016-08-10

    Nanoplasmonic systems are valued for their strong optical response and their small size. Most plasmonic sensors and systems to date have been rigid and passive. However, rendering these structures dynamic opens new possibilities for applications. Here we demonstrate that dynamic plasmonic nanoparticles can be used as mechanical sensors to selectively probe the rheological properties of a fluid in situ at the nanoscale and in microscopic volumes. We fabricate chiral magneto-plasmonic nanocolloids that can be actuated by an external magnetic field, which in turn allows for the direct and fast modulation of their distinct optical response. The method is robust and allows nanorheological measurements with a mechanical sensitivity of ∼0.1 cP, even in strongly absorbing fluids with an optical density of up to OD ∼ 3 (∼0.1% light transmittance) and in the presence of scatterers (e.g., 50% v/v red blood cells).

  2. Nanowire Plasmon Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Nathalie; Shields, Brendan; Yu, Chun; Englund, Dirk; Akimov, Alexey; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun

    2011-05-01

    Strong interactions between light and matter can be engineered by confining light to a small volume for an extended period of time. Nanoscale plasmonic structures can concentrate lighte well below the diffraction limit, but realization of small mode-volume plasmon cavities remains an outstanding challenge. We propose and demonstrate a new approach for realization of nanoscale plasmon resonators enabling strong light-matter interaction. In our approach, chemically synthesized silver nanowires are surrounded by patterned dielectric to create resonators with mode volumes that are two orders of magnitude below the diffraction limit and quality factors approaching 100. We show that they can be used to enhance spontaneous emission rates of CdSe quantum dots and single diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers by a factor larger than 20 at the cavity resonance.

  3. Plasmonic achromatic doublet lens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-09

    An achromatic doublet lens (ADL) for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is designed. Similar to the conventional ADL, the proposed plasmonic ADL is composed of two lens layers with different dispersion relations. Considering these layers as effective media, their refractive indices with respect to the free-space wavelength are calculated. Geometric parameters of the lens are initially set according to the geometrical optic theory, and then optimized by reduced dimensional calculations. The performance of proposed device is verified by using full-wave simulations and compared with a double-convex plasmonic lens to verify its achromatic characteristics. It is shown that the standard deviation of the focal length shift is reduced from 668 nm to 168 nm, after introducing the ADL.

  4. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Manish; Zong, Kelly; Vivekchand, S. R. C.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed. PMID:26473866

  5. Plasmonic bandgap in random media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present a dispersion theory of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in random metal-dielectric nanocomposite (MDN) consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions. We demonstrate that embedding of dielectric nanoparticles in metal results in the formation of the plasmonic bandgap due to strong coupling of the SPP at the metal-vacuum interface and surface plasmons localized at the surface of nanoinclusions. Our results show that MDN can replace metals in various plasmonic devices, which properties can be tuned in a wide spectral range. Being compatible with waveguides and other photonic structures, MDN offers high flexibility in the plasmonic system design. PMID:23870782

  6. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  7. Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer

    SciTech Connect

    Monnai, Yasuaki; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Jahn, David; Koch, Martin; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2015-01-12

    We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources.

  8. Plasmonics: Future Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasma resonance in metals exhibits some unique optical phenomena that occur on the surface of metal with nanostructures. The use of surface plasmons has been proposed in various fields, such as nanometer-resolution near-field optical microscopy, nanoscale optical circuits, single-molecule detection, molecular sensors, cancer treatment, solar cells, lasers, and holography. The study of plasma resonance is called “plasmonics” and is expected as a new field of nanophotonics. In this report, I review the principles and limits of plasmonics and give a future outlook.

  9. Nanoporous plasmonic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Nyce, G W; Hodge, A M; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Maier, S A

    2007-05-24

    We review different routes for the generation of nanoporous metallic foams and films exhibiting well-defined pore size and short-range order. Dealloying and templating allows the generation of both two- and three-dimensional structures which promise a well defined plasmonic response determined by material constituents and porosity. Viewed in the context of metamaterials, the ease of fabrication of samples covering macroscopic dimensions is highly promising, and suggests more in-depth investigations of the plasmonic and photonic properties of this material system for photonic applications.

  10. Plasmons in QED vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, E. Yu.; Kudrin, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The problem of longitudinal oscillations of an electric field and a charge polarization density in a quantum electrodynamics (QED) vacuum is considered. Within the framework of semiclassical analysis, we calculate time-periodic solutions of bosonized (1 +1 )-dimensional QED (massive Schwinger model). Applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition, we determine the mass spectrum of charge-zero bound states (plasmons) which correspond in quantum theory to the found classical solutions. We show that the existence of such plasmons does not contradict any fundamental physical laws and study qualitatively their excitation in a (3 +1 )-dimensional real world.

  11. Arbitrary bending plasmonic light waves.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Itai; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-17

    We demonstrate the generation of self-accelerating surface plasmon beams along arbitrary caustic curvatures. These plasmonic beams are excited by free-space beams through a two-dimensional binary plasmonic phase mask, which provides the missing momentum between the two beams in the direction of propagation and sets the required phase for the plasmonic beam in the transverse direction. We examine the cases of paraxial and nonparaxial curvatures and show that this highly versatile scheme can be designed to produce arbitrary plasmonic self-accelerating beams. Several different plasmonic beams, which accelerate along polynomial and exponential trajectories, are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally, with a direct measurement of the plasmonic light intensity using a near-field scanning optical microscope.

  12. “Deterministic” quantum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Cuche, Aurélien; Mollet, Oriane; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge

    2010-11-10

    We demonstrate “deterministic” launching of propagative quantum surface-plasmon polaritons at freely chosen positions on gold plasmonic receptacles. This is achieved by using as a plasmon launcher a near-field scanning optical source made of a diamond nanocrystal with two nitrogen-vacancy color-center occupancy. Our demonstration relies on leakage-radiation microscopy of a thin homogeneous gold film and on near-field optical microscopy of a nanostructured thick gold film. Our work paves the way to future fundamental studies and applications in quantum plasmonics that require an accurate positioning of single-plasmon sources and may open a new branch in plasmonics and nanophotonics, namely scanning quantum plasmonics.

  13. Clique graphs and overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    It is shown how to construct a clique graph in which properties of cliques of a fixed order in a given graph are represented by vertices in a weighted graph. Various definitions and motivations for these weights are given. The detection of communities or clusters is used to illustrate how a clique graph may be exploited. In particular a benchmark network is shown where clique graphs find the overlapping communities accurately while vertex partition methods fail.

  14. Rapid adhesive bonding of advanced composites and titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryart, J. R.; Hodgest, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) concepts utilize a toroid induction technique to heat the adhesive bond line directly. This technique was used to bond titanium overlap shear specimens with 3 advanced thermoplastic adhesives and APC-2 (graphite/PEEK) composites with PEEK film. Bond strengths equivalent to standard heated-platen press bonds were produced with large reductions in process time. RAB produced very strong bonds in APC-2 adherend specimens; the APC-2 adherends were highly resistant to delamination. Thermal cycling did not significantly affect the shear strengths of RAB titanium bonds with polyimide adhesives. A simple ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation process was found promising for evaluating bond quality.

  15. Sticker Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Laura Corbin

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science activity on the bonding of chemical compounds. Assigns students the role of either a cation or anion and asks them to write the ions they may bond with. Assesses students' understanding of charge, bonding, and other concepts. (YDS)

  16. Sticker Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Laura Corbin

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science activity on the bonding of chemical compounds. Assigns students the role of either a cation or anion and asks them to write the ions they may bond with. Assesses students' understanding of charge, bonding, and other concepts. (YDS)

  17. Plasmons in layered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, J. K.; Allen, P. B.

    1985-06-01

    A random-phase-approximation theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a film containing N equally spaced layers of two-dimensional electron gas. Raman line shapes are predicted. The Giuliani-Quinn surface-plasmon intensity is enhanced in transmission geometry.

  18. Plasmonics for the industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütolf, Fabian; Basset, Guillaume; Casari, Daniele; Luu-Dinh, Angélique; Gallinet, Benjamin

    2015-08-01

    Metallic nanostructures interact strongly with light through surface plasmon modes and many application fields have been proposed during the past decade, including light harvesting, sensing and structural colors. However, their implementation for the industry requires the development of up scalable and cost effective manufacturing processes. The fabrication at wafer scale of plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials using nano imprint lithography is reported. After structuring, the evaporation of various plasmonic materials are performed with a tilt angle with respect to the substrate, which increases the light interactions with the different metallic layers as well as enlarges the design possibilities. A step and repeat process is used to increase further the area of nanostructured surface. The measured optical properties of the fabricated structures show a very good agreement compared to numerical calculations using the rigorous coupled wave analysis. These numerical calculations together which structural characterization, increase the process control and enable the design of the nanostructures for specific applications. In particular, nanostructures with a shape similar to split ring resonators and which support high order plasmonic modes showing Fano resonances are shown to be promising for sensing applications. The structures were designed in such a way to have a strong spectral response in the blue/green region of the visible spectrum. Examples of refractive index sensors and stretch sensors were finally discussed.

  19. Photocatalysis: Plasmonic solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Li, Yat

    2016-06-01

    The sustainability of many existing desalination technologies is questionable. Plasmon-mediated solar desalination has now been demonstrated for the first time, using an aluminium structure that absorbs photons spanning the 200 nm to 2,500 nm wavelength range, and is both cheap and 'clean'.

  20. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  1. Femtosecond plasmon interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentiev, Pavel N.; Kuzin, Artur A.; Gritchenko, Anton S.; Kalmykov, Alexey S.; Balykin, Victor I.

    2017-01-01

    We have realized a plasmonic interferometer formed by a nanoslit and a nanogroove in a single-crystal gold film. The possibility of measuring laser pulses of ultimately short durations, corresponding to two periods of a light wave (6 fs pulse duration), has been demonstrated using this interferometer.

  2. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  3. Solar-Powered Plasmon-Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldoni, Alberto; Riboni, Francesca; Guler, Urcan; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalysis uses semiconductors to convert sunlight into chemical energy. Recent reports have shown that plasmonic nanostructures can be used to extend semiconductor light absorption or to drive direct photocatalysis with visible light at their surface. In this review, we discuss the fundamental decay pathway of localized surface plasmons in the context of driving solar-powered chemical reactions. We also review different nanophotonic approaches demonstrated for increasing solar-to-hydrogen conversion in photoelectrochemical water splitting, including experimental observations of enhanced reaction selectivity for reactions occurring at the metalsemiconductor interface. The enhanced reaction selectivity is highly dependent on the morphology, electronic properties, and spatial arrangement of composite nanostructures and their elements. In addition, we report on the particular features of photocatalytic reactions evolving at plasmonic metal surfaces and discuss the possibility of manipulating the reaction selectivity through the activation of targeted molecular bonds. Finally, using solar-to-hydrogen conversion techniques as an example, we quantify the efficacy metrics achievable in plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical systems and highlight some of the new directions that could lead to the practical implementation of solar-powered plasmon-based catalytic devices.

  4. Plasmonic polymers with strong chiroptical response for sensing molecular chirality.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dawei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Rong-Yao; Tian, Xiaorui; Ji, Yinglu; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Luming; Wei, Hong; Wu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-28

    We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman "fingerprint" information for identifying the molecular identity but also the CD signatures for (i) resolving the enantiomeric pairs of cysteine molecules at a small quantity level, and (ii) quantifying the enantiomeric purity of the chiral analytes. Chiral analyses by chiroptically responsive plasmonic polymers may find important applications in bioscience and biomedicine.

  5. Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih

    2016-06-01

    Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM) energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as "nanomatryoshka" (NM) units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer), plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer), due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.

  6. Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadivand, Arash Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih

    2016-06-15

    Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM) energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as “nanomatryoshka” (NM) units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer), plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer), due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.

  7. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  8. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-02-01

    To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. See Data Sources/Study Setting. The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place.

  9. Metallic adhesion layer induced plasmon damping and molecular linker as a nondamping alternative.

    PubMed

    Habteyes, Terefe G; Dhuey, Scott; Wood, Erin; Gargas, Daniel; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James; Alivisatos, A Paul; Leone, Stephen R

    2012-06-26

    Drastic chemical interface plasmon damping is induced by the ultrathin (∼2 nm) titanium (Ti) adhesion layer; alternatively, molecular adhesion is implemented for lithographic fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures without significant distortion of the plasmonic characteristics. As determined from the homogeneous linewidth of the resonance scattering spectrum of individual gold nanorods, an ultrathin Ti layer reduces the plasmon dephasing time significantly, and it reduces the plasmon scattering amplitude drastically. The increased damping rate and decreased plasmon amplitude are due to the dissipative dielectric function of Ti and the chemical interface plasmon damping where the conduction electrons are transferred across the metal-metal interface. In addition, a pronounced red shift due to the Ti adhesion layer, more than predicted using electromagnetic simulation, suggests the prevalence of interfacial reactions. By extending the experiment to conductively coupled ring-rod nanostructures, it is shown that a sharp Fano-like resonance feature is smeared out due to the Ti layer. Alternatively, vapor deposition of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane on gently cleaned and activated lithographic patterns functionalizes the glass surface sufficiently to link the gold nanostructures to the surface by sulfur-gold chemical bonds without observable plasmon damping effects.

  10. Plasmonic Periodic Nanodot Arrays via Laser Interference Lithography for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with >10% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yulin; Lim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Wang, Huan; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Park, Young Wook; Kim, Heejun; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Jihyeon; Kim, Dong Ha; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-11-22

    In this study, we demonstrate a viable and promising optical engineering technique enabling the development of high-performance plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices. Laser interference lithography was explored to fabricate metal nanodot (MND) arrays with elaborately controlled dot size as well as periodicity, allowing spectral overlap between the absorption range of the active layers and the surface plasmon band of MND arrays. MND arrays with ∼91 nm dot size and ∼202 nm periodicity embedded in a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hole transport layer remarkably enhanced the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 7.52% up to 10.11%, representing one of the highest PCE and degree of enhancement (∼34.4%) levels compared to the pristine device among plasmonic organic photovoltaics reported to date. The plasmonic enhancement mechanism was investigated by both optical and electrical analyses using finite difference time domain simulation and conductive atomic force microscopy studies.

  11. Quantum Mode Selectivity of Plasmon-Induced Water Splitting on Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Wang, Fangwei; Meng, Sheng

    2016-05-24

    Plasmon induced water splitting is a promising research area with the potential for efficient conversion of solar to chemical energy, yet its atomic mechanism is not well understood. Here, ultrafast electron-nuclear dynamics of water splitting on gold nanoparticles upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses was directly simulated using real time time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Strong correlation between laser intensity, hot electron transfer, and reaction rates has been identified. The rate of water splitting is dependent not only on respective optical absorption strength, but also on the quantum oscillation mode of plasmonic excitation. Odd modes are more efficient than even modes, owing to faster decaying into hot electrons whose energy matches well the antibonding orbital of water. This finding suggests photocatalytic activity can be manipulated by adjusting the energy level of plasmon-induced hot carriers, through altering the cluster size and laser parameter, to better overlap adsorbate unoccupied level in plasmon-assisted photochemistry.

  12. High resolution grating-assisted surface plasmon resonance fiber optic aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jacques; Lepinay, Sandrine; Caucheteur, Christophe; Derosa, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating imprinted in a single mode fiber core is demonstrated. A 30-50 nm thick gold coating on the cladding of the fiber provides the support for surface plasmon waves whose interaction with attached biomolecules is monitored at near infrared wavelengths near 1,550 nm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with the broader absorption of the surface plasmon and thus provide a unique tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon with high accuracy. The attachment on the gold surfaces of aptamers with specific affinities for proteins provides the required target-analyte system and is shown to be functional in the framework of our sensing device. The implementation of the sensor either as a stand-alone device or as part of a multi-sensor platform is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cathodoluminescence plasmon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttge, M.

    2009-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that are strongly coupled to the collective oscillation of free electrons at an interface between a dielectric and a metal. Strong confinement of the electromagnetic field and tunability of SPP dispersion allow two-dimensional optics. This thesis focuses on acquiring fundamental understanding of the generation and confinement of SPPs using electron beam irradiation. SPPs are generated using the focused electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. The electron beam acts as point source for circular SPP waves. The resulting emission is detected using a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy setup The CL emission in front of a grating patterned in an otherwise planar gold surface shows oscillations with distance from the grating. These oscillations are caused by the coherent interaction of transition radiation and SPPs scattered by the grating, which leads to interference in the far field. We present a detailed theoretical analysis that successfully explains the measured CL signal. A connection between the CL signal and the photonic local density of states associated to SPPs is established. The SPP damping was determined by measuring the decay of the CL intensity on a line scan perpendicular to gratings fabricated into the surface. We find that the propagation length for single-crystalline gold is in agreement with calculations based on dielectric constants while for poly-crystalline films the propagation length is reduced. Scattering of SPPs at grain boundaries is identified as additional loss mechanism. We have numerically studied the reflectivity for SPPs of single grooves structured into the surface. Using FDTD calculations we find that the reflectivity shows resonances that are related to localized groove modes. The groove reflectivity is the result of coupling of the incident plasmon wave to the localized modes that then reradiate to cause a reflected plasmon wave. Two parallel grooves structured

  14. Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-03-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.

  15. The dark side of plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Gómez, D E; Teo, Z Q; Altissimo, M; Davis, T J; Earl, S; Roberts, A

    2013-08-14

    Plasmonic dark modes are pure near-field modes that can arise from the plasmon hybridization in a set of interacting nanoparticles. When compared to bright modes, dark modes have longer lifetimes due to their lack of a net dipole moment, making them attractive for a number of applications. We demonstrate the excitation and optical detection of a collective dark plasmonic mode from individual plasmonic trimers. The trimers consist of triangular arrangements of gold nanorods, and due to this symmetry, the lowest-energy dark plasmonic mode can interact with radially polarized light. The experimental data presented confirm the excitation of this mode, and its assignment is supported with an electrostatic approximation wherein these dark modes are described in terms of plasmon hybridization. The strong confinement of energy in these modes and their associated near fields hold great promise for achieving strong coupling to single photon emitters.

  16. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  17. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Z.; Iwinski, E. G.; Ni, G. X.; Zhang, L. M.; Bao, W.; Rodin, A. S.; Lee, Y.; Wagner, M.; Liu, M. K.; Dai, S.; Goldflam, M. D.; Thiemens, M.; Keilmann, F.; Lau, C. N.; Castro-Neto, A. H.; Fogler, M. M.; Basov, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At sub-nanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nano-imaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene: yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  18. Hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule based on metal/Si disks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhao, Hang; Du, Xu; Zhang, Weichun; Qiu, Min; Li, Qiang

    2013-05-06

    Optical properties of two identical coupled disks forming a "hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule" are investigated. Each disk is a metal-dielectric structure supporting hybrid plasmonic-photonic whispering-gallery (WG) modes. The WG modes of a molecule split into two groups of nearly-degenerate modes, i.e., bonding and anti-bonding modes. The oscillation of quality factor (Q) with the inter-disk gap d and significant enhancement at certain inter-disk gaps can be observed. An enhanced Q factor of 1821 for a hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule composed of two 1.2 μm-diameter disks, compared with that for a single disk, is achieved. The corresponding Purcell factor is 191, making the hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule an optimal choice for subwavelength-scale device miniaturization and light-matter interactions. Moreover, the far-field emission pattern of the hybrid photonic-plasmonic molecule exhibits an enhanced directional light output by tuning the azimuthal mode number for both bonding and anti-bonding modes.

  19. Lithographically Defined, Room Temperature Low Threshold Subwavelength Red-Emitting Hybrid Plasmonic Lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Justice, John; Gity, Farzan; Povey, Ian; McCarthy, Brendan; Pemble, Martyn; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Wei, Hong; Silien, Christophe; Xu, Hongxing; Corbett, Brian

    2016-12-14

    Hybrid plasmonic lasers provide deep subwavelength optical confinement, strongly enhanced light-matter interaction and together with nanoscale footprint promise new applications in optical communication, biosensing, and photolithography. The subwavelength hybrid plasmonic lasers reported so far often use bottom-up grown nanowires, nanorods, and nanosquares, making it difficult to integrate these devices into industry-relevant high density plasmonic circuits. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of AlGaInP based, red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers at room temperature using lithography based fabrication processes. Resonant cavities with deep subwavelength 2D and 3D mode confinement of λ(2)/56 and λ(3)/199, respectively, are demonstrated. A range of cavity geometries (waveguides, rings, squares, and disks) show very low lasing thresholds of 0.6-1.8 mJ/cm(2) with wide gain bandwidth (610 nm-685 nm), which are attributed to the heterogeneous geometry of the gain material, the optimized etching technique, and the strong overlap of the gain material with the plasmonic modes. Most importantly, we establish the connection between mode confinements and enhanced absorption and stimulated emission, which plays critical roles in maintaining low lasing thresholds at extremely small hybrid plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way for the further integration of dense arrays of hybrid plasmonic lasers with optical and electronic technology platforms.

  20. Lithographically Defined, Room Temperature Low Threshold Subwavelength Red-Emitting Hybrid Plasmonic Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Justice, John; Gity, Farzan; Povey, Ian; McCarthy, Brendan; Pemble, Martyn; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Wei, Hong; Silien, Christophe; Xu, Hongxing; Corbett, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid plasmonic lasers provide deep subwavelength optical confinement, strongly enhanced light-matter interaction and together with nanoscale footprint promise new applications in optical communication, bio-sensing and photolithography. The subwavelength hybrid plasmonic lasers reported so far often use bottom up grown nanowires, nanorods and nanosquares, making it difficult to integrate these devices into industry-relevant high density plasmonic circuits. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of AlGaInP based, red-emitting hybrid plasmonic lasers at room temperature using lithography based fabrication processes. Resonant cavities with deep subwavelength 2D and 3D mode confinement of lambda square/56 and lambda cube/199, respectively are demonstrated. A range of cavity geometries (waveguides, rings, squares and disks) show very low lasing thresholds of 0.6-1.8 mJ/cm square with wide gain bandwidth (610 nm-685 nm), which are attributed to the heterogeneous geometry of the gain material, the optimized etching technique, and the strong overlap of the gain material with the plasmonic modes. Most importantly, we establish the connection between mode confinements and enhanced absorption and stimulated emission, which play a critical role in maintaining low lasing thresholds at extremely small hybrid plasmonic cavities. Our results pave the way for the further integration of dense arrays of hybrid plasmonic lasers with optical and electronic technology platforms.

  1. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  2. Spectral dependence of fluorescence near plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yeechi

    The optical properties of fluorophores are significantly modified when placed within the near field (0--100 nm) of plasmon resonant metal nanostructures, due to the competition between increased decay rates and "hotspots" of concentrated electric fields. The decay rates and effective electric field intensities are highly dependent on the relative position of dye and metal and the overlap between plasmon resonance and dye absorption and emission. Understanding these dependencies can greatly improve the performance of biosensing and nanophotonic devices. In this dissertation, the fluorescence intensity of organic dyes and CdSe quantum dots near single metal nanoparticles is studied as a function of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle. Single metal nanoparticles have narrow, well-defined, intense local surface plasmon resonances that are tunable across the visible spectrum by changes in size and shape. First, we show that organic dyes can be self-assembled on single silver nanoprisms into known configurations by the hybridization of thiolated DNA oligomers. We correlate the fluorescence intensity of the dyes to the LSPR of the individual nanoprism to which they are attached. For each of three different organic dyes, we observe a strong correlation between the fluorescence intensity of the dye and the degree of spectral overlap with the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle. On average, we observe the brightest fluorescence from dyes attached to metal nanoparticles that have a LSPR scattering peak 40--120 meV higher in energy than the emission peak of the fluorophore. Second, the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence from CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots is studied near a variety of silver and gold nanoparticles. With single-particle scattering spectroscopy, the localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of single metal nanoparticles is correlated with the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of the nearby quantum dots. The PLE

  3. Plasmonic fiber-optic vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaochuan; Guo, Tuan; Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Jian; Xie, Wenping; Nie, Ming; Wu, Qiang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    A compact fiber-optic vector magnetometer based on directional scattering between polarized plasmon waves and ferro-magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated. The sensor configuration reported in this work uses a short section of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) coated with a nanometer scale gold film and packaged with a magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) inside a capillary. The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with a broader absorption of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The wavelength of the SPR attenuation in transmission shows high sensitivity to slight perturbations by magnetic fields, due to the strong directional scattering between the SPR attenuated cladding modes and the magnetic fluid near the fiber surface. Both the orientation (2 nm/deg) and the intensity (1.8 nm/mT) of magnetic fields can be determined unambiguously from the TFBG spectrum. Temperature cross sensitivity can be referenced out by monitoring the wavelength of the core mode resonance simultaneously.

  4. Overlap in Facebook Profiles Reflects Relationship Closeness.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Araceli M; Wendel, Markie L; Crockett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Furthermore, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness.

  5. Special issue on aluminium plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-04-08

    Plasmonics is a rapidly growing field that takes advantage of the intense and confined electromagnetic fields that appear near metallic nanostructures illuminated at frequencies near their surface plasmon resonances. As plasmonics continues to develop, it faces the need to find new materials supporting well-defined surface plasmon resonances in different frequency ranges. In the visible and near-infrared ranges the noble metals, most typically gold and silver, exhibit relatively low losses. This is why they are quite ubiquitous in plasmonics literature. However it is somewhat ironic to see that a non-noble metal, aluminium, the metal upon which surface plasmons where first evidencedmore » in the 1950s, is now reappearing after fifty years of near oblivion as one of the 'hottest' materials for plasmonics. Several reasons explain the return of aluminium to the centre stage. First, aluminium exhibits good plasmonic properties in the ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet—a spectral range where gold and silver no longer behave as metals. Second, aluminium is cheap and widely available (Al is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust), criteria of paramount importance when discussing industry-related applications. It is furthermore compatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In conclusion, this is why an ever-increasing number of papers report new advances on aluminium plasmonics.« less

  6. Special issue on aluminium plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, Davy; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-04-08

    Plasmonics is a rapidly growing field that takes advantage of the intense and confined electromagnetic fields that appear near metallic nanostructures illuminated at frequencies near their surface plasmon resonances. As plasmonics continues to develop, it faces the need to find new materials supporting well-defined surface plasmon resonances in different frequency ranges. In the visible and near-infrared ranges the noble metals, most typically gold and silver, exhibit relatively low losses. This is why they are quite ubiquitous in plasmonics literature. However it is somewhat ironic to see that a non-noble metal, aluminium, the metal upon which surface plasmons where first evidenced in the 1950s, is now reappearing after fifty years of near oblivion as one of the 'hottest' materials for plasmonics. Several reasons explain the return of aluminium to the centre stage. First, aluminium exhibits good plasmonic properties in the ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet—a spectral range where gold and silver no longer behave as metals. Second, aluminium is cheap and widely available (Al is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust), criteria of paramount importance when discussing industry-related applications. It is furthermore compatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In conclusion, this is why an ever-increasing number of papers report new advances on aluminium plasmonics.

  7. Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Atwater, Harry A; Polman, Albert

    2010-03-01

    The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

  8. Gold nanorod plasmonic upconversion microlaser.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ce; Soltani, Soheil; Armani, Andrea M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmonic-photonic interactions have stimulated significant interdisciplinary interest, leading to rapid innovations in solar design and biosensors. However, the development of an optically pumped plasmonic laser has failed to keep pace due to the difficulty of integrating a plasmonic gain material with a suitable pump source. In the present work, we develop a method for coating high quality factor toroidal optical cavities with gold nanorods, forming a photonic-plasmonic laser. By leveraging the two-photon upconversion capability of the nanorods, lasing at 581 nm with a 20 μW threshold is demonstrated.

  9. Recent Advances in Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lianming; Wei, Hong; Zhang, Shunping; Xu, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic sensing has been an important multidisciplinary research field and has been extensively used in detection of trace molecules in chemistry and biology. The sensing techniques are typically based on surface-enhanced spectroscopies and surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). This review article deals with some recent advances in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors and SPR sensors using either localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) or propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The advances discussed herein present some improvements in SERS and SPR sensing, as well as a new type of nanowire-based SPP sensor. PMID:24803189

  10. Nanoantioxidant-driven plasmon enhanced proton-coupled electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Blattmann, Christoph O.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2015-12-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the transfer of a proton and an electron and play an important role in a number of chemical and biological processes. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, plasmon-enhanced PCET, which is manifested using SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles functionalized with gallic acid (GA), a natural antioxidant molecule that can perform PCET. These GA-functionalized nanoparticles show enhanced plasmonic response at near-IR wavelengths, due to particle agglomeration caused by the GA molecules. Near-IR laser irradiation induces strong local hot-spots on the SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles, as evidenced by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This leads to plasmon energy transfer to the grafted GA molecules that lowers the GA-OH bond dissociation enthalpy by at least 2 kcal mol-1 and therefore facilitates PCET. The nanoparticle-driven plasmon-enhancement of PCET brings together the so far unrelated research domains of nanoplasmonics and electron/proton translocation with significant impact on applications based on interfacial electron/proton transfer.Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the transfer of a proton and an electron and play an important role in a number of chemical and biological processes. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, plasmon-enhanced PCET, which is manifested using SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles functionalized with gallic acid (GA), a natural antioxidant molecule that can perform PCET. These GA-functionalized nanoparticles show enhanced plasmonic response at near-IR wavelengths, due to particle agglomeration caused by the GA molecules. Near-IR laser irradiation induces strong local hot-spots on the SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles, as evidenced by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This leads to plasmon energy transfer to the grafted GA molecules that lowers the GA-OH bond dissociation enthalpy by at least 2 kcal mol-1 and therefore facilitates PCET. The nanoparticle-driven plasmon

  11. Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01

    Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

  12. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-11-07

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the 'host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.

  13. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that withmore » a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.« less

  14. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that with a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.

  15. Coupled nano-plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.; Ilie, S.; Petrut, A.; Savu, M.; Toba, S.

    2014-05-01

    A simple model of coupled plasmons arising in two neighbouring nano-particles is presented. The coupled oscillations and the corresponding eigenfrequencies are computed. It is shown that the plasmons may be periodically transferred between the two particles. For larger separation distances between the two particles the retardation is included. The oscillation eigenmodes are the polaritons in this case. There are distances for which the particles do not couple to each other, i.e. the polaritonic coupling gets damped. The van der Waals-London-Casimir force is estimated for the two particles; it is shown that for large distances the force is repulsive. We compute also the polarizabilities of the two coupled nano-particles and their cross-section under the action of an external monochromatic plane wave, which exhibit resonances indicative of light trapping and field enhancement. A resonant force is also identified, acting upon the particles both on behalf of the external field and of each other.

  16. Reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversion for nanophotonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Seok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Min Su; Jin, Youngjo; Kim, Hyun; Yun, Seokjoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-11-01

    The recent challenges for improving the operation speed of nanoelectronics have motivated research on manipulating light in on-chip integrated circuits. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides with low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum dots and quantum wells, are a promising platform for realizing sub-diffraction limited optical components. Meanwhile, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received broad interest in optoelectronics owing to tightly bound excitons at room temperature, strong light-matter and exciton-plasmon interactions, available top-down wafer-scale integration, and band-gap tunability. Here, we demonstrate principal functionalities for on-chip optical communications via reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversions in ~200-nm-diameter Ag-nanowires overlapping onto TMD transistors. By varying device configurations for each operation purpose, three active components for optical communications are realized: field-effect exciton transistors with a channel length of ~32 μm, field-effect exciton multiplexers transmitting multiple signals through a single NW and electrical detectors of propagating plasmons with a high On/Off ratio of~190. Our results illustrate the unique merits of two-dimensional semiconductors for constructing reconfigurable device architectures in integrated nanophotonic circuits.

  17. Reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversion for nanophotonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Seok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Min Su; Jin, Youngjo; Kim, Hyun; Yun, Seokjoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-11-28

    The recent challenges for improving the operation speed of nanoelectronics have motivated research on manipulating light in on-chip integrated circuits. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides with low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum dots and quantum wells, are a promising platform for realizing sub-diffraction limited optical components. Meanwhile, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received broad interest in optoelectronics owing to tightly bound excitons at room temperature, strong light-matter and exciton-plasmon interactions, available top-down wafer-scale integration, and band-gap tunability. Here, we demonstrate principal functionalities for on-chip optical communications via reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversions in ∼200-nm-diameter Ag-nanowires overlapping onto TMD transistors. By varying device configurations for each operation purpose, three active components for optical communications are realized: field-effect exciton transistors with a channel length of ∼32 μm, field-effect exciton multiplexers transmitting multiple signals through a single NW and electrical detectors of propagating plasmons with a high On/Off ratio of∼190. Our results illustrate the unique merits of two-dimensional semiconductors for constructing reconfigurable device architectures in integrated nanophotonic circuits.

  18. Optically Thin Metallic Films for High-Radiative-Efficiency Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Miller, Owen D; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-07-13

    Plasmonics enables deep-subwavelength concentration of light and has become important for fundamental studies as well as real-life applications. Two major existing platforms of plasmonics are metallic nanoparticles and metallic films. Metallic nanoparticles allow efficient coupling to far field radiation, yet their synthesis typically leads to poor material quality. Metallic films offer substantially higher quality materials, but their coupling to radiation is typically jeopardized due to the large momentum mismatch with free space. Here, we propose and theoretically investigate optically thin metallic films as an ideal platform for high-radiative-efficiency plasmonics. For far-field scattering, adding a thin high-quality metallic substrate enables a higher quality factor while maintaining the localization and tunability that the nanoparticle provides. For near-field spontaneous emission, a thin metallic substrate, of high quality or not, greatly improves the field overlap between the emitter environment and propagating surface plasmons, enabling high-Purcell (total enhancement >10(4)), high-quantum-yield (>50%) spontaneous emission, even as the gap size vanishes (3-5 nm). The enhancement has almost spatially independent efficiency and does not suffer from quenching effects that commonly exist in previous structures.

  19. Reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversion for nanophotonic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Seok; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Min Su; Jin, Youngjo; Kim, Hyun; Yun, Seokjoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    The recent challenges for improving the operation speed of nanoelectronics have motivated research on manipulating light in on-chip integrated circuits. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides with low-dimensional semiconductors, including quantum dots and quantum wells, are a promising platform for realizing sub-diffraction limited optical components. Meanwhile, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received broad interest in optoelectronics owing to tightly bound excitons at room temperature, strong light-matter and exciton-plasmon interactions, available top-down wafer-scale integration, and band-gap tunability. Here, we demonstrate principal functionalities for on-chip optical communications via reconfigurable exciton-plasmon interconversions in ∼200-nm-diameter Ag-nanowires overlapping onto TMD transistors. By varying device configurations for each operation purpose, three active components for optical communications are realized: field-effect exciton transistors with a channel length of ∼32 μm, field-effect exciton multiplexers transmitting multiple signals through a single NW and electrical detectors of propagating plasmons with a high On/Off ratio of∼190. Our results illustrate the unique merits of two-dimensional semiconductors for constructing reconfigurable device architectures in integrated nanophotonic circuits. PMID:27892463

  20. Localized surface plasmon resonance modes on an asymmetric cylindrical nanorod dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-Bing; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Jiao, Guo-Tai; Xue, Chen-Yang; Yan, Shu-Bin; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-08-01

    The extinction spectra and electric field distribution of an asymmetric cylindrical nanorod dimer (ACND) are calculated by discrete dipole approximation. The ACND is composed of two linear orders of cylindrical silver nanorods with different radii and lengths. The effects of the structural parameters of ACND on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode are also studied. Results show two resonance peaks in the extinction spectra of ACND: the higher-energy anti-bonding mode and the lower-energy bonding mode. The interaction of two hybridization plasmonic resonance modes produces an asymmetric line shape in the extinction spectra, which is considered to be a Fano resonance profile.

  1. Aluminum Plasmonic Nanoantennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-16

    possibility of low-cost, sustainable, mass-producible plasmonic materials. Here we examine the properties of individual Al nanorod antennas with...cathodoluminescence (CL). This approach allows us to image the local density of optical states (LDOS) of Al nanorod antennas with a spatial resolution less than...properties of individual Al nanorod antennas with cathodoluminescence (CL). This approach allows us to image the local density of optical states (LDOS

  2. On the plasmonic photovoltaic.

    PubMed

    Mubeen, Syed; Lee, Joun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Singh, Nirala; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2014-06-24

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics is currently a mature science and the foundation of a lucrative industry. In conventional excitonic solar cells, electron-hole pairs are generated by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the "built in" potential resulting from charge transfer accompanying Fermi-level equalization either at a p-n or a Schottky junction, followed by carrier collection at appropriate electrodes. Here we report a stable, wholly plasmonic photovoltaic device in which photon absorption and carrier generation take place exclusively in the plasmonic metal. The field established at a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction separates charges. The negative carriers are high-energy (hot) electrons produced immediately following the plasmon's dephasing. Some of the carriers are energetic enough to clear the Schottky barrier or quantum mechanically tunnel through it, thereby producing the output photocurrent. Short circuit photocurrent densities in the range 70-120 μA cm(-2) were obtained for simulated one-sun AM1.5 illumination with devices based on arrays of parallel gold nanorods, conformally coated with 10 nm TiO2 films and fashioned with a Ti metal collector. For the device with short circuit currents of 120 μA cm(-2), the internal quantum efficiency is ∼2.75%, and its wavelength response tracks the absorption spectrum of the transverse plasmon of the gold nanorods indicating that the absorbed photon-to-electron conversion process resulted exclusively in the Au, with the TiO2 playing a negligible role in charge carrier production. Devices fabricated with 50 nm TiO2 layers had open-circuit voltages as high as 210 mV, short circuit current densities of 26 μA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.3. For these devices, the TiO2 contributed a very small but measurable fraction of the charge carriers.

  3. Multipole plasmonic lattice solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Kou Yao; Ye Fangwei; Chen Xianfeng

    2011-09-15

    We theoretically demonstrate a variety of multipole plasmonic lattice solitons, including dipoles, quadrupoles, and necklaces, in two-dimensional metallic nanowire arrays with Kerr-type nonlinearities. Such solitons feature complex internal structures with an ultracompact mode size approaching or smaller than one wavelength. Their mode sizes and the stability characteristics are studied in detail within the framework of coupled mode theory. The conditions to form and stabilize these highly confined solitons are within the experimentally achievable range.

  4. On Multigrid for Overlapping Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W

    2004-01-13

    The solution of elliptic partial differential equations on composite overlapping grids using multigrid is discussed. An approach is described that provides a fast and memory efficient scheme for the solution of boundary value problems in complex geometries. The key aspects of the new scheme are an automatic coarse grid generation algorithm, an adaptive smoothing technique for adjusting residuals on different component grids, and the use of local smoothing near interpolation boundaries. Other important features include optimizations for Cartesian component grids, the use of over-relaxed Red-Black smoothers and the generation of coarse grid operators through Galerkin averaging. Numerical results in two and three dimensions show that very good multigrid convergence rates can be obtained for both Dirichlet and Neumann/mixed boundary conditions. A comparison to Krylov based solvers shows that the multigrid solver can be much faster and require significantly less memory.

  5. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  6. Nonlinear plasmonic nanorulers.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F

    2014-05-27

    The evaluation of distances as small as few nanometers using optical waves is a very challenging task that can pave the way for the development of new applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this article, we propose a new measurement method based on the control of the nonlinear optical response of plasmonic nanostructures by means of Fano resonances. It is shown that Fano resonances resulting from the coupling between a bright mode and a dark mode at the fundamental wavelength enable unprecedented and direct manipulation of the nonlinear electromagnetic sources at the nanoscale. In the case of second harmonic generation from gold nanodolmens, the different nonlinear sources distributions induced by the different coupling regimes are clearly revealed in the far-field distribution. Hence, the configuration of the nanostructure can be accurately determined in 3-dimensions by recording the wave scattered at the second harmonic wavelength. Indeed, the conformation of the different elements building the system is encoded in the nonlinear far-field distribution, making second harmonic generation a promising tool for reading 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers. Furthemore, it is shown that 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers can be implemented with simpler geometries than in the linear regime while providing complete information on the structure conformation, including the top nanobar position and orientation.

  7. Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.

  8. Terahertz plasmonic composites.

    PubMed

    Nemat-Nasser, Syrus C; Amirkhizi, Alireza V; Padilla, Willie J; Basov, Dimitri N; Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Bruzewicz, Derek; Whitesides, George

    2007-03-01

    The dielectric response of a polymer matrix composite can be substantially modified and tuned within a broad frequency band by integrating within the material an artificial plasmon medium composed of periodically distributed, very thin, electrically conducting wires. In the microwave regime, such plasmon/polymer composites have been studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. This work reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of similar composites for operation at terahertz frequencies. Such composites require significant reduction in the thickness and spacing of the wires. We used numerical modeling to design artificial effective plasmonic media with turn-on frequencies in the terahertz range. Prototype samples were produced by lithographically embedding very thin gold strips into a PDMS [poly(dimethylsiloxane)] matrix. These samples were characterized with a Fourier-transform infrared interferometer using the frequency-dependent transmission and Kramers-Kronig relations to determine the electromagnetic properties. We report the characterization results for a sample, demonstrating excellent agreement between theory, computer design, and experiment. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the possibility of creating composites with tuned dielectric response at terahertz frequencies.

  9. Plasmonic optical nanotweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Rehab; El Maklizi, Mahmoud; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic grating structures can be used in many applications such as nanolithography and optical trapping. In this paper, we used plasmonic grating as optical tweezers to trap and manipulate dielectric nano-particles. Different plasmonic grating structures with single, double, and triple slits have been investigated and analyzed. The three configurations are optimized and compared to find the best candidate to trap and manipulate nanoparticles. The three optimized structures results in capability to super focusing and beaming the light effectively beyond the diffraction limit. A high transverse gradient optical force is obtained using the triple slit configuration that managed to significantly enhance the field and its gradient. Therefore, it has been chosen as an efficient optical tweezers. This structure managed to trap sub10nm particles efficiently. The resultant 50KT potential well traps the nano particles stably. The proposed structure is used also to manipulate the nano-particles by simply changing the angle of the incident light. We managed to control the movement of nano particle over an area of (5μm x 5μm) precisely. The proposed structure has the advantage of trapping and manipulating the particles outside the structure (not inside the structure such as the most proposed optical tweezers). As a result, it can be used in many applications such as drug delivery and biomedical analysis.

  10. Plasmonic fluorescent quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yongdong

    2009-01-01

    Combining multiple discrete components into a single multifunctional nanoparticle could be useful in a variety of applications. Retaining the unique optical and electrical properties of each component after nanoscale integration is, however, a long-standing problem1,2. It is particularly difficult when trying to combine fluorophores such as semiconductor quantum dots with plasmonic materials such as gold, because gold and other metals can quench the fluorescence3,4. So far, the combination of quantum dot fluorescence with plasmonically active gold has only been demonstrated on flat surfaces5. Here, we combine fluorescent and plasmonic activities in a single nanoparticle by controlling the spacing between a quantum dot core and an ultrathin gold shell with nanometre precision through layer-by-layer assembly. Our wet-chemistry approach provides a general route for the deposition of ultrathin gold layers onto virtually any discrete nanostructure or continuous surface, and should prove useful for multimodal bioimaging6, interfacing with biological systems7, reducing nanotoxicity8, modulating electromagnetic fields5 and contacting nanostructures9,10. PMID:19734929

  11. Terahertz plasmon and surface-plasmon modes in hollow nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic subband structure and collective electronic excitation associated with plasmon and surface plasmon modes in metal-based hollow nanosphere. The dependence of the electronic subband energy on the sample parameters of the hollow nanosphere is examined. We find that the subband states with different quantum numbers l degenerate roughly when the outer radius of the sphere is r2 ≥ 100 nm. In this case, the energy spectrum of a sphere is mainly determined by quantum number n. Moreover, the plasmon and surface plasmon excitations can be achieved mainly via inter-subband transitions from occupied subbands to unoccupied subbands. We examine the dependence of the plasmon and surface-plasmon frequencies on the shell thickness d and the outer radius r2 of the sphere using the standard random-phase approximation. We find that when a four-state model is employed for calculations, four branches of the plasmon and surface plasmon oscillations with terahertz frequencies can be observed, respectively. PMID:23092121

  12. Simultaneous Visualization of Covalent and Noncovalent Interactions Using Regions of Density Overlap.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Piotr; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-09-09

    We introduce a density-dependent bonding descriptor that enables simultaneous visualization of both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The proposed quantity is tailored to reveal the regions of space, where the total electron density results from a strong overlap of shell, atomic, or molecular densities. We show that this approach is successful in describing a variety of bonding patterns as well as nonbonding contacts. The Density Overlap Regions Indicator (DORI) analysis is also exploited to visualize and quantify the concept of electronic compactness in supramolecular chemistry. In particular, the scalar field is used to compare the compactness in molecular crystals, with a special emphasis on quaterthiophene derivatives with enhanced charge mobilities.

  13. Simultaneous Visualization of Covalent and Noncovalent Interactions Using Regions of Density Overlap

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a density-dependent bonding descriptor that enables simultaneous visualization of both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The proposed quantity is tailored to reveal the regions of space, where the total electron density results from a strong overlap of shell, atomic, or molecular densities. We show that this approach is successful in describing a variety of bonding patterns as well as nonbonding contacts. The Density Overlap Regions Indicator (DORI) analysis is also exploited to visualize and quantify the concept of electronic compactness in supramolecular chemistry. In particular, the scalar field is used to compare the compactness in molecular crystals, with a special emphasis on quaterthiophene derivatives with enhanced charge mobilities. PMID:25221443

  14. Plasmon-driven surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap modes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Ting; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Yurui; Liu, Ruchuan; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-01-01

    Plasmon-driven surface catalytic (PDSC) reaction in Ag/Au nanoparticle monomer or dimer-film gaps are experimentally and theoretically investigated, using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and finite element method. The variation of SERS spectra in different nano gaps of nanoparticle-film systems indicated the PDSC reaction was largely depended on the number of nanoparticles. The higher Raman intensity of p,p′-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) in dimer-film nanogap was because effective coupling of induced image charge on metal film in hybridized plasmonic gap mode, which was confirmed by the electric field distribution. Furthermore, the influence of material and wavelength was also studied to obtain the optimal experimental condition for best surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap mode. Our studies in this common configuration of plasmonic nanostructure are of great significance not only in the field of catalysis on metal surface but also in other surface plasmon fields such as senor, photon detection, water splitting, etc. PMID:25404139

  15. Plasmon-driven surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap modes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Ting; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Yurui; Liu, Ruchuan; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-11-18

    Plasmon-driven surface catalytic (PDSC) reaction in Ag/Au nanoparticle monomer or dimer-film gaps are experimentally and theoretically investigated, using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and finite element method. The variation of SERS spectra in different nano gaps of nanoparticle-film systems indicated the PDSC reaction was largely depended on the number of nanoparticles. The higher Raman intensity of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) in dimer-film nanogap was because effective coupling of induced image charge on metal film in hybridized plasmonic gap mode, which was confirmed by the electric field distribution. Furthermore, the influence of material and wavelength was also studied to obtain the optimal experimental condition for best surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap mode. Our studies in this common configuration of plasmonic nanostructure are of great significance not only in the field of catalysis on metal surface but also in other surface plasmon fields such as senor, photon detection, water splitting, etc.

  16. Nonlinear plasmonic amplification via dissipative soliton-plasmon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we introduce a strategy for the compensation of plasmonic losses based on a recently proposed nonlinear mechanism: the resonant interaction between surface plasmon polaritons and spatial solitons propagating in parallel along a metal/dielectric/Kerr structure. This mechanism naturally leads to the generation of a quasiparticle excitation, the so-called soliplasmon resonance. We analyze the role played by the effective nonlinear coupling inherent to this system and how this can be used to provide a mechanism of quasiresonant nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. We will pay particular attention to the introduction of asymmetric linear gain in the Kerr medium. The unique combination of nonlinear propagation, nonlinear coupling, and gain give rise to a scenario for the excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons with distinguishing characteristics. The connection between plasmonic losses and soliplasmon resonances in the presence of gain will be discussed.

  17. Quantum plasmonics: longitudinal quantum plasmons in copper, gold, and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaied, M.; Palomba, S.; Ostrikov, K.

    2017-10-01

    The propagation of plasmonic waves in various metallic quantum nanostructures has received considerable attention for its applications in technology. The quantum plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures in the quantum size regime have been difficult to describe using an appropriate model. Here nonlocal quantum plasmons are investigated in the most important metals of copper, gold, and silver. The dispersion properties of these metals and the propagation of longitudinal quantum plasmons in the high photon energy regime are studied using a new model of nonlocal quantum dielectric permittivity. The epsilon-near-zero properties are investigated and the spectrum and the damping rate of the longitudinal quantum plasmons are obtained in these metals. The quantum plasmons’ wave function is shown for both the classical and quantum limits. It is shown that silver is the most appropriate for quantum metallic structures in the development of next-generation quantum optical and sensing technologies, due to its low intrinsic loss.

  18. Surface plasmon dispersion in hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tenner, V T; de Dood, M J A; van Exter, M P

    2016-12-26

    We present a systematic experimental study on the optical properties of plasmonic crystals (PlC) with hexagonal symmetry. We compare the dispersion and avoided crossings of surface plasmon modes around the Γ-point of Au-metal hole arrays with a hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome lattice. Symmetry arguments and group theory are used to label the six modes and understand their radiative and dispersive properties. Plasmon-plasmon interaction are accurately described by a coupled mode model, that contains effective scattering amplitudes of surface plasmons on a lattice of air holes under 60°, 120°, and 180°. We determine these rates in the experiment and find that they are dominated by the hole-density and not on the complexity of the unit-cell. Our analysis shows that the observed angle-dependent scattering can be explained by a single-hole model based on electric and magnetic dipoles.

  19. Overlapping structures in sensory-motor mappings.

    PubMed

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots.

  20. Overlapping Structures in Sensory-Motor Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Earland, Kevin; Lee, Mark; Shaw, Patricia; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a biologically-inspired representation technique designed for the support of sensory-motor learning in developmental robotics. An interesting feature of the many topographic neural sheets in the brain is that closely packed receptive fields must overlap in order to fully cover a spatial region. This raises interesting scientific questions with engineering implications: e.g. is overlap detrimental? does it have any benefits? This paper examines the effects and properties of overlap between elements arranged in arrays or maps. In particular we investigate how overlap affects the representation and transmission of spatial location information on and between topographic maps. Through a series of experiments we determine the conditions under which overlap offers advantages and identify useful ranges of overlap for building mappings in cognitive robotic systems. Our motivation is to understand the phenomena of overlap in order to provide guidance for application in sensory-motor learning robots. PMID:24392118

  1. Surface-Plasmon Holography with White-Light Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Miyu; Kato, Jun-ichi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    The recently emerging three-dimensional (3D) displays in the electronic shops imitate depth illusion by overlapping two parallax 2D images through either polarized glasses that viewers are required to wear or lenticular lenses fixed directly on the display. Holography, on the other hand, provides real 3D imaging, although usually limiting colors to monochrome. The so-called rainbow holograms—mounted, for example, on credit cards—are also produced from parallax images that change color with viewing angle. We report on a holographic technique based on surface plasmons that can reconstruct true 3D color images, where the colors are reconstructed by satisfying resonance conditions of surface plasmon polaritons for individual wavelengths. Such real 3D color images can be viewed from any angle, just like the original object.

  2. APPLIED PHYSICS. Mid-infrared plasmonic biosensing with graphene.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Limaj, Odeta; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; García de Abajo, F Javier; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-07-10

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric-size molecules. We exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene—up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals—produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Miyu; Kato, Jun-ichi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2011-04-08

    The recently emerging three-dimensional (3D) displays in the electronic shops imitate depth illusion by overlapping two parallax 2D images through either polarized glasses that viewers are required to wear or lenticular lenses fixed directly on the display. Holography, on the other hand, provides real 3D imaging, although usually limiting colors to monochrome. The so-called rainbow holograms--mounted, for example, on credit cards--are also produced from parallax images that change color with viewing angle. We report on a holographic technique based on surface plasmons that can reconstruct true 3D color images, where the colors are reconstructed by satisfying resonance conditions of surface plasmon polaritons for individual wavelengths. Such real 3D color images can be viewed from any angle, just like the original object.

  4. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  5. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeres, Reinier W.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  6. Surface plasmons on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallesen, Todd; Jahncke, Cl; Hallen, Hd

    2004-03-01

    Surface plasmons on silver, gold and aluminum thin films are measured using a total internal reflection geometry. These measurements are made with a simple apparatus using a differential gear box which will be described. The surface plasmon resonances are compared with theoretical calculations for different film thicknesses and materials.

  7. Electron diffraction by plasmon waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Abajo, F. J.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2016-07-01

    An electron beam traversing a structured plasmonic field is shown to undergo diffraction with characteristic angular patterns of both elastic and inelastic outgoing electron components. In particular, a plasmonic grating (e.g., a standing wave formed by two counterpropagating plasmons in a thin film) produces diffraction orders of the same parity as the net number of exchanged plasmons. Large diffracted beam fractions are predicted to occur for realistic plasmon intensities in attainable geometries due to a combination of phase and amplitude changes locally imprinted on the passing electron wave. Our study opens vistas in the study of multiphoton exchanges between electron beams and evanescent optical fields with unexplored effects related to the transversal component of the electron wave function.

  8. Plasmonic polymer tandem solar cell.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Hsu, Wan-Ching; Tan, Hai-ren; Zhang, Xing Wang; Hong, Ziruo; Yang, Yang

    2011-08-23

    We demonstrated plasmonic effects in an inverted tandem polymer solar cell configuration by blending Au nanoparticles (NPs) into the interconnecting layer (ICL) that connects two subcells. Experimental results showed this plasmonic enhanced ICL improves both the top and bottom subcells' efficiency simultaneously by enhancing optical absorption. The presence of Au NPs did not cause electrical characteristics to degrade within the tandem cell. As a result, a 20% improvement of power conversion efficiency has been attained by the light concentration of Au NPs via plasmonic near-field enhancement. The simulated near-field distribution and experimental Raman scattering investigation support our results of plasmonic induced enhancement in solar cell performance. Our finding shows a great potential of incorporating the plasmonic effect with conventional device structure in achieving highly efficient polymer solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. A theory of adhesion at a bimetallic interface - Overlap effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary calculation of the chemical bonding adhesive interaction between metal surfaces is provided. In this first theory the Hohenberg and Kohn formalism is used to give the bimetallic adhesive binding energy versus separation. The close-packed planes of Al, Mg, and Zn are considered. The effect of simple overlap of the metal-vacuum distributions is determined. The importance of registry between contact surfaces is ascertained. A minimum in the binding energy curve is exhibited for all combinations. The theoretical predictions agree with trends in bond strengths taken from available experimental data. An insight into the mechanisms involved in metallic transfer is given. The relationship between adhesive energies, cohesive energies, and surface energies is discussed.

  10. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.

    2016-03-01

    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  11. The variational subspace valence bond method

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Graham D.

    2015-04-07

    The variational subspace valence bond (VSVB) method based on overlapping orbitals is introduced. VSVB provides variational support against collapse for the optimization of overlapping linear combinations of atomic orbitals (OLCAOs) using modified orbital expansions, without recourse to orthogonalization. OLCAO have the advantage of being naturally localized, chemically intuitive (to individually model bonds and lone pairs, for example), and transferrable between different molecular systems. Such features are exploited to avoid key computational bottlenecks. Since the OLCAO can be doubly occupied, VSVB can access very large problems, and calculations on systems with several hundred atoms are presented.

  12. The variational subspace valence bond method.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Graham D

    2015-04-07

    The variational subspace valence bond (VSVB) method based on overlapping orbitals is introduced. VSVB provides variational support against collapse for the optimization of overlapping linear combinations of atomic orbitals (OLCAOs) using modified orbital expansions, without recourse to orthogonalization. OLCAO have the advantage of being naturally localized, chemically intuitive (to individually model bonds and lone pairs, for example), and transferrable between different molecular systems. Such features are exploited to avoid key computational bottlenecks. Since the OLCAO can be doubly occupied, VSVB can access very large problems, and calculations on systems with several hundred atoms are presented.

  13. Ellipsometric surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Liang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-03-01

    We develop a new multifunctional optical biochip system that integrates an ellipsometer with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) feature. This newly developed biochip biosensor, which we call ESPR for an ellipsometric SPR, provides us with a system to retrieve detailed information such as the optical properties of immobilized biomolecular monolayers, surface concentration variations of biomedical reactions, and kinetic affinity between biomolecules required for further biotech analysis. Our ESPR can also serve as both a research and development tool and a manufacturing tool for various biomedical applications.

  14. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  15. Solving Partial Differential Equations on Overlapping Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D

    2008-09-22

    We discuss the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on overlapping grids. This is a powerful technique for efficiently solving problems in complex, possibly moving, geometry. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured grids that overlap and cover the computational domain. By allowing the grids to overlap, grids for complex geometries can be more easily constructed. The overlapping grid approach can also be used to remove coordinate singularities by, for example, covering a sphere with two or more patches. We describe the application of the overlapping grid approach to a variety of different problems. These include the solution of incompressible fluid flows with moving and deforming geometry, the solution of high-speed compressible reactive flow with rigid bodies using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), and the solution of the time-domain Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.

  16. Designing Plasmonic Gratings with Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Matthias; Luo, Yu; Maier, S. A.; Pendry, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Plasmonic gratings that support both localized and propagating plasmons have wide applications in solar cells and optical biosensing. In this paper, we report on a most unusual grating designed to capture light efficiently into surface plasmons and concentrate their energy at hot spots where the field is resonantly enhanced. The dispersion of the surface plasmons shows degeneracy points at k =0 , where, despite a strongly modulated grating, hidden symmetries forbid hybridization of plasmons traveling in opposite directions.

  17. Nanoantioxidant-driven plasmon enhanced proton-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Blattmann, Christoph O; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2016-01-14

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the transfer of a proton and an electron and play an important role in a number of chemical and biological processes. Here, we describe a novel phenomenon, plasmon-enhanced PCET, which is manifested using SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles functionalized with gallic acid (GA), a natural antioxidant molecule that can perform PCET. These GA-functionalized nanoparticles show enhanced plasmonic response at near-IR wavelengths, due to particle agglomeration caused by the GA molecules. Near-IR laser irradiation induces strong local hot-spots on the SiO2-coated Ag nanoparticles, as evidenced by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This leads to plasmon energy transfer to the grafted GA molecules that lowers the GA-OH bond dissociation enthalpy by at least 2 kcal mol(-1) and therefore facilitates PCET. The nanoparticle-driven plasmon-enhancement of PCET brings together the so far unrelated research domains of nanoplasmonics and electron/proton translocation with significant impact on applications based on interfacial electron/proton transfer.

  18. The Computational Studies of Plasmon Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchuk, Antonina; Bolesta, Ivan; Kushnir, Oleksii; Kolych, Ihor

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an interaction of metal nanoparticles that appears in the extinction spectra was investigated. The mutual coupling between the nanoparticles, the effect of size difference, and the interparticle separation in silver nanoparticle dimers are studied by computer discrete dipole approximation methods. The obtained results show that nanoparticle interaction results in the distinct collective modes, known as the low-energy bonding modes and the higher-energy antibounding modes. The spectral position of the modes is analyzed as a function of the ratio of interparticle distance to particle size that reduces the dependency on the particle size itself. The optical spectra of nanoparticles that form the fractal cluster were investigated. It was found that the number of spectral bands increase with the growth of the number of nanoparticles in the fractal cluster, which are described within the plasmon hybridization model.

  19. The Computational Studies of Plasmon Interaction.

    PubMed

    Demchuk, Antonina; Bolesta, Ivan; Kushnir, Oleksii; Kolych, Ihor

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an interaction of metal nanoparticles that appears in the extinction spectra was investigated. The mutual coupling between the nanoparticles, the effect of size difference, and the interparticle separation in silver nanoparticle dimers are studied by computer discrete dipole approximation methods. The obtained results show that nanoparticle interaction results in the distinct collective modes, known as the low-energy bonding modes and the higher-energy antibounding modes. The spectral position of the modes is analyzed as a function of the ratio of interparticle distance to particle size that reduces the dependency on the particle size itself. The optical spectra of nanoparticles that form the fractal cluster were investigated. It was found that the number of spectral bands increase with the growth of the number of nanoparticles in the fractal cluster, which are described within the plasmon hybridization model.

  20. Impedance generalization for plasmonic waveguides beyond the lumped circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Thomas; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Paul, Thomas; Pertsch, Thomas; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    We analytically derive a rigorous expression for the relative impedance ratio between two photonic structures based on their electromagnetic interaction. Our approach generalizes the physical meaning of the impedance to a measure for the reciprocity-based overlap of eigenmodes. The consistency with known cases in the radio-frequency and optical domain is shown. The analysis reveals where the applicability of simple circuit parameters ends and how the impedance can be interpreted beyond this point. We illustrate our approach by successfully describing a Bragg reflector that terminates an insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic waveguide in the near infrared by our impedance concept.

  1. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-06-07

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardised definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice.

  2. Finding overlapping communities using seed set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    The local optimization algorithm using seed set to find overlapping communities has become more and more a significant method, but it is a great challenge how to choose a good seed set. In this paper, a new method is proposed to achieve the choice of candidate seed sets, and yields a new algorithm to find overlapping communities in complex networks. By testing in real world networks and synthetic networks, this method can successfully detect overlapping communities and outperform other state-of-the-art overlapping community detection methods.

  3. Overlap syndromes among autoimmune liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardized definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. PMID:18528934

  4. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters.

  5. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-11

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters.

  6. Plasmonic plano-semi-cylindrical nanocavities with high-efficiency local-field confinement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocavity arrays were achieved by producing isolated silver semi-cylindrical nanoshells periodically on a continuous planar gold film. Hybridization between localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the Ag semi-cylindrical nanoshells (SCNS) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in the gold film was observed as split bonding and anti-bonding resonance modes located at different spectral positions. This led to strong local field enhancement and confinement in the plano-concave nanocavites. Narrow-band optical extinction with an amplitude as high as 1.5 OD, corresponding to 97% reduction in the transmission, was achieved in the visible spectrum. The resonance spectra of this hybrid device can be extended from the visible to the near infrared by adjusting the structural parameters. PMID:28074853

  7. Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nina; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2017-09-29

    Active plasmonics is a burgeoning and challenging subfield of plasmonics. It exploits the active control of surface plasmon resonance. In this review, a first-ever in-depth description of the theoretical relationship between surface plasmon resonance and its affecting factors, which forms the basis for active plasmon control, will be presented. Three categories of active plasmonic structures, consisting of plasmonic structures in tunable dielectric surroundings, plasmonic structures with tunable gap distances, and self-tunable plasmonic structures, will be proposed in terms of the modulation mechanism. The recent advances and current challenges for these three categories of active plasmonic structures will be discussed in detail. The flourishing development of active plasmonic structures opens access to new application fields. A significant part of this review will be devoted to the applications of active plasmonic structures in plasmonic sensing, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering, active plasmonic components, and electrochromic smart windows. This review will be concluded with a section on the future challenges and prospects for active plasmonics.

  8. Angle-tunable enhanced infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy via grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C

    2014-03-04

    Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy is an attractive method for increasing the prominence of vibrational modes in infrared spectroscopy. To date, the majority of reports associated with SEIRA utilize localized surface plasmon resonance from metal nanoparticles to enhance electromagnetic fields in the region of analytes. Limited work has been performed using propagating surface plasmons as a method for SEIRA excitation. In this report, we demonstrate angle-tunable enhancement of vibrational stretching modes associated with a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that is coupled to a silver-coated diffraction grating. Gratings are fabricated using laser interference lithography to achieve precise surface periodicities, which can be used to generate surface plasmons that overlap with specific vibrational modes in the polymer film. Infrared reflection absorption spectra are presented for both bare silver and PMMA-coated silver gratings at a range of angles and polarization states. In addition, spectra were obtained with the grating direction oriented perpendicular and parallel to the infrared source in order to isolate plasmon enhancement effects. Optical simulations using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method were used to identify the origin of the plasmon-induced enhancement. Angle-dependent absorption measurements achieved signal enhancements of more than 10-times the signal in the absence of the plasmon.

  9. Size Dependent Plasmonic Effect on BiVO4 Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liwu; Herrmann, Lars O; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2015-11-19

    Plasmonic nanostructures show great promise in enhancing the solar water splitting efficiency due to their ability to confine light to extremely small volumes inside semiconductors. While size plays a critical role in the plasmonic performance of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), its influence on plasmon-assisted water splitting is still not fully understood. This holds especially true for low band gap semiconductors, for which interband excitations occur in wavelength regions that overlap with plasmonic resonances. Here, BiVO4 films are modified with AuNPs of diameters varying from 10 to 80 nm to study the size dependence of the plasmonic effect. Plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) is found to be the dominant effect in enhancing the water splitting efficiency of BiVO4. "Hot electron" injection effect is weak in the case of BiVO4/AuNP. This is attributed to the interband excitation of BiVO4, which is unfavourable for the hot electrons accumulation in BiVO4 conduction band. The resonant scattering effect also contributes to the enhanced water splitting efficiency for the larger diameter AuNPs. It is also for the first time found that higher PRET effect can be achieved at larger off-normal irradiation angle.

  10. Size Dependent Plasmonic Effect on BiVO4 Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwu; Herrmann, Lars O.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures show great promise in enhancing the solar water splitting efficiency due to their ability to confine light to extremely small volumes inside semiconductors. While size plays a critical role in the plasmonic performance of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), its influence on plasmon-assisted water splitting is still not fully understood. This holds especially true for low band gap semiconductors, for which interband excitations occur in wavelength regions that overlap with plasmonic resonances. Here, BiVO4 films are modified with AuNPs of diameters varying from 10 to 80 nm to study the size dependence of the plasmonic effect. Plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) is found to be the dominant effect in enhancing the water splitting efficiency of BiVO4. “Hot electron” injection effect is weak in the case of BiVO4/AuNP. This is attributed to the interband excitation of BiVO4, which is unfavourable for the hot electrons accumulation in BiVO4 conduction band. The resonant scattering effect also contributes to the enhanced water splitting efficiency for the larger diameter AuNPs. It is also for the first time found that higher PRET effect can be achieved at larger off-normal irradiation angle.

  11. Self-aligned deterministic coupling of single quantum emitter to nanofocused plasmonic modes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Je-Hyung; Ko, Young-Ho; Rodriguez, Christophe; Shin, Jonghwa; Lee, Yong-Hee; Dang, Le Si; Zhang, Xiang; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-04-28

    The quantum plasmonics field has emerged and been growing increasingly, including study of single emitter-light coupling using plasmonic system and scalable quantum plasmonic circuit. This offers opportunity for the quantum control of light with compact device footprint. However, coupling of a single emitter to highly localized plasmonic mode with nanoscale precision remains an important challenge. Today, the spatial overlap between metallic structure and single emitter mostly relies either on chance or on advanced nanopositioning control. Here, we demonstrate deterministic coupling between three-dimensionally nanofocused plasmonic modes and single quantum dots (QDs) without any positioning for single QDs. By depositing a thin silver layer on a site-controlled pyramid QD wafer, three-dimensional plasmonic nanofocusing on each QD at the pyramid apex is geometrically achieved through the silver-coated pyramid facets. Enhancement of the QD spontaneous emission rate as high as 22 ± 16 is measured for all processed QDs emitting over ∼150-meV spectral range. This approach could apply to high fabrication yield on-chip devices for wide application fields, e.g., high-efficiency light-emitting devices and quantum information processing.

  12. Self-aligned deterministic coupling of single quantum emitter to nanofocused plasmonic modes

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Je-Hyung; Ko, Young-Ho; Rodriguez, Christophe; Shin, Jonghwa; Lee, Yong-Hee; Dang, Le Si; Zhang, Xiang; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The quantum plasmonics field has emerged and been growing increasingly, including study of single emitter–light coupling using plasmonic system and scalable quantum plasmonic circuit. This offers opportunity for the quantum control of light with compact device footprint. However, coupling of a single emitter to highly localized plasmonic mode with nanoscale precision remains an important challenge. Today, the spatial overlap between metallic structure and single emitter mostly relies either on chance or on advanced nanopositioning control. Here, we demonstrate deterministic coupling between three-dimensionally nanofocused plasmonic modes and single quantum dots (QDs) without any positioning for single QDs. By depositing a thin silver layer on a site-controlled pyramid QD wafer, three-dimensional plasmonic nanofocusing on each QD at the pyramid apex is geometrically achieved through the silver-coated pyramid facets. Enhancement of the QD spontaneous emission rate as high as 22 ± 16 is measured for all processed QDs emitting over ∼150-meV spectral range. This approach could apply to high fabrication yield on-chip devices for wide application fields, e.g., high-efficiency light-emitting devices and quantum information processing. PMID:25870303

  13. Size Dependent Plasmonic Effect on BiVO4 Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liwu; Herrmann, Lars O.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures show great promise in enhancing the solar water splitting efficiency due to their ability to confine light to extremely small volumes inside semiconductors. While size plays a critical role in the plasmonic performance of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), its influence on plasmon-assisted water splitting is still not fully understood. This holds especially true for low band gap semiconductors, for which interband excitations occur in wavelength regions that overlap with plasmonic resonances. Here, BiVO4 films are modified with AuNPs of diameters varying from 10 to 80 nm to study the size dependence of the plasmonic effect. Plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) is found to be the dominant effect in enhancing the water splitting efficiency of BiVO4. “Hot electron” injection effect is weak in the case of BiVO4/AuNP. This is attributed to the interband excitation of BiVO4, which is unfavourable for the hot electrons accumulation in BiVO4 conduction band. The resonant scattering effect also contributes to the enhanced water splitting efficiency for the larger diameter AuNPs. It is also for the first time found that higher PRET effect can be achieved at larger off-normal irradiation angle. PMID:26581942

  14. Tailored Surfaces/Assemblies for Molecular Plasmonics and Plasmonic Molecular Electronics.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Pascal; Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2017-06-12

    Molecular plasmonics uses and explores molecule-plasmon interactions on metal nanostructures for spectroscopic, nanophotonic, and nanoelectronic devices. This review focuses on tailored surfaces/assemblies for molecular plasmonics and describes active molecular plasmonic devices in which functional molecules and polymers change their structural, electrical, and/or optical properties in response to external stimuli and that can dynamically tune the plasmonic properties. We also explore an emerging research field combining molecular plasmonics and molecular electronics.

  15. Direct Plasmon-Driven Photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Doiron, Chloe; Thomann, Isabell

    2015-09-09

    Harnessing the energy from hot charge carriers is an emerging research area with the potential to improve energy conversion technologies.1-3 Here we present a novel plasmonic photoelectrode architecture carefully designed to drive photocatalytic reactions by efficient, nonradiative plasmon decay into hot carriers. In contrast to past work, our architecture does not utilize a Schottky junction, the commonly used building block to collect hot carriers. Instead, we observed large photocurrents from a Schottky-free junction due to direct hot electron injection from plasmonic gold nanoparticles into the reactant species upon plasmon decay. The key ingredients of our approach are (i) an architecture for increased light absorption inspired by optical impedance matching concepts,4 (ii) carrier separation by a selective transport layer, and (iii) efficient hot-carrier generation and injection from small plasmonic Au nanoparticles to adsorbed water molecules. We also investigated the quantum efficiency of hot electron injection for different particle diameters to elucidate potential quantum effects while keeping the plasmon resonance frequency unchanged. Interestingly, our studies did not reveal differences in the hot-electron generation and injection efficiencies for the investigated particle dimensions and plasmon resonances.

  16. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-02

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  17. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  18. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  19. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems.

  20. Genetically engineered plasmonic nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Forestiere, Carlo; Pasquale, Alyssa J; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Tamburrino, Antonello; Lee, Sylvanus Y; Reinhard, Björn M; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-04-11

    In the present Letter, we demonstrate how the design of metallic nanoparticle arrays with large electric field enhancement can be performed using the basic paradigm of engineering, namely the optimization of a well-defined objective function. Such optimization is carried out by coupling a genetic algorithm with the analytical multiparticle Mie theory. General design criteria for best enhancement of electric fields are obtained, unveiling the fundamental interplay between the near-field plasmonic and radiative photonic coupling. Our optimization approach is experimentally validated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements, which demonstrate how genetically optimized arrays, fabricated using electron beam lithography, lead to order of ten improvement of Raman enhancement over nanoparticle dimer antennas, and order of one hundred improvement over optimal nanoparticle gratings. A rigorous design of nanoparticle arrays with optimal field enhancement is essential to the engineering of numerous nanoscale optical devices such as plasmon-enhanced biosensors, photodetectors, light sources and more efficient nonlinear optical elements for on chip integration.

  1. Plasmonic nanomaterials for biodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Rana, Subinoy; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    The application of nanomaterials to detect disease biomarkers is giving rise to ultrasensitive assays, with scientists exploiting the many advantageous physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. The fundamental basis of such work is to link unique phenomena that arise at the nanoscale to the presence of a specific analyte biomolecule, and to modulate the intensity of such phenomena in a ratiometric fashion, in direct proportion with analyte concentration. Precise engineering of nanomaterial surfaces is of utmost importance here, as the interface between the material and the biological environment is where the key interactions occur. In this tutorial review, we discuss the use of plasmonic nanomaterials in the development of biodiagnostic tools for the detection of a large variety of biomolecular analytes, and how their plasmonic properties give rise to tunable optical characteristics and surface enhanced Raman signals. We put particular focus on studies that have explored the efficacy of the systems using physiological samples in an effort to highlight the clinical potential of such assays. PMID:24323079

  2. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  3. Imaging through plasmonic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tanzid, Mehbuba; Sobhani, Ali; DeSantis, Christopher J.; Cui, Yao; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Samaniego, Adam; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with plasmon resonances have been studied extensively, typically by measuring the transmission of light, as a function of wavelength, through a nanoparticle suspension. One question that has not yet been addressed, however, is how an image is transmitted through such a suspension of absorber-scatterers, in other words, how the various spatial frequencies are attenuated as they pass through the nanoparticle host medium. Here, we examine how the optical properties of a suspension of plasmonic nanoparticles affect the transmitted image. We use two distinct ways to assess transmitted image quality: the structural similarity index (SSIM), a perceptual distortion metric based on the human visual system, and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which assesses the resolvable spatial frequencies. We show that perceived image quality, as well as spatial resolution, are both dependent on the scattering and absorption cross-sections of the constituent nanoparticles. Surprisingly, we observe a nonlinear dependence of image quality on optical density by varying optical path length and nanoparticle concentration. This work is a first step toward understanding the requirements for visualizing and resolving objects through media consisting of subwavelength absorber-scatterer structures, an approach that should also prove useful in the assessment of metamaterial or metasurface-based optical imaging systems. PMID:27140618

  4. Optical activity and circular dichroism of plasmonic nanorod assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi Khorashad, Larousse; Liu, Na; Govorov, Alexander O.

    Plasmonic circular dichroism (CD) has offered an efficient spectroscopy method for the electronic, chemical, and structural properties of different types of light active molecules in the subwavelength regime. Among the different chiral geometries of metal nanoparticles utilized by the plasmonic CD spectroscopy, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have shown strong CD signals in the visible frequency range. In this work, we theoretically study the CD signals of AuNR arrangements in order to mimic structures and chemical bonds of chiral biomolecules. In particular, our twisted three-AuNR geometries resemble a molecular structure of tartaric acid. This molecule played an important role in the discovery of chemical chirality. In our study, we show that the strength of CD signals changes dramatically by tuning the interparticle distances and angles. Since the CD signals are typically weak, we develop reliable computational approaches to calculate the plasmonic CD. Manipulating interparticle distances, size, and molecular bond angles result in full control over peak positions, handedness, and positive and negative bands which are observed in the CD spectra. This work has been supported under the grant from Volkswagen Foundation. We also acknowledge the financial support of Condensed Matter and Surface Science program of Ohio University.

  5. Asymptotics of surface-plasmon redshift saturation at subnanometric separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Giannini, Vincenzo; Craster, Richard V.; Maier, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Many promising nanophotonics endeavors hinge upon the unique plasmonic properties of nanometallic structures with narrow nonmetallic gaps, which support superconcentrated bonding modes that singularly redshift with decreasing separations. In this Rapid Communication, we present a descriptive physical picture, complemented by elementary asymptotic formulas, of a nonlocal mechanism for plasmon redshift saturation at subnanometric gap widths. Thus, by considering the electron-charge and field distributions in the close vicinity of the metal-vacuum interface, we show that nonlocality is asymptotically manifested as an effective potential discontinuity. For bonding modes in the near-contact limit, the latter discontinuity is shown to be effectively equivalent to a widening of the gap. As a consequence, the resonance-frequency near-contact asymptotics are a renormalization of the corresponding local ones. Specifically, the renormalization furnishes an asymptotic plasmon-frequency lower bound that scales with the 1 /4 power of the Fermi wavelength. We demonstrate these remarkable features in the prototypical cases of nanowire and nanosphere dimers, showing agreement between our elementary expressions and previously reported numerical computations.

  6. Plasmonic Backscattering Enhanced Inverted Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Roberts, B.; Ku, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    A plasmonic nanoparticle incorporated inverted organic photovoltaic structure was demonstrated where a monolayer of Ag nanoparticles acted as a wavelength selective reflector. Enhanced light harvesting via plasmonic backscattering into the photovoltaic absorber was observed, resulting in a two-fold improvement in the photocurrent and increased open-circuit voltage. Further, utilizing an optical spacer, the plasmonic backscattering was spectrally controlled, thereby modulating the external quantum efficiency and the photocurrent. Unlike a regular thin-film metallic back reflector, excellent off-resonance optical transmission in excess of 80% was observed from the Ag nanoparticles, making this structure highly suitable for semi-transparent and multi-junction photovoltaic applications.

  7. Rhodium nanoparticles for ultraviolet plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Watson, Anne M; Zhang, Xiao; Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo; Marcos Sanz, Juan; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Finkelstein, Gleb; Liu, Jie; Everitt, Henry O

    2015-02-11

    The nonoxidizing catalytic noble metal rhodium is introduced for ultraviolet plasmonics. Planar tripods of 8 nm Rh nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method, have a calculated local surface plasmon resonance near 330 nm. By attaching p-aminothiophenol, local field-enhanced Raman spectra and accelerated photodamage were observed under near-resonant ultraviolet illumination, while charge transfer simultaneously increased fluorescence for up to 13 min. The combined local field enhancement and charge transfer demonstrate essential steps toward plasmonically enhanced ultraviolet photocatalysis.

  8. Dynamic coupling of plasmonic resonators

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suyeon; Park, Q-Han

    2016-01-01

    We clarify the nature of dynamic coupling in plasmonic resonators and determine the dynamic coupling coefficient using a simple analytic model. We show that plasmonic resonators, such as subwavelength holes in a metal film which can be treated as bound charge oscillators, couple to each other through the retarded interaction of oscillating screened charges. Our dynamic coupling model offers, for the first time, a quantitative analytic description of the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of coupled resonators which agrees with experimental results. Our model also reveals that plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency arises in any coupled resonators of slightly unequal lengths, as confirmed by a rigorous numerical calculation and experiments. PMID:26911786

  9. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  10. Surface Plasmon Coupled Phosphorescence (SPCP)

    PubMed Central

    Previte, Michael J. R.; Aslan, Kadir; Zhang, Yongxia; Geddes, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first observation of surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP) for PtOEP (2,3,7,8,12,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin platinum II) immobilized in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films on continuous gold films of 47 nm thickness. We confirm the observation of SPCP by comparing the spectra and lifetimes for plasmon coupled phosphorescence with the free space isotropic phosphorescence emission. Due to the directional emission inherent to plasmon coupled phosphorescence, we believe that SPCP can facilitate the study of phosphorescence in biological applications, such as protein dynamics and alkaline phosphatase studies, whose signal intensities are inherently weak and nearly always isotropic. PMID:19562099

  11. Surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previte, Michael J. R.; Aslan, Kadir; Zhang, Yongxia; Geddes, Chris D.

    2006-12-01

    We report the first observation of surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP) for PtOEP (2,3,7,8,12,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin platinum II) immobilized in polyvinyl chloride films on continuous gold films of 47 nm thickness. We confirm the observation of SPCP by comparing the spectra and lifetimes for plasmon coupled phosphorescence with the free space isotropic phosphorescence emission. Due to the directional emission inherent to plasmon coupled phosphorescence, we believe that SPCP can facilitate the study of phosphorescence in biological applications, such as protein dynamics and alkaline phosphatase studies, whose signal intensities are inherently weak and nearly always isotropic.

  12. Surface Plasmon Coupled Phosphorescence (SPCP).

    PubMed

    Previte, Michael J R; Aslan, Kadir; Zhang, Yongxia; Geddes, Chris D

    2006-12-11

    We report the first observation of surface plasmon coupled phosphorescence (SPCP) for PtOEP (2,3,7,8,12,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin platinum II) immobilized in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films on continuous gold films of 47 nm thickness. We confirm the observation of SPCP by comparing the spectra and lifetimes for plasmon coupled phosphorescence with the free space isotropic phosphorescence emission. Due to the directional emission inherent to plasmon coupled phosphorescence, we believe that SPCP can facilitate the study of phosphorescence in biological applications, such as protein dynamics and alkaline phosphatase studies, whose signal intensities are inherently weak and nearly always isotropic.

  13. Partially coherent surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrman, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Friberg, Ari T.

    2016-12-01

    We formulate a framework to tailor the electromagnetic coherence of polychromatic surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at a metal-air interface by controlling the correlations of the excitation light. The formalism covers stationary and nonstationary SPP fields of arbitrary spectra. We show that narrowband SPPs are virtually propagation invariant and strictly polarized, whereas the coherence properties of broadband SPPs can be widely tuned to specific applications. The connection between the coherence state of the light source and the ensuing SPP field establishes a novel paradigm in statistical plasmonics with far-reaching implications for plasmon coherence engineering.

  14. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  15. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  16. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  17. Plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Weihai

    The study of the plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures is of great interest in nanoscale optics and photonics. Metallic nanostructures exhibit rich optical and electrical properties due to their localized surface plasmons (LSPs, collective charge density oscillations that are confined to metallic nanostructures). They can be widely used in a variety of application areas, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). In this thesis, a systematic study on the plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures has been presented, both theoretically and experimentally. I will first describe my studies on the plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures. Specific approaches of modifying the sizes and shapes of Au nanorods have been developed for tailoring their plasmonic properties, including surface plasmon wavelength, absorption, scattering, and extinction cross sections. Single-particle dark-field imaging and spectroscopy have proved that the scattering intensity of overgrown nanorods is larger than that of shortened nanorods from the same starting nanorods. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations further show that the scattering-to-extinction ratio increases linearly as a function of the diameter of Au nanorods with a fixed aspect ratio. To obtain a deep understanding on the shape dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance, I have emplyed FDTD on both Au nanorods and Au nanobipyramids. The results show that, when excited at their LSP wavelengths, Au nanobipyramids exhibit a maximal electric field intensity enhancement that is 3--6 times that of Au nanorods. Au nanorods have been further assembled into chains (end-to-end) and stacks (side-by-side). FDTD calculations have been performed on both Au nanorod chains and stacks with varying gap distances to obtain the dependence of the plasmon shift on the gap distance, which is then used as a plasmonic ruler to estimate the

  18. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  19. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  20. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station licensed by the... separation Contour of proposed station Contour of other station Co-channel 0.1mV/m (40 dBu)1 mV/m (60 dBu) 1... if the proposed operation would involve overlap of signal strength contours with any other station...

  1. Fast evaluation and locality of overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Hip, I.; Schilling, K.

    2002-03-01

    In order to construct improved overlap fermions, we start from a short ranged approximate Ginsparg-Wilson fermion and insert it into the overlap formula. We show that its polynomial evaluation is accelerated considerably compared to the standard Neuberger fermion. In addition the degree of locality is strongly improved.

  2. Fast evaluation and locality of overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Hip, I.; Schilling, K.

    In order to construct improved overlap fermions, we start from a short ranged approximate Ginsparg-Wilson fermion and insert it into the overlap formula. We show that its polynomial evaluation is accelerated considerably compared to the standard Neuberger fermion. In addition the degree of locality is strongly improved.

  3. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kravets, V G; Jalil, R; Kim, Y-J; Ansell, D; Aznakayeva, D E; Thackray, B; Britnell, L; Belle, B D; Withers, F; Radko, I P; Han, Z; Bozhevolnyi, S I; Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Grigorenko, A N

    2014-07-01

    Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics.

  4. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y.-J.; Ansell, D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thackray, B.; Britnell, L.; Belle, B. D.; Withers, F.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics has established itself as a branch of physics which promises to revolutionize data processing, improve photovoltaics, and increase sensitivity of bio-detection. A widespread use of plasmonic devices is notably hindered by high losses and the absence of stable and inexpensive metal films suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguides and test sensitivity of surface plasmon resonances. Our results are likely to initiate wide use of graphene-protected plasmonics. PMID:24980150

  5. Plasmonic nanostructures for electronic designs of photovoltaic devices: plasmonic hot-carrier photovoltaic architectures and plasmonic electrode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Su, Dan; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wang, Shan-Jiang; Shan, Feng; Xu, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2016-10-01

    The tunable and amazing properties of plasmonic nanostructures have received significant attentions in the fields of solar energy conversion. Plasmonic nanostructures provide pathways to directly convert solar energy into electric energy by hot-carrier generation. They can also serve as economical electrodes for high-efficient carrier collection. Both have promising potential for manufacturing new generation solar cells. Here, we review recent advances in plasmonic nanostructures for electronic designs of photovoltaic devices and specially focus on plasmonic hot-carrier photovoltaic architectures and plasmonic electrode structures. Technical challenges toward low-cost and high-performance plasmonics-based solar cells are also discussed.

  6. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O.

    2017-08-01

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bio-imaging and, simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly, and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation and, therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  7. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O

    2017-08-09

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bioimaging, and simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation, and therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  8. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing.

  9. Neural overlap in processing music and speech

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. PMID:25646513

  10. Beam bending via plasmonic lenses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Kiraly, Brian; Hao, Qingzhen; Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-10-25

    We have designed and characterized three different types of plasmonic lenses that cannot only focus, but can also bend electromagnetic (EM) waves. The bending effect is achieved by constructing an asymmetric phase front caused by varying phase retardations in EM waves as they pass through a plasmonic lens. With an incident wave normal to the lens surface, light bends up to 8° off the axial direction. The optical wave propagation was numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Simulation results show that the proposed plasmonic lenses allow effective beam bending under both normal and tilted incidence. With their relatively large bending range and capability to perform in the far field, the plamsonic lenses described in this article could be valuable in applications such as photonic communication and plasmonic circuits.

  11. Infrared Topological Plasmons in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dafei; Christensen, Thomas; Soljačić, Marin; Fang, Nicholas X.; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    We propose a two-dimensional plasmonic platform—periodically patterned monolayer graphene—which hosts topological one-way edge states operable up to infrared frequencies. We classify the band topology of this plasmonic system under time-reversal-symmetry breaking induced by a static magnetic field. At finite doping, the system supports topologically nontrivial band gaps with mid-gap frequencies up to tens of terahertz. By the bulk-edge correspondence, these band gaps host topologically protected one-way edge plasmons, which are immune to backscattering from structural defects and subject only to intrinsic material and radiation loss. Our findings reveal a promising approach to engineer topologically robust chiral plasmonic devices and demonstrate a realistic example of high-frequency topological edge states.

  12. The case for quantum plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2017-07-01

    The discrete quantum nature of plasmons may be exploited to make efficient single-photon sources. Despite the losses associated with metallic resonators, advantages over dielectric counterparts exist when it comes to producing efficient quantum emitters.

  13. Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Frigerio, Jacopo; Samarelli, Antonio; Gallacher, Kevin; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Sakat, Emilie; Calandrini, Eugenio; Millar, Ross W.; Giliberti, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Ortolani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The use of heavily doped semiconductors to achieve plasma frequencies in the mid-IR has been recently proposed as a promising way to obtain high-quality and tunable plasmonic materials. We introduce a plasmonic platform based on epitaxial n-type Ge grown on standard Si wafers by means of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large carrier concentration achieved with P dopants and to the compatibility with the existing CMOS technology, SiGe plasmonics hold promises for mid-IR applications in optoelectronics, IR detection, sensing, and light harvesting. As a representative example, we show simulations of mid-IR plasmonic waveguides based on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constants of the grown materials.

  14. Photoluminescence of a Plasmonic Molecule.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da; Byers, Chad P; Wang, Lin-Yung; Hoggard, Anneli; Hoener, Ben; Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Chen, Sishan; Chang, Wei-Shun; Landes, Christy F; Link, Stephan

    2015-07-28

    Photoluminescent Au nanoparticles are appealing for biosensing and bioimaging applications because of their non-photobleaching and non-photoblinking emission. The mechanism of one-photon photoluminescence from plasmonic nanostructures is still heavily debated though. Here, we report on the one-photon photoluminescence of strongly coupled 50 nm Au nanosphere dimers, the simplest plasmonic molecule. We observe emission from coupled plasmonic modes as revealed by single-particle photoluminescence spectra in comparison to correlated dark-field scattering spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yield of the dimers is found to be surprisingly similar to the constituent monomers, suggesting that the increased local electric field of the dimer plays a minor role, in contradiction to several proposed mechanisms. Aided by electromagnetic simulations of scattering and absorption spectra, we conclude that our data are instead consistent with a multistep mechanism that involves the emission due to radiative decay of surface plasmons generated from excited electron-hole pairs following interband absorption.

  15. Dispersion engineering of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Isroel M; Bendoym, Igor; Jung, Young U; Golovin, Andrii B; Crouse, David T

    2013-12-30

    In this work, it is shown how the shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be engineered by manipulating the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in multilayer structures, which themselves are controlled by the free electron density in metal-like materials, such as doped semiconductors in the THz spectral range. By having a nonuniform free electron density profile, reduced relative to that in typical bulk metals, the electromagnetic fields of surface plasmons are distributed in different metallic materials that have different complex dielectric permittivities. As the in-plane component of surface plasmon's wave-vector increases, they become more confined to a particular layer of the multilayer structure and have energies that are predictable by considering the permittivity of the layer in which the fields are most concentrated. Unusual and arbitrary shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be designed, including stair steps and dovetails shapes.

  16. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-06

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics.

  17. Plasmon-driven sub-picosecond breathing of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bonafé, Franco P; Aradi, Bálint; Guan, Mengxue; Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A; Lian, Chao; Meng, Sheng; Frauenheim, Thomas; Sánchez, Cristián G

    2017-08-31

    We present the first real-time atomistic simulation on the quantum dynamics of icosahedral silver nanoparticles under strong laser pulses, using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) molecular dynamics. We identify the emergence of sub-picosecond breathing-like radial oscillations starting immediately after laser pulse excitation, with increasing amplitude as the field intensity increases. The ultrafast dynamic response of nanoparticles to laser excitation points to a new mechanism other than equilibrium electron-phonon scattering previously assumed, which takes a much longer timescale. A sharp weakening of all bonds during laser excitation is observed, thanks to plasmon damping into excited electrons in anti-bonding states. This sudden weakening of bonds leads to a uniform expansion of the nanoparticles and launches coherent breathing oscillations.

  18. Particle plasmons: Why shape matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, William L.

    2016-08-01

    Simple analytic expressions for the polarizability of metallic nanoparticles are in wide use in the field of plasmonics, but their origins are not obvious. In this article, expressions for the polarizability of a particle are derived in the quasistatic limit in a manner that allows the physical origin of the terms to be clearly seen. The discussion is tutorial in nature, with particular attention given to the role of particle shape since this is a controlling factor in particle plasmon resonances.

  19. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Caihong; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Huabing; Chen, Jian; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Wu, Peiheng

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  20. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Huabing

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  1. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Eric A [Rio Rancho, NM; Wasserman, Daniel [Lowell, MA

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  2. Plasmonics in Biology and Plasmon-Controlled Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow

  3. Plasmonics in Biology and Plasmon-Controlled Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence technology is fully entrenched in all aspects of biological research. To a significant extent, future advances in biology and medicine depend on the advances in the capabilities of fluorescence measurements. As examples, the sensitivity of many clinical assays is limited by sample autofluorescence, single-molecule detection is limited by the brightness and photostability of the fluorophores, and the spatial resolution of cellular imaging is limited to about one-half of the wavelength of the incident light. We believe a combination of fluorescence, plasmonics, and nanofabrication can fundamentally change and increase the capabilities of fluorescence technology. Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in metallic surfaces and particles. Surface plasmons, without fluorescence, are already in use to a limited extent in biological research. These applications include the use of surface plasmon resonance to measure bioaffinity reactions and the use of metal colloids as light-scattering probes. However, the uses of surface plasmons in biology are not limited to their optical absorption or extinction. We now know that fluorophores in the excited state can create plasmons that radiate into the far field and that fluorophores in the ground state can interact with and be excited by surface plasmons. These reciprocal interactions suggest that the novel optical absorption and scattering properties of metallic nanostructures can be used to control the decay rates, location, and direction of fluorophore emission. We refer to these phenomena as plasmon-controlled fluorescence (PCF). We predict that PCF will result in a new generation of probes and devices. These likely possibilities include ultrabright single-particle probes that do not photobleach, probes for selective multiphoton excitation with decreased light intensities, and distance measurements in biomolecular assemblies in the range from 10 to 200 nm. Additionally, PCF is likely to allow

  4. Planar plasmonic chiral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Shuai; Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-02-01

    A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response.A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  5. Free-standing chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun

    2014-11-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.

  6. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, L; Lummen, T.T.A.; Quiñonez, E; Murooka, Y; Reed, B.W.; Barwick, B; Carbone, F

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. This methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits. PMID:25728197

  7. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    DOE PAGES

    Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; ...

    2015-03-02

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinducedmore » near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.« less

  8. Probe-sample optical interaction: size and wavelength dependence in localized plasmon near-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Habteyes, Terefe G; Dhuey, Scott; Kiesow, Karissa I; Vold, Alexander

    2013-09-09

    The probe-sample optical interaction in apertureless near-field optical microscopy is studied at 633 nm and 808 nm excitation wavelengths using gold nanodisks as model systems. The near-field distributions of the dipolar and quadrupolar surface plasmon modes have been mapped successfully using metal coated probes with different polarization combinations of excitation and detection except when the incident and the scattered light polarizations are chosen to be parallel to the probe axis. For the parallel polarization of the incident and the scattered light, the pattern of the near-field distribution differs from the inherent plasmon mode structures of the sample, depending sensitively on the sample size and excitation energy. For a given excitation energy, the near-field amplitude shifts from one pole to the other as the sample size increases, having nearly equal amplitude at the two poles when the plasmon resonance peak spectrally overlaps with the excitation energy.

  9. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    SciTech Connect

    Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2015-03-02

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.

  10. Strong and Broadly Tunable Plasmon Resonances in Thick Films of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Falk, Abram L; Ho, Po-Hsun; Farmer, Damon B; Tulevski, George; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Avouris, Phaedon; Han, Shu-Jen

    2017-09-13

    Low-dimensional plasmonic materials can function as high quality terahertz and infrared antennas at deep subwavelength scales. Despite these antennas' strong coupling to electromagnetic fields, there is a pressing need to further strengthen their absorption. We address this problem by fabricating thick films of aligned, uniformly sized semiconducting carbon nanotubes and showing that their plasmon resonances are strong, narrow, and broadly tunable. With thicknesses ranging from 25 to 250 nm, our films exhibit peak attenuation reaching 70%, ensemble quality factors reaching 9, and electrostatically tunable peak frequencies by a factor of 2.3. Excellent nanotube alignment leads to the attenuation being 99% linearly polarized along the nanotube axis. Increasing the film thickness blueshifts the plasmon resonators down to peak wavelengths as low as 1.4 μm, a new near-infrared regime in which they can both overlap the S11 nanotube exciton energy and access the technologically important infrared telecom band.

  11. Plasmon-Induced Resonant Energy Transfer: a coherent dipole-dipole coupling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Alan D.; Cushing, Scott K.; Li, Jiangtian; Wu, Nianqiang

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor core-shell nanoparticles have been used to demonstrate a dipole-dipole coupling mechanism that is entirely dependent on the dephasing time of the localized plasmonic resonance. Consequently, the short-time scale of the plasmons leads to broad energy uncertainty that allows for excitation of charge carriers in the semiconductor via stimulation of photons with energies below the energy band gap. In addition, this coherent energy transfer process overcomes interfacial losses often associated with direct charge transfer. This work explores the efficiency of the energy transfer process, the dipole-dipole coupling strength with dipole separation, shell thickness and plasmonic resonance overlap. We demonstrate limits where the coherent nature of the coupling is switched off and charge transfer processes can dominate. Experiments are performed using transient absorption spectroscopy. Results are compared to calculations using a quantum master equation. These nanostructures show strong potential for improving solar light-harvesting for power and fuel generation.

  12. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal-organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Erwen; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal-organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic-MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. The demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic-MOF device proves a promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.

  13. Yankee bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, P. )

    1993-10-01

    Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

  14. Template overlap method for massive jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Leandro G.; Lee, Seung J.; Perez, Gilad; Sterman, George; Sung, Ilmo

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a new class of infrared safe jet observables, which we refer to as template overlaps, designed to filter targeted highly-boosted particle decays from QCD jets and other background. Template overlaps are functional measures that quantify how well the energy flow of a physical jet matches the flow of a boosted partonic decay. Any region of the partonic phase space for the boosted decays defines a template. We will refer to the maximum functional overlap found this way as the template overlap. To illustrate the method, we test lowest-order templates designed to distinguish highly-boosted top and Higgs decays from backgrounds produced by event generators. For the functional overlap, we find good results with a simple construction based on a Gaussian in energy differences within angular regions surrounding the template partons. Although different event generators give different averages for our template overlaps, we find in each case excellent rejection power, especially when combined with cuts based on jet shapes. The template overlaps are capable of systematic improvement by including higher-order corrections in the template phase space.

  15. Characteristics of hydrogen bond revealed from water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yan; Chen, Hongshan; Zhang, Cairong; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Yuehong

    2014-09-01

    The hydrogen bond network is responsible for the exceptional physical and chemical properties of water, however, the description of hydrogen bond remains a challenge for the studies of condensed water. The investigation of structural and binding properties of water clusters provides a key for understanding the H-bonds in bulk water. In this paper, a new set of geometric parameters are defined to describe the extent of the overlap between the bonding orbital of the donor OH and the nonbonding orbital of the lone-pair of the acceptor molecule. This orbital overlap plays a dominant role for the strength of H-bonds. The dependences of the binding energy of the water dimer on these parameters are studied. The results show that these parameters properly describe the H-bond strength. The ring, book, cage and prism isomers of water hexamer form 6, 7, 8 and 9 H-bonds, and the strength of the bonding in these isomers changes markedly. The internally-solvated and the all-surface structures of (H2O) n for n = 17, 19 and 21 are nearly isoenergetic. The internally-solvated isomers form fewer but stronger H-bonds. The hydrogen bonding in the above clusters are investigated in detail. The geometric parameters can well describe the characters of the H-bonds, and they correlate well with the H-bond strength. For the structures forming stronger H-bonds, the H-bond lengths are shorter, the angle parameters are closer to the optimum values, and their rms deviations are smaller. The H-bonds emanating from DDAA and DDA molecules as H-donor are relatively weak. The vibrational spectra of (H2O) n ( n = 17, 19 and 21) are studied as well. The stretching vibration of the intramolecular OH bond is sensitive to its bonding environment. The H-bond strength judged from the geometric parameters is in good agreement with the bonding strength judged from the stretching frequencies.

  16. Thermal phenomena in quantum plasmonics (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychev, Andrey K.; Tartakovsky, Gennady; Vergeles, Sergey; Parfenyev, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Plasmon nanolasers, also known as SPASERs, were suggested by Bergman and Stockman in 2003. Quantum plasmonics attract much attention in recent years due to the numerous potential applications in the plasmonics. We consider thermal effects in the metal nanoresonator immersed in the active, laser medium. The size of the resonator is much less than the wavelength. The plasmon field inside the nanoresonator operates as a quantum object. Due to the nanosize of the resonator, the internal plasmon electric field is about the atomic field even for few plasmon quants. The coupling between the plasmon field and plasmon resonator is anomalous strong. We develop the quantum dynamics of the plasmon field and show that the SPASER may be the subject of thermal instability. The loss in SPASER increases with increasing the temperature when the average number of the plasmons is maintained at the stationary level. Therefore, the heat generation increases with increasing the temperature. This positive feedback results in the thermal instability. When the energy, accumulated in the plasmon nanoresonator, exceeds the instability threshold the temperature increases exponentially. We find the increment of the temperature growth and lifetime as function of the loss in metal and the structure of the plasmon resonator. We consider how the thermal instability influences the luminescence and find how the lasing threshold is changed. The coherence of the light emitted by the plasmon laser is also considered. The thermal stability of the nanolaser is crucial for any practical application.

  17. [Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap].

    PubMed

    Müller, Veronika; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla

    2011-01-16

    Asthma bronchiale and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the most prevalent lung diseases characterized by inflammation of the airways. International and Hungarian guidelines provide proper definitions for clinical symptoms, diagnostics and therapy of both diseases. However, in everyday clinical practice, overlap of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has become more frequent. As guidelines are mainly based on large, multicenter, randomized, controlled trials that exclude overlap patients, there is a lack of diagnostic and especially therapeutic strategies for these patients. This review summarizes clinical characteristics of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap, and provides daily practical examples for its management.

  18. EDITORIAL: Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver Plasmas and plasmons: links in nanosilver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-03-01

    appearing in the 620-800 nm regions of the absorption spectra. A number of research groups have investigated the possibility of exploiting the plasmonic properties of silver and gold nanostructures for optoelectronic devices [7-9]. The advantages can be quite substantial. Researchers in Korea successfully used silver nanoparticles to obtain a 38% increase in performance of blue LEDs by using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN [10]. The researchers attribute the improvement to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between the excitons in multiple quantum wells and localized surface plasmons in the silver nanoparticles. In their work reported in this issue Kostya Ostrikov and his co-authors bridge the link between microplasma-assisted electrochemical process parameters and the plasmonic response. As they point out, 'This is an important experimental step towards bringing together plasma chemistry and plasmonics' [1]. All-gas-phase plasma approaches have already been demonstrated for the synthesis of nanoparticles of other metals. X D Pi and colleagues from the University of Minnesota demonstrated how one simple gas-phase process could produce stable silicon nanocrystal emitters with tailored size and surface functionalization [11]. Previously silicon nanocrystals had been prone to emission instabilities in air. Now Ostrikov and colleagues at the University of Sydney, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering in Australia and the Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas in China have studied microplasma-assisted electrochemical synthesis of Ag nanoparticles for plasmonic applications [1]. The synthesis uses moderate temperatures and atmospheric pressures and does not involve any toxic reducing agents. In addition they demonstrate how it allows control over nanoparticle size and interparticle spacing to optimize performance in device applications. Despite the overlap in plasma physics and the origins of plasmonic phenomena, studies of the

  19. Exciton-plasmon and spin-plasmon interactions in hybrid semiconductor-metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorov, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Coulomb and electromagnetic interactions between excitons and plasmons in nanocrystals cause several effects: energy transfer between nanoparticles, plasmon enhancement, Lamb shifts of exciton lines, Fano interference. In a complex composed of semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle, plasmons interact with spin-polarized excitons. This interaction leads to the formation of coupled spin-plasmon excitations and to spin-dependent Fano resonances. If an exciton-plasmon system includes chiral elements (chiral molecules or nanocrystals), the exciton-plasmon interaction is able to create new plasmonic lines in circular dichroism spectra.

  20. Probabilistic approach for sensing performances of localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Heejin; Lee, Wonju; Hwang, Taewon; Kim, Donghyun

    2015-07-01

    We analyze sensing performances of localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors based on the overlap between target distribution and local field intensity produced by silver nanoislands in three detection models of non-specific, non-colocalized, and colocalized detection. The behavior of biomolecules was modeled to follow a probabilistic model using Poisson distribution. The results have found that the colocalized detection achieves the highest overlap signature with the smallest uncertainty and can enhance the limit of detection by more than 10000 times compared to conventional non-specific detection.

  1. Polyimide adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Adhesive systems which could be used to bond composite-to-composite, composite-to-titanium, and honeycomb sandwich structures with operational capability at 589K for a minimum of 125 hours were evaluated. Evaluations were based on mechanical property tests such as lap shear and flatwise tensile and on processability. Quasi-isotropic Celion 6000/PMR-15 composite adherend was used to construct lap shear and flatwise tensile specimens. Hexcel's HRH-327-3/16-6.0 glass polyimide honeycomb core was also utilized in the flatwise tensile specimens. Numerous processing variations were also studied that led to selected cure cycles for each adhesive. Shear specimens having either 12 mm or 75 mm overlaps were used to determine the effect of bond size on processability and lap shear properties. The data indicate that processing of FM-34, FM-34B-18, LARC-13 and NRO56X can be achieved using a cure compatible with the composite adherend. No significant differences in mechanical properties were observed among the three adhesive systems and all three are suitable candidates for 589K/125 hour service.

  2. Remote preparation of single-plasmon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Vest, Benjamin; Devaux, Éloïse; Baron, Alexandre; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2017-07-01

    Quantum entanglement is a stunning consequence of the superposition principle. This universal property of quantum systems has been intensively explored with photons, atoms, ions, and electrons. Collective excitations such as surface plasmons exhibit quantum behaviors. We report the remote preparation of a single plasmon state through the projective measurement of a photon entangled with the plasmon. We achieved photon-plasmon entanglement by converting one photon of an entangled photon pair into a surface plasmon. The plasmon is tested on a plasmonic platform in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A projective measurement on the polarization of the photon allows the remote preparation of the interference state of the plasmon. Entanglement between particles of various nature paves the way to the design of hybrid systems in quantum information networks.

  3. Visible quantum plasmonics from metallic nanodimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpeggiani, F.; D'Agostino, S.; Sanvitto, D.; Gerace, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report theoretical evidence that bulk nonlinear materials weakly interacting with highly localized plasmonic modes in ultra-sub-wavelength metallic nanostructures can lead to nonlinear effects at the single plasmon level in the visible range. In particular, the two-plasmon interaction energy in such systems is numerically estimated to be comparable with the typical plasmon linewidths. Localized surface plasmons are thus predicted to exhibit a purely nonclassical behavior, which can be clearly identified by a sub-Poissonian second-order correlation in the signal scattered from the quantized plasmonic field under coherent electromagnetic excitation. We explicitly show that systems sensitive to single-plasmon scattering can be experimentally realized by combining electromagnetic confinement in the interstitial region of gold nanodimers with local infiltration or deposition of ordinary nonlinear materials. We also propose configurations that could allow to realistically detect such an effect with state-of-the-art technology, overcoming the limitations imposed by the short plasmonic lifetime.

  4. Visible quantum plasmonics from metallic nanodimers

    PubMed Central

    Alpeggiani, F.; D’Agostino, S.; Sanvitto, D.; Gerace, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report theoretical evidence that bulk nonlinear materials weakly interacting with highly localized plasmonic modes in ultra-sub-wavelength metallic nanostructures can lead to nonlinear effects at the single plasmon level in the visible range. In particular, the two-plasmon interaction energy in such systems is numerically estimated to be comparable with the typical plasmon linewidths. Localized surface plasmons are thus predicted to exhibit a purely nonclassical behavior, which can be clearly identified by a sub-Poissonian second-order correlation in the signal scattered from the quantized plasmonic field under coherent electromagnetic excitation. We explicitly show that systems sensitive to single-plasmon scattering can be experimentally realized by combining electromagnetic confinement in the interstitial region of gold nanodimers with local infiltration or deposition of ordinary nonlinear materials. We also propose configurations that could allow to realistically detect such an effect with state-of-the-art technology, overcoming the limitations imposed by the short plasmonic lifetime. PMID:27752037

  5. Plasmon-enhanced optical sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-21

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has found extensive applications in chemi-sensors and biosensors. Plasmons play different roles in different types of optical sensors. SPR transduces a signal in a colorimetric sensor through shifts in the spectral position and intensity in response to external stimuli. SPR can also concentrate the incident electromagnetic field in a nanostructure, modulating fluorescence emission and enabling plasmon-enhanced fluorescence to be used for ultrasensitive detection. Furthermore, plasmons have been extensively used for amplifying a Raman signal in a surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor. This paper presents a review of recent research progress in plasmon-enhanced optical sensing, giving emphasis on the physical basis of plasmon-enhanced sensors and how these principles guide the design of sensors. In particular, this paper discusses the design strategies for nanomaterials and nanostructures to plasmonically enhance optical sensing signals, also highlighting the applications of plasmon-enhanced optical sensors in healthcare, homeland security, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  6. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  7. Visible quantum plasmonics from metallic nanodimers.

    PubMed

    Alpeggiani, F; D'Agostino, S; Sanvitto, D; Gerace, D

    2016-10-18

    We report theoretical evidence that bulk nonlinear materials weakly interacting with highly localized plasmonic modes in ultra-sub-wavelength metallic nanostructures can lead to nonlinear effects at the single plasmon level in the visible range. In particular, the two-plasmon interaction energy in such systems is numerically estimated to be comparable with the typical plasmon linewidths. Localized surface plasmons are thus predicted to exhibit a purely nonclassical behavior, which can be clearly identified by a sub-Poissonian second-order correlation in the signal scattered from the quantized plasmonic field under coherent electromagnetic excitation. We explicitly show that systems sensitive to single-plasmon scattering can be experimentally realized by combining electromagnetic confinement in the interstitial region of gold nanodimers with local infiltration or deposition of ordinary nonlinear materials. We also propose configurations that could allow to realistically detect such an effect with state-of-the-art technology, overcoming the limitations imposed by the short plasmonic lifetime.

  8. Hybrid Airy plasmons with dynamically steerable trajectories.

    PubMed

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-26

    With their intriguing diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy plasmons show promise for use in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, high dissipative loss and lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to coupling between optical modes and plasmonic modes, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of the hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting beams along with the emerging developments of optical tweezers and tractor beams.

  9. Integrating plasmonic diagnostics and microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lifang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is generally divided into two categories: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of electromagnetic modes propagating along a (noble) metal/dielectric interface and localized SPRs (LSPRs) on nanoscopic metallic structures (particles, rods, shells, holes, etc.). Both optical transducer concepts can be combined with and integrated in microfluidic devices for biomolecular analyte detections, with the benefits of small foot-print for point-of-care detection, low-cost for one-time disposal, and ease of being integrated into an array format. The key technologies in such integration include the plasmonic chip, microfluidic channel fabrication, surface bio-functionalization, and selection of the detection scheme, which are selected according to the specifics of the targeting analytes. This paper demonstrates a few examples of the many versions of how to combine plasmonics and integrated microfluidics, using different plasmonic generation mechanisms for different analyte detections. One example is a DNA sensor array using a gold film as substrate and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy as the transduction method. This is then compared to grating-coupled SPR for poly(ethylene glycol) thiol interaction detected by angle interrogation, gold nanohole based LSPR chip for biotin-strepavidin detection by wavelength shift, and gold nanoholes/nanopillars for the detection of prostate specific antigen by quantum dot labels excited by the LSPR. Our experimental results exemplified that the plasmonic integrated microfluidics is a promising tool for understanding the biomolecular interactions and molecular recognition process as well as biosensing, especially for on-site or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:26392832

  10. Integrating plasmonic diagnostics and microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lifang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonics is generally divided into two categories: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of electromagnetic modes propagating along a (noble) metal/dielectric interface and localized SPRs (LSPRs) on nanoscopic metallic structures (particles, rods, shells, holes, etc.). Both optical transducer concepts can be combined with and integrated in microfluidic devices for biomolecular analyte detections, with the benefits of small foot-print for point-of-care detection, low-cost for one-time disposal, and ease of being integrated into an array format. The key technologies in such integration include the plasmonic chip, microfluidic channel fabrication, surface bio-functionalization, and selection of the detection scheme, which are selected according to the specifics of the targeting analytes. This paper demonstrates a few examples of the many versions of how to combine plasmonics and integrated microfluidics, using different plasmonic generation mechanisms for different analyte detections. One example is a DNA sensor array using a gold film as substrate and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy as the transduction method. This is then compared to grating-coupled SPR for poly(ethylene glycol) thiol interaction detected by angle interrogation, gold nanohole based LSPR chip for biotin-strepavidin detection by wavelength shift, and gold nanoholes/nanopillars for the detection of prostate specific antigen by quantum dot labels excited by the LSPR. Our experimental results exemplified that the plasmonic integrated microfluidics is a promising tool for understanding the biomolecular interactions and molecular recognition process as well as biosensing, especially for on-site or point-of-care diagnostics.

  11. Molecular resonant dissociation of surface-adsorbed molecules by plasmonic nanoscissors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenglong; Sheng, Shaoxiang; Zheng, Hairong; Xu, Hongxing; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-04-01

    The ability to break individual bonds or specific modes in chemical reactions is an ardently sought goal by chemists and physicists. While photochemistry based methodologies are very successful in controlling e.g. photocatalysis, photosynthesis and the degradation of plastic, it is hard to break individual molecular bonds for those molecules adsorbed on the surface because of the weak light-absorption in molecules and the redistribution of the resulting vibrational energy both inside the molecule and to its surrounding environment. Here we show how to overcome these obstacles with a plasmonic hot-electron mediated process and demonstrate a new method that allows the sensitive control of resonant dissociation of surface-adsorbed molecules by `plasmonic' scissors. To that end, we used a high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) setup to dissociate resonantly excited NC2H6 fragments from Malachite green. The surface plasmons (SPs) excited at the sharp metal tip not only enhance the local electric field to harvest the light incident from the laser, but crucially supply `hot electrons' whose energy can be transferred to individual bonds. These processes are resonant Raman, which result in some active chemical bonds and then weaken these bonds, followed by dumping in lots of indiscriminant energy and breaking the weakest bond. The method allows for sensitive control of both the rate and probability of dissociation through their dependence on the density of hot electrons, which can be manipulated by tuning the laser intensity or tunneling current/bias voltage in the HV-TERS setup, respectively. The concepts of plasmonic scissors open up new versatile avenues for the deep understanding of in situ surface-catalyzed chemistry.The ability to break individual bonds or specific modes in chemical reactions is an ardently sought goal by chemists and physicists. While photochemistry based methodologies are very successful in controlling e.g. photocatalysis

  12. Plasmonic response of partially gated field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Reed, M. L.; Shur, M.

    2016-09-01

    Electron density oscillations in the transistor channels - plasma waves in the two-dimensional electron gas - determine the high frequency device response. Plasmonic field effect transistors have emerged as very sensitive, tunable, and extremely fast detectors of THz radiation. They have been implemented using silicon (CMOS), AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMTs, and AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMTs, with the HEMTs shown to operate more efficiently at higher THz frequencies. These HEMTs have both gated and ungated sections of the device channel between the source and drain, and the photovoltaic regime of operation requires an asymmetric gate placement in the device channel. The interactions of the plasma waves in the gated and ungated channel regions strongly affect the overall response and have been investigated in numerous publications. This work addresses a new aspect of such interaction - the effect of the relative position of the gated and ungated section. We show this previously unexplored effect plays a dominant role in determining the response. The results of the numerical simulation based on the solution of the complete system of the hydrodynamic equations describing the electron fluid in the device channel show that the inverse response frequency could be approximated by the sum of the gated plasmon transit time in the gated section of the device, the ungated plasmon transit time in the ungated section of the device between the gate and the drain, and the RC gate-to-source constant. Here R and C are the resistance and capacitance of the gate to source section. Hence, the highest speed is achieved when the gate is as close to the source as possible. This suggests a novel plasmonic detector design, where the gate and source electrode overlap, which is shown to have a superior frequency response for the same distance between the source and the drain.

  13. Correlated edge overlaps in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Bianconi, Ginestra; da Costa, Rui A.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2016-07-01

    We develop the theory of sparse multiplex networks with partially overlapping links based on their local treelikeness. This theory enables us to find the giant mutually connected component in a two-layer multiplex network with arbitrary correlations between connections of different types. We find that correlations between the overlapping and nonoverlapping links markedly change the phase diagram of the system, leading to multiple hybrid phase transitions. For assortative correlations we observe recurrent hybrid phase transitions.

  14. Multimode Spectroscopy for Self-Referenced Plasmonic Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Farshid

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an efficient mechanism for biosensing due to its high field intensity and subwavelength confinement. However, the information obtained from these sensors is limited as they only rely on a single measurement at TM polarization. This limitation results in cross sensitivity of the surface plasmon (SP) wave to several parameters such as variations in bulk solution concentration or temperature fluctuations, in addition to the analyte to be measured. In this dissertation the possibility to decouple the aforementioned parameters from the analyte by spectroscopy with more than one mode is investigated. A hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) and a plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) sensor are considered for exciting two resonance modes using dual-polarization spectroscopy. These sensors are based on different combinations of a dielectric waveguide and a plasmonic guiding layer. Depending on the overlap of each mode (TE or TM) with the sensing region, each mode exhibits different sensitivity to the measurand. The structural properties of these sensors have been optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA) to ensure optimum performance. Moreover, a method to decouple the interfering surface and bulk effects is presented. The applications of the PWR sensor for refractive index sensing, thin film measurement, and kinetic analysis of protein-nanoparticle interactions are experimentally demonstrated and compared with the conventional SPR sensor. It is demonstrated that for refractive index sensing the TM mode of the PWR sensor has six times smaller refractive index resolution than that of the SPR sensor. To further enhance the functionality of the plasmonic sensors, two grating based designs are proposed which can perform three-mode spectroscopy. The first design contains a one dimensional dielectric grating based SPR sensor (DGSPR) and the second grating sensor contains a one dimensional metallic grating loaded on an SPR sensor (MGSPR). Both designs

  15. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  16. Controlling noise in plasmonic structures with gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyshnevyy, A. A.; Fedyanin, D. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Loss compensation by gain medium gives the possibility to exploit subwavelength confinement of light in plasmonic nanostructures and construct nanoscale plasmonic circuits. However, due to fundamentally unavoidable spontaneous emission from the gain medium, lossless waveguides suffer from strong photonic noise, which limits their practical applications. Here we demonstrate the possibility of significant decrease of the noise level while preserving physical dimensions of lossless plasmonic waveguides with gain. Our findings are aimed at extending the communication capabilities of on-chip plasmonic networks.

  17. Overlapping Antisense Transcription in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, M. E.; Moore, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates an important role for non-coding RNA molecules in eukaryotic cell regulation. A small number of coding and non-coding overlapping antisense transcripts (OATs) in eukaryotes have been reported, some of which regulate expression of the corresponding sense transcript. The prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown, but there may be an enrichment of such transcripts at imprinted gene loci. Taking a bioinformatics approach, we systematically searched a human mRNA database (RefSeq) for complementary regions that might facilitate pairing with other transcripts. We report 56 pairs of overlapping transcripts, in which each member of the pair is transcribed from the same locus. This allows us to make an estimate of 1000 for the minimum number of such transcript pairs in the entire human genome. This is a surprisingly large number of overlapping gene pairs and, clearly, some of the overlaps may not be functionally significant. Nonetheless, this may indicate an important general role for overlapping antisense control in gene regulation. EST databases were also investigated in order to address the prevalence of cases of imprinted genes with associated non-coding overlapping, antisense transcripts. However, EST databases were found to be completely inappropriate for this purpose. PMID:18628857

  18. Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Costa, Maria João; Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Lyamani, Hassan; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2010-09-13

    The most recent works demonstrate that the lidar overlap function, which describes the overlap between the laser beam and the receiver field of view, can be determined experimentally for the 355 and 532 nm channels using Raman signals. Nevertheless, the Raman channels cannot be used to determine the lidar overlap for the infrared channel (1064 nm) because of their low intensity. In addition, many Raman lidar systems only provide inelastic signals with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio at nighttime. In view of this fact, this work presents a modification of that method, based on the comparison of attenuated backscatter profiles derived from lidar and ceilometer, to retrieve the overlap function for the lidar infrared channel. Similarly to the Raman overlap method, the approach presented here allows to derive the overlap correction without an explicit knowledge of all system parameters. The application of the proposed methodology will improve the potential of Raman lidars to investigate the aerosol microphysical properties in the planetary boundary layer, extending the information of 1064 nm backscatter profiles to the ground and allowing the retrieval of microphysical properties practically close to the surface.

  19. Brightening Gold Nanoparticles: New Sensing Approach Based on Plasmon Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Jing, Chao; Gu, Zhen; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Scattering recovered plasmonic resonance energy transfer (SR-PRET) was reported by blocking the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) from gold nanoparticle (GNP) to the adsorbed molecules (RdBS). Due to the selective cleavage of the Si-O bond by F− ions, the quenching is switched off causing an increase in the brightness of the GNPs,detected using dark-field microscopy (DFM) were brightened. This method was successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in water. The SR-PRET provides a potential approach for a vitro/vivo sensing with high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:25959016

  20. A spiral plasmonic lens with directional excitation of surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qingrui; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Conventional plasmonic lenses are composed of curved slits carved through metallic films. Here, we propose a new plasmonic lens based on a metallic slit with an auxiliary groove. When the lens is illumined normally, only inward surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be generated and then focused into a hot spot at the center of the lens. The focusing effect is theoretically investigated by varying the groove parameters and incident polarizations. It is found that this phenomenon exists for both the circular and linear polarizations of incidence. Under optimal groove parameters, the intensity of the focal spot in our lens can be 2.5 times of that in one without grooves for both linearly and circularly polarized illuminations. PMID:27562227

  1. Plasmonic Switches and Sensors Based on PANI-Coated Gold Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nina

    a macroscale array of PANI-coated gold nanorods immobilized on glass slides, whose performance is as good as that of the individual PANI-coated gold nanorods. With much smaller amounts of materials, my core/shell nanorod arrays show peak extinction values and maximal modulation depths that are comparable to those of PANI films with micrometer-scale thicknesses. Switching coupled surface plasmon relative to uncoupled one affords the possibility to achieve the modulation over a wide spectral band and with wealthy plasmonic responses. Thus, I have studied the active control of plasmon coupling in homodimers and homotrimers of PANI-coated gold nanospheres (PGNSs). The dimers and trimers are obtained by reducing the surfactant concentration in the polymerization process of PANI. The reversible proton-doping of PANI enables the control of plasmon coupling to succeed. When the plasmon coupling of the dimers is switched, the wavelength shift of the strongest scattering peak shows an exponential increase with the decrease of the interparticle gap distance. A giant wavelength shift of 231 nm is observed for the dimer with a shell thickness of 10 nm and a gap distance of 0.5 nm. Electrodynamic calculations ascertain that the wavelength shift of the strongest scattering peak originates from the tuning of the dipolar bonding plasmon resonance mode in the dimers. The quadrupolar bonding plasmon resonance mode is turned on and off by switching the doped and undoped state of the dimers with gap distances of less than 3 nm. The active tuning of plasmon coupling is further demonstrated with the trimers of PGNSs, which is sensitive to their configurations. In the triangular configuration, larger vertex angles lead to larger wavelength shifts for the plasmonic tuning. Another strategy for controlling the dielectric properties of PANI shell around gold nanostructures is to change its oxidation level. The variation of the oxidation state of PANI leads to the plasmonic peak wavelength

  2. Understanding How Acoustic Vibrations Modulate the Optical Response of Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aftab; Pelton, Matthew; Guest, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-26

    Measurements of acoustic vibrations in nanoparticles provide an opportunity to study mechanical phenomena at nanometer length scales and picosecond time scales. Vibrations in noble-metal nanoparticles have attracted particular attention because they couple to plasmon resonances in the nanoparticles, leading to strong modulation of optical absorption and scattering. There are three mechanisms that transduce the mechanical oscillations into changes in the plasmon resonance: (1) changes in the nanoparticle geometry, (2) changes in electron density due to changes in the nanoparticle volume, and (3) changes in the interband transition energies due to compression/expansion of the nanoparticle (deformation potential). These mechanisms have been studied in the past to explain the origin of the experimental signals; however, a thorough quantitative connection between the coupling of phonon and plasmon modes has not yet been made, and the separate contribution of each coupling mechanism has not yet been quantified. Here, we present a numerical method to quantitatively determine the coupling between vibrational and plasmon modes in noble-metal nanoparticles of arbitrary geometries and apply it to silver and gold spheres, shells, rods, and cubes in the context of time-resolved measurements. We separately determine the parts of the optical response that are due to shape changes, changes in electron density, and changes in deformation potential. We further show that coupling is, in general, strongest when the regions of largest electric field (plasmon mode) and largest displacement (phonon mode) overlap. These results clarify reported experimental results and should help guide future experiments and potential applications.

  3. Confinement of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Heterostructures of Plasmonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hikaru; Mizuma, Shohei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2015-10-14

    Square lattice plasmonic crystals (SQ-PlCs) composed of silver pillars generate large bandgaps for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). SPP confinement is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional heterostructures of SQ-PlCs comprised of cylindrical pillars with different diameters in a common square lattice. Two kinds of localized modes are observed to appear in the heterostructures by photon map imaging using cathodoluminescence (CL) technique combined with a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Angle-resolved CL spectroscopy reveals contrasting characteristics of the two localized modes in their emission distributions, indicating that they originate from the band-edge A and E modes of the matrix SQ-PlC.

  4. Steady-state and time-resolved luminescence of Ru(II) polypyridine complexes attached to Ag nanoparticles: Effect of chemisorption in comparison with electrostatic bonding.

    PubMed

    Kokošková, Markéta; Štěpánek, Miroslav; Šloufová, Ivana; Vlčková, Blanka

    2015-11-05

    Steady state and nanosecond time resolved luminescence (namely, (3)MLCT phosphorescence) of [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and of [Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)](2+)/bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; dcbpy=2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid/attached to Ag NPs (the former by the electrostatic bonding, the latter by chemisorption) in non-aggregated Ag NP hydrosol systems has been investigated, and compared to the luminescence characteristics of the complexes in aqueous solutions. The intensity decrease of the 452 nm (and/or 455 nm, respectively) main band and elimination of the short wavelength shoulders in the excitation spectra and the intensity decrease of the emission spectra observed for both complexes upon their attachment to Ag NPs is attributed to the overlap of the excitation spectra with the surface plasmon extinction (SPE) of Ag NPs. The overlap leads to a loss of excitation energy by SPE as well as to a decrease of the (1)MLCT to (3)MLCT intersystem crossing efficiency. The time-resolved luminescence study shows that the (3)MLCT phosphorescence lifetimes of both complexes are markedly (by 3 and 4 orders of magnitude, respectively) shortened upon their attachment to Ag NPs. Nevertheless, the (3)MLCT lifetime of the chemisorbed [Ru(bpy)2(dcbpy)](2+) is by at least one order of magnitude shorter than that of the electrostatically bonded [Ru(bpy)3](2+), which indicates, that the phosphorescence lifetimes of these luminophores are strongly affected by the type of Ag NP surface-luminophore bonding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin C. J.; Chen, Yi-Huan; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wu, Ting-Yi; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Chien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The 2-D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors, has received great attention due to its excellent optical and electronic properties and potential applications in field-effect transistors, light emitting and sensing devices. Recently surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of the weak 2-D TMD atomic layers was developed to realize the potential optoelectronic devices. However, we noticed that the enhancement would not increase monotonically with increasing of metal plasmonic objects and the emission drop after the certain coverage. This study presents the optimized PL enhancement of a monolayer MoS2 in the presence of gold (Au) nanorods. A localized surface plasmon wave of Au nanorods that generated around the monolayer MoS2 can provide resonance wavelength overlapping with that of the MoS2 gain spectrum. These spatial and spectral overlapping between the localized surface plasmon polariton waves and that from MoS2 emission drastically enhanced the light emission from the MoS2 monolayer. We gave a simple model and physical interpretations to explain the phenomena. The plasmonic Au nanostructures approach provides a valuable avenue to enhancing the emitting efficiency of the 2-D nano-materials and their devices for the future optoelectronic devices and systems. PMID:26576041

  6. Nonequilibrium evolution of window overlaps in spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manssen, Markus; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Young, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate numerically the time dependence of "window" overlaps in a three-dimensional Ising spin glass below its transition temperature after a rapid quench. Using an efficient GPU implementation, we are able to study large systems up to lateral length L =128 and up to long times of t =108 sweeps. We find that the data scales according to the ratio of the window size W to the nonequilibrium coherence length ξ (t ) . We also show a substantial change in behavior if the system is run for long enough that it globally equilibrates, i.e., ξ (t )≈L /2 , where L is the lattice size. This indicates that the local behavior of a spin glass depends on the spin configurations (and presumably also the bonds) far away. We compare with similar simulations for the Ising ferromagnet. Based on these results, we speculate on a connection between the nonequilibrium dynamics discussed here and averages computed theoretically using the "metastate."

  7. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  8. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  9. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    PubMed

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-03-02

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation; yet, we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before a fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  10. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  11. Terahertz spectroscopy of plasmonic fractals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A; Matsui, T; Zhu, W; Nahata, A; Vardeny, Z V

    2009-03-20

    We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to study the transmission properties of metallic films perforated with aperture arrays having deterministic or stochastic fractal morphologies ("plasmonic fractals"), and compare them with random aperture arrays. All of the measured plasmonic fractals show transmission resonances and antiresonances at frequencies that correspond to prominent features in their structure factors in k space. However, in sharp contrast to periodic aperture arrays, the resonant transmission enhancement decreases with increasing array size. This property is explained using a density-density correlation function, and is utilized for determining the underlying fractal dimensionality, D(<2). Furthermore, a sum rule for the transmission resonances and antiresonances in plasmonic fractals relative to the transmission of the corresponding random aperture arrays is obtained, and is shown to be universal.

  12. Highly sensitive plasmonic silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Arpad; Rosman, Christina; Khalavka, Yuriy; Becker, Jan; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2011-09-27

    We compare the single-particle plasmonic sensitivity of silver and gold nanorods with similar resonance wavelengths by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift upon changing the environment from water to 12.5% sucrose solution. We find that silver nanoparticles have 1.2 to 2 times higher sensitivity than gold, in good agreement with simulations based on the boundary-elements-method (BEM). To exclude the effect of particle volume on sensitivity, we test gold rods with increasing particle width at a given resonance wavelength. Using the Drude-model of optical properties of metals together with the quasi-static approximation (QSA) for localized surface plasmons, we show that the dominant contribution to higher sensitivity of silver is the lower background polarizability of the d-band electrons and provide a simple formula for the sensitivity. We improve the reversibility of the silver nanorod sensors upon repeated cycles of environmental changes by blocking the high energy parts of the illumination light.

  13. Refractory Plasmonics without Refractory Materials.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Gelon; Kaiser, Stefan; Giessen, Harald; Hentschel, Mario

    2017-10-11

    Refractory plasmonics deals with metallic nanostructures that can withstand high temperatures and intense laser pulses. The common belief was that refractory materials such as TiN are necessary for this purpose. Here we show that refractory plasmonics is possible without refractory materials. We demonstrate that gold nanostructures which are overcoated with 4 and 40 nm Al2O3 (alumina) by an atomic layer deposition process or by thick IC1-200 resist can withstand temperatures of over 800 °C at ambient atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the alumina-coated structures can withstand intense laser radiation of over 10 GW/cm(2) at ambient conditions without damage. Thus, it is possible to combine the excellent linear and nonlinear plasmonic properties of gold with material properties that were believed to be only possible with the lossier and less nonlinear refractory materials.

  14. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings.

  15. Nanorice Particles: Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hui (Inventor); Brandl, Daniel (Inventor); Le, Fei (Inventor); Nordlander, Peter (Inventor); Halas, Nancy J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid nanoparticle, i.e., a nanorice particle, which combines the intense local fields of nanorods with the highly tunable plasmon resonances of nanoshells, is described herein. This geometry possesses far greater structural tunability than previous nanoparticle geometries, along with much larger local field enhancements and far greater sensitivity as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensor than presently known dielectric-conductive material nanostructures. In an embodiment, a nanoparticle comprises a prolate spheroid-shaped core having a first aspect ratio. The nanoparticle also comprises at least one conductive shell surrounding said prolate spheroid-shaped core. The nanoparticle has a surface plasmon resonance sensitivity of at least 600 nm RIU(sup.-1). Methods of making the disclosed nanorice particles are also described herein.

  16. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility.

    PubMed

    Renger, Jan; Kadic, Muamer; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-07-19

    One of the key challenges in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies and over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this control to demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial is designed using transformational optics extended to plasmonics and allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  17. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model.

  18. Detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis gene using plasmonics nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin-Neng; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the use of plasmonics-based nanoprobes for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis gene. The plasmonics nanoprobe is composed of a silver nanoparticle pre-coated with a stem-loop DNA probe that is tagged with a Raman label at one end of the stem region, while the other end of the probe is covalently conjugated to the nanoparticle via a thiol-silver bond. The loop region is designed to detect a specific target gene sequence. In the absence of target, the Raman label is in close proximity to the metal surface, resulting in an intense SERS signal upon laser excitation. In the presence of the target DNA sequence, hybridization between the target and probe disrupts the stem-loop configuration, separating the Raman label from the metal surface and quenching the SERS signal. In this study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using plasmonics nanoprobes for the detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis gene.

  19. Plasmon canalization and tunneling over anisotropic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correas-Serrano, Diego; Alù, Andrea; Gomez-Diaz, J. Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the possibility of plasmon canalization, collimation, and tunneling over ultrathin metasurfaces, enabled by extreme anisotropy in their complex conductivity dyadic. The interplay between anisotropy, conductivity-near-zero, and loss is exploited here to derive general conditions for plasmon canalization and efficient energy transport. We also demonstrate how the intrinsic in-plane anisotropy of black phosphorus can provide a natural platform to engineer these conditions, exhibiting important advantages over isotropic plasmonic materials. Our findings have implications for plasmonic sensors, planar hyperlenses, and plasmon steering over a surface, and they highlight the potential of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene.

  20. Controlling plasmonic wave packets in silver nanowires.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L.; Nome, R.; Montgomery, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Scherer, N. F.

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations were performed to explore the excitation of surface plasmon resonances in long silver (Ag) nanowires. In particular, we show that it is possible to generate plasmonic wave packets that can propagate along the nanowire by exciting superpositions of surface plasmon resonances. By using an appropriately chirped pulse, it is possible to transiently achieve localization of the excitation at the distal end of the nanowire. Such designed coherent superpositions will allow realizing spatiotemporal control of plasmonic excitations for enhancing nonlinear responses in plasmonic 'circuits'.

  1. Direct imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-09-01

    In this Letter, we report on dark field imaging of localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic waveguiding bands formed by plasmonic coupled cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white-light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

  2. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  3. Adaptive Estimation with Partially Overlapping Models

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sunyoung; Fine, Jason; Liu, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    In many problems, one has several models of interest that capture key parameters describing the distribution of the data. Partially overlapping models are taken as models in which at least one covariate effect is common to the models. A priori knowledge of such structure enables efficient estimation of all model parameters. However, in practice, this structure may be unknown. We propose adaptive composite M-estimation (ACME) for partially overlapping models using a composite loss function, which is a linear combination of loss functions defining the individual models. Penalization is applied to pairwise differences of parameters across models, resulting in data driven identification of the overlap structure. Further penalization is imposed on the individual parameters, enabling sparse estimation in the regression setting. The recovery of the overlap structure enables more efficient parameter estimation. An oracle result is established. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages of ACME over existing methods that fit individual models separately or make strong a priori assumption about the overlap structure. PMID:26917931

  4. SAGE: String-overlap Assembly of GEnomes.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Lucian; Haider, Bahlul; Molnar, Michael; Solis-Oba, Roberto

    2014-09-15

    De novo genome assembly of next-generation sequencing data is one of the most important current problems in bioinformatics, essential in many biological applications. In spite of significant amount of work in this area, better solutions are still very much needed. We present a new program, SAGE, for de novo genome assembly. As opposed to most assemblers, which are de Bruijn graph based, SAGE uses the string-overlap graph. SAGE builds upon great existing work on string-overlap graph and maximum likelihood assembly, bringing an important number of new ideas, such as the efficient computation of the transitive reduction of the string overlap graph, the use of (generalized) edge multiplicity statistics for more accurate estimation of read copy counts, and the improved use of mate pairs and min-cost flow for supporting edge merging. The assemblies produced by SAGE for several short and medium-size genomes compared favourably with those of existing leading assemblers. SAGE benefits from innovations in almost every aspect of the assembly process: error correction of input reads, string-overlap graph construction, read copy counts estimation, overlap graph analysis and reduction, contig extraction, and scaffolding. We hope that these new ideas will help advance the current state-of-the-art in an essential area of research in genomics.

  5. Optical forces in plasmonic nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Shalin, A S; Sukhov, S V

    2012-04-30

    The optical forces acting on nanoparticles in V-shaped plasmonic resonators with a high local-field gain have been investigated. Two versions are considered, which make it possible to implement either attractive or repulsive gradient optical forces. A plasmonic resonator is proposed, which can focus 350-nm radiation and implement a repulsive gradient force. It has been shown for the first time that a perturbation induced by a nanoparticle redistributes the field in the resonator so that additional intensity peaks arise in both versions to hold the nanoparticle in the resonator by forming an optical trap. (nanooptics)

  6. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  8. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi; Saito, Yuika; Kawata, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO2 film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260-340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO2 substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  9. Noncentrosymmetric plasmon modes and giant terahertz photocurrent in a two-dimensional plasmonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. V.; Fateev, D. V.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce and theoretically study the plasmon-photogalvanic effect in a planar noncentrosymmetric plasmonic crystal containing a homogeneous two-dimensional electron system gated by a periodic metal grating with an asymmetric unit cell. The plasmon-photogalvanic dc current arises due to the two-dimensional electron drag by the noncentrosymmetric plasmon modes excited under normal incidence of terahertz radiation. We show that the collective plasmon modes of the planar plasmonic crystal become strongly noncentrosymmetric in the weak-coupling regime of their anticrossing. A large plasmon wave vector (which is typically by two-three orders of magnitude greater than the terahertz photon wave vector) along with strong near-field enhancement at the plasmon resonance make the plasmonic drag a much stronger effect compared to the photon drag observed in conventional two-dimensional electron systems.

  10. Spectral fingerprints of electron-plasmon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopic fingerprints of electron-plasmon coupling in integrated (PES) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). To account for electron-plasmon interactions at a reduced computational cost, we derived the plasmonic polaron model, an approach based on the cumulant expansion of many-body perturbation theory that circumvents the calculation of the G W self-energy. Through the plasmonic polaron model, we predict the complete spectral functions and the effects of electron-plasmon coupling for Si, Ge, GaAs, and diamond. Si, Ge, and GaAs exhibit well-defined plasmonic polaron band structures, i.e., broadened replica of the valence bands redshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on these results, (i) we assign the structures of the plasmon satellite of silicon (as revealed by PES experiments) to plasmonic Van Hove singularities occurring at the L , Ω , and X high-symmetry points and (ii) we predict the ARPES signatures of electron-plasmon coupling for Si, Ge, GaAs, and diamond. Overall, the concept of plasmonic polaron bands emerges as a new paradigm for the interpretation of electronic processes in condensed matter, and the theoretical approach presented here provides a computationally affordable tool to explore its effect in a broad set of materials.

  11. Circular Dichroism Studies on Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, optical chirality of plasmonic nanostructures has aroused great interest because of innovative fundamental understanding as well as promising potential applications in optics, catalysis and sensing. Herein, state-of-the-art studies on circular dichroism (CD) characteristics of plasmonic nanostructures are summarized. The hybrid of achiral plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) and chiral molecules is explored to generate a new CD response at the plasmon resonance as well as the enhanced CD intensity of chiral molecules in the UV region, owing to the Coulomb static and dynamic dipole interactions between plasmonic NPs and chiral molecules. As for chiral assembly of plasmonic NPs, plasmon-plasmon interactions between the building blocks are found to induce generation of intense CD response at the plasmon resonance. Three-dimensional periodical arrangement of plasmonic NPs into macroscale chiral metamaterials is further introduced from the perspective of negative refraction and photonic bandgap. A strong CD signal is also discerned in achiral planar plasmonic nanostructures under illumination of circular polarized plane wave at oblique incidence or input vortex beam at normal incidence. Finally perspectives, especially on future investigation of time-resolved CD responses, are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  13. Exciton-plasmon interactions between CdS quantum dots and Ag nanoparticles in photoelectrochemical system and its biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Yu, Pei-Pei; Shan, Yun; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-07-17

    With DNA as a rigid spacer, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were bridged to CdS quantum dots (QDs) for the stimulation of exciton-plasmon interactions (EPI) in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system. Due to their natural absorption overlap, the exciton of the QDs and the plasmon of Ag NPs could be induced simultaneously. The EPI resonant nature enabled manipulating photoresponse of the QDs via tuning interparticle distances. Specifically, the photocurrent of the QDs could be greatly attenuated and even be completely damped by the generated EPI. The work opens a different horizon for EPI investigation through an engineered PEC nanosystem, and provides a viable mechanism for new DNA sensing protocol.

  14. Molecular plasmonics for biology and nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Kiraly, Brian; Weiss, Paul S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The optical excitation of surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles leads to nanoscale spatial confinement of electromagnetic fields. The confined electromagnetic fields can generate intense, localized thermal energy and large near-field optical forces. The interaction between these effects and nearby molecules has led to the emerging field known as molecular plasmonics. Recent advances in molecular plasmonics have enabled novel optical materials and devices with applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this article, we categorize three main types of interactions between molecules and surface plasmons: optical, thermal and mechanical. Within the scope of each type of interaction, we will review applications of molecular plasmonics in biology and nanomedicine. We include a wide range of applications that involve sensing, spectral analysis, imaging, delivery, manipulation and heating of molecules, biomolecules or cells using plasmonic effects. We also briefly describe the physical principles of molecular plasmonics and progress in the nanofabrication, surface functionalization and bioconjugation of metal nanoparticles. PMID:22630155

  15. Molecular plasmonics for biology and nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Kiraly, Brian; Weiss, Paul S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-05-01

    The optical excitation of surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles leads to nanoscale spatial confinement of electromagnetic fields. The confined electromagnetic fields can generate intense, localized thermal energy and large near-field optical forces. The interaction between these effects and nearby molecules has led to the emerging field known as molecular plasmonics. Recent advances in molecular plasmonics have enabled novel optical materials and devices with applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this article, we categorize three main types of interactions between molecules and surface plasmons: optical, thermal and mechanical. Within the scope of each type of interaction, we will review applications of molecular plasmonics in biology and nanomedicine. We include a wide range of applications that involve sensing, spectral analysis, imaging, delivery, manipulation and heating of molecules, biomolecules or cells using plasmonic effects. We also briefly describe the physical principles of molecular plasmonics and progress in the nanofabrication, surface functionalization and bioconjugation of metal nanoparticles.

  16. Ultraconfined Plasmonic Hotspots Inside Graphene Nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Fei, Z; Foley, J J; Gannett, W; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Ni, G X; Zettl, A; Fogler, M M; Wiederrecht, G P; Gray, S K; Basov, D N

    2016-12-14

    We report on a nanoinfrared (IR) imaging study of ultraconfined plasmonic hotspots inside graphene nanobubbles formed in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) heterostructures. The volume of these plasmonic hotspots is more than one-million-times smaller than what could be achieved by free-space IR photons, and their real-space distributions are controlled by the sizes and shapes of the nanobubbles. Theoretical analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant increase of the local plasmon wavelength in the nanobubble regions. Such an increase is attributed to the high sensitivity of graphene plasmons to its dielectric environment. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hotspot formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nanobubbles for plasmon-enhanced IR spectroscopy.

  17. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Aleksandr

    2012-05-08

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5 μJ incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  18. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Aleksandr N.

    Next generation ultrabright light sources will operate at megahertz repetition rates with temporal resolution in the attosecond regime. For an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) to operate at such repetition rate requires a high quantum efficiency (QE) cathode to produce electron bunches of 300 pC per 1.5mu J incident laser pulse. Semiconductor photocathodes have sufficient QE in the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible spectrum, however, they produce picosecond electron pulses due to the electron-phonon scattering. On the other hand, metals have two orders of magnitude less QE, but can produce femtosecond pulses, that are required to form the optimum electron distribution for high efficiency FEL operation. In this work, a novel metallic photocathode design is presented, where a set of nano-cavities is introduced on the metal surface to increase its QE to meet the FEL requirements, while maintaining the fast time response. Photoemission can be broken up into three steps: (1) photon absorption, (2) electron transport to the surface, and (3) crossing the metal-vacuum barrier. The first two steps can be improved by making the metal completely absorbing and by localizing the fields closer to the metal surface, thereby reducing the electron travel distance. Both of these effects can be achieved by coupling the incident light to an electron density wave on the metal surface, represented by a quasi-particle, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP). The photoemission then becomes a process where the photon energy is transferred to an SPP and then to an electron. The dispersion relation for the SPP defines the region of energies where such process can occur. For example, for gold, the maximum SPP energy is 2.4 eV, however, the work function is 5.6 eV, therefore, only a fourth order photoemission process is possible. In such process, four photons excite four plasmons that together excite only one electron. The yield of such non-linear process depends strongly on the light intensity. In

  19. Probing genetic overlap among complex human phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wajngurt, David; Park, Naeun; Zheng, Tian

    2007-07-10

    Geneticists and epidemiologists often observe that certain hereditary disorders cooccur in individual patients significantly more (or significantly less) frequently than expected, suggesting there is a genetic variation that predisposes its bearer to multiple disorders, or that protects against some disorders while predisposing to others. We suggest that, by using a large number of phenotypic observations about multiple disorders and an appropriate statistical model, we can infer genetic overlaps between phenotypes. Our proof-of-concept analysis of 1.5 million patient records and 161 disorders indicates that disease phenotypes form a highly connected network of strong pairwise correlations. Our modeling approach, under appropriate assumptions, allows us to estimate from these correlations the size of putative genetic overlaps. For example, we suggest that autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia share significant genetic overlaps. Our disease network hypothesis can be immediately exploited in the design of genetic mapping approaches that involve joint linkage or association analyses of multiple seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  20. Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-02-07

    We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

  1. Phonon Overlaps in Molecular Quantum Dot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Connie; Sethna, James

    2004-03-01

    We model the amplitudes and frequencies of the vibrational sidebands for the new molecular quantum dot systems. We calculate the Franck-Condon phonon overlaps in the 3N-dimensional configuration sapce. We solve the general case where the vibrational frequencies and eigenmodes change during the transition. We perform PM3 and DFT calculations for the case of the dumb bell-shaped C140 molecule. We find that the strongest amplitudes are associated with the 11 meV stretch mode, in agreement with experiment. The experimental amplitudes vary from molecule to molecule; indicating that the molecular overlaps are environment dependent. We explore overlaps in the presence of external electric fields from image charges and counter ions.

  2. Locality and Scaling of Quenched Overlap Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Terrence Draper; Nilmani Mathur; Jianbo Zhang; Andrei Alexandru; Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Sonali Tamhankar

    2005-07-01

    The overlap fermion offers the tremendous advantage of exact chiral symmetry on the lattice, but is numerically intensive. This can be made affordable while still providing large lattice volumes, by using coarse lattice spacing, given that good scaling and localization properties are established. Here, using overlap fermions on quenched Iwasaki gauge configurations, we demonstrate directly that the overlap Dirac operator's range is comfortably small in lattice units for each of the lattice spacings 0.20 fm, 0.17 fm, and 0.13 fm (and scales to zero in physical units in the continuum limit). In particular, our direct results contradict recent speculation that an inverse lattice spacing of 1 GeV is too low to have satisfactory localization. Furthermore, hadronic masses (available on the two coarser lattices) scale very well.

  3. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  4. Sub-Plate Overlap Code Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Zarate, N.

    1997-01-01

    An expansion of the plate overlap method of astrometric data reduction to a single plate has been proposed and successfully tested. Each plate is (artificially) divided into sub-plates which can then be overlapped. This reduces the area of a 'plate' over which a plate model needs to accurately represent the relationship between measured coordinates and standard coordinates. Application is made to non-astrographic plates such as Schmidt plates and to wide-field astrographic plates. Indeed, the method is completely general and can be applied to any type of recording media.

  5. The QCD vacuum probed by overlap fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Volker

    2006-12-01

    We summarize different uses of the eigenmodes of the Neuberger overlap operator for the analysis of the QCD vacuum, here applied to quenched configurations simulated by means of the Lüscher-Weisz action. We describe the localization and chiral properties of the lowest modes. The overlap-based topological charge density (with and without UV-filtering) is compared with the re- sults of UV-filtering for the field strength tensor. The latter allows to identify domains of good (anti-)selfduality. All these techniques together lead to a dual picture of the vacuum, unifying the infrared instanton picture with the presence of singular defects co-existent at different scales.

  6. On the SOR method with overlapping subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleev, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    A description is given of the iterative Jacobi method with overlapping subsystems and the corresponding Gauss-Seidel method. Similarly to the classical case, a generalized SOR method with overlapping subsystems is constructed by introducing an relaxation parameter. The concept of a ω-consistent matrix is defined. It is shown that, with the optimal choice of the parameter, the theory developed by Young remains valid for ω-consistent matrices. This implies certain results for ω-consistent H-matrices. The theoretical conclusions obtained in the paper are supported by numerical results.

  7. Electrical Control of Optical Plasmon Resonance with Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    at optical frequencies.10 Here we achieve efficient control of near- infrared plasmon resonance in a hybrid graphene-gold nanorod system. Exploiting...quality factor of gold nanorod plasmon. Our analysis shows that the plasmon− graphene coupling is remarkably strong: even a single electron in...events. KEYWORDS: Graphene, plasmon resonance, metamaterials, active plasmonics, gold nanorod , charge transfer sensor Surface plasmon resonance in

  8. Plasmonics Meets Biology through Optics

    PubMed Central

    De Sio, Luciano; Caracciolo, Giulio; Annesi, Ferdinanda; Placido, Tiziana; Pozzi, Daniela; Comparelli, Roberto; Pane, Alfredo; Curri, Maria Lucia; Agostiano, Angela; Bartolino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) represent a relevant class of nanomaterials, which is able to achieve light localization down to nanoscale by exploiting a phenomenon called Localized Plasmon Resonance. In the last few years, NPs have been proposed to trigger DNA release or enhance ablation of diseased tissues, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. In view of the therapeutic relevance of such plasmonic NPs; a detailed characterization of the electrostatic interaction between positively charged gold nanorods (GNRs) and a negatively charged whole-genome DNA solution is reported. The preparation of the hybrid biosystem has been investigated as a function of DNA concentration by means of ζ-potential; hydrodynamic diameter and gel electrophoresis analysis. The results have pointed out the specific conditions to achieve the most promising GNRs/DNA complex and its photo-thermal properties have been investigated. The overall study allows to envisage the possibility to ingeniously combine plasmonic and biological materials and, thus, enable design and development of an original non invasive all-optical methodology for monitoring photo-induced temperature variation with high sensitivity.

  9. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Song, Justin C. W.; Rudner, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron–electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands. PMID:27071090

  10. Subwavelength vortical plasmonic lattice solitons.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu, Bambi; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2011-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of vortical plasmonic lattice solitons, which form in two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into nonlinear media with both focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are investigated in detail.

  11. Compact nanomechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B. S.; Haftel, M. I.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Lopez, D.; Blumberg, G.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2015-03-30

    Highly confined optical energy in plasmonic devices is advancing miniaturization in photonics. However, for mode sizes approaching ≈10 nm, the energy increasingly shifts into the metal, raising losses and hindering active phase modulation. Here, we propose a nanoelectromechanical phase-modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal–insulator–metal gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We experimentally demonstrate a 23-μm-long non-resonant modulator having a 1.5π rad range, with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows that by simultaneously decreasing the gap, length and width, an ultracompact-footprint π rad phase modulator can be realized. This is achieved without incurring the extra loss expected for plasmons confined in a decreasing gap, because the increasing phase-modulation strength from a narrowing gap offsets rising propagation losses. Such small, high-density electrically controllable components may find applications in optical switch fabrics and reconfigurable plasmonic optics.

  12. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; Garcia de Abajo, Javier F.

    2016-09-01

    The combination of graphene's intrinsically-high nonlinear optical response with its ability to support long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that couple strongly with light has generated great expectations for application of the atomically-thin material to nanophotonic devices. These expectations are mainly reinforced by classical analyses performed using the response derived from extended graphene, neglecting finite-size and nonlocal effects that become important when the carbon layer is structured on the nanometer scale in actual device designs. Based on a quantum-mechanical description of graphene using tight-binding electronic states combined with the random-phase approximation, we show that finite-size effects produce large contributions that increase the nonlinear response associated with plasmons in nanostructured graphene to significantly higher levels than previously thought, particularly in the case of Kerr-type optical nonlinearities. Motivated by this finding, we discuss and compare saturable absorption in extended and nanostructured graphene, with or without plasmonic enhancement, within the context of passive mode-locking for ultrafast lasers. We also explore the possibility of high-harmonic generation in doped graphene nanoribbons and nanoislands, where illumination by an infrared pulse of moderate intensity, tuned to a plasmon resonance, is predicted to generate light at harmonics of order 13 or higher, extending over the visible and UV regimes. Our atomistic description of graphene's nonlinear optical response reveals its complex nature in both extended and nanostructured systems, while further supporting the exceptional potential of this material for nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  13. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmons, the collective oscillations of interacting electrons, possess emergent properties that dramatically alter the optical response of metals. We predict the existence of a new class of plasmons—chiral Berry plasmons (CBPs)—for a wide range of 2D metallic systems including gapped Dirac materials. As we show, in these materials the interplay between Berry curvature and electron-electron interactions yields chiral plasmonic modes at zero magnetic field. The CBP modes are confined to system boundaries, even in the absence of topological edge states, with chirality manifested in split energy dispersions for oppositely directed plasmon waves. We unveil a rich CBP phenomenology and propose setups for realizing them, including in anomalous Hall metals and optically pumped 2D Dirac materials. Realization of CBPs will offer a powerful paradigm for magnetic field-free, subwavelength optical nonreciprocity, in the mid-IR to terahertz range, with tunable splittings as large as tens of THz, as well as sensitive all-optical diagnostics of topological bands.

  14. Plasmonics Meets Biology through Optics.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Luciano; Caracciolo, Giulio; Annesi, Ferdinanda; Placido, Tiziana; Pozzi, Daniela; Comparelli, Roberto; Pane, Alfredo; Curri, Maria Lucia; Agostiano, Angela; Bartolino, Roberto

    2015-06-09

    Plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) represent a relevant class of nanomaterials, which is able to achieve light localization down to nanoscale by exploiting a phenomenon called Localized Plasmon Resonance. In the last few years, NPs have been proposed to trigger DNA release or enhance ablation of diseased tissues, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. In view of the therapeutic relevance of such plasmonic NPs; a detailed characterization of the electrostatic interaction between positively charged gold nanorods (GNRs) and a negatively charged whole-genome DNA solution is reported. The preparation of the hybrid biosystem has been investigated as a function of DNA concentration by means of ζ-potential; hydrodynamic diameter and gel electrophoresis analysis. The results have pointed out the specific conditions to achieve the most promising GNRs/DNA complex and its photo-thermal properties have been investigated. The overall study allows to envisage the possibility to ingeniously combine plasmonic and biological materials and, thus, enable design and development of an original non invasive all-optical methodology for monitoring photo-induced temperature variation with high sensitivity.

  15. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2015-01-14

    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (∼ 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification.

  16. Metal-Substrate-Mediated Plasmon Hybridization in a Nanoparticle Dimer for Photoluminescence Line-Width Shrinking and Intensity Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Jing; Luo, Yu; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2017-03-28

    Metal-film-coupled nanoparticles with subnanometer particle-film gaps possess an ultrasmall mode volume, responsible for a variety of intriguing phenomena in plasmonic nanophotonics. Due to the large radiative loss associated with dipolar coupling, however, the plasmonic-film-coupled nanocavities usually feature a low-quality factor, setting an ultimate limit of the increased light-matter interaction strength. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic nanocavity composed of a metal-film-coupled nanoparticle dimer, exhibiting a significantly improved quality factor. Compared to a silica-supported dimer, the spectral line width of the nanocavity plasmon resonance is reduced by a factor of ∼4.6 and is even smaller than its monomer counterpart (∼30% reduction). Comprehensive theoretical analyses reveal that this pronounced resonance narrowing effect can be attributed to intense film-mediated plasmon hybridization between the bonding dipolar and quadrupolar gap modes in the dimer. More importantly, the invoking of the dark quadrupole resonance leads to a giant photoluminescence intensity enhancement (∼200 times) and dramatic emission line-width narrowing (∼4.6 times), compared to the silica-supported dimer. The similar spectral characteristics of the measured plasmonic scattering and photoluminescence emission indicate that the radiative decay of the coupled plasmons in the nanocavity is the origin of the observed photoluminescence, consistent with a proposed phenomenological model. Numerical calculations show that the intensity enhancement is mainly contributed by the dimer-film gap rather than the interparticle gap. These findings not only shed more light on the hybridized interaction between plasmon modes but also deepen the understanding of photoluminescence emission in coupled plasmonic nanostructures.

  17. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  18. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

  19. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.509 Prohibited overlap. (a) An application for a new or modified NCE-FM station other than a Class D (secondary) station will not be accepted if the...

  20. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.509 Prohibited overlap. (a) An application for a new or modified NCE-FM station other than a Class D (secondary) station will not be accepted if the...

  1. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  2. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  3. Stochastic Cooling with Schottky Band Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri

    2006-03-20

    Optimal use of stochastic cooling is essential to maximize the antiproton stacking rate for Tevatron Run II. Good understanding and characterization of the cooling is important for the optimization. The paper is devoted to derivation of the Fokker-Plank equations justified in the case of near or full Schottky base overlap for both longitudinal and transverse coolings.

  4. Overlapping Community Detection based on Network Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Xingyi; Sun, Dengdi; Luo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Community detection in complex network has become a vital step to understand the structure and dynamics of networks in various fields. However, traditional node clustering and relatively new proposed link clustering methods have inherent drawbacks to discover overlapping communities. Node clustering is inadequate to capture the pervasive overlaps, while link clustering is often criticized due to the high computational cost and ambiguous definition of communities. So, overlapping community detection is still a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new overlapping community detection algorithm based on network decomposition, called NDOCD. Specifically, NDOCD iteratively splits the network by removing all links in derived link communities, which are identified by utilizing node clustering technique. The network decomposition contributes to reducing the computation time and noise link elimination conduces to improving the quality of obtained communities. Besides, we employ node clustering technique rather than link similarity measure to discover link communities, thus NDOCD avoids an ambiguous definition of community and becomes less time-consuming. We test our approach on both synthetic and real-world networks. Results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach both in computation time and accuracy compared to state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27066904

  5. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  6. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  7. Overlap: A Selected Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Stephanie L.

    1985-01-01

    This article presents an annotated bibliography of journal articles and documents which discuss both theoretical and research findings related to issues surrounding the concept of overlap between standardized tests and the content, curricular, and instructional domains of teaching and learning. (MT)

  8. Liberal Education: An Overlapping Pragmatic Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, David C.; Kimball, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests in Bruce Kimball's thesis that a pragmatic consensus was emerging about the understanding of liberal education offers that it might be best understood by comparing it to J. Rawl's idea of an "overlapping consensus." States that by comparing and contrasting these ideas that the emerging consensus is pragmatic in nature. (CMK)

  9. Evidence and implications of direct charge excitation as the dominant mechanism in plasmon-mediated photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, Calvin; Campana, Robert; Morabito, Matthew; Linic, Suljo

    2016-01-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles enhance chemical reactions on their surface when illuminated with light of particular frequencies. It has been shown that these processes are driven by excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The interaction of LSPR with adsorbate orbitals can lead to the injection of energized charge carriers into the adsorbate, which can result in chemical transformations. The mechanism of the charge injection process (and role of LSPR) is not well understood. Here we shed light on the specifics of this mechanism by coupling optical characterization methods, mainly wavelength-dependent Stokes and anti-Stokes SERS, with kinetic analysis of photocatalytic reactions in an Ag nanocube–methylene blue plasmonic system. We propose that localized LSPR-induced electric fields result in a direct charge transfer within the molecule–adsorbate system. Lastly, these observations provide a foundation for the development of plasmonic catalysts that can selectively activate targeted chemical bonds, since the mechanism allows for tuning plasmonic nanomaterials in such a way that illumination can selectively enhance desired chemical pathways.

  10. Evidence and implications of direct charge excitation as the dominant mechanism in plasmon-mediated photocatalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Boerigter, Calvin; Campana, Robert; Morabito, Matthew; ...

    2016-01-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles enhance chemical reactions on their surface when illuminated with light of particular frequencies. It has been shown that these processes are driven by excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The interaction of LSPR with adsorbate orbitals can lead to the injection of energized charge carriers into the adsorbate, which can result in chemical transformations. The mechanism of the charge injection process (and role of LSPR) is not well understood. Here we shed light on the specifics of this mechanism by coupling optical characterization methods, mainly wavelength-dependent Stokes and anti-Stokes SERS, with kinetic analysis of photocatalytic reactionsmore » in an Ag nanocube–methylene blue plasmonic system. We propose that localized LSPR-induced electric fields result in a direct charge transfer within the molecule–adsorbate system. Lastly, these observations provide a foundation for the development of plasmonic catalysts that can selectively activate targeted chemical bonds, since the mechanism allows for tuning plasmonic nanomaterials in such a way that illumination can selectively enhance desired chemical pathways.« less

  11. A generalized non-local optical response theory for plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, N A; Raza, S; Wubs, M; Søndergaard, T; Bozhevolnyi, S I

    2014-05-02

    Metallic nanostructures exhibit a multitude of optical resonances associated with localized surface plasmon excitations. Recent observations of plasmonic phenomena at the sub-nanometre to atomic scale have stimulated the development of various sophisticated theoretical approaches for their description. Here instead we present a comparatively simple semiclassical generalized non-local optical response theory that unifies quantum pressure convection effects and induced charge diffusion kinetics, with a concomitant complex-valued generalized non-local optical response parameter. Our theory explains surprisingly well both the frequency shifts and size-dependent damping in individual metallic nanoparticles as well as the observed broadening of the crossover regime from bonding-dipole plasmons to charge-transfer plasmons in metal nanoparticle dimers, thus unravelling a classical broadening mechanism that even dominates the widely anticipated short circuiting by quantum tunnelling. We anticipate that our theory can be successfully applied in plasmonics to a wide class of conducting media, including doped semiconductors and low-dimensional materials such as graphene.

  12. Self-assembly based plasmonic nanoparticle array coupling with hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Hong; Li, Hongdong

    2017-09-14

    Investigation of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS)/plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) composites is of crucial importance for developing plasmaron-based nanodevices. In this study, a simple and effective way for depicting the fabrication of BNNS/Au NP nanocomposites is reported. Diblock copolymer-based NP arrays exhibiting high hexagonal ordering and offering easy control of particle size are utilized to produce Au NP arrays by directly bonding them to BNNSs on a large scale, allowing to investigate the underlying physics of the metal/BNNS interface. The coupling between BNNSs and plasmonic Au NP arrays, work function, charge transfer and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of BNNS phonon modes are explored. It is revealed that local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NPs induces an electromagnetic mechanism responsible for enhanced Raman results of BNNSs when placing them below Au NPs. In contrast, essential contribution of chemical enhancement from charge transfer induced by energy realignment at the metal/BNNS interface is manifested in hybrid systems of Au NPs and encapsulated BNNS. This work is the first demonstration on evolution of plasmon resonance and charge-based interactions dependent on metal/BNNS interface, thus providing straightforward implications to further develop BNNS-based plasmonics, optoelectronics, and electronics.

  13. Evidence and implications of direct charge excitation as the dominant mechanism in plasmon-mediated photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Boerigter, Calvin; Campana, Robert; Morabito, Matthew; Linic, Suljo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles enhance chemical reactions on their surface when illuminated with light of particular frequencies. It has been shown that these processes are driven by excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The interaction of LSPR with adsorbate orbitals can lead to the injection of energized charge carriers into the adsorbate, which can result in chemical transformations. The mechanism of the charge injection process (and role of LSPR) is not well understood. Here we shed light on the specifics of this mechanism by coupling optical characterization methods, mainly wavelength-dependent Stokes and anti-Stokes SERS, with kinetic analysis of photocatalytic reactions in an Ag nanocube–methylene blue plasmonic system. We propose that localized LSPR-induced electric fields result in a direct charge transfer within the molecule–adsorbate system. These observations provide a foundation for the development of plasmonic catalysts that can selectively activate targeted chemical bonds, since the mechanism allows for tuning plasmonic nanomaterials in such a way that illumination can selectively enhance desired chemical pathways. PMID:26817619

  14. The overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2013-02-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis has two major variant phenotypes in which the features of classical disease are co-mingled with those of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis. These overlap syndromes lack codified diagnostic criteria, established pathogenic mechanisms, and confident management strategies. Their clinical importance relates mainly to the identification of patients who respond poorly to conventional corticosteroid treatment. Scoring systems that lack discriminative power have been used in their definition, and a clinical phenotype based on pre-defined laboratory and histological findings has not been promulgated. The frequency of overlap with primary biliary cirrhosis is 7-13 %, and the frequency of overlap with primary sclerosing cholangitis is 8-17 %. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis and features of cholestatic disease must be distinguished from patients with cholestatic disease and features of autoimmune hepatitis. Variants of the overlap syndromes include patients with small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis, antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, and immunoglobulin G4-associated disease. Conventional corticosteroid therapy alone or in conjunction with ursodeoxycholic acid (13-15 mg/kg daily) has been variably effective, and cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and budesonide have been beneficial in selected patients. The key cholestatic features that influence the prognosis of autoimmune hepatitis must be defined and incorporated into the definition of the syndrome rather than rely on designations that imply the co-mingling of different diseases with manifestations of variable clinical relevance. The overlap syndromes in autoimmune hepatitis are imprecise, heterogeneous, and unfounded, but they constitute a clinical reality that must be accepted, diagnosed, refined, treated, and studied.

  15. Strong Exciton-Plasmon Coupling in MoS2 Coupled with Plasmonic Lattice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Lee, Bumsu; Naylor, Carl H; Ee, Ho-Seok; Park, Joohee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate strong exciton-plasmon coupling in silver nanodisk arrays integrated with monolayer MoS2 via angle-resolved reflectance microscopy spectra of the coupled system. Strong exciton-plasmon coupling is observed with the exciton-plasmon coupling strength up to 58 meV at 77 K, which also survives at room temperature. The strong coupling involves three types of resonances: MoS2 excitons, localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of individual silver nanodisks and plasmonic lattice resonances of the nanodisk array. We show that the exciton-plasmon coupling strength, polariton composition, and dispersion can be effectively engineered by tuning the geometry of the plasmonic lattice, which makes the system promising for realizing novel two-dimensional plasmonic polaritonic devices.

  16. Plasmonics: visit the past to know the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shinji; Okamoto, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Surface plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons localized at surfaces of structures made of metals. Since the surface plasmons induce fluctuations of electric charge at surfaces, they are accompanied by electromagnetic oscillations. Electromagnetic fields associated with surface plasmons are localized at surfaces of metallic structures and significantly enhanced compared with the excitation field. These two characteristics are ingredients for making good use of surface plasmons in plasmonics. Plasmonics is a rapidly growing and well-established research field, which covers various aspects of surface plasmons towards realization of a variety of surface-plasmon-based devices. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental aspects of surface plasmons propagating on planar metallic surfaces and localized at metallic nanoparticles, recent progress in plasmonic waveguides, plasmonic light-emitting devices and plasmonic solar cells is reviewed.

  17. Gap Plasmon Resonance in a Suspended Plasmonic Nanowire Coupled to a Metallic Substrate.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masashi; Holsteen, Aaron; Nagasaki, Yusuke; Brongersma, Mark L; Takahara, Junichi

    2015-08-12

    We present an experimental demonstration of nanoscale gap plasmon resonators that consist of an individual suspended plasmonic nanowire (NW) over a metallic substrate. Our study demonstrates that the NW supports strong gap plasmon resonances of various gap sizes including single-nanometer-scale gaps. The obtained resonance features agree well with intuitive resonance models for near- and far-field regimes. We also illustrate that our suspended NW geometry is capable of constructing plasmonic coupled systems dominated by quasi-electrostatics.

  18. Are non-linear C-H⋯O contacts hydrogen bonds or Van der Waals interactions?. Establishing the limits between hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa, Juan J.; Lafuente, Pilar; Mota, Fernando

    1998-07-01

    The hydrogen bond nature of angular C-H⋯O contacts is examined to determine when these contacts are better classified as hydrogen bonds or as Van der Waals bonds. To classify the bond we propose to look at the nature of the intermolecular bond critical point present in the electron density of the complex containing the bond. The physics behind this approach is explained using a qualitative orbital overlap model aimed at describing the main changes in the electronic density of the complex produced by the C-H⋯O bending.

  19. Seam bonding of graphite reinforced composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D.; Fox, Robert L.; Tyeryar, James R.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and operating characteristics of a method for the joining of composite parts, at a rate of 2 to 6 inches/min, in which the heating process responsible for adhesive flow at 800 F is focused upon the overlapped seam. The heating element is a self-tuning solid state power oscillator whose ferrite's toroid geometry generates a uniform, concentrated magnetic flux in the component to be bonded. Specimens cut from graphite/epoxy panels bonded with epoxy-phenolic adhesive by this process have exhibited average lap-shear strengths of the order of 3400 lbs/sq in.

  20. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Dirk Jan W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Segerink, Frans B.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Prangsma, Jord C.

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optical frequency plasmonic analog to the phased antenna array as it is well known in radar technology and radio astronomy. Individual holes in a thick gold film act as dipolar emitters of surface plasmon polaritons whose phase is controlled individually using a digital spatial light modulator. We show experimentally, using a phase sensitive near-field microscope, that this optical system allows accurate directional emission of surface waves. This compact and flexible method allows for dynamically shaping the propagation of plasmons and holds promise for nanophotonic applications employing propagating surface plasmons. PMID:27121099

  1. Quantum Beats from Entangled Localized Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, David

    Recent experiments report observations of quantum interference between plasmon resonances, inviting descriptions of plasmon-photon interaction using methods from quantum optics. Here we demonstrate, using a Heisenberg-Langevin approach, that the radiation emitted from the localized surface plasmon resonances of a mixed-metal heterodimer may exhibit observable, beat frequency interferences at a far-field detector, known as quantum beats. This prediction represents a correspondence between V-type atoms of quantum optics and the familiar heterodimer system of plasmonics. We explore this analogy in depth and find that although both systems support quantum beats, the heterodimer emits photons in bunches due to the bosonic nature of the plasmon. This highlights a significant difference between the properties of atomic and plasmonic systems. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's CAREER program under Award Number CHE-1253775 and NSF XSEDE resources under Award Number PHY-130045.

  2. Quantum plasmonics with a metal nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhyoup; Tame, Mark; Lim, James; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2012-06-01

    We investigate an array of metal nanoparticles as a channel for nanophotonic quantum communication and the generation of quantum plasmonic interference. We consider the transfer of quantum states, including single qubits as plasmonic wave packets, and highlight the necessity of a quantum-mechanical description by comparing the predictions of quantum theory with those of classical electromagnetic theory. The effects of loss in the metal are included, thus putting our investigation into a practical setting and enabling the quantification of the performance of realistic nanoparticle arrays as plasmonic quantum channels. We explore the interference of single plasmons, finding nonlinear absorption effects associated with the quantum properties of the plasmon excitations. This work highlights the benefits and drawbacks of using nanophotonic periodic systems for quantum plasmonic applications, such as quantum communication and the generation of quantum interference.

  3. Selective control of reconfigurable chiral plasmonic metamolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kuzyk, Anton; Urban, Maximilian J.; Idili, Andrea; Ricci, Francesco; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Selective configuration control of plasmonic nanostructures using either top-down or bottom-up approaches has remained challenging in the field of active plasmonics. We demonstrate the realization of DNA-assembled reconfigurable plasmonic metamolecules, which can respond to a wide range of pH changes in a programmable manner. This programmability allows for selective reconfiguration of different plasmonic metamolecule species coexisting in solution through simple pH tuning. This approach enables discrimination of chiral plasmonic quasi-enantiomers and arbitrary tuning of chiroptical effects with unprecedented degrees of freedom. Our work outlines a new blueprint for implementation of advanced active plasmonic systems, in which individual structural species can be programmed to perform multiple tasks and functions in response to independent external stimuli. PMID:28439556

  4. Stacking of colors in exfoliable plasmonic superlattices.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mahsa; Yu, Ye; Xu, Kaichen; Ng, Ray J H; Dong, Zhaogang; Wang, Liancheng; Safari Dinachali, Saman; Hong, Minghui; Yang, Joel K W

    2016-10-27

    Color printing with plasmonic resonators can overcome limitations in pigment-based printing approaches. While layering in pigment-based prints results in familiar color mixing effects, the color effects of stacking plasmonic resonator structures have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate an experimental strategy to fabricate a 3-tiered complex superlattice of nanostructures with multiple sets of building blocks. Laser interference lithography was used to fabricate the nanostructures and a thin-layer of aluminum was deposited to introduce plasmonic colors. Interestingly, the structures exhibited drastic color changes when the layers of structures were sequentially exfoliated. Our theoretical analysis shows that the colors of the superlattice nanostructure were predominantly determined by the plasmonic properties of the two topmost layers. These results suggest the feasibility of the sub-wavelength vertical stacking of multiple plasmonic colors for applications in sensitive tamper-evident seals, dense 3D barcoding, and substrates for plasmonic color laser printing.

  5. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Dirk Jan W; Korterik, Jeroen P; Segerink, Frans B; Herek, Jennifer L; Prangsma, Jord C

    2016-04-28

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optical frequency plasmonic analog to the phased antenna array as it is well known in radar technology and radio astronomy. Individual holes in a thick gold film act as dipolar emitters of surface plasmon polaritons whose phase is controlled individually using a digital spatial light modulator. We show experimentally, using a phase sensitive near-field microscope, that this optical system allows accurate directional emission of surface waves. This compact and flexible method allows for dynamically shaping the propagation of plasmons and holds promise for nanophotonic applications employing propagating surface plasmons.

  6. Ultralow-Loss CMOS Copper Plasmonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I; Kirtaev, Roman V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2016-01-13

    Surface plasmon polaritons can give a unique opportunity to manipulate light at a scale well below the diffraction limit reducing the size of optical components down to that of nanoelectronic circuits. At the same time, plasmonics is mostly based on noble metals, which are not compatible with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which can outperform gold plasmonic waveguides simultaneously providing long (>40 μm) propagation length and deep subwavelength (∼λ(2)/50, where λ is the free-space wavelength) mode confinement in the telecommunication spectral range. These results create the backbone for the development of a CMOS plasmonic platform and its integration in future electronic chips.

  7. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  8. Control of Plasmon Dynamics in Coupled Plasmonic Hybrid Mode Microcavities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-10

    by concatenating two identical resonators.4,5 Another fascinating example of two-level systems is the exciton- polaritons : pseudoparticles that result...of exciton- polariton enhanced Raman scat- tering, the polariton laser, and the polariton Bose–Einstein condensates are just a few of the recent...diffraction limit in classical photonics and to develop a myriad of applications. While surface plasmon polaritons allow the transmission of optical

  9. Dominance of Plasmonic Resonant Energy Transfer over Direct Electron Transfer in Substantially Enhanced Water Oxidation Activity of BiVO4 by Shape-Controlled Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Gyoung; Moon, Cheon Woo; Park, Hoonkee; Sohn, Woonbae; Kang, Sung Bum; Lee, Sanghan; Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasmonic Au nanostructure/metal oxide heterointerface shows great promise in enhancing photoactivity, due to its ability to confine light to the small volume inside the semiconductor and modify the interfacial electronic band structure. While the shape control of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial for moderate bandgap semiconductors, because plasmonic resonance by interband excitations overlaps above the absorption edge of semiconductors, its critical role in water splitting is still not fully understood. Here, first, the plasmonic effects of shape-controlled Au NPs on bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 ) are studied, and a largely enhanced photoactivity of BiVO4 is reported by introducing the octahedral Au NPs. The octahedral Au NP/BiVO4 achieves 2.4 mA cm(-2) at the 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is the threefold enhancement compared to BiVO4 . It is the highest value among the previously reported plasmonic Au NPs/BiVO4 . Improved photoactivity is attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance; direct electron transfer (DET), plasmonic resonant energy transfer (PRET). The PRET can be stressed over DET when considering the moderate bandgap semiconductor. Enhanced water oxidation induced by the shape-controlled Au NPs is applicable to moderate semiconductors, and shows a systematic study to explore new efficient plasmonic solar water splitting cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Investigating nanoparticle properties in plasmonic nanoarchitectures with DNA by surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefano; Scarano, Simona; Ermini, Maria Laura; Bonini, Massimo; Minunni, Maria

    2015-04-18

    Nanoparticles with different sizes, refractive indices and plasmonic profiles are synthesized, labelled with DNA and embedded in DNA-based plasmonic nanoarchitectures. The contribution of the different properties to reflectivity variation % is rationally investigated by DNA hybridization measurements using the surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) technology.

  11. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, M; Bond, T; Behymer, E; Chang, A

    2010-02-23

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 103 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  12. VERTICAL PILLAR ARRAYS FOR PLASMON NANOCAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, M; Fasenfest, B; Behymer, E; Chang, A; Nguyen, H; Britten, J; Larson, C; Bond, T

    2010-04-02

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 10{sup 3} are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  13. Photoelectronic Sensor with Gold Nanoparticle Plasmon Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0081 Photoelectronic Sensor with Gold Nanoparticle Plasmon Antenna Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 Jul 2014 to 16 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoelectronic Sensor with Gold Nanoparticle Plasmon...utilizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are supposed to function not only as the Plasmon antenna but also as the sensing part. The photocurrent in the

  14. Devices based on surface plasmon interference filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Devices based on surface plasmon filters having at least one metal-dielectric interface to support surface plasmon waves. A multi-layer-coupled surface plasmon notch filter is provided to have more than two symmetric metal-dielectric interfaces coupled with one another to produce a transmission spectral window with desired spectral profile and bandwidth. Such notch filters can form various color filtering devices for color flat panel displays.

  15. Plasmonic lattice solitons in metallic nanowire materials

    SciTech Connect

    Swami, O. P. Kumar, Vijendra Nagar, A. K.

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) are formed in array of metallic nanowires embedded in Kerr-type material. The strong nonlinearity at metal surface, combined with the tight confinement of the guiding modes of the metallic nanowires, provide the main physical mechanism for balancing the creation of plasmonic lattice solitons and wave diffraction. We show that the PLSs are satisfied in a verity of plasmonic systems, which have important applications in nanophotonics and subwavelength optics.

  16. Retrieval procedure of effective conductivity for plasmonic resonant anisotropic metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermakov, O. Y.; Porubaev, F.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Samusev, A. K.; Iorsh, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we introduce the effective surface conductivity retrieval procedure in order to describe the properties of plasmonic resonant anisotropic metasurface consisting of plasmonic elliptical nanodisks.

  17. Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Baumberg, Jeremy J; Kelf, Timothy A; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Cintra, Suzanne; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Bartlett, Phillip N; Russell, Andrea E

    2005-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is an ideal tool for identifying molecules from the "fingerprint" of their molecular bonds; unfortunately, this process lacks a full microscopic understanding and, practically, is plagued with irreproducibility. Using nanostructured metal surfaces, we demonstrate strong correlations between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements. Evidence for simultaneous ingoing and outgoing resonances in wavelength and angle sheds new light on the Raman enhancement process, allowing optimization of a new generation of reproducible Raman substrates.

  18. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kabakova, I. V.; de Hoogh, A.; van der Wel, R. E. C.; Wulf , M.; le Feber, B.; Kuipers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire’s evanescent field and the probe’s response function. As a result, we find that the probe’s sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments. PMID:26947124

  19. Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Feng; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Harutyunyan, Hayk

    2017-04-03

    Since their discovery in the 1960s, nonlinear optical effects have revolutionized optical technologies and laser industry. Development of efficient nanoscale nonlinear sources will pave the way for new applications in photonic circuitry, quantum optics and biosensing. However, nonlinear signal generation at dimensions smaller than the wavelength of light brings new challenges. The fundamental difficulty of designing an efficient nonlinear source is that some of the contributing factors involved in nonlinear wave-mixing at the nanoscale are often hard to satisfy simultaneously. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new type of nonplanar plasmonic metasurfaces, which can greatly enhance the secondmore » harmonic generation (SHG) at visible frequencies and achieve conversion efficiency of ~6 × 10-5 at a peak pump intensity of ~0.5 GW/cm2. This is 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies observed for nonlinear thin films and doubly resonant plasmonic antennas. The proposed metasurface consists of an array of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) nanocavities formed by conformally cross-linked nanowires separated by an ultrathin nonlinear material layer. The nonplanar MDM geometry minimizes the destructive interference of nonlinear emission into the far-field, provides strongly enhanced independently tunable resonances both for fundamental and harmonic frequencies, a good mutual overlap of the modes and a strong interaction with the nonlinear spacer. Lastly, our findings enable the development of efficient nanoscale single photon sources, integrated frequency converters, and other nonlinear devices.« less

  20. Tamm plasmon modes on semi-infinite metallodielectric superlattices.

    PubMed

    Isić, Goran; Vuković, Slobodan; Jašić, Zoran; Belić, Milivoj

    2017-06-16

    We analyze the fundamental properties of optical waves referred to as Tamm plasmon modes (TPMs) which are tied to the interface of a semi-infinite two-phase metallodielectric superlattice with an arbitrary homogeneous capping medium. Such modes offer new ways of achieving high electromagnetic field localization and spontaneous emission enhancement in the vicinity of the interface in conjunction with absorption loss management, which is crucial for future applications. The homointerface, formed when the capping medium has the same permittivity as one of the superlattice constituents, is found to support a TPM whose dispersion overlaps the single-interface surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion but which has a cut off at the topological transition point. In contrast, a heterointerface formed for an arbitrary capping medium, is found to support multiple TPMs whose origin can be traced by considering the interaction between a single-interface SPP and the homointerface TPM burried under the top layer of the superlattice. By carrying out a systematic comparison between TPMs and single-interface SPPs, we find that the deviations are most pronounced in the vicinity of the transition frequency for superlattices in which dielectric layers are thicker than metallic ones.

  1. Diffuse interstitial lung disease: overlaps and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon L F; Hansell, David M

    2010-08-01

    Histopathological analysis of lung biopsy material allows the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; however, the strength of this diagnosis is sometimes subverted by interobserver variation and sampling. The American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations of 2002 provide a framework for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and proposed an integrated clinical, radiological and histopathological approach. These recommendations represent a break with tradition by replacing the 'gold standard' of histopathology with the combined 'silver standards' of clinical, imaging and histopathological information. One of the pitfalls of a rigid classification system for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is its failure to accommodate the phenomenon of overlapping disease patterns. This article reviews the various ways that interstitial lung disease may be classified and discusses their applicability. In addition the issue of overlap disease patterns is considered in the context of histopathological interobserver variation and sampling error and how a pigeonhole approach to disease classification may overlook these hybrid entities.

  2. Partial-overlap biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Lont, Lisa M.; van de Pol, Corina; Rash, Clarence E.

    2004-09-01

    Partial-overlap biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment standards. Currently suggested standards are based on highly variable data from a number of studies, most using subjective discomfort or diplopia measures. This study tested the suggested standard for divergent horizontal image misalignment in a partial-overlap biocular optical system by exercising vigilance performance during image misalignment. Also, pre- and post-image misalignment divergence, convergence and heterophoria measurements were taken. The results revealed that clinical visual diagnoses, associated with accommodation and vergence, were clearly related to vigilance task performance, showing a greater number of vigilance errors for subjects viewing misaligned displays. In-device post-image misalignment divergence recovery and convergence break-recovery were significantly decreased. This was not found for the no-offset controls.

  3. Imaging of autoimmune hepatitis and overlap syndromes.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neera; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory, and relapsing liver disease of unknown origin that may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death. AIH occurs in all age groups and races but can frequently manifest as acute fulminant hepatitis. Clinical presentation of AIH can have features similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and these diseases may coexist leading to overlap syndromes. Although histological diagnosis is necessary, imaging features often can demonstrate characteristics that may be helpful to distinguish these diseases. Imaging features of AIH are those of chronic liver disease, and imaging plays important role in detection of complications and ruling out other possible causes of chronic liver disease. Emerging techniques such as elastography provide non-invasive options for diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis during clinical follow-up as well as assessment of response to treatment. In this study, we will describe imaging findings in AIH and overlap syndromes.

  4. Overlap of fibromyalgia with other medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavín, M

    2001-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a multisystem illness. One of its defining features, generalized pain, may also be present in other rheumatic entities. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is not easy by any means, it requires a profound knowledge of internal medicine. This article discusses the different rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases that overlap or are prone to be confused with fibromyalgia. It emphasizes the key points in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Overlap fermions on a twisted mass sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    We present first results of a mixed action project. We analyze gauge configurations generated with two flavors of dynamical twisted mass fermions. Neuberger's overlap Dirac operator is used for the valence sector. The various choices in the setup of the simulation are discussed. We employ chiral perturbation theory to describe the effects of using different actions in the sea and valence sector at non-zero lattice spacing.

  6. "Overlapped" rhinitis: a real trap for rhinoallergologists.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M

    2014-11-01

    Under the broad heading of "vasomotor" rhinitis two big groups can be distinguished: allergic rhinitis (IgE-mediated), and nonallergic rhinitis. Since they are two separate nosological entities, they can co-exist in the same patient, classifying themselves in the group of "overlapped" rhinitis (OR). Although not absolutely rare (indeed it is estimated a 15-20% incidence among all vasomotor rhinopathies), this condition is not investigated and diagnosed, with significant implications in the clinical-diagnostic and therapeutic field.

  7. The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    PubMed

    Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap. Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying (relational, verbal, and physical) with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience (e.g., who sent the message, how was the message sent, and what was the message about). Data came from 28,104 adolescents (grades, 9-12) attending 58 high schools. Approximately 23% of the youth reported being victims of any form of bullying (cyber, relational, physical, and verbal) within the last month, with 25.6% of those victims reporting being cyberbullied. The largest proportion (50.3%) of victims reported they were victimized by all four forms, whereas only 4.6% reported being only cyberbullied. Multilevel analyses indicated that as compared to those who were only traditionally bullied, those who were cyberbullied were more likely to have externalizing (odds ratio = 1.44) and internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 1.25). Additional analyses examined detailed characteristics of the cyberbullying experiences, indicating a relatively high level of overlap between cyber and traditional bullying. Implications for preventive interventions targeting youth involved with cyberbullying and its overlap with other forms of bullying are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear Terahertz Absorption of Graphene Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; König-Otto, Jacob C; Winnerl, Stephan; Sushkov, Andrei B; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E; Mittendorff, Martin

    2016-04-13

    Subwavelength graphene structures support localized plasmonic resonances in the terahertz and mid-infrared spectral regimes. The strong field confinement at the resonant frequency is predicted to significantly enhance the light-graphene interaction, which could enable nonlinear optics at low intensity in atomically thin, subwavelength devices. To date, the nonlinear response of graphene plasmons and their energy loss dynamics have not been experimentally studied. We measure and theoretically model the terahertz nonlinear response and energy relaxation dynamics of plasmons in graphene nanoribbons. We employ a terahertz pump-terahertz probe technique at the plasmon frequency and observe a strong saturation of plasmon absorption followed by a 10 ps relaxation time. The observed nonlinearity is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude compared to unpatterned graphene with no plasmon resonance. We further present a thermal model for the nonlinear plasmonic absorption that supports the experimental results. The model shows that the observed strong linearity is caused by an unexpected red shift of plasmon resonance together with a broadening and weakening of the resonance caused by the transient increase in electron temperature. The model further predicts that even greater resonant enhancement of the nonlinear response can be expected in high-mobility graphene, suggesting that nonlinear graphene plasmonic devices could be promising candidates for nonlinear optical processing.

  9. Wedge Waveguides and Resonators for Quantum Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kress, Stephan J P; Antolinez, Felipe V; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Kim, David K; Prins, Ferry; Riedinger, Andreas; Fischer, Maximilian P C; Meyer, Stefan; McPeak, Kevin M; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2015-09-09

    Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light-matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 μm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (~90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ~0.004λvac(3) in an exposed single-mode waveguide-resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light-matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon-matter coupling.

  10. Hybrid photon-plasmon nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Xiao, Yao; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Xining; Yu, Shaoliang; Wang, Yipei; Yang, Chuanxi; Guo, Xin; Ning, C Z; Tong, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Metallic and plasmonic nanolasers have attracted growing interest recently. Plasmonic lasers demonstrated so far operate in hybrid photon-plasmon modes in transverse dimensions, rendering it impossible to separate photonic from plasmonic components. Thus only the far-field photonic component can be measured and utilized directly. But spatially separated plasmon modes are highly desired for applications including high-efficiency coupling of single-photon emitters and ultrasensitivity optical sensing. Here, we report a nanowire (NW) laser that offers subdiffraction-limited beam size and spatially separated plasmon cavity modes. By near-field coupling a high-gain CdSe NW and a 100 nm diameter Ag NW, we demonstrate a hybrid photon-plasmon laser operating at 723 nm wavelength at room temperature, with a plasmon mode area of 0.008λ(2). This device simultaneously provides spatially separated photonic far-field output and highly localized coherent plasmon modes, which may open up new avenues in the fields of integrated nanophotonic circuits, biosensing, and quantum information processing.

  11. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  12. Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ju, Long; Geng, Baisong; Horng, Jason; Girit, Caglar; Martin, Michael; Hao, Zhao; Bechtel, Hans A; Liang, Xiaogan; Zettl, Alex; Shen, Y Ron; Wang, Feng

    2011-09-04

    Plasmons describe collective oscillations of electrons. They have a fundamental role in the dynamic responses of electron systems and form the basis of research into optical metamaterials. Plasmons of two-dimensional massless electrons, as present in graphene, show unusual behaviour that enables new tunable plasmonic metamaterials and, potentially, optoelectronic applications in the terahertz frequency range. Here we explore plasmon excitations in engineered graphene micro-ribbon arrays. We demonstrate that graphene plasmon resonances can be tuned over a broad terahertz frequency range by changing micro-ribbon width and in situ electrostatic doping. The ribbon width and carrier doping dependences of graphene plasmon frequency demonstrate power-law behaviour characteristic of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons. The plasmon resonances have remarkably large oscillator strengths, resulting in prominent room-temperature optical absorption peaks. In comparison, plasmon absorption in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas was observed only at 4.2 K (refs 13, 14). The results represent a first look at light-plasmon coupling in graphene and point to potential graphene-based terahertz metamaterials.

  13. Tunable Terahertz Hybrid Metal-Graphene Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; Sushkov, Andrei B; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Boyd, Anthony K; Daniels, Kevin M; Gaskill, D Kurt; Fuhrer, Michael S; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E

    2015-10-14

    We report here a new type of plasmon resonance that occurs when graphene is connected to a metal. These new plasmon modes offer the potential to incorporate a tunable plasmonic channel into a device with electrical contacts, a critical step toward practical graphene terahertz optoelectronics. Through theory and experiments, we demonstrate, for example, anomalously high resonant absorption or transmission when subwavelength graphene-filled apertures are introduced into an otherwise conductive layer. These tunable plasmon resonances are essential yet missing ingredients needed for terahertz filters, oscillators, detectors, and modulators.

  14. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-01

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 μm thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  15. Explosives Detection in a Lasing Plasmon Nanocavity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity Ren-Min Ma1†, Sadao Ota1†, Yimin Li1, Sui Yang1 and Xiang Zhang1,2* Perhaps the most successful...application of plasmonics to date has been in sensing, where the interaction of a nanoscale loca- lized field with analytes leads to high-sensitivity... plasmon sensors with active excitation (gain-enhanced) can achieve much higher sensitivities due to the amplification of the surface plasmons10–12. Here

  16. Plasmonic Biofoam: A Versatile Optically Active Material.

    PubMed

    Tian, Limei; Luan, Jingyi; Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2016-01-13

    Owing to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonic nanostructures are highly attractive for a broad range of applications. While tremendous progress has been made in the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled plasmonic nanostructures, their integration with other materials and application in solid-state is primarily through their assembly on rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, which limits the plasmonically active space to a few nanometers above the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to create plasmonically active three-dimensional biofoams by integrating plasmonic nanostructures with highly porous biomaterial aerogels. We demonstrate that plasmonic biofoam is a versatile optically active platform that can be harnessed for numerous applications including (i) ultrasensitive chemical detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering; (ii) highly efficient energy harvesting and steam generation through plasmonic photothermal heating; and (iii) optical control of enzymatic activity by triggered release of biomolecules encapsulated within the aerogel. Our results demonstrate that 3D plasmonic biofoam exhibits significantly higher sensing, photothermal, and loading efficiency compared to conventional 2D counterparts. The design principles and processing methodology of plasmonic aerogels demonstrated here can be broadly applied in the fabrication of other functional foams.

  17. Plasmonic substrates for surface-enhanced spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, F.; Hao, F.; Nordlander, P.

    2006-08-01

    Using the Plasmon Hybridization (PH) method and the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the plasmonic properties of finite metallic nanopartices interacting with extended metallic substrates such as thin films and wires. The results from the two computational methods are found to agree very well. We show that the plasmons of a metallic nanoparticle couple to the delocalized plasmons of extended substrates in the same manner as an electronic impurity level couples to an continuum of electronic states. The interaction can result in both localized plasmons and virtual states in the plasmonic continuum. The virtual states are composed of delocalized plasmons from the extended substrate and depend sensitively on the geometry of the system, the polarization of incident electromagnetic excitations as well as the background dielectric properties of the structures. We demonstrate that the virtual state can provide large electric field enhancements over a broad and tunable spectral regime. Our investigations show that plasmonic structures supporting virtual states are highly suitable as substrates for surface enhanced spectroscopic applications and may be useful in plasmonic waveguiding applications.

  18. Burnout-depression overlap: a review.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression or a distinct phenomenon is an object of controversy. The aim of the present article was to provide an up-to-date review of the literature dedicated to the question of burnout-depression overlap. A systematic literature search was carried out in PubMed, PsycINFO, and IngentaConnect. A total of 92 studies were identified as informing the issue of burnout-depression overlap. The current state of the art suggests that the distinction between burnout and depression is conceptually fragile. It is notably unclear how the state of burnout (i.e., the end stage of the burnout process) is conceived to differ from clinical depression. Empirically, evidence for the distinctiveness of the burnout phenomenon has been inconsistent, with the most recent studies casting doubt on that distinctiveness. The absence of consensual diagnostic criteria for burnout and burnout research's insufficient consideration of the heterogeneity of depressive disorders constitute major obstacles to the resolution of the raised issue. In conclusion, the epistemic status of the seminal, field-dominating definition of burnout is questioned. It is suggested that systematic clinical observation should be given a central place in future research on burnout-depression overlap.

  19. Overlaps between Frailty and Sarcopenia Definitions.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the catabolism of muscles leading to sarcopenia and frailty. These are two geriatric syndromes with partly overlapping phenotypes. Primary sarcopenia, i.e. loss of muscle mass and function related to aging alone, usually precedes frailty. Thus, robustness passes from sarcopenia over frailty to disability leading eventually to a mortal outcome. Frailty (defined according to the phenotype model) encompasses states as exhaustion, weakness, and slowness, whereas sarcopenia, combining mass and function, is more strictly focused on muscles. Frailty is age related, whereas sarcopenia is also related to disease, starvation, and disuse. In general, the criteria for the two conditions overlap, but frailty requires weight loss, whereas sarcopenia requires muscle loss. Both gait speed and hand grip strength are suggested to be used as diagnostic measures for the two conditions since muscle function is crucial for any of the two syndromes. It is suggested that frailty screening should be part of the geriatric comprehensive assessment starting with measuring walking capacity and complemented by taking a history of fatigue and low activity. For younger adults (i.e. <70 years), sarcopenia screening could first register gait speed or hand grip strength and then body composition measurements. Simple questionnaires are feasible clinical alternatives. Treatment of frailty and sarcopenia overlaps, i.e. provide adequate protein and vitamin D supplementation, and encourage resistance exercise.

  20. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  1. Technological studies for plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomescu, Roxana; Kusko, Cristian; Dinescu, Adrian; Bita, Bogdan; Popescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This work will present the technological processes necessary to experimentally obtain plasmonic metasurfaces for developing flat optical components or diffractive optical elements (DOE) which have reflexion functionalities. This class of metasurfaces offers the possibility to manipulate the beam shape using an array of metallic nanoscale elements patterned on a substrate. The main feature of these structures is that one can manipulate the phase behavior by modifying some of the geometrical parameters of the nano-antennas in order to achieve the required phase shift values for the desired applications. The first important step in experimentally obtaining a plasmonic metasurface structures is the electron beam lithography (EBL) followed by the lift-off method. Due to the small sizes of the gold nano-antennas and tight periodicity of the array a number of impediments can emerge in experimentally obtaining such geometries which can be overcome by the parameter optimization of the employed technologies.

  2. Propagating plasmons on silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weidong; Wei, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Yurui; Li, Ping; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-08-01

    Chemically synthesized Ag nanowires (NWs) can serve as waveguides to support propagating surface plasmons (SPs). By using the propagating SPs on Ag NWs, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering of molecules, located in the nanowire-nanoparticle junction a few microns away from the laser spot on one end of the NW, was excited. The propagating SPs can excite the excitons in quantum dots, and in reverse, the decay of excitons can generate SPs. The direction and polarization of the light emitted through the Ag NW waveguide. The emission polarization depends strongly on the shape of the NW terminals. In branched NW structures, the SPs can be switched between the main NW and the branch NW, by tuning the incident polarization. The light of different wavelength can also be controlled to propagate along different ways. Thus, the branched NW structure can serve as controllable plasmonic router and multiplexer.

  3. Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei Ting; Török, Peter; Foreman, Matthew R.; Yen Liao, Chun; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Wu, Pei Ru; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces enable simultaneous control of the phase, momentum, amplitude and polarization of light and hence promise great utility in realization of compact photonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel chip-scale device suitable for simultaneous polarization and spectral measurements through use of six integrated plasmonic metasurfaces (IPMs), which diffract light with a given polarization state and spectral component into well-defined spatial domains. Full calibration and characterization of our device is presented, whereby good spectral resolution and polarization accuracy over a wavelength range of 500-700 nm is shown. Functionality of our device in a Müller matrix modality is demonstrated through determination of the polarization properties of a commercially available variable waveplate. Our proposed IPM is robust, compact and can be fabricated with a single photolithography step, promising many applications in polarization imaging, quantum communication and quantitative sensing.

  4. Plasmonic enhancement of ultraviolet fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaojin

    Plasmonics relates to the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons at metallic interfaces or in metallic nanostructures. Surface plasmons are collective electron oscillations at a metal surface, which can be manipulated by shape, texture and material composition. Plasmonic applications cover a broad spectrum from visible to near infrared, including biosensing, nanolithography, spectroscopy, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and so on. However, there remains a gap in this activity in the ultraviolet (UV, < 400 nm), where significant opportunity exists for both fundamental and application research. Motivating factors in the study of UV Plasmonics are the direct access to biomolecular resonances and native fluorescence, resonant Raman scattering interactions, and the potential for exerting control over photochemical reactions. This dissertation aims to fill in the gap of Plasmonics in the UV with efforts of design, fabrication and characterization of aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) nanostructures for the application of label-free bimolecular detection via native UV fluorescence. The first contribution of this dissertation addresses the design of Al nanostructures in the context of UV fluorescence enhancement. A design method that combines analytical analysis with numerical simulation has been developed. Performance of three canonical plasmonic structures---the dipole antenna, bullseye nanoaperture and nanoaperture array---has been compared. The optimal geometrical parameters have been determined. A novel design of a compound bullseye structure has been proposed and numerically analyzed for the purpose of compensating for the large Stokes shift typical of UV fluorescence. Second, UV lifetime modification of diffusing molecules by Al nanoapertures has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Lifetime reductions of ~3.5x have been observed for the high quantum yield (QY) laser dye p-terphenyl in a 60 nm diameter aperture with 50

  5. Plasmon nano-optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Righini, Maurizio; Quidant, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Conventional optical tweezers, formed at the diffraction-limited focus of a laser beam, have become a powerful and flexible tool for manipulating micrometre-sized objects. Extending optical trapping down to the nanometre scale would open unprecedented opportunities in many fields of science, where such nano-optical tweezers would allow the ultra-accurate positioning of single nano-objects. Among the possible strategies, the ability of metallic nanostructures to control light at the subwavelength scale can be exploited to engineer such nano-optical traps. This Review summarizes the recent advances in the emerging field of plasmon-based optical trapping and discusses the details of plasmon tweezers along with their potential applications to bioscience and quantum optics.

  6. Integrated plasmonic metasurfaces for spectropolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei Ting; Török, Peter; Foreman, Matthew R; Liao, Chun Yen; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Wu, Pei Ru; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-06-03

    Plasmonic metasurfaces enable simultaneous control of the phase, momentum, amplitude and polarization of light and hence promise great utility in realization of compact photonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel chip-scale device suitable for simultaneous polarization and spectral measurements through use of six integrated plasmonic metasurfaces (IPMs), which diffract light with a given polarization state and spectral component into well-defined spatial domains. Full calibration and characterization of our device is presented, whereby good spectral resolution and polarization accuracy over a wavelength range of 500-700 nm is shown. Functionality of our device in a Müller matrix modality is demonstrated through determination of the polarization properties of a commercially available variable waveplate. Our proposed IPM is robust, compact and can be fabricated with a single photolithography step, promising many applications in polarization imaging, quantum communication and quantitative sensing.

  7. Data Assimilation Results from PLASMON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Lichtenberger, J.; Duffy, J.; Friedel, R. H.; Clilverd, M.; Heilig, B.; Vellante, M.; Manninen, J. K.; Raita, T.; Rodger, C. J.; Collier, A.; Reda, J.; Holzworth, R. H.; Ober, D. M.; Boudouridis, A.; Zesta, E.; Chi, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    VLF and magnetometer observations can be used to remotely sense the plasmasphere. VLF whistler waves can be used to measure the electron density and magnetic Field Line Resonance (FLR) measurements can be used to measure the mass density. In principle it is then possible to remotely map the plasmasphere with a network of ground-based stations which are also less expensive and more permanent than satellites. The PLASMON project, funded by the EU FP-7 program, is in the process of doing just this. A large number of ground-based observations will be input into a data assimilative framework which models the plasmasphere structure and dynamics. The data assimilation framework combines the Ensemble Kalman Filter with the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model. In this presentation we will describe the plasmasphere model, the data assimilation approach that we have taken, PLASMON data and data assimilation results for specific events.

  8. Core–Shell Plasmonic Nanohelices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We introduce core–shell plasmonic nanohelices, highly tunable structures that have a different response in the visible for circularly polarized light of opposite handedness. The glass core of the helices is fabricated using electron beam induced deposition and the pure gold shell is subsequently sputter coated. Optical measurements allow us to explore the chiral nature of the nanohelices, where differences in the response to circularly polarized light of opposite handedness result in a dissymmetry factor of 0.86, more than twice of what has been previously reported. Both experiments and subsequent numerical simulations demonstrate the extreme tunability of the core–shell structures, where nanometer changes to the geometry can lead to drastic changes of the optical responses. This tunability, combined with the large differential transmission, make core–shell plasmonic nanohelices a powerful nanophotonic tool for, for example, (bio)sensing applications. PMID:28824931

  9. A Plasmon Laser in Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, P.; Kempa, K.

    2003-03-01

    Plasma instabilities lead to exponentially growing charge density oscillations, which can generate electromagnetic radiation at the same frequency. Current driven semiconductor nanostructures can develop THz collective oscillations and serve as radiation sources in that range.The basic criterion for plasma instabilities was established [1] to be the resonant interaction of an emissive plasmon mode with an absorptive plasmon mode.Scenarios are presented where this phenomenon can be realized in a high density low current regime.A special case is a reservoir (an absorptive mode) with an adjoining quantum well that harbors a population inverted pair of subbands (the emissive mode). [1].P.Bakshi and K.Kempa,Condensed Matter Theories,12,p.399-412,(1997). Work supported by US Army Research Office.

  10. Rashba-type plasmonic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Nir; Maayani, Shai; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2013-11-01

    Observation of the plasmonic Rashba effect manifested by a polarization helicity degeneracy removal in a surface wave excitation via an inversion asymmetric metamaterial is reported. By designing the metasurface symmetry using anisotropic nanoantennas with space-variant orientations, we govern the light-matter interaction via the local field distribution arising in a wavelength and a photon spin control. The broken spatial inversion symmetry is experimentally manifested by a directional excitation of surface wave jets observed via a decoupling slit as well as by the quantum dot fluorescence. Rashba-type plasmonic metasurfaces provide a route for spin-based nanoscale devices controlled by the metamaterial symmetry and usher in a new era of light manipulation.

  11. Nano-plasmonic exosome diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyungsoon; Shao, Huilin; Weissleder, Ralph; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes have emerged as a promising biomarker. These vesicles abound in biofluids and harbor molecular constituents from their parent cells, thereby offering a minimally-invasive avenue for molecular analyses. Despite such clinical potential, routine exosomal analysis, particularly the protein assay, remains challenging, due to requirements for large sample volumes and extensive processing. We have been developing miniaturized systems to facilitate clinical exosome studies. These systems can be categorized into two components: microfluidics for sample preparation and analytical tools for protein analyses. In this report, we review a new assay platform, nano-plasmonic exosome, in which sensing is based on surface plasmon resonance to achieve label-free exosome detection. Looking forward, we also discuss some potential challenges and improvements in exosome studies.

  12. Slow plasmons in grating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinli, Atilla; Karademir, Ertugrul; Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2016-03-01

    Recent research on surface plasmon polaritons and their applications have brought forward a wealth of information and continues to be of interest to many. In this report, we concentrate on propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and their interaction with matter. Using grating based metallic structures, it is possible to control the electrodynamics of propagating SPPs. Biharmonic gratings loaded with periodic Si stripes allow excitation of SPPs that are localized inside the band gap with grating coupling. The cavity state is formed due to periodic effective index modulation obtained by one harmonic of the grating and loaded Si stripes. More complicated grating structures such as metallic Moiré surfaces have also been shown to form a localized state inside the band gap when excited with Kretschmann configuration.

  13. Utilizing light-triggered plasmon-driven catalysis reactions as a template for molecular delivery and release.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Wang, Huan; Camden, Jon P

    2017-09-01

    Due to the facile manipulation and non-invasive nature of light-triggered release, it is one of the most potent ways to selectively and remotely deliver a molecular target. Among the various carrier platforms, plasmonic nanoparticles possess advantages such as enhanced cellular uptake and easy loading of "cargo" molecules. Two general strategies are currently utilized to achieve light-induced molecule release from plasmonic nanoparticles. The first uses femtosecond laser pulses to directly break the bond between the nanoparticle and the loaded target. The other requires significant photo-thermal effects to weaken the interaction between the cargo molecules and nanoparticle-attached host molecules. Different from above mechanisms, herein, we introduce a new light-controlled molecular-release method by taking advantage of a plasmon-driven catalytic reaction at the particle surface. In this strategy, we link the target to a plasmon responsive molecule, 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT), through the robust and simple EDC coupling reaction and subsequently load the complex onto the particles via the strong Au-thiol interaction. Upon continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination, the excited surface plasmon catalyzes the formation of 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzenethiol (DMAB) and simultaneously releases the loaded molecules with high efficiency. This method does not require the use of high-power pulsed lasers, nor does it rely on photo-thermal effects. We believe that plasmon-driven release strategies open a new direction for the designing of next-generation light-triggered release processes.

  14. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  15. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  16. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny; Larson, Vincent E.; Wong, May; Thayer-Calder, Katherine; Ghan, Steven J.

    2016-11-05

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.

  17. Surface plasmon polariton laser based on a metallic trench Fabry-Perot resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenqi; Xu, Ting; Wang, Haozhu; Zhang, Cheng; Deotare, Parag B; Agrawal, Amit; Lezec, Henri J

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the development of small-footprint lasers for potential applications in small-volume sensing and on-chip optical communications. Surface plasmons-electromagnetic modes evanescently confined to metal-dielectric interfaces-offer an effective route to achieving lasing at nanometer-scale dimensions when resonantly amplified in contact with a gain medium. We achieve narrow-linewidth visible-frequency lasing at room temperature by leveraging surface plasmons propagating in an open Fabry-Perot cavity formed by a flat metal surface coated with a subwavelength-thick layer of optically pumped gain medium and orthogonally bound by a pair of flat metal sidewalls. We show how the lasing threshold and linewidth can be lowered by incorporating a low-profile tapered grating on the cavity floor to couple the excitation beam into a pump surface plasmon polariton providing a strong modal overlap with the gain medium. Low-perturbation transmission-configuration sampling of the lasing plasmon mode is achieved via an evanescently coupled recessed nanoslit, opening the way to high-figure of merit refractive index sensing of analytes interacting with the open metallic trench.

  18. Optomechanical coupling in phoxonic–plasmonic slab cavities with periodic metal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Huang, Yin-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical (OM) coupling of submicron cavities formed in one-dimensional phoxonic–plasmonic slabs. The phoxonic–plasmonic slabs are structured by depositing periodic Ag strips onto the top surfaces of dielectric GaAs slabs to produce dual band gaps for both electromagnetic and acoustic waves, thereby inducing the coupling of surface plasmons with photons for tailoring the OM coupling. We quantify the OM coupling by calculating the temporal modulation of the optical resonance wavelength with the acoustic phonon-induced photoelastic (PE) and moving-boundary (MB) effects. We also consider the appearance of a uniform Ag layer on the bottom surface of the slabs to modulate the photonic–plasmonic coupling. The results show that the PE and MB effects can be constructive or destructive in the overall OM coupling, and their magnitudes depend not only on the quality factors of the resonant modes but also on the mode area, mode overlap, and individual symmetries of the photonic–phononic mode pairs. Lowering the mode area could be effective for enhancing the OM coupling of subwavelength photons and phonons. This study introduces possible engineering applications to achieve enhanced interaction between photons and phonons in nanoscale OM devices.

  19. Optical interaction between small plasmonic nanowires: a perspective from induced forces and torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekeroth, Ricardo M. Abraham

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses a new numerical study of the near electromagnetic coupling between two small, metallic nanowires under plane-wave illumination. The forces and torques induced give a different point of view of the interaction. The analysis of these near-field, mechanical observables is based entirely on the plasmon hybridization model, with the help of an adequate correlation with far fields. Although several studies of the opto-mechanical inductions have been done, unexpected features of the movement are obtained. ‘Coordinated’ spin for the wires are found, in addition to binding or repulsion forces between the wires and scattering forces. For heterodimers, also orbital torques are obtained. The binding and rotation of the nanowires as well as orbital torques are strongly dependent on the plasmonic excitations of the system. They identify uniquely the surface plasmons. In particular, dark modes can be optically detected without using evanescent fields. The optical forces and torques are calculated exactly by Maxwell stress tensor. ‘Realistic’ infinite nanowires of silver and gold are simulated by a size correction in bulk dielectric function. Thus, the importance of this correction on the mechanical results is also studied. The results can contribute to the design of devices for real observation/detection of surface plasmons. The spectra of forces, and specially of torques, show more resolved resonances because overlapping effects are not as present as in far-field calculations. The spinning of wires found and the analysis made could open new directions of studies and applications of dimers.

  20. Electron photoemission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays: analysis of collective resonances and embedding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically study the characteristics of photoelectron emission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Nanoparticles are partially embedded in a semiconductor, forming Schottky barriers at metal/semiconductor interfaces through which photoelectrons can tunnel from the nanoparticle into the semiconductor; photodetection in the infrared range, where photon energies are below the semiconductor band gap (insufficient for band-to-band absorption in semiconductor), is therefore possible. The nanoparticles are arranged in a sparse rectangular lattice so that the wavelength of the lattice-induced Rayleigh anomalies can overlap the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the individual particles, bringing about collective effects from the nanoparticle array. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we analyze the effects of lattice constant, embedding depth, and refractive index step between the semiconductor layer and an adjacent transparent conductive oxide layer. We show that the presence of refractive index mismatch between media surrounding the nanoparticles disrupts the formation of a narrow absorption peak associated with the Rayleigh anomaly, so the role of collective lattice effects in the formation of plasmonic resonance is diminished. We also show that 5-20 times increase of photoemission can be achieved on embedding of nanoparticles without taking into account dynamics of ballistic electrons. The results obtained can be used to increase efficiency of plasmon-based photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. The results may provide clues to designing an experiment where the contributions of surface and volume photoelectric effects to the overall photocurrent would be defined.

  1. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  2. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A.; Schatz, George C.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  3. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael B; Ku, Jessie C; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A; Schatz, George C

    2016-04-13

    Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  4. Plasmon coherence determination by nanoscattering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahong; Norrman, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Sergey A; Friberg, Ari T

    2017-09-01

    We present a simple and robust protocol to recover the second-order field correlations of polychromatic, statistically stationary surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) from a spectrum measurement in the far zone of a dipolar nanoscatterer. The recovered correlations carry comprehensive information about the spectral, spatial, and temporal coherence of the SPPs. We also introduce and exemplify for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the two-point Stokes parameters associated with partially coherent SPP fields.

  5. When plasmonics meets membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Politano, A; Cupolillo, A; Di Profio, G; Arafat, H A; Chiarello, G; Curcio, E

    2016-09-14

    In this review, we present the applications of thermoplasmonics in membrane processes. We discuss the influence of the heat capacity of the solvent, the amount of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the intensity of the light source and the transmembrane flow rate on the increase of permeability. Remarkably, thermoplasmonic effects do not involve any noticeable loss of membrane rejection. Herein, we consider application feasibilities, including application fields, requirements of feed, alternatives of light sources, promising thermoplasmonic nanoparticles and scaling up issues.

  6. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA

    DOE PAGES

    Ross, Michael B.; Ku, Jessie C.; Lee, Byeongdu; ...

    2016-02-05

    In this study, mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications.

  7. Nanostructured surfaces for surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petefish, Joseph W.

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has achieved widespread recognition as a sensitive, label-free, and versatile optical method for monitoring changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. Refractive index deviations of 10-6 RIU are resolvable using SPR, and the method can be used in real-time or ex-situ. Instruments based on carboxymethyl dextran coated SPR chips have achieved commercial success in biological detection, while SPR sensors can also be found in other fields as varied as food safety and gas sensing. Chapter 1 provides a physical background of SPR sensing. A brief history of the technology is presented, and publication data are included that demonstrate the large and growing interest in surface plasmons. Numerous applications of SPR sensors are listed to illustrate the broad appeal of the method. Surface plasmons (SPs) and surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) are formally defined, and important parameters governing their spatial behavior are derived from Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. Physical requirements for exciting SPs with incident light are discussed, and SPR imaging is used to illustrate the operating principle of SPR-based detection. Angle-tunable surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) of polymer vibrational modes via grating-coupled SPR is demonstrated in Chapter 2. Over 10-fold enhancement of C-H stretching modes was found relative to the absorbance of the same film in the absence of plasmon excitation. Modeling results are used to support and explain experimental observations. Improvements to the grating coupler SEIRA platform in Chapter 2 are explored in Chapters 3 and 4. Chapter 3 displays data for two sets of multipitch gratings: one set with broadly distributed resonances with the potential for multiband IR enhancement and the other with finely spaced, overlapping resonances to form a broadband IR enhancement device. Diffraction gratings having multiple periods were fabricated using a Lloyd

  8. Plasmonics in atomically thin materials.

    PubMed

    García de Abajo, F Javier; Manjavacas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The observation and electrical manipulation of infrared surface plasmons in graphene have triggered a search for similar photonic capabilities in other atomically thin materials that enable electrical modulation of light at visible and near-infrared frequencies, as well as strong interaction with optical quantum emitters. Here, we present a simple analytical description of the optical response of such kinds of structures, which we exploit to investigate their application to light modulation and quantum optics. Specifically, we show that plasmons in one-atom-thick noble-metal layers can be used both to produce complete tunable optical absorption and to reach the strong-coupling regime in the interaction with neighboring quantum emitters. Our methods are applicable to any plasmon-supporting thin materials, and in particular, we provide parameters that allow us to readily calculate the response of silver, gold, and graphene islands. Besides their interest for nanoscale electro-optics, the present study emphasizes the great potential of these structures for the design of quantum nanophotonics devices.

  9. Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.

  10. Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf; Bürgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays for the sake of convenience most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by top-down nanofabrication technologies. This offers great degrees of freedom to tailor the geometry with unprecedented precision. However, it often causes disadvantages as well. The structures available are usually planar and periodically arranged. Therefore, bulk plasmonic structures are difficult to fabricate and the periodic arrangement causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion is observed in metamaterials. These limitations can be mitigated by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-assembly methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional unit cells in solution from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e., in most cases plasmonic nanoparticles. Achievable structures are characterized by a high degree of nominal order only on a short-range scale. The precise spatial arrangement across larger dimensions is not possible in most cases; leading essentially to amorphous structures. Such self-assembled nanostructures require novel analytical means to describe their properties, innovative designs of functional elements that possess a desired near- and far-field response, and entail genuine nanofabrication and characterization techniques. Eventually, novel applications have to be perceived that are adapted to the specifics of the self-assembled nanostructures. This review shall document recent progress in this field of research. Emphasis is put on bottom-up amorphous metamaterials. We document the state-of-the-art but also critically assess the problems that have to be overcome.

  11. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, D.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene make possible the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices. One of the most exciting graphene characteristics is the tunability by gating which allows one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with subwavelength field confinement of plasmonic waveguides remains largely unexplored. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene–plasmonic waveguide modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for telecom applications. The modulator working at the telecom range is demonstrated, showing a modulation depth of >0.03 dB μm−1 at low gating voltages for an active device area of just 10 μm2, characteristics which are already comparable to those of silicon-based waveguide modulators while retaining the benefit of further device miniaturization. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications. PMID:26554944

  12. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  13. Structural and plasmonic properties of gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Sean T.

    the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were then tilted such that were oriented so that the electron beam was parallel to a major zone axis and the diffraction pattern recorded. We observed streaks at each Bragg reflection that changed depending on the shape of the nanoparticle. This is in contrast to the spots for the Bragg reflections observed for normal small area diffraction patterns of gold nanoparticles. The angles between the streaks were compared using vector analysis to theoretical simulated three dimensional models and showed good correlation. These studies indicate such a platform can be used to elucidate the structure of high-index gold nanoparticle shapes such as trisoctahedra. The as-synthesized gold nanoparticles had surface plasmon resonances that incrementally spanned the spectral region of 500-900 nm. The reporter molecules used all have an absorption maximum far from the excitation wavelength. This ensures that chemical resonant based effects are minimized and plasmonic electromagnetic effects dominate the observed signal enhancement. For gold nanorods, the highest SERS signal from six different aspect ratios was observed with absorption maxima blue-shifted from the laser excitation wavelength. This finding is in contrast to substrate measurements where the maximum observed signal is red-shifted from the laser excitation wavelength. A similar platform was used to compare the effects of changing the nanoparticle shape on the observed SERS enhancement. We synthesized trisoctahedral, cubic and spherical geometries with electronic absorption maxima that overlapped within 3 nm. The relative SERS enhancement with 785 nm excitation was compared to theoretical simulations using finite element analysis. The observed signal intensities correlated well to the theory, suggesting the electromagnetic fields focused towards sharp edges and corners dominated the spectral response. The final chapters of this thesis are tailored towards understanding the distance

  14. Adiabatic passage mediated by plasmons: A route towards a decoherence-free quantum plasmonic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, B.; Dzsotjan, D.; Colas des Francs, G.; Jauslin, H. R.; Couteau, C.; Guérin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the interaction of surface plasmons with quantum emitters can be described by an effective model that has the same structure as a lossy multimode cavity quantum electromagnetic interaction. This allows the coherent manipulation of quantum emitters dressed by surface plasmons at the nanoscale. We show that strong coupling in quantum plasmonics can be used to mediate efficiently the interaction between emitters via a decoherence-free channel, immune to the strong plasmon dissipation. Efficient and robust population transfer, as well as the deterministic generation of entanglement between emitters are numerically shown. These results pave the way for an efficient use of the quantum plasmonic platform beyond its inherent losses.

  15. Dissimilar permittivity and permeability sensitivities in nonlinear plasmons and spoof plasmons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Kai; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2014-06-15

    We show that employing localized surface plasmon resonators to probe environmental media will always lead to dissimilar optical sensitivities to permittivity and permeability. We find that while the permittivity sensitivities of diverse plasmonic structures display a geometry-independent universal scaling relation, the permeability sensitivities are highly dependent on the metals' geometries and resonant modes. Similar results are also found in mixed real/spoof localized surface plasmon resonators, and the phenomena can be universally scaled to the normalized effective plasmon frequencies. Importantly, the results put a fundamental constraint for all plasmonic-assisted nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena, including the Faraday effect, magneto-optical Kerr effect, and Cotton-Mouton effect.

  16. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  17. Plasmonic Optical Tweezers toward Molecular Manipulation: Tailoring Plasmonic Nanostructure, Light Source, and Resonant Trapping.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tatsuya; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki

    2014-09-04

    This Perspective describes recent progress in optical trappings of nanoparticles based on localized surface plasmon. This plasmonic optical trapping has great advantages over the conventional optical tweezers, being potentially applicable for a molecular manipulation technique. We review this novel trapping technique from the viewpoints of (i) plasmonic nanostructure, (ii) the light source for plasmon excitation, and (iii) the polarizability of the trapping target. These findings give us future outlook for plasmonic optical trapping. In addition to a brief review, recent developments on plasmonic optical trapping of soft nanomaterials such as proteins, polymer chains, and DNA will be discussed to point out the important issue for further development on this trapping method. Finally, we explore new directions of plasmonic optical trapping.

  18. Boundary effects in finite size plasmonic crystals: focusing and routing of plasmonic beams for optical communications.

    PubMed

    Benetou, M I; Bouillard, J-S; Segovia, P; Dickson, W; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Zayats, A V

    2015-11-06

    Plasmonic crystals, which consist of periodic arrangements of surface features at a metal-dielectric interface, allow the manipulation of optical information in the form of surface plasmon polaritons. Here we investigate the excitation and propagation of plasmonic beams in and around finite size plasmonic crystals at telecom wavelengths, highlighting the effects of the crystal boundary shape and illumination conditions. Significant differences in broad plasmonic beam generation by crystals of different shapes are demonstrated, while for narrow beams, the propagation from a crystal onto the smooth metal film is less sensitive to the crystal boundary shape. We show that by controlling the boundary shape, the size and the excitation beam parameters, directional control of propagating plasmonic modes and their behaviour such as angular beam splitting, focusing power and beam width can be efficiently achieved. This provides a promising route for robust and alignment-independent integration of plasmonic crystals with optical communication components.

  19. Influence of slice overlap on positron emission tomography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Clare; Gillen, Gerry; Dempsey, Mary Frances; Findlay, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    PET scans use overlapping acquisition beds to correct for reduced sensitivity at bed edges. The optimum overlap size for the General Electric (GE) Discovery 690 has not been established. This study assesses how image quality is affected by slice overlap. Efficacy of 23% overlaps (recommended by GE) and 49% overlaps (maximum possible overlap) were specifically assessed. European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for calculating minimum injected activities based on overlap size were also reviewed. A uniform flood phantom was used to assess noise (coefficient of variation, (COV)) and voxel accuracy (activity concentrations, Bq ml-1). A NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) body phantom with hot/cold spheres in a background activity was used to assess contrast recovery coefficients (CRCs) and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Different overlap sizes and sphere-to-background ratios were assessed. COVs for 49% and 23% overlaps were 9% and 13% respectively. This increased noise was difficult to visualise on the 23% overlap images. Mean voxel activity concentrations were not affected by overlap size. No clinically significant differences in CRCs were observed. However, visibility and SNR of small, low contrast spheres (⩽13 mm diameter, 2:1 sphere to background ratio) may be affected by overlap size in low count studies if they are located in the overlap area. There was minimal detectable influence on image quality in terms of noise, mean activity concentrations or mean CRCs when comparing 23% overlap with 49% overlap. Detectability of small, low contrast lesions may be affected in low count studies—however, this is a worst-case scenario. The marginal benefits of increasing overlap from 23% to 49% are likely to be offset by increased patient scan times. A 23% overlap is therefore appropriate for clinical use. An amendment to EANM guidelines for calculating injected activities is also proposed which better reflects the effect overlap size has

  20. Plasmonic Enhancement Mechanisms in Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Scott K.

    Semiconductor photovoltaics (solar-to-electrical) and photocatalysis (solar-to-chemical) requires sunlight to be converted into excited charge carriers with sufficient lifetimes and mobility to drive a current or photoreaction. Thin semiconductor films are necessary to reduce the charge recombination and mobility losses, but thin films also limit light absorption, reducing the solar energy conversion efficiency. Further, in photocatalysis, the band edges of semiconductor must straddle the redox potentials of a photochemical reaction, reducing light absorption to half the solar spectrum in water splitting. Plasmonics transforms metal nanoparticles into antennas with resonances tuneable across the solar spectrum. If energy can be transferred from the plasmon to the semiconductor, light absorption in the semiconductor can be increased in thin films and occur at energies smaller than the band gap. This thesis investigates why, despite this potential, plasmonic solar energy harvesting techniques rarely appear in top performing solar architectures. To accomplish this goal, the possible plasmonic enhancement mechanisms for solar energy conversion were identified, isolated, and optimized by combining systematic sample design with transient absorption spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic testing, and theoretical development. Specifically, metal semiconductor nanostructures were designed to modulate the plasmon's scattering, hot carrier, and near field interactions as well as remove heating and self-catalysis effects. Transient absorption spectroscopy then revealed how the structure design affected energy and charge carrier transfer between metal and semiconductor. Correlating this data with wavelength-dependent photoconversion efficiencies and theoretical developments regarding metal-semiconductor interactions identified the origin of the plasmonic enhancement. Using this methodology, it has first been proven that three plasmonic enhancement routes are