Science.gov

Sample records for bonded invar clip

  1. Development of invar joint for hydrogen transfer line in JSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Ooi, M.; Kai, T.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    A plan of 2nd moderator fabrication in JSNS is under way. In terms of low thermal expansion, invar joints, such as Invar-Al and Invar-SS316L joints, were developed by friction welding method as a component of hydrogen transfer line. Mechanical tests such as tensile tests, were carried out at room and cold (77 K) temperature conditions. Especially, Invar-SS316L joint gave high tensile strength (yield strength: ca. 20% higher and ultimate strength: ca. 2.5 times higher) and large strain at 77 K, and fractured not at bonding interface but at base metal of invar. In case of Invar-Al joint, it also gave high yield strength, but fracture was occurred at bonding interface. However, these joints will be available for component of hydrogen transfer line.

  2. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  3. Homonuclear BIRD-decoupled spectra for measuring one-bond couplings with highest resolution: CLIP/CLAP-RESET and constant-time-CLIP/CLAP-RESET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsperger, Tony; Luy, Burkhard

    2014-02-01

    Heteronuclear one-bond couplings are of interest for various aspects of structural analysis of small organic molecules, including for example the distinction of axial and equatorial protons or the use of RDCs as angular constraints. Such couplings are most easily measured from pure doublets in HSQC-type spectra. Recently, the fully decoupled RESET HSQC experiment was reported and several other so-called pure-shift methods followed that allow for the removal of splittings due to homonuclear scalar interactions in one and two-dimensional NMR. In this work we present broadband homonuclear decoupled CLIP/CLAP-RESET experiments based on an isotope-selective BIRD filter element using a recently reported improved version of Zangger-Sterk data chunking. The concatenated FIDs result in multiplets in which most homonuclear splittings are removed while the heteronuclear one-bond couplings are retained. Couplings can be extracted in an IPAP fashion without scaling of subspectra by the use of optimized coherence transfer elements like the COB-INEPT. The method leads to complete homonuclear decoupling for CH groups and CH3 groups in isotropic samples, but leaves residual splittings with antiphase contributions for e.g. CH2 groups due to 2JHH coupling evolution that is not affected by the BIRD element. For this case we present a constant-time version of the proposed BIRD decoupling scheme with full homonuclear decoupling. In addition, the effects of strong coupling are discussed. Strong coupling artifacts cannot be circumvented, but the proposed experiments allow their distinct recognition.

  4. Italian Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Nigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Many languages use vast numbers of words borrowed from English, and modified (clipped) to use the first part of the word only. The paper provides examples, mainly from Italian, examining the linguistic reasons for such clipped forms and presents several clipped Italian terms used in English, noting that the same thing can happen in reverse. (SMN)

  5. Design/Analysis of the JWST ISIM Bonded Joints for Survivability at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew; Johnston, John; Kaprielian, Charles; Kuhn, Jonathan; Kunt, Cengiz; Rodini,Benjamin; Young, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A major design and analysis challenge for the JWST ISIM structure is thermal survivability of metal/composite bonded joints below the cryogenic temperature of 30K (-405 F). Current bonded joint concepts include internal invar plug fittings, external saddle titanium/invar fittings and composite gusset/clip joints all bonded to M55J/954-6 and T300/954-6 hybrid composite tubes (75mm square). Analytical experience and design work done on metal/composite bonded joints at temperatures below that of liquid nitrogen are limited and important analysis tools, material properties, and failure criteria for composites at cryogenic temperatures are sparse in the literature. Increasing this challenge is the difficulty in testing for these required tools and properties at cryogenic temperatures. To gain confidence in analyzing and designing the ISIM joints, a comprehensive joint development test program has been planned and is currently running. The test program is designed to produce required analytical tools and develop a composite failure criterion for bonded joint strengths at cryogenic temperatures. Finite element analysis is used to design simple test coupons that simulate anticipated stress states in the flight joints; subsequently the test results are used to correlate the analysis technique for the final design of the bonded joints. In this work, we present an overview of the analysis and test methodology, current results, and working joint designs based on developed techniques and properties.

  6. Accurate determination of one-bond heteronuclear coupling constants with “pure shift” broadband proton-decoupled CLIP/CLAP-HSQC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timári, István; Kaltschnee, Lukas; Kolmer, Andreas; Adams, Ralph W.; Nilsson, Mathias; Thiele, Christina M.; Morris, Gareth A.; Kövér, Katalin E.

    2014-02-01

    We report broadband proton-decoupled CLIP/CLAP-HSQC experiments for the accurate determination of one-bond heteronuclear couplings and, by extension, for the reliable measurement of small residual dipolar coupling constants. The combination of an isotope-selective BIRD(d) filter module with a non-selective 1H inversion pulse is employed to refocus proton-proton coupling evolution prior to the acquisition of brief chunks of free induction decay that are subsequently assembled to reconstruct the fully-decoupled signal evolution. As a result, the cross-peaks obtained are split only by the heteronuclear one-bond coupling along the F2 dimension, allowing coupling constants to be extracted by measuring simple frequency differences between singlet maxima. The proton decoupling scheme presented has also been utilized in standard HSQC experiments, resulting in a fully-decoupled pure shift correlation map with significantly improved resolution.

  7. Ultra high purity, dimensionally stable INVAR 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M. (Inventor); Lane, Marc S. (Inventor); Hsieh, Cheng H. (Inventor); Odonnell, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An INVAR 36 material having long-term dimensional stability is produced by sintering a blend of powders of nickel and iron under pressure in an inert atmosphere to form an alloy containing less than 0.01 parts of carbon and less than 0.1 part aggregate and preferably 0.01 part individually of Mn, Si, P, S and Al impurities. The sintered alloy is heat treated and slowly and uniformly cooled to form a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion of less than 1 ppm/C and a temporal stability of less than 1 ppm/year.

  8. Ultra high purity, dimensionally stable INVAR 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold M. (Inventor); Lane, Marc S. (Inventor); Odonnell, Timothy P. (Inventor); Hsieh, Cheng H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An INVAR 36 material having long-term dimensional stability is produced by sintering a blend of powders of nickel and iron under pressure in an inert atmosphere to form an alloy containing less than 0.01 parts of carbon and less than 0.1 part aggregate and preferably 0.01 part individually of Mn, Si, P, S and Al impurities. The sintered alloy is heat treated and slowly and uniformly cooled to form a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion of less than 1 ppm/C and a temporal stability of less than 1 ppm/year.

  9. Origin of the Invar effect in iron-nickel alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Abrikosov, I. A.; Johansson, B.

    1999-07-01

    In 1897 Guillaume discovered that face-centred cubic alloys of iron and nickel with a nickel concentration of around 35 atomic per cent exhibit anomalously low (almost zero) thermal expansion over a wide temperature range. This effect, known as the Invar effect, has since been found in various ordered and random alloys and even in amorphous materials. Other physical properties of Invar systems, such as atomic volume, elastic modulus, heat capacity, magnetization and Curie (or Néel) temperature, also show anomalous behaviour. Invar alloys are used in instrumentation, for example as hair springs in watches. It has long been realized that the effect is related to magnetism,; but a full understanding is still lacking. Here we present ab initio calculations of the volume dependences of magnetic and thermodynamic properties for the most typical Invar system, a random face-centred cubic iron-nickel alloy, in which we allow for non-collinear spin alignments-that is, spins that may be canted with respect to the average magnetization direction. We find that the magnetic structure is characterized, even at zero temperature, by a continuous transition from the ferromagnetic state at high volumes to a disordered non-collinear configuration at low volumes. There is an additional, comparable contribution to the net magnetization from the changes in the amplitudes of the local magnetic moments. The non-collinearity gives rise to an anomalous volume dependence of the binding energy, and explains other peculiarities of Invar systems.

  10. Medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  11. DAI-CLIPS: Distributed, Asynchronous, Interacting CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagne, Denis; Garant, Alain

    1994-01-01

    DAI-CLIPS is a distributed computational environment within which each CLIPS is an active independent computational entity with the ability to communicate freely with other CLIPS. Furthermore, new CLIPS can be created, others can be deleted or modify their expertise, all dynamically in an asynchronous and independent fashion during execution. The participating CLIPS are distributed over a network of heterogeneous processors taking full advantage of the available processing power. We present the general framework encompassing DAI-CLIPS and discuss some of its advantages and potential applications.

  12. BB-CLIPS: Blackboard extensions to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orchard, Robert A.; Diaz, Aurora C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a set of extensions made to CLIPS version 4.3 that provide capabilities similar to the blackboard control architecture described by Hayes-Roth. There are three types of additions made to the CLIPS shell. The first extends the syntax to allow the specification of blackboard locations for CLIPS facts. The second implements changes in CLIPS rules and the agenda manager that provide some of the powerful features of the blackboard control architecture. These additions provide dynamic prioritization of rules on the agenda allowing control strategies to be implemented that respond to the changing goals of the system. The final category of changes support the needs of continuous systems, including the ability for CLIPS to continue execution with an empty agenda.

  13. A distributed Clips implementation: dClips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. Philip

    1993-01-01

    A distributed version of the Clips language, dClips, was implemented on top of two existing generic distributed messaging systems to show that: (1) it is easy to create a coarse-grained parallel programming environment out of an existing language if a high level messaging system is used; and (2) the computing model of a parallel programming environment can be changed easily if we change the underlying messaging system. dClips processes were first connected with a simple master-slave model. A client-server model with intercommunicating agents was later implemented. The concept of service broker is being investigated.

  14. The Invar tensor package: Differential invariants of Riemann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-García, J. M.; Yllanes, D.; Portugal, R.

    2008-10-01

    The long standing problem of the relations among the scalar invariants of the Riemann tensor is computationally solved for all 6ṡ10 objects with up to 12 derivatives of the metric. This covers cases ranging from products of up to 6 undifferentiated Riemann tensors to cases with up to 10 covariant derivatives of a single Riemann. We extend our computer algebra system Invar to produce within seconds a canonical form for any of those objects in terms of a basis. The process is as follows: (1) an invariant is converted in real time into a canonical form with respect to the permutation symmetries of the Riemann tensor; (2) Invar reads a database of more than 6ṡ10 relations and applies those coming from the cyclic symmetry of the Riemann tensor; (3) then applies the relations coming from the Bianchi identity, (4) the relations coming from commutations of covariant derivatives, (5) the dimensionally-dependent identities for dimension 4, and finally (6) simplifies invariants that can be expressed as product of dual invariants. Invar runs on top of the tensor computer algebra systems xTensor (for Mathematica) and Canon (for Maple). Program summaryProgram title:Invar Tensor Package v2.0 Catalogue identifier:ADZK_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZK_v2_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3 243 249 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:939 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Mathematica and Maple Computer:Any computer running Mathematica versions 5.0 to 6.0 or Maple versions 9 and 11 Operating system:Linux, Unix, Windows XP, MacOS RAM:100 Mb Word size:64 or 32 bits Supplementary material:The new database of relations is much larger than that for the previous version and therefore has not been included in

  15. PCLIPS: Parallel CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Lawrence O.; Bennett, Bonnie H.; Tello, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    A parallel version of CLIPS 5.1 has been developed to run on Intel Hypercubes. The user interface is the same as that for CLIPS with some added commands to allow for parallel calls. A complete version of CLIPS runs on each node of the hypercube. The system has been instrumented to display the time spent in the match, recognize, and act cycles on each node. Only rule-level parallelism is supported. Parallel commands enable the assertion and retraction of facts to/from remote nodes working memory. Parallel CLIPS was used to implement a knowledge-based command, control, communications, and intelligence (C(sup 3)I) system to demonstrate the fusion of high-level, disparate sources. We discuss the nature of the information fusion problem, our approach, and implementation. Parallel CLIPS has also be used to run several benchmark parallel knowledge bases such as one to set up a cafeteria. Results show from running Parallel CLIPS with parallel knowledge base partitions indicate that significant speed increases, including superlinear in some cases, are possible.

  16. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  17. PCLIPS: Parallel CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryphon, Coranth D.; Miller, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    PCLIPS (Parallel CLIPS) is a set of extensions to the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system language. PCLIPS is intended to provide an environment for the development of more complex, extensive expert systems. Multiple CLIPS expert systems are now capable of running simultaneously on separate processors, or separate machines, thus dramatically increasing the scope of solvable tasks within the expert systems. As a tool for parallel processing, PCLIPS allows for an expert system to add to its fact-base information generated by other expert systems, thus allowing systems to assist each other in solving a complex problem. This allows individual expert systems to be more compact and efficient, and thus run faster or on smaller machines.

  18. Elastic diffuse scattering of neutrons in FeNi Invar alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Y.; Hao, L.; Shimomura, S.; Ye, F.; Robertson, J. L.; Fernandez-Baca, J.

    2008-09-01

    Elastic diffuse scattering of neutrons was found around various Bragg-peak positions in FeNi Invar alloys. The diffuse scattering intensities depend on the temperature and Ni concentration. The intensities increase with decreasing temperature and decrease with increasing Ni concentration. The distribution of diffuse scattering intensity changes from peak to peak and is well explained by the formation of clusters with a lattice deformation consisting of a shear wave propagating along the ⟨110⟩ direction and with the ⟨1-10⟩ polarization vector. The ranges of temperature and Ni concentration, for which diffuse scattering is observed, coincide with those for which the Invar anomalies are observable. The origin of the clusters together with the lattice deformation and their role with regard to the Invar effects are discussed as well as the possibility of a precursor for the fcc-bcc martensitic transformation observed in FeNi alloys.

  19. Critical femtosecond laser parameters for the fabrication of optimal reflecting diffraction gratings on Invar36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Hossein, Goudarzi; Meng-Jyun, Lin; Ji-Bin, Horng; Jeng-Ywan, Jeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect of femtosecond laser parameters on Invar36, and the efficiency of reflecting diffraction gratings on the alloy. Several gratings were made with different laser parameters in two regimes: constant repetition rates and constant average laser power on the Invar surface. The efficiency of diffraction gratings is measured in an off-plane configuration by determining the power of diffracted points. With the constant average power technique, an increase in laser influence decreased the ablation depth of lines and increased the line widths. The discoloration of line edges from increasing the laser influence more than 0.57 J /cm2 decreased the grating efficiency by over 49%. It was also found that increasing the repetition rate enhanced the grating efficiency and increasing the average power decreased the efficiency. In addition, the ablation threshold of Invar is 0.122 J /cm2 when the number of pulses (NOP) equals 389.

  20. Dimensional stability of fused silica, Invar, and several ultralow thermal expansion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.; Norton, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed for testing the long-term dimensional stability of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser, using a technique whereby thermal expansion coefficients are measured by forming a Fabry-Perot etalon from the sample and monitoring the optical resonant frequencies with tunable sidebands impressed on a laser beam from a frequency-stabilized He-Ne laser. A change of 1 ppm over a 3-yr period on the part of fused silica dimensions and the differential thermal expansion of Invar LR-35 and Super Invar materials are noted. The method is of interest for the metrology of extremely stable structures such as telescopes and optical resonators.

  1. NASA's Software Bank (CLIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a NASA Johnson Space Center developed software shell for developing expert systems, is used by researchers at Ohio State University to determine solid waste disposal sites to assist in historic preservation. The program has various other applications and has even been included in a widely-used textbook.

  2. NASA's Software Bank (CLIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) was used by Esse Systems to develop an expert system for clients who want to automate portions of their operations. The resulting program acts as a scheduling expert and automates routine, repetitive scheduling decisions, allowing employees to spend time on more creative projects.

  3. Pulse electrochemical machining on Invar alloy: Optical microscopic/SEM and non-contact 3D measurement study of surface analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Choi, S. G.; Choi, W. K.; Yang, B. Y.; Lee, E. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Invar alloy (Fe 63.5%, Ni 36.5%) was electrochemically polished by PECM (Pulse Electro Chemical Machining) in a mixture of NaCl, glycerin, and distilled water. A series of PECM experiments were carried out with different voltages and different electrode shapes, and then the surfaces of polished Invar alloy were investigated. The polished Invar alloy surfaces were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and non-contact 3D measurement (white light microscopes) and it was found that different applied voltages produced different surface characteristics on the Invar alloy surface because of the locally concentrated applied voltage on the Invar alloy surface. Moreover, we found that the shapes of electrode also have an effect on the surface characteristics on Invar alloy surface by influencing the applied voltage. These experimental findings provide fundamental knowledge for PECM of Invar alloy by surface analysis.

  4. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  5. HyperCLIPS: A HyperCard interface to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Brad; Hill, Randall W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    HyperCLIPS combines the intuitive, interactive user interface of the Apple Macintosh(TM) with the powerful symbolic computation of an expert system interpreter. HyperCard(TM) is an excellent environment for quickly developing the front end of an application with buttons, dialogs, and pictures, while the CLIPS interpreter provides a powerful inference engine for complex problem solving and analysis. By integrating HyperCard and CLIPS the advantages and uses of both packages are made available for a wide range of uses: rapid prototyping of knowledge-based expert systems, interactive simulations of physical systems, and intelligent control of hypertext processes, to name a few. Interfacing HyperCard and CLIPS is natural. HyperCard was designed to be extended through the use of external commands (XCMDs), and CLIPS was designed to be embedded through the use of the I/O router facilities and callable interface routines. With the exception of some technical difficulties which will be discussed later, HyperCLIPS implements this interface in a straight forward manner, using the facilities provided. An XCMD called 'ClipsX' was added to HyperCard to give access to the CLIPS routines: clear, load, reset, and run. And an I/O router was added to CLIPS to handle the communication of data between CLIPS and HyperCard.

  6. Nail clipping in onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bertanha, Laura; Chiacchio, Nilton Di

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is the most prevalent onychopathy and it requires a correct early diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic gold standard is the association of direct mycological test with culture; however, it shows variable sensitivity. The histopathological examination of the distal nail plate, called clipping, has shown to be an adjuvant in diagnosing onychomycosis. This is an easy-to-perform, relatively cheap examination that is little dependent of the examiner, rapidly provides results, has high sensitivity, and for patients it is painless and harmless.

  7. IDENTIFICATION BADGE WITH DETACHABLE CLIP

    DOEpatents

    Burns, M.T.

    1962-09-18

    The clip has a long slot with a round enlarged end, flat on one side. The badge has a headed member that is circular except for a flat side. The badge is connected to, or disconnected from, the clip by insertion of the headed member through the enlarged end of the slot in the clip. The badge is unlikely to be accidentally disconnected from the clip while being worn on a worker's clothing, because the weight of the badge keeps the headed member away from the enlarged end of the slot in the clip, and the headed member can pass through the enlarged end of the slot only at one relative angular position between badge and clip, namely, that angle at which the flat side of the headed member is coincident with the flat side of the enlarged end of the slot. (AEC)

  8. Automatically structuring and translating CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissman, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems become more valuable when they can be integrated into production environments. Code that is written for easy maintainability and that can be ported to different machines can be easily integrated. This paper discusses two ports of CLIPS, implemented using the Metapack translation system developed by Abacus Programming Corporation. One translation converts positional form CLIPS into 'structured' or 'template' CLIPS, a form that is more easily maintained. The other translation converts either form of CLIPS into OPS83, a semantically similar forward-chaining language that has somewhat higher performance resulting from its being compiled.

  9. Piezoelectric resonator assembly with thin molybdenum mounting clips

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R. Donald

    1981-01-01

    A resonator mounting assembly wherein the resonator blank is mounted agai an essentially planar surface presented by a plurality of peripherally disposed mounting clips and bonded to this surface to provide substantially all the mechanical support for the blank in a direction normal to the major faces of the resonator blank, while being flexible in the directions parallel to said major faces so as to minimize radial stresses on the resonator blank, particularly during thermal cycling of the resonator assembly. The clips are fabricated of a low thermal expansion material, such as molybdenum, which also has considerable yield strength after exposure to processing temperatures; the bonding of the clips to the edges of the resonator blank can be achieved by a polyimide containing electrically conductive particles.

  10. High-spin and low-spin states in Invar and related alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moruzzi, V. L.

    1990-04-01

    Total-energy band calculations that show the coexistence of a high-spin and low-spin state in fcc transition metals and alloys are presented. The energy difference between the two states is shown to be a function of the electron concentration and to vanish at 8.6. At larger electron concentrations the low-temperature state is the high-spin state, and the thermal expansion is shown to pause at a system-dependent characteristic temperature. At lower electron concentrations the low-temperature state is the low-spin state, and enhanced thermal expansion is expected. An analysis that leads to a qualitative understanding of the thermal properties of Invar and that implies a connection with martensitic transformations and spin glasses in related alloys is presented. For Invar a magnetic collapse from the high-spin to the low-spin state at a pressure of 55 kbar is predicted.

  11. Comparison between hybrid laser-MIG welding and MIG welding for the invar36 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Li, Yubo; Ou, Wenmin; Yu, Fengyi; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2016-11-01

    The invar36 alloy is suitable to produce mold of composite materials structure because it has similar thermal expansion coefficient with composite materials. In the present paper, the MIG welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding methods are compared to get the more appropriate method to overcome the poor weldability of invar36 alloy. According to the analysis of the experimental and simulated results, it has been proved that the Gauss and cone combined heat source model can characterize the laser-MIG hybrid welding heat source well. The total welding time of MIG welding is 8 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The welding material consumption of MIG welding is about 4 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The stress and deformation simulation indicate that the peak value of deformation during MIG welding is 3 times larger than that of hybrid laser-MIG welding.

  12. Wall profile developments in through-mask electrochemical micromachining of invar alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, G.J.; Sun, H.Y.; Sohn, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    The through-mask electrochemical micromachining of invar (Fe-36Ni) alloy film in 4M NaCl solution was carried out. Wall profile change during electrochemical etching was simulated using the boundary element method with assumptions of negligible concentration variation in the bulk solution and kinetic resistance at the electrode surface. The shape evolution with time was predicted and agreed well with the experimental values for small aspect ratio.

  13. 21 CFR 882.4215 - Clip rack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clip rack. 882.4215 Section 882.4215 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4215 Clip rack. (a) Identification. A clip rack is a device used to hold or store surgical clips during surgery. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4150 - Scalp clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scalp clip. 882.4150 Section 882.4150 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4150 Scalp clip. (a) Identification. A scalp clip is a plastic or metal clip used to stop bleeding during surgery on the scalp. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4150 - Scalp clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scalp clip. 882.4150 Section 882.4150 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4150 Scalp clip. (a) Identification. A scalp clip is a plastic or metal clip used to stop bleeding during surgery on the scalp. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4215 - Clip rack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clip rack. 882.4215 Section 882.4215 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4215 Clip rack. (a) Identification. A clip rack is a device used to hold or store surgical clips during surgery. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  17. Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbleston, John

    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) can rapidly produce 3D parts using a range of polymeric materials. A DLP-based form of additive manufacturing, CLIP proceeds via projecting a sequence of UV images through an oxygen-permeable, UV-transparent window below a liquid resin bath. A thin uncured liquid layer, or dead zone, is created above the window and maintains a liquid interface below the advancing part. Above the dead zone, the curing part is drawn out of the resin bath creating suction forces that renew reactive liquid resin. The dead zone is created due to oxygen inhibition of photopolymerization, a process that is traditionally a nuisance in other photopolymerization applications. However, for CLIP oxygen inhibition and creation of the dead zone allows for a continuous mode of printing where UV exposure, resin renewal, and part elevation are conducted simultaneously. This continual process is fundamentally different from traditional bottom-up stereolithography printers where these steps must be conducted in separate and discrete steps. Furthermore, the relatively gentle nature of CLIP due to the established dead zone enables the use of unique materials with a wide range of mechanical properties. This presentation will showcase the CLIP technology and provide a detailed picture of interactions between different resin and process parameters. New applications for 3D printing that span the micro- to macro-scale enabled by CLIP's combination of unique materials and part production speed will also be presented.

  18. Proposal for a CLIPS software library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Ken

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a proposal to create a software library for the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system shell developed by NASA. Many innovative ideas for extending CLIPS were presented at the First CLIPS Users Conference, including useful user and database interfaces. CLIPS developers would benefit from a software library of reusable code. The CLIPS Users Group should establish a software library-- a course of action to make that happen is proposed. Open discussion to revise this library concept is essential, since only a group effort is likely to succeed. A response form intended to solicit opinions and support from the CLIPS community is included.

  19. CLIPSITS - CLIPS INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System (CLIPSITS) is designed to be used to learn CLIPS, the C-language Integrated Production System expert system shell developed by the Software Technology Branch at Johnson Space Center. The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. This version of CLIPSITS is compatible with the Version 4.2 and 4.3 CLIPS User's Guide. However, the program does not cover any new features of CLIPS v4.3 that were added since the release of v4.2. The chapter numbers in the CLIPS User's Guide correspond directly with the lesson numbers in CLIPSITS. Each lesson in the program contains anywhere from 1 to 10 problems. Most of these have multiple parts. The student is given a subset of these problems from each lesson to work. The actual number of problems presented depends on how well the student masters the previous problem(s). The progression through these lessons is maintained in a personalized file under the student's name. As with most computer languages, there is usually more than one way to solve a problem. CLIPSITS attempts to be as flexible as possible and to allow as many correct solutions as possible. CLIPSITS gives the student the option of setting his/her own colors for the screen interface and the option of redefining special keystroke combinations used within the program. CLIPSITS requires an IBM PC compatible with 640K RAM and optional 2 or 3 button mouse. A 286- or 386-based machine is preferable. Performance will be somewhat slower on an XT class machine. The program must be installed on a hard disk with 825 KB space available. The program was developed in 1989. The standard distribution media is three 5.25" IBM PC DOS format

  20. CLIPS: An expert system building tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  1. An object oriented extension to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobkowicz, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    A presentation of software sub-system developed to augment C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) with facilities for object oriented Knowledge representation. Functions are provided to define classes, instantiate objects, access attributes, and assert object related facts. This extension is implemented via the CLIPS user function interface and does not require modification of any CLIPS code. It does rely on internal CLIPS functions for memory management and symbol representation.

  2. Automated revision of CLIPS rule-bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick M.; Pazzani, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes CLIPS-R, a theory revision system for the revision of CLIPS rule-bases. CLIPS-R may be used for a variety of knowledge-base revision tasks, such as refining a prototype system, adapting an existing system to slightly different operating conditions, or improving an operational system that makes occasional errors. We present a description of how CLIPS-R revises rule-bases, and an evaluation of the system on three rule-bases.

  3. Creating Video Clips for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of multimedia applications using Apple's QuickTime(TM) protocol to easily generate video clips or segments with sound and color and incorporate these into a computer-based document that can be used as lecture materials, a course textbook, or a lab manual. (LZ)

  4. 76 FR 42730 - Paper Clips From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Paper Clips From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on paper clips from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Publication 4242 (July 2011), entitled Paper Clips from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-663 (Third Review)....

  5. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  14. Mechanical evaluation of long titanium alloy clip--comparison of cobalt alloy clip.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Long titanium aneurysm clips have recently been released. In the present study, comparative study of long titanium and cobalt alloy clips was performed. Two kinds of Sugita long clips (straight clips of 25- and 35-mm blade length) made of titanium and cobalt alloys were tested by measuring the closing force, the anti-scissoring torque, and the maximum opening width. There were some differences between the two materials. In the 25-mm blade length clip, closing force and maximum opening width of titanium alloy clip were greater than those of cobalt alloy clip. By contrast, the anti-scissoring torque of 35-mm blade length titanium clip was stronger than that of the cobalt. The long titanium clips would have equivalent endurance to long cobalt clip and are safe for clinical use.

  15. The Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Multi-layer Laser-MIG Hybrid Welding for Fe36Ni Invar Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Liu, Yun; Ou, Wenmin; Gu, Cheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2015-12-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of multi-layer laser-MIG hybrid welding for Fe36Ni Invar alloy were presented in this paper. The multi-layer laser-MIG hybrid welding experiments with different parameters were conducted for the 19.5-mm-thick Invar plates. A finite element (FE) model was established to predict the temperature field, residual stress, and deformation distribution during and after welding. A plane-conical combined heat source model was used to simulate the laser-MIG hybrid welding process. Different numbers of welding layers were chosen to study the effect of welding layer on the temperature field, residual stress, and deformation distribution. It was found that the maximum residual stress of Invar plates after laser-MIG hybrid welding is 300 MPa and maximum deformation is 0.4 mm, so that laser-MIG hybrid welding can be used in actual manufacture of Invar moulds.

  16. Pressure-Induced Invar Behavior in Pd[subscript 3]Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Winterrose, M.L.; Lucas, M.S.; Yue, A.F.; Halevy, I.; Mauger, L.; Muñoz, J.A.; Hu, Jingzhu; Lerche, M.; Fultz, B.

    2009-06-17

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, nuclear forward scattering (NFS) measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on L1{sub 2}-ordered Pd{sub 3}Fe. Measurements were performed at 300 K at pressures up to 33 GPa, and at 7 GPa at temperatures up to 650 K. The NFS revealed a collapse of the Fe57 magnetic moment between 8.9 and 12.3 GPa at 300 K, coinciding with a transition in bulk modulus found by XRD. Heating the sample under a pressure of 7 GPa showed negligible thermal expansion from 300 to 523 K, demonstrating Invar behavior. Zero-temperature DFT calculations identified a ferromagnetic ground state and showed several antiferromagnetic states had comparable energies at pressures above 20 GPa.

  17. Clip-on extensometer grip

    DOEpatents

    Korellis, J.S.

    1986-08-12

    A self-gauging extensometer assembly for measuring axial strain of a test specimen through the wall of a high temperature furnace comprises an extensometer having a pair of telescoping arms carrying jaws that clip to the specimen at points spaced apart from each other by a predetermined gauge length. The jaws, which open parallel to the longitudinal axis of the telescoping arms, are biased closed into contact with opposite sides of the specimen by helical springs. A knife edge formed in each jaw prevents any slippage of the specimen between jaws during measurements. Because the jaws of the telescoping arms require no lateral pivoting, to open or close, the assembly is able to be clipped to a specimen through a relatively small opening in the furnace wall.

  18. Command Line Image Processing System (CLIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleagle, S. R.; Meyers, G. L.; Kulinski, R. G.

    1985-06-01

    An interactive image processing language (CLIPS) has been developed for use in an image processing environment. CLIPS uses a simple syntax with extensive on-line help to allow even the most naive user perform complex image processing tasks. In addition, CLIPS functions as an interpretive language complete with data structures and program control statements. CLIPS statements fall into one of three categories: command, control,and utility statements. Command statements are expressions comprised of intrinsic functions and/or arithmetic operators which act directly on image or user defined data. Some examples of CLIPS intrinsic functions are ROTATE, FILTER AND EXPONENT. Control statements allow a structured programming style through the use of statements such as DO WHILE and IF-THEN - ELSE. Utility statements such as DEFINE, READ, and WRITE, support I/O and user defined data structures. Since CLIPS uses a table driven parser, it is easily adapted to any environment. New commands may be added to CLIPS by writing the procedure in a high level language such as Pascal or FORTRAN and inserting the syntax for that command into the table. However, CLIPS was designed by incorporating most imaging operations into the language as intrinsic functions. CLIPS allows the user to generate new procedures easily with these powerful functions in an interactive or off line fashion using a text editor. The fact that CLIPS can be used to generate complex procedures quickly or perform basic image processing functions interactively makes it a valuable tool in any image processing environment.

  19. Third CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments. The Third Conference on CLIPS provided a forum for CLIPS users to present and discuss papers relating to CLIPS applications, uses, and extensions.

  20. Clips as a knowledge based language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James B.

    1987-01-01

    CLIPS is a language for writing expert systems applications on a personal or small computer. Here, the CLIPS programming language is described and compared to three other artificial intelligence (AI) languages (LISP, Prolog, and OPS5) with regard to the processing they provide for the implementation of a knowledge based system (KBS). A discussion is given on how CLIPS would be used in a control system.

  1. Process of making medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biologically inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is disclosed, as well as a process for its production. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities which are hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  2. "Invar"-like behavior in compressed Fe7C3 with implication for deep carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Li, J.; Ikuta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Iron carbide Fe7C3 has recently emerged as a leading candidate component of the inner core because it is likely the first phase to solidify from a liquid containing iron and a small amount of carbon, and previous studies suggest that it provides a good match for the density of the inner core under relevant conditions. Pressure-induced magnetic transitions have been observed in Fe7C3 (Chen et al., 2012). The pressure of the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition remains controversial and its effect on equation of state (EoS) is unclear, thus introducing uncertainties in estimating the density of Fe7C3 under inner core pressures. Here we report the lattice parameters and unit cell volume of hexagonal Fe7C3 at 300 K and up to 70 GPa, obtained through synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments used fine powder of Fe7C3 that was synthesized in the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The sample was embedded in neon pressure medium together with Au powder and ruby spheres as additional pressure markers. We observed significant softening at 5~8 GPa, similar to the reported "invar"-like behavior in Fe-Ni alloy (Dubrovinsky et al., 2001). For comparison, the compression curve of iron in the same loading turned out to be smooth as expected, which confirms that the abnormal behavior in Fe7C3 compression curve is due to its own property change and not an artifact. The new data allow us to establish the equation-of-state (EoS) of Fe7C3 and then estimate the density of Fe7C3 at inner core conditions. References: Chen, B., Gao, L.L., Lavina, B., Dera, P., Alp, E.E., Zhao, J.Y., Li, J., 2012. Magneto-elastic coupling in compressed Fe7C3 supports carbon in Earth's inner core. Geophys Res Lett 39. Dubrovinsky, L., Dubrovinskaia, N., Abrikosov, I.A., Vennstrom, M., Westman, F., Carlson, S., van Schilfgaarde, M., Johansson, B., 2001. Pressure-induced invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys. Phys Rev Lett 86, 4851-4854.

  3. CLIPS: The C language integrated production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 5,000 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as the basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  4. 76 FR 171 - Paper Clips From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of paper clips from China (65 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of ] paper clips from China (71 FR... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request for information is...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3250 - Vascular clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular clip. 870.3250 Section 870.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3250 Vascular clip. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3250 - Vascular clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vascular clip. 870.3250 Section 870.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3250 Vascular clip. (a) Identification. A...

  7. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics of volume 2 of First CLIPS Conference are associated with following applications: quality control; intelligent data bases and networks; Space Station Freedom; Space Shuttle and satellite; user interface; artificial neural systems and fuzzy logic; parallel and distributed processing; enchancements to CLIPS; aerospace; simulation and defense; advisory systems and tutors; and intelligent control.

  8. 21 CFR 878.4300 - Implantable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implantable clip. 878.4300 Section 878.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4300 Implantable clip....

  9. 21 CFR 878.4300 - Implantable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implantable clip. 878.4300 Section 878.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4300 Implantable clip....

  10. 21 CFR 878.4300 - Implantable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable clip. 878.4300 Section 878.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4300 Implantable clip....

  11. 21 CFR 878.4300 - Implantable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implantable clip. 878.4300 Section 878.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4300 Implantable clip....

  12. 21 CFR 878.4300 - Implantable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implantable clip. 878.4300 Section 878.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4300 Implantable clip....

  13. Clipping techniques in cerebral aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Acciarri, Nicola; Toniato, Giovanni; Raabe, Andreas; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The history of cerebral aneurysm surgery owes a great tribute to the tenacity of pioneering neurosurgeons who designed and developed the clips used to close the aneurysms neck. However, until the beginning of the past century, surgery of complex and challenging aneurysms was impossible due to the lack of surgical microscope and commercially available sophisticated clips. The modern era of the spring clips began in the second half of last century. Until then, only malleable metal clips and other non-metallic materials were available for intracranial aneurysms. Indeed, the earliest clips were hazardous and difficult to handle. Several neurosurgeons put their effort in developing new clip models, based on their personal experience in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Finally, the introduction of the surgical microscope, together with the availability of more sophisticated clips, has allowed the treatment of complex and challenging aneurysms. However, today none of the new instruments or tools for surgical therapy of aneurysms could be used safely and effectively without keeping in mind the lessons on innovative surgical techniques provided by great neurovascular surgeons. Thanks to their legacy, we can now treat many types of aneurysms that had always been considered inoperable. In this article, we review the basic principles of surgical clipping and illustrate some more advanced techniques to be used for complex aneurysms. PMID:26657306

  14. CLIPS interface development tools and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Bernard A.; Rewerts, Chris C.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rogers, Joseph B.; Jones, Don D.

    1990-01-01

    A package of C-based PC user interface development functions has been developed and integrated into CLIPS. The primary function is ASK which provides a means to ask the user questions via multiple choice menus or the keyboard and then returns the user response to CLIPS. A parameter-like structure supplies information for the interface. Another function, SHOW, provides a means to paginate and display text. A third function, TITLE, formats and displays title screens. A similar set of C-based functions that are more general and thus will run on UNIX and machines have also been developed. Seven expert system applications were transformed from commercial development environments into CLIPS and utilize ASK, SHOW, and TITLE. Development of numerous new expert system applications using CLIPS and these interface functions has started. These functions greatly reduce the time required to build interfaces for CLIPS applications.

  15. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  16. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  17. A new hemostatic clip for endoscopic surgery that can maintain blood flow after clipping

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi; Park, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop a new hemostatic device for endoscopic surgery that can control the bleeding without completely occluding the bleeding vessel. METHODS: A hemostatic clip and its applier that can stanch bleeding while maintaining blood flow through the clipped vessel was introduced, and the performance of the proposed clip was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo experiments. RESULTS: During in vitro experiments, no leakage was found after clipping at cuts made in artificial vessels, and flow was maintained through the clipped artificial vessels. In experiments on rats, all the implanted clips occluded the target vessels successfully, and no bleeding or tissue damage was observed at the operative site after the rats were euthanized on postoperative day 7. In experiments on pigs, bleeding stopped immediately after partial clipping of a damaged vessel, and some amount of blood flow was consistently maintained through the clipped vessel after hemostasis. CONCLUSION: We believe that the proposed hemostatic clip and clip applier can enhance patient safety during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:24574807

  18. CLIPS: A proposal for improved usability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes the enhancement of the CLIPS user interface to improve the over-all usability of the CLIPS development environment. It suggests some directions for the long term growth of the user interface, and discusses some specific strengths and weaknesses of the current CLIPS PC user interface. Every user of CLIPS shares a common experience: his/her first interaction with the system itself. As with any new language, between the process of installing CLIPS on the appropriate computer and the completion of a large application, an intensive learning process takes place. For those with extensive programming knowledge and LISP backgrounds, this experience may have been mostly interesting and pleasant. Being familiar with products that are similar to CLIPS in many ways, these users enjoy a relatively short training period with the product. Already familiar with many of the functions they wish to employ, experienced users are free to focus on the capabilities of CLIPS that make it uniquely useful within their working environment.

  19. Third-order elastic constants, vibrational anharmonicity, and the Invar behavior of the Fe72Pt28 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, G. A.; Senin, H. B.; Sidek, H. A. A.; Pelzl, J.

    1993-12-01

    In the ferromagnetic state the alloy Fe72Pt28 shows strong Invar effects governed by magnetoelastic interactions, including a negative hydrostatic pressure dependence of the bulk modulus: it becomes easier to squeeze under pressure. This remarkable behavior has prompted study of its nonlinear acoustic properties by determining its third-order elastic stiffness tensor components (TOEC) from measurements of the influence of uniaxial stress on the velocities of ultrasonic waves between 230 and 370 K, covering the range in which Fe72Pt28 has a negative thermal expansion, a property central to the Invar behavior. To obtain complete sets of the TOEC from 230 K up to the Curie point (367 K), the results have been combined with data for the hydrostatic pressure dependences of ultrasonic wave velocities. The TOEC quantify the first-order anharmonic terms in the interatomic potential and hence the long-wavelength acoustic phonon anharmonicities which are central to the Invar properties of this alloy. The tensor components C111, C112, and C123 are anomalously positive, in accord with the negative values previously determined for the hydrostatic pressure derivatives (∂C11/∂P)T,P=0 and (∂BS/∂P)T,P=0. Thus, the large stress-induced longitudinal-acoustic-mode softening in the ferromagnetic phase is confirmed, reinforcing the suggestion that the vibrational anharmonicities of the longitudinal acoustic modes, which have large negative mode Grüneisen parameters, play an important part in causing the thermal expansion of Fe72Pt28 to be negative.

  20. The energetics and electronic origins for atomic long- and short-range order in Ni-Fe invar alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.D.; Shelton, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    States of magnetic and compositional order are strongly coupled in many magnetic alloys, with Ni-Fe Invar being the most celebrated example. Results of an electronic-based method that addresses compositional and magnetic disorder, as well as atomic short-range order and energetics, are discussed. This allows a system-dependent microscopic understanding of the interplay of chemical, magnetic, and displacive effects, and a direct comparison to diffuse scattering experiments. Discussion is in context of total-energy calculations for various magnetic states in chemically disordered and ordered Ni- Fe alloys, emphasizing the importance of exchange-splitting and the implication for phase stability in Ni-Fe system.

  1. 21 CFR 882.4200 - Clip removal instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clip removal instrument. 882.4200 Section 882.4200...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4200 Clip removal instrument. (a) Identification. A clip removal instrument is a device used to remove surgical clips from the patient....

  2. 21 CFR 882.4200 - Clip removal instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clip removal instrument. 882.4200 Section 882.4200...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4200 Clip removal instrument. (a) Identification. A clip removal instrument is a device used to remove surgical clips from the patient....

  3. Intelligent tutoring using HyperCLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.; Pickering, Brad

    1990-01-01

    HyperCard is a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to databases and other applications, and CLIPS is a highly portable government-owned expert system shell. We developed HyperCLIPS in order to fill a gap in the U.S. Army's computer-based instruction tool set; it was conceived as a development environment for building adaptive practical exercises for subject-matter problem-solving, though it is not limited to this approach to tutoring. Once HyperCLIPS was developed, we set out to implement a practical exercise prototype using HyperCLIPS in order to demonstrate the following concepts: learning can be facilitated by doing; student performance evaluation can be done in real-time; and the problems in a practical exercise can be adapted to the individual student's knowledge.

  4. Integrating CLIPS applications into heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    SOCIAL is an advanced, object-oriented development tool for integrating intelligent and conventional applications across heterogeneous hardware and software platforms. SOCIAL defines a family of 'wrapper' objects called agents, which incorporate predefined capabilities for distributed communication and control. Developers embed applications within agents and establish interactions between distributed agents via non-intrusive message-based interfaces. This paper describes a predefined SOCIAL agent that is specialized for integrating C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS)-based applications. The agent's high-level Application Programming Interface supports bidirectional flow of data, knowledge, and commands to other agents, enabling CLIPS applications to initiate interactions autonomously, and respond to requests and results from heterogeneous remote systems. The design and operation of CLIPS agents are illustrated with two distributed applications that integrate CLIPS-based expert systems with other intelligent systems for isolating and mapping problems in the Space Shuttle Launch Processing System at the NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  5. Real World Video Clips for Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speers, Robert R.

    1998-04-01

    Video clips of physics in the real world can be a significant enhancement for the TV/Computer generation of students. To be shown and discussed will be a series of real world video clips that have been found to be excellent interest generators in physics lecture/recitations. The main subject areas to be shown come from amusement parks and along the northern coastline of Ohio.

  6. CLIPS template system for program understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbine, Ronald B.

    1994-01-01

    Program understanding is a subfield of software reengineering and attempts to recognize the run-time behavior of source code. To this point, success in this area has been limited to very small code segments. An expert system, HLAR (High-Level Algorithm Recognizer), has been written in CLIPS and recognizes three sorting algorithms, selection sort, quicksort, and heapsort. This paper describes the HLAR system in general and, in depth, the CLIPS templates used for program representation and understanding.

  7. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The first Conference of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) hosted by the NASA-Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in August 1990 is presented. Articles included engineering applications, intelligent tutors and training, intelligent software engineering, automated knowledge acquisition, network applications, verification and validation, enhancements to CLIPS, space shuttle quality control/diagnosis applications, space shuttle and real-time applications, and medical, biological, and agricultural applications.

  8. Clipping in neurocontrol by adaptive dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Fairbank, Michael; Prokhorov, Danil; Alonso, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    In adaptive dynamic programming, neurocontrol, and reinforcement learning, the objective is for an agent to learn to choose actions so as to minimize a total cost function. In this paper, we show that when discretized time is used to model the motion of the agent, it can be very important to do clipping on the motion of the agent in the final time step of the trajectory. By clipping, we mean that the final time step of the trajectory is to be truncated such that the agent stops exactly at the first terminal state reached, and no distance further. We demonstrate that when clipping is omitted, learning performance can fail to reach the optimum, and when clipping is done properly, learning performance can improve significantly. The clipping problem we describe affects algorithms that use explicit derivatives of the model functions of the environment to calculate a learning gradient. These include backpropagation through time for control and methods based on dual heuristic programming. However, the clipping problem does not significantly affect methods based on heuristic dynamic programming, temporal differences learning, or policy-gradient learning algorithms.

  9. Feasibility of incorporating waste grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) in particleboard composites.

    PubMed

    Nemli, Gökay; Demirel, Samet; Gümüşkaya, Esat; Aslan, Mustafa; Acar, Cengiz

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated some of the important physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties of single-layer particleboard panels made from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), waste of grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) and combinations of the two. The chemical properties (pH, holocelluse and alpha cellulose contents, and water, alcohol-benzene and 1% sodium hydroxide solubilities) of the raw materials were also determined. Panels with a 6:94 ratio of grass-to-eucalyptus particles had the required mechanical properties for interior fitments including furniture and general uses. Boards manufactured with 100% grass clippings exhibited the lowest quality. The overall panel properties improved with a lower percentage of grass clippings added. Based on initial results, it also appears that grass should compose no more than 13% to achieve acceptable panel properties for interior fitments and general uses.

  10. Analysis of Formation and Interfacial WC Dissolution Behavior of WC-Co/Invar Laser-TIG Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P. Q.; Ren, J. W.; Zhang, P. L.; Gong, H. Y.; Yang, S. L.

    2013-02-01

    During the valve fabrication, hard metal is welded to stainless steel or invar alloy for sealing purposes because of its good heat resistance operating at 500 °C. However, WC (tungsten carbide) dissolution in weld pool softens the hard metal and decreases mechanical properties near the hard metal/weld interface. In order to analyze the WC dissolution in welded joint, joining of hard metal and invar alloy was carried out using laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welding method. Microstructures of the weld region, chemical composition were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX, respectively. Mechanical properties such as microhardness and four-point bend strength test were performed. Larger and smaller WC dissolution and WC dissolution through transition layer based on thermo-dynamics were discussed. The results thus indicate that WC dissolution led to cellular microstructure, columnar crystal, and transition layer under the effect of laser beam and tungsten arc. WC dissolution was affected by metal ions Fe+, Ni+, Co+ exchange in W-M-C system, and WC grain growth was driven by forces caused by laser beam and tungsten arc in larger WC, smaller WC, and liquid Fe, Ni systems.

  11. Sodium Borohydride Reduction of Aqueous Silver-Iron-Nickel Solutions: a Chemical Route to Synthesis of Low Thermal Expansion-High Conductivity Ag-Invar Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, E. A.; Stolk, J.; Hafford, L.; Gross, M.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal management is a critical concern in the design and performance of electronics systems. If heat extraction and thermal expansion are not properly addressed, the thermal mismatch among dissimilar materials may give rise to high thermal stresses or interfacial shear strains, and ultimately to premature system failure. In this article, we present a chemical synthesis process that yields Ag-Invar (64Fe-36Ni) alloys with a range of attractive properties for thermal management applications. Sodium borohydride reduction of an aqueous Ag-Fe-Ni metal salt solution produces nanocrystalline powders, and conventional powder processing converts this powder to fine-grained alloys. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, and electrical conductivity measurements; thermal conductivity is estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz law. Sintering of Ag-Fe-Ni powders leads to the formation of two-phase silver-Invar alloys with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) and relatively high electrical conductivities. A sample of 50Ag-50Invar exhibits a CTE of 8.76 μm/(m· °C) and an estimated thermal conductivity of 236 W/(m·K). The Ag-Invar alloys offer thermodynamic stability and tailorable properties, and they may help address the need for improved packaging materials.

  12. Third CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computed programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production Systems (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert systems technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  13. Implementing clips on a parallel computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The C language integrated production system (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language to provide training and delivery for expert systems. Conceptually, rule based languages have great potential for benefiting from the inherent parallelism of the algorithms that they employ. During each cycle of execution, a knowledge base of information is compared against a set of rules to determine if any rules are applicable. Parallelism also can be employed for use with multiple cooperating expert systems. To investigate the potential benefits of using a parallel computer to speed up the comparison of facts to rules in expert systems, a parallel version of CLIPS was developed for the FLEX/32, a large grain parallel computer. The FLEX implementation takes a macroscopic approach in achieving parallelism by splitting whole sets of rules among several processors rather than by splitting the components of an individual rule among processors. The parallel CLIPS prototype demonstrates the potential advantages of integrating expert system tools with parallel computers.

  14. An unexpected complication of titanium rib clips.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Surgical stabilization of the rib fractures has been successfully performed for the management of pain in multiple rib fractures, fixation of chronically painful nonunion, reduction of overriding ribs, and flail chest cases. Herein we report a patient who was treated with titanium rib clips after a motor vehicle accident leading to pulmonary parenchymal laceration and multiple painful rib fractures. Three of the rib clips were broken 4 months after the operation. The patient underwent the second operation for restabilization of the broken ribs. We review the relevant literature, with particular emphasis on the management of this complication.

  15. Second CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph (Editor); Culbert, Christopher J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the 2nd C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) Conference held at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) on 23-25 September 1991 are documented in these proceedings. CLIPS is an expert system tool developed by the Software Technology Branch at NASA JSC and is used at over 4000 sites by government, industry, and business. During the three days of the conference, over 40 papers were presented by experts from NASA, Department of Defense, other government agencies, universities, and industry.

  16. Can the Kern-ME5000 Mekometer Replace Invar Measurements? Results of Test Measurements with Three Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland-Davis, T.W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The use of the Kern Me5000 as a ''stand alone'' instrument is restricted to a minimum measurement distance of approximately 20m (Kern internal ''low range'' program), with 2 display readout to the nearest 100{micro}m. Using an external program, it is possible to extend both, the display resolution to 10{micro}m, 2nd the range down to distances well below 20m. This paper attempts to explain Kern's reasoning behind the original limitation of approximately 20m, and presents the results from testing three Mekometer Me5000 instruments. Their similarities, differences, and accuracies are assessed for distances below 25m providing a comparison against the use of invar wires.

  17. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for kidney stone on surgical clip.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Y; Kearse, W S

    1997-04-01

    We report the successful use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for the destruction of a renal stone that had formed around a surgical clip. The SWL led to passage of both the stone and the clip.

  18. 22. DETAIL VIEW OF TRESTLE SADDLE CLIP ATTACHED TO MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL VIEW OF TRESTLE SADDLE CLIP ATTACHED TO MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE. THE CLIP REMAINS FROM THE ERA OF TRAMWAY SERVICE. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. The disappearing clip: an unusual complication in MRI biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Peter, Prasant; Jose, Chaitra Lesli

    2014-01-01

    MRI-guided biopsies are being increasingly used for otherwise occult breast lesions. Clip migration has been reported however, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no documented cases of entire disappearance of a marker clip. Absence of the postbiopsy marker clip was noted when our patient returned for preoperative hook-wire localisation even though accurate clip placement had been confirmed on the post-MRI biopsy mammogram. PMID:25139917

  20. Second CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph (Editor); Culbert, Christopher J. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics covered at the 2nd CLIPS Conference held at the Johnson Space Center, September 23-25, 1991 are given. Topics include rule groupings, fault detection using expert systems, decision making using expert systems, knowledge representation, computer aided design and debugging expert systems.

  1. FuzzyCLIPS from research to product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, Dan; Dohmann, Edgar

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the commercial productization of FuzzyCLIPS which was developed under a NASA Phase 2 SBIR contract. The intent of this paper is to provide a general roadmap of the processes that are required to make a viable, marketable product once its concept and development are complete.

  2. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4190 Clip forming/cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  4. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  5. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  6. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  7. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5225 - Implanted malleable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted malleable clip. 882.5225 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5225 Implanted malleable clip. (a) Identification. An implanted malleable clip is a bent wire or staple that is forcibly closed...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5225 - Implanted malleable clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted malleable clip. 882.5225 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5225 Implanted malleable clip. (a) Identification. An implanted malleable clip is a bent wire or staple that is forcibly closed...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  12. The outcome of ganglion clipping in hyperhidrosis and blushing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shah-Hwa; Kao, Eing-Long; Lin, Chien-Chih; Huang, Meei-Feng

    2006-06-01

    A total of 114 patients with various sympathetic disorders underwent endoscopic sympathetic block over different thoracic ganglions by the clipping method. The advantages of this method include the recognition of the clipped level, changeability, and reversibility. However, 4.4% of patients were unilaterally clipped at the wrong level. PMID:16763754

  13. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  18. An SQL query generator for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Chirica, Laurian

    1990-01-01

    As expert systems become more widely used, their access to large amounts of external information becomes increasingly important. This information exists in several forms such as statistical, tabular data, knowledge gained by experts and large databases of information maintained by companies. Because many expert systems, including CLIPS, do not provide access to this external information, much of the usefulness of expert systems is left untapped. The scope of this paper is to describe a database extension for the CLIPS expert system shell. The current industry standard database language is SQL. Due to SQL standardization, large amounts of information stored on various computers, potentially at different locations, will be more easily accessible. Expert systems should be able to directly access these existing databases rather than requiring information to be re-entered into the expert system environment. The ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS) was used to provide a database connection within the CLIPS environment. To facilitate relational database access a query generation system was developed as a CLIPS user function. The queries are entered in a CLlPS-like syntax and are passed to the query generator, which constructs and submits for execution, an SQL query to the ORACLE RDBMS. The query results are asserted as CLIPS facts. The query generator was developed primarily for use within the ICADS project (Intelligent Computer Aided Design System) currently being developed by the CAD Research Unit in the California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly). In ICADS, there are several parallel or distributed expert systems accessing a common knowledge base of facts. Expert system has a narrow domain of interest and therefore needs only certain portions of the information. The query generator provides a common method of accessing this information and allows the expert system to specify what data is needed without specifying how to retrieve it.

  19. Complete laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with intravesical lockable clip

    PubMed Central

    Eret, Viktor; Ürge, Tomáš; Klečka, Jiří; Trávníček, Ivan; Hes, Ondřej; Petersson, Fredrik; Stránský, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We present a cohort of patients with low-stage pelviureteric neoplastic disease who underwent complete laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (CLNUE) with intravesical lockable clip (IVLC). Due to the absence of a standard technique of NUE, the study was not randomized. Materials From 1/2010 to 1/2012, 21 patients were subjected to CLNUE-IVLC. The first step was transurethral excision of the ureterovesical junction with Collin's knife deep into the paravesical adipose tissue. The ureter was grasped with biopsy forceps and the distal end of the ureter was occluded with lockable clip. The applicator was introduced through a 5 mm port inserted as an epicystostomy. The patients were rotated to flank position and CLNUE followed. The endoscopically introduced clip on the distal ureter is proof of completion of the total ureterectomy. Results The mean operation time was 161 (115-200) min. In four (19.0%), the application of the clip failed and CLNUE was completed with non-occluded ureter. In three cases, subsequent laparoscopic nephrectomy was converted to open surgery. In two cases, the distal ureterectomy was completed with pluck technique through a lower abdominal incision that was also used for extraction of the specimen. There were four complications (Clavien II 2x, IIIb, V). Follow-up was available for all – mean 10.6 (range: 0-25) months. One died of disease generalization within 11 months. Conclusion CLNUE-IVLC is fast and safe. If needed, the endoscopic phase can be switched to open NUE. Disadvantages include: the need to change the position of the patient, the risk of inability to apply the clip on the distal ureter, and the risk of an unclosed defect of the urinary bladder. PMID:24578933

  20. A defect in the CLIP1 gene (CLIP-170) can cause autosomal recessive intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Larti, Farzaneh; Kahrizi, Kimia; Musante, Luciana; Hu, Hao; Papari, Elahe; Fattahi, Zohreh; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Liu, Zhe; Banan, Mehdi; Garshasbi, Masoud; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, H Hilger; Galjart, Niels; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a comprehensive research project, investigating novel autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ARID) genes, linkage analysis based on autozygosity mapping helped identify an intellectual disability locus on Chr.12q24, in an Iranian family (LOD score=3.7). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) following exon enrichment in this novel interval, detected a nonsense mutation (p.Q1010*) in the CLIP1 gene. CLIP1 encodes a member of microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking proteins, which specifically associates with the ends of growing MTs. These proteins regulate MT dynamic behavior and are important for MT-mediated transport over the length of axons and dendrites. As such, CLIP1 may have a role in neuronal development. We studied lymphoblastoid and skin fibroblast cell lines established from healthy and affected patients. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed the absence of CLIP1 transcript and protein in lymphoblastoid cells derived from affected patients. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed MT plus-end staining only in fibroblasts containing the wild-type (and not the mutant) CLIP1 protein. Collectively, our data suggest that defects in CLIP1 may lead to ARID. PMID:24569606

  1. Magnetization of ternary alloys based on Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar with 3d transition metal additions: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Masatoshi; Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Freeman, Arthur J.; Popescu, Voicu; Matsen, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Smart susceptors are being developed for use as tooling surfaces in molding machines that use apply electro-magnetic induction heating to mold and form plastics or metal powders into structural parts, e.g., on aerospace and automotive manufacturing lines. The optimal magnetic materials for the induction heating process should have large magnetization, high magnetic permeability, but also small thermal expansion coefficient. The Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar alloy with its negligible thermal expansion coefficient is thus a natural choice for this application. Here, we use density functional theory as implemented through the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method within the coherent-potential approximation, to design new alloys with the large magnetization desired for smart susceptor applications. We consider the Fe0.65-xNi0.35-yMx+y alloys derived from Fe0.65Ni0.35 invar adding a third element M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, or Co with concentration (x + y) reaching up to 5 at. %. We find that the total magnetization depends linearly on the concentration of M. Specifically, the early 3d transition metals from Sc to Cr decrease the magnetization with respect to that of the invar alloy whereas Mn and Co increase it.

  2. Cortical Response Similarities Predict which Audiovisual Clips Individuals Viewed, but Are Unrelated to Clip Preference

    PubMed Central

    Bridwell, David A.; Roth, Cullen; Gupta, Cota Navin; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical responses to complex natural stimuli can be isolated by examining the relationship between neural measures obtained while multiple individuals view the same stimuli. These inter-subject correlation’s (ISC’s) emerge from similarities in individual’s cortical response to the shared audiovisual inputs, which may be related to their emergent cognitive and perceptual experience. Within the present study, our goal is to examine the utility of using ISC’s for predicting which audiovisual clips individuals viewed, and to examine the relationship between neural responses to natural stimuli and subjective reports. The ability to predict which clips individuals viewed depends on the relationship of the EEG response across subjects and the nature in which this information is aggregated. We conceived of three approaches for aggregating responses, i.e. three assignment algorithms, which we evaluated in Experiment 1A. The aggregate correlations algorithm generated the highest assignment accuracy (70.83% chance = 33.33%) and was selected as the assignment algorithm for the larger sample of individuals and clips within Experiment 1B. The overall assignment accuracy was 33.46% within Experiment 1B (chance = 06.25%), with accuracies ranging from 52.9% (Silver Linings Playbook) to 11.75% (Seinfeld) within individual clips. ISC’s were significantly greater than zero for 15 out of 16 clips, and fluctuations within the delta frequency band (i.e. 0-4 Hz) primarily contributed to response similarities across subjects. Interestingly, there was insufficient evidence to indicate that individuals with greater similarities in clip preference demonstrate greater similarities in cortical responses, suggesting a lack of association between ISC and clip preference. Overall these results demonstrate the utility of using ISC’s for prediction, and further characterize the relationship between ISC magnitudes and subjective reports. PMID:26030422

  3. CLIPS application user interface for the PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jim; Holbrook, Rebecca; Shewhart, Mark; Crouse, Joey; Yarost, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The majority of applications that utilize expert system development programs for their knowledge representation and inferencing capability require some form of interface with the end user. This interface is more than likely an interaction through the computer screen. When building an application the user interface can prove to be the most difficult and time consuming aspect to program. Commercial products currently exist which address this issue. To keep pace C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) will need to find a solution for their lack of an easy to use Application User Interface (AUI). This paper represents a survey of the DoD CLIPS' user community and provides the backbone of a possible solution.

  4. Direct clipping of large basilar trunk aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Daichi; Kawai, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    A large basilar trunk aneurysm was incidentally found in a 77-year-old woman in examination for headache. Though it was asymptomatic, high signal intensity was noticed in the brainstem around the aneurysm on FLAIR image of MRI. As she was otherwise healthy, surgical clipping was performed through anterior temporal approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/0soWM8meCW8 . PMID:25554839

  5. CLIPS on the NeXT computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnock, Elizabeth; Eng, Norman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the integration of CLIPS into a hybrid expert system neural network AI tool for the NeXT computer. The main discussion is devoted to the joining of these two AI paradigms in a mutually beneficial relationship. We conclude that expert systems and neural networks should not be considered as competing AI implementation methods, but rather as complimentary components of a whole.

  6. HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP advance viral miRNA targetome analysis.

    PubMed

    Haecker, Irina; Renne, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs regulate gene expression by binding predominantly to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target transcripts to prevent their translation and/or induce target degradation. In addition to the more than 1200 human miRNAs, human DNA tumor viruses such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encode miRNAs. Target predictions indicate that each miRNA targets hundreds of transcripts, many of which are regulated by multiple miRNAs. Thus, target identification is a big challenge for the field. Most methods used currently investigate single miRNA-target interactions and are not able to analyze complex miRNA-target networks. To overcome these challenges, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), a recently developed method to study direct RNA-protein interactions in living cells, has been successfully applied to miRNA target analysis. It utilizes Argonaute (Ago)-immunoprecipitation to isolate native Ago-miRNA-mRNA complexes. In four recent publications, two variants of the CLIP method (HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP) were utilized to determine the targetomes of human and viral miRNAs in cells infected with the gamma-herpesviruses KSHV and EBV, which are associated with a number of human cancers. Here, we briefly introduce herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs and then focus on how CLIP technology has largely impacted our understanding of viral miRNAs in viral biology and pathogenesis. PMID:24940765

  7. Genome-Wide Profiling of RNA-Protein Interactions Using CLIP-Seq.

    PubMed

    Stork, Cheryl; Zheng, Sika

    2016-01-01

    UV crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is an increasingly popular technique to study protein-RNA interactions in tissues and cells. Whole cells or tissues are ultraviolet irradiated to generate a covalent bond between RNA and proteins that are in close contact. After partial RNase digestion, antibodies specific to an RNA binding protein (RBP) or a protein-epitope tag is then used to immunoprecipitate the protein-RNA complexes. After stringent washing and gel separation the RBP-RNA complex is excised. The RBP is protease digested to allow purification of the bound RNA. Reverse transcription of the RNA followed by high-throughput sequencing of the cDNA library is now often used to identify protein bound RNA on a genome-wide scale. UV irradiation can result in cDNA truncations and/or mutations at the crosslink sites, which complicates the alignment of the sequencing library to the reference genome and the identification of the crosslinking sites. Meanwhile, one or more amino acids of a crosslinked RBP can remain attached to its bound RNA due to incomplete digestion of the protein. As a result, reverse transcriptase may not read through the crosslink sites, and produce cDNA ending at the crosslinked nucleotide. This is harnessed by one variant of CLIP methods to identify crosslinking sites at a nucleotide resolution. This method, individual nucleotide resolution CLIP (iCLIP) circularizes cDNA to capture the truncated cDNA and also increases the efficiency of ligating sequencing adapters to the library. Here, we describe the detailed procedure of iCLIP. PMID:26965263

  8. CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

  9. Dynamics of iron atoms across the pressure-induced Invar transition in Pd{sub 3}Fe.

    SciTech Connect

    Winterrose, M. L.; Mauger, L.; Halevy, I.; Yue, A. F.; Lucas, M. S.; Munoz, J. A.; Tan, H.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T.S.; Alp, E. E.; Fultz, B.

    2011-04-01

    The {sup 57}Fe phonon partial density of states (PDOS) in L1{sub 2}-ordered Pd{sub 3}Fe was studied at high pressures by nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The NRIXS spectra showed that the stiffening of the {sup 57}Fe PDOS with decreasing volume was slower from 12 to 24 GPa owing to the pressure-induced Invar transition in Pd{sub 3}Fe, with a change from a high-moment ferromagnetic (FM) state to a low-moment (LM) state observed by nuclear forward scattering. Force constants obtained from fitting to a Born-von Karman model showed a relative softening of the first-nearest-neighbor (1NN) Fe-Pd longitudinal force constants at the magnetic transition. For the FM low-pressure state, the DFT calculations gave a PDOS and 1NN longitudinal force constants in good agreement with experiment, but discrepancies for the high-pressure LM state suggest the presence of short-range magnetic order.

  10. Skin clips are contraindicated when there is nickel allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, A M; Ive, F A; Carr, M M

    1987-01-01

    Four patients are described who developed generalized dermatitis following surgical wound closure with disposable skin clips. In 3 of them a vesicular palmar eczema was a prominent feature. They were found to have contact allergy to nickel, a component of the clips. If skin clips are to be used to close a surgical wound, it should be established that the patient is not allergic to nickel. Images Figure 1. PMID:3612662

  11. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  12. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  13. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  14. An object oriented generic controller using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nivens, Cody R.

    1990-01-01

    In today's applications, the need for the division of code and data has focused on the growth of object oriented programming. This philosophy gives software engineers greater control over the environment of an application. Yet the use of object oriented design does not exclude the need for greater understanding by the application of what the controller is doing. Such understanding is only possible by using expert systems. Providing a controller that is capable of controlling an object by using rule-based expertise would expedite the use of both object oriented design and expert knowledge of the dynamic of an environment in modern controllers. This project presents a model of a controller that uses the CLIPS expert system and objects in C++ to create a generic controller. The polymorphic abilities of C++ allow for the design of a generic component stored in individual data files. Accompanying the component is a set of rules written in CLIPS which provide the following: the control of individual components, the input of sensory data from components and the ability to find the status of a given component. Along with the data describing the application, a set of inference rules written in CLIPS allows the application to make use of sensory facts and status and control abilities. As a demonstration of this ability, the control of the environment of a house is provided. This demonstration includes the data files describing the rooms and their contents as far as devices, windows and doors. The rules used for the home consist of the flow of people in the house and the control of devices by the home owner.

  15. Role of endoscopic clipping in the treatment of oesophageal perforations

    PubMed Central

    Lázár, György; Paszt, Attila; Mán, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    With advances in endoscopic technologies, endoscopic clips have been used widely and successfully in the treatment of various types of oesophageal perforations, anastomosis leakages and fistulas. Our aim was to summarize the experience with two types of clips: The through-the-scope (TTS) clip and the over-the-scope clip (OTSC). We summarized the results of oesophageal perforation closure with endoscopic clips. We processed the data from 38 articles and 127 patients using PubMed search. Based on evidence thus far, it can be stated that both clips can be used in the treatment of early (< 24 h), iatrogenic, spontaneous oesophageal perforations in the case of limited injury or contamination. TTS clips are efficacious in the treatment of 10 mm lesions, while bigger (< 20 mm) lesions can be treated successfully with OTSC clips, whose effectiveness is similar to that of surgical treatment. However, the clinical success rate is significantly lower in the case of fistulas and in the treatment of anastomosis insufficiency. Tough prospective randomized multicentre trials, which produce the largest amount of evidence, are still missing. Based on experience so far, endoscopic clips represent a possible therapeutic alternative to surgery in the treatment of oesophageal perforations under well-defined conditions. PMID:26788259

  16. [3D interactive clipping technology in medical image processing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoping; Yang, Kaitai; Li, Bin; Li, Yuanjun; Liang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the methods of 3D visualization and the 3D interactive clipping of CT/MRI image sequence in arbitrary orientation based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). A new method for 3D CT/MRI reconstructed image clipping is presented, which can clip 3D object and 3D space of medical image sequence to observe the inner structure using 3D widget for manipulating an infinite plane. Experiment results show that the proposed method can implement 3D interactive clipping of medical image effectively and get satisfied results with good quality in short time.

  17. CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore–microtubule attachments

    PubMed Central

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Galjart, Niels; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Medema, René H

    2006-01-01

    CLIP-170 is a microtubule ‘plus end tracking' protein involved in several microtubule-dependent processes in interphase. At the onset of mitosis, CLIP-170 localizes to kinetochores, but at metaphase, it is no longer detectable at kinetochores. Although RNA interference (RNAi) experiments have suggested an essential role for CLIP-170 during mitosis, the molecular function of CLIP-170 in mitosis has not yet been revealed. Here, we used a combination of high-resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion to study the function of CLIP-170 in mitosis. We found that CLIP-170 dynamically localizes to the outer most part of unattached kinetochores and to the ends of growing microtubules. In addition, we provide evidence that a pool of CLIP-170 is transported along kinetochore–microtubules by the dynein/dynactin complex. Interference with CLIP-170 expression results in defective chromosome congression and diminished kinetochore–microtubule attachments, but does not detectibly affect microtubule dynamics or kinetochore–microtubule stability. Taken together, our results indicate that CLIP-170 facilitates the formation of kinetochore–microtubule attachments, possibly through direct capture of microtubules at the kinetochore. PMID:16362039

  18. Intracranial blister aneurysms: clip reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.

  19. A neural network simulation package in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatnagar, Himanshu; Krolak, Patrick D.; Mcgee, Brenda J.; Coleman, John

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic similarity between the firing of a rule and the firing of a neuron has been captured in this research to provide a neural network development system within an existing production system (CLIPS). A very important by-product of this research has been the emergence of an integrated technique of using rule based systems in conjunction with the neural networks to solve complex problems. The systems provides a tool kit for an integrated use of the two techniques and is also extendible to accommodate other AI techniques like the semantic networks, connectionist networks, and even the petri nets. This integrated technique can be very useful in solving complex AI problems.

  20. Robust transcriptome-wide discovery of RNA binding protein binding sites with enhanced CLIP (eCLIP)

    PubMed Central

    Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Pratt, Gabriel A.; Shishkin, Alexander A.; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Fang, Mark Y.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Blue, Steven M.; Nguyen, Thai B.; Surka, Christine; Elkins, Keri; Stanton, Rebecca; Rigo, Frank; Guttman, Mitchell; Yeo, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    As RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in cellular physiology by interacting with target RNAs, binding site identification by UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of ribonucleoprotein complexes is critical to understanding RBP function. However, current CLIP protocols are technically demanding and yield low complexity libraries with high experimental failure rates. We have developed an enhanced CLIP (eCLIP) protocol that decreases requisite amplification by ~1,000-fold, decreasing discarded PCR duplicate reads by ~60% while maintaining single-nucleotide binding resolution. By simplifying the generation of paired IgG and size-matched input controls, eCLIP improves specificity in discovery of authentic binding sites. We generated 102 eCLIP experiments for 73 diverse RBPs in HepG2 and K562 cells (available at https://www.encodeproject.org), demonstrating that eCLIP enables large-scale and robust profiling, with amplification and sample requirements similar to ChIP-seq. eCLIP enables integrative analysis of diverse RBPs to reveal factor-specific profiles, common artifacts for CLIP and RNA-centric perspectives of RBP activity. PMID:27018577

  1. Students' Use of Video Clip Technology in Clinical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharav, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Several analyses are conducted to prove the significance of the development in video clip technologies in the enhancement of clinical education and learning. A completely tested approach for the generation of designed video clips from video-recorded clinical sessions as used in weekly clinical forum discussions is also presented.

  2. Implementing a frame representation in CLIPS/COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Leonard; Snyder, James

    1991-01-01

    An implementation is described and evaluated of frames in COOL. The test case is a frame based semantic network previously implemented in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) Version 4.3 as part of the Intelligent Computer Aided Design System (ICADS) and reported at the first CLIPS conference.

  3. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  4. Understanding and Applying Psychology through Use of News Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Elizabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a student project for psychology courses in which students collect newspaper clippings that illustrate psychological concepts. Explains that the students record the source and write a brief description of the clipping, explaining how it relates to a psychological concept or theory. Includes results of student evaluations of the…

  5. A graphical interface to CLIPS using SunView

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, Terry

    1990-01-01

    The importance of the incorporation of various graphics-oriented features into CLIPS is discussed. These popular features, which have been implemented in a version of CLIPS developed for a popular workstation, are described and their usefulness in the development of expert systems is examined.

  6. 21 CFR 870.3260 - Vena cava clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vena cava clip. 870.3260 Section 870.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3260 Vena cava clip. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3260 - Vena cava clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vena cava clip. 870.3260 Section 870.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3260 Vena cava clip. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4320 - Removable skin clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removable skin clip. 878.4320 Section 878.4320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4320 Removable skin clip....

  9. 21 CFR 878.4320 - Removable skin clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removable skin clip. 878.4320 Section 878.4320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4320 Removable skin clip....

  10. 21 CFR 878.4320 - Removable skin clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removable skin clip. 878.4320 Section 878.4320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4320 Removable skin clip....

  11. 21 CFR 878.4320 - Removable skin clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removable skin clip. 878.4320 Section 878.4320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4320 Removable skin clip....

  12. 21 CFR 878.4320 - Removable skin clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removable skin clip. 878.4320 Section 878.4320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4320 Removable skin clip....

  13. MIRO: A debugging tool for CLIPS incorporating historical Rete networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1994-01-01

    At the last CLIPS conference, we discussed our ideas for adding a temporal dimension to the Rete network used to implement CLIPS. The resulting historical Rete network could then be used to store 'historical' information about a run of a CLIPS program, to aid in debugging. MIRO, a debugging tool for CLIPS built on top of CLIPS, incorporates such a historical Rete network and uses it to support its prototype question-answering capability. By enabling CLIPS users to directly ask debugging-related questions about the history of a program run, we hope to reduce the amount of single-stepping and program tracing required to debug a CLIPS program. In this paper, we briefly describe MIRO's architecture and implementation, and the current question-types that MIRO supports. These question-types are further illustrated using an example, and the benefits of the debugging tool are discussed. We also present empirical results that measure the run-time and partial storage overhead of MIRO, and discuss how MIRO may also be used to study various efficiency aspects of CLIPS programs.

  14. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  15. 21 CFR 882.4190 - Clip forming/cutting instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clip forming/cutting instrument. 882.4190 Section 882.4190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A clip forming/cutting instrument is a device used by...

  16. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  17. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  18. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  19. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  20. 33 CFR 183.532 - Clips, straps, and hose clamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clips, straps, and hose clamps..., straps, and hose clamps. (a) Each clip, strap, and hose clamp must: (1) Be made from a corrosion... under § 183.590, a hose clamp installed on a fuel line system requiring metallic fuel lines or...

  1. Embedding CLIPS in a database-oriented diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Tim

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) into a powerful portable maintenance aid (PMA) system used for flightline diagnostics. The current diagnostic target of the system is the Garrett GTCP85-180L, a gas turbine engine used as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) on some C-130 military transport aircraft. This project is a database oriented approach to a generic diagnostic system. CLIPS is used for 'many-to-many' pattern matching within the diagnostics process. Patterns are stored in database format, and CLIPS code is generated by a 'compilation' process on the database. Multiple CLIPS rule sets and working memories (in sequence) are supported and communication between the rule sets is achieved via the export and import commands. Work is continuing on using CLIPS in other portions of the diagnostic system and in re-implementing the diagnostic system in the Ada language.

  2. Marked reduction in compliance with central line insertion practices (CLIP) when accounting for missing CLIP data and incomplete line capture.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shruti K; Gohil, Shruti K; Quan, Kathleen; Huang, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to central line insertion practices can significantly reduce infections and is used as a hospital benchmark for quality. However, current national standards for central line insertion practices (CLIP) compliance calculation do not include missing CLIP forms. We found adherence rates significantly decreased when accounting for all lines at an academic medical center.

  3. Marked reduction in compliance with central line insertion practices (CLIP) when accounting for missing CLIP data and incomplete line capture.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shruti K; Gohil, Shruti K; Quan, Kathleen; Huang, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to central line insertion practices can significantly reduce infections and is used as a hospital benchmark for quality. However, current national standards for central line insertion practices (CLIP) compliance calculation do not include missing CLIP forms. We found adherence rates significantly decreased when accounting for all lines at an academic medical center. PMID:26518499

  4. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  5. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  6. Clipping Surgery for Unruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Nakagomi, Tadayoshi; Furuya, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Junichi; Takanashi, Shigehiko; Watanabe, Takehiro; Shinohara, Takayuki; Ogawa, Akiko; Fujii, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Clipping surgeries for 139 consecutive unruptured middle cerebral aneurysms were performed between April 1991 and March 2014. Left hemiparesis occurred in one case (0.7 %). Transient symptoms arose in six patients due to perforator injury, arterial branch occlusion, damage to the venous system, or chronic subdural hematoma. Neither mortality nor decline in cognitive function was noted in this study. Clipping surgery for unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms can be done with minimal morbidity. However, meticulous management during the perioperative period as well as the use of modern technologies during the surgery, such as MEP monitoring and ICG videoangiography, are needed for safe and secure clipping surgery. PMID:27637633

  7. Drosophila CLIP-190 and mammalian CLIP-170 display reduced microtubule plus end association in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Beaven, Robin; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S; Qu, Yue; Hahn, Ines; Dajas-Bailador, Federico; Ohkura, Hiroyuki; Prokop, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Axons act like cables, electrically wiring the nervous system. Polar bundles of microtubules (MTs) form their backbones and drive their growth. Plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) regulate MT growth dynamics and directionality at their plus ends. However, current knowledge about +TIP functions, mostly derived from work in vitro and in nonneuronal cells, may not necessarily apply to the very different context of axonal MTs. For example, the CLIP family of +TIPs are known MT polymerization promoters in nonneuronal cells. However, we show here that neither Drosophila CLIP-190 nor mammalian CLIP-170 is a prominent MT plus end tracker in neurons, which we propose is due to low plus end affinity of the CAP-Gly domain-containing N-terminus and intramolecular inhibition through the C-terminus. Instead, both CLIP-190 and CLIP-170 form F-actin-dependent patches in growth cones, mediated by binding of the coiled-coil domain to myosin-VI. Because our loss-of-function analyses in vivo and in culture failed to reveal axonal roles for CLIP-190, even in double-mutant combinations with four other +TIPs, we propose that CLIP-190 and -170 are not essential axon extension regulators. Our findings demonstrate that +TIP functions known from nonneuronal cells do not necessarily apply to the regulation of the very distinct MT networks in axons.

  8. Drosophila CLIP-190 and mammalian CLIP-170 display reduced microtubule plus end association in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Beaven, Robin; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S.; Qu, Yue; Hahn, Ines; Dajas-Bailador, Federico; Ohkura, Hiroyuki; Prokop, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Axons act like cables, electrically wiring the nervous system. Polar bundles of microtubules (MTs) form their backbones and drive their growth. Plus end–tracking proteins (+TIPs) regulate MT growth dynamics and directionality at their plus ends. However, current knowledge about +TIP functions, mostly derived from work in vitro and in nonneuronal cells, may not necessarily apply to the very different context of axonal MTs. For example, the CLIP family of +TIPs are known MT polymerization promoters in nonneuronal cells. However, we show here that neither Drosophila CLIP-190 nor mammalian CLIP-170 is a prominent MT plus end tracker in neurons, which we propose is due to low plus end affinity of the CAP-Gly domain–containing N-terminus and intramolecular inhibition through the C-terminus. Instead, both CLIP-190 and CLIP-170 form F-actin–dependent patches in growth cones, mediated by binding of the coiled-coil domain to myosin-VI. Because our loss-of-function analyses in vivo and in culture failed to reveal axonal roles for CLIP-190, even in double-mutant combinations with four other +TIPs, we propose that CLIP-190 and -170 are not essential axon extension regulators. Our findings demonstrate that +TIP functions known from nonneuronal cells do not necessarily apply to the regulation of the very distinct MT networks in axons. PMID:25694447

  9. Microwave-induced, thermally assisted solvent bonding for low-cost PMMA microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Mona; Chhina, Sumanpreet; Sameoto, Dan; Parameswaran, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a low-cost bonding method for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics that combines elements of solvent bonding, thermal bonding and microwave bonding. Rather than using specialized equipment, we take household equipment and combine it to produce an effective bonding method that borrows from food packaging technologies for selective heating in a microwave. A poor solvent for PMMA is applied between two halves of a microfluidic system and clamped together using miniature binder clips. Excess solvent from the channels is then drawn out via capillary action and avoids channel clogging during the bonding process. Placing the whole apparatus in a commercial microwave will heat up the thin metal clips and cause the solvent to dissolve and bond the PMMA interface. The whole bonding process takes only a few minutes, and results in high bond strengths.

  10. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  11. Giving Students New Eyes: The Benefits of Having Students Find Media Clips to Illustrate Management Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Catherine L.; Anderson, Marc H.; Tyler, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature in management education addresses the pedagogical technique of showing video clips from feature films, animated films, and television shows. The bulk of this literature either asserts the benefits of using video clips or identifies specific clips and discusses how those clips can be effectively used to teach various…

  12. 26. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST From newspaper clipping, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST From newspaper clipping, 'Notre Dame Bridge, Manchester, New Hampshire', Manchester Union Leader, c. 1938, photographer unknown. - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  13. Burning and clipping effects on bluebunch wheatgrass productivity. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, M.C.; Sauer, R.H.

    1983-02-01

    This study compared the response of bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribner and Smith) to the removal of standing dead grass by burning and by clipping. Dormant plants were either clipped or burned in September, individually, or as part of a 3.14 m/sup 2/ area centered on the study plant. This treatment design allowed determination of the effect of competition on productivity. Clipping and burning of dormant bluebunch wheatgrass clumps significantly shortened leaf length. Biomass and the formation of seedheads were significantly reduced by clipping but not by burning. The lack of measurable effects between plants treated alone and as part of a surrounding treated area suggests that competition from nearby individuals had an insignificant role in regulating bluebunch wheatgrass productivity in the first season after treatment. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Bluebunch wheatgrass productivity: the relative effects of fire and clipping

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of removal of dead foliage on aboveground productivity is not clearly understood for bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum). This study compares the response of dormant bluebunch wheatgrass plants to removal of standing dead by burning or by clipping. To simulate differences caused by competition from surrounding vegetation, study plants were burned or clipped individually or as part of 1 m radius circle with the study plant at the center. Standing dead removal from dormant bluebunch wheatgrass clumps had a negative effect on vegetative productivity regardless of the removal method. Reproductive performance was reduced by clipping but not by burning. Burned plants were more productive in terms of biomass and reproduction effort than were clipped plants. The lack of differences between plants treated alone and plants treated as part of an area suggest that competition from nearby individuals has an insignificant role in regulating production. Other possible factors relating to plant production are discussed.

  15. Burning and clipping effects on bluebunch wheatgrass productivity

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, M.C.; Sauer, R.H.

    1983-02-01

    This study compared the response of bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribner and Smith) to the removal of standing dead grass by burning and by clipping. Dormant plants were either clipped or burned in September, individually, or as part of a 3.14 m/sup 2/ area centered on the study plant. This treatment design allowed determination of the effect of competition on productivity. Clipping and burning of dormant bluebunch wheatgrass clumps significantly shortened leaf length. Biomass and the formation of seedheads were significantly reduced by clipping but not by burning. The lack of measurable effects between plants treated alone and as part of a surrounding treated area suggests that competition from nearby individuals had an insignificant role in regulating bluebunch wheatgrass productivity in the first season after treatment. 13 references, 1 figures, 1 table.

  16. Using PVM to host CLIPS in distributed environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Leonard; Pohl, Kym

    1994-01-01

    It is relatively easy to enhance CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) to support multiple expert systems running in a distributed environment with heterogeneous machines. The task is minimized by using the PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) code from Oak Ridge Labs to provide the distributed utility. PVM is a library of C and FORTRAN subprograms that supports distributive computing on many different UNIX platforms. A PVM deamon is easily installed on each CPU that enters the virtual machine environment. Any user with rsh or rexec access to a machine can use the one PVM deamon to obtain a generous set of distributed facilities. The ready availability of both CLIPS and PVM makes the combination of software particularly attractive for budget conscious experimentation of heterogeneous distributive computing with multiple CLIPS executables. This paper presents a design that is sufficient to provide essential message passing functions in CLIPS and enable the full range of PVM facilities.

  17. Potential molecular wires and molecular alligator clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, Jeffry S.; Pearson, Darren L.; Jones, LeRoy, II; Hara, Ryuichiro; Tour, James M.

    1996-12-01

    The synthesis of oligo(2-ethylphenylene-ethynylene)s, oligo(2-(0957-4484/7/4/023/img1-ethylheptyl)phenylene-ethynylene)s, and oligo(3-ethylthiophene-ethynylene)s is described via an iterative divergent convergent approach. Synthesized were the monomer, dimer, tetramer, octamer and 16-mer of the oligo(3-ethylthiophene-ethynylene)s and oligo(2-0957-4484/7/4/023/img1-ethylheptyl)phenylene-ethynylene)s. The 16-mers are 100 Å and 128 Å long, respectively. At each stage in the iteration, the length of the framework doubles. Only three sets of reaction conditions are needed for the entire iterative synthetic sequence; an iodination, a protodesilylation, and a Pd/Cu-catalyzed cross coupling. The oligomers were characterized spectroscopically and by mass spectrometry. The optical properties are presented which show the stage of optical absorbance saturation. The size exclusion chromatography values for the number average weights, relative to polystyrene, illustrate the tremendous differences in the hydrodynamic volume of these rigid rod oligomers versus the random coils of polystyrene. These differences become quite apparent at the octamer stage. The preparation of thiol-protected end groups is described. These may serve as molecular alligator clips for adhesion to gold surfaces. These oligomers may act as molecular wires in molecular electronic devices and they also serve as useful models for understanding related bulk polymers.

  18. Design and bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide CLIP experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Xiao, Guanghua; Chu, Yongjun; Zhang, Michael Q.; Corey, David R.; Xie, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed a surge of discoveries revealing RNA regulation as a central player in cellular processes. RNAs are regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) at all post-transcriptional stages, including splicing, transportation, stabilization and translation. Defects in the functions of these RBPs underlie a broad spectrum of human pathologies. Systematic identification of RBP functional targets is among the key biomedical research questions and provides a new direction for drug discovery. The advent of cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (genome-wide CLIP) technology has recently enabled the investigation of genome-wide RBP–RNA binding at single base-pair resolution. This technology has evolved through the development of three distinct versions: HITS-CLIP, PAR-CLIP and iCLIP. Meanwhile, numerous bioinformatics pipelines for handling the genome-wide CLIP data have also been developed. In this review, we discuss the genome-wide CLIP technology and focus on bioinformatics analysis. Specifically, we compare the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the scopes, of various bioinformatics tools. To assist readers in choosing optimal procedures for their analysis, we also review experimental design and procedures that affect bioinformatics analyses. PMID:25958398

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Polymeric Clips for Appendiceal Stump Closure

    PubMed Central

    Tabone, Lawrence E.; Fong, Philip; Yoo, Jin S.; Park, Chan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic appendectomy remains one of the most common emergency general surgical procedures in the United States. In an era of increasing focus on costs in medical care, we sought to evaluate the use of polymeric clips to secure the appendiceal base during laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy from April 2013 through September 2014 at a single academic teaching institution. Polymeric clips were used to secure the appendiceal stump. Tissue dissection techniques and control of the mesoappendix were the operating surgeon's choice. Clinical outcomes are reported. Results: A total of 25 patients (56% women; mean age, 41 y; body mass index of 29 kg/m2) were enrolled in our study and underwent laparoscopic appendectomy with polymeric clips. One patient was unable to have polymeric clips placed due to inflammation of the appendiceal base. There were no major perioperative complications. One patient developed a suture abscess in the umbilical incision, and another had prolonged ileus with computed tomography demonstrating persistent pelvic fluid that did not require intervention. Median length of stay was 1 d and mean length of follow-up was 81 d. The use of polymeric clips contributed ∼ $32 to the overall operative cost. Conclusions: Polymeric clips are a safe alternative for securing the appendiceal base in laparoscopic appendectomy. They offer significant cost savings without any evidence of increased complications. PMID:27493473

  20. ART/Ada and CLIPS/Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Although they have reached a point of commercial viability, expert systems were originally developed in artificial intelligence (AI) research environments. Many of the available tools still work best in such environments. These environments typically utilize special hardware such as LISP machines and relatively unfamiliar languages such as LISP or Prolog. Space Station applications will require deep integration of expert system technology with applications developed in conventional languages, specifically Ada. The ability to apply automation to Space Station functions could be greatly enhanced by widespread availability of state-of-the-art expert system tools based on Ada. Although there have been some efforts to examine the use of Ada for AI applications, there are few, if any, existing products which provide state-of-the-art AI capabilities in an Ada tool. The goal of the ART/Ada Design Project is to conduct research into the implementation in Ada of state-of-the-art hybrid expert systems building tools (ESBT's). This project takes the following approach: using the existing design of the ART-IM ESBT as a starting point, analyze the impact of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design; redesign the system in Ada; and analyze its performance. The research project will attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future Space Station Freedom projects. During Phase 1 of the project, initial requirements analysis, design, and implementation of the kernel subset of ART-IM functionality was completed. During Phase 2, the effort has been focused on the implementation and performance analysis of several versions with increasing functionality. Since production quality ART/Ada tools will not be available for a considerable time, and additional subtask of this project will be the completion of an Ada version of the CLIPS expert system shell developed by NASA

  1. e-Clips: evaluation of personalized access to music videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondre, Nicolas; Joly, Philippe

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present e-Clips, a framework for the evaluation of content-based indexing and retrieval techniques applied to music video clips. The e-Clips framework integrates different video and audio feature extraction tools, whether automatic or manual. Its goal is to compare the relevance of each type of feature for providing a structured index that can be browsed, finding similar videos, retrieving videos that correspond to a query, and pushing music videos to the user according to his preferences. Currently, over 100 distinct music video clips have been indexed. For each video, shot boundaries were detected and key frames were extracted from each shot. Each key frame image was segmented into visual objects. The sound track was analyzed for basic features. Textual data, such as a song title and its performer was added by hand. The e-Clips framework is based on a client-server architecture that can stream VHS-quality video through an 100 Mbs Intranet. It should help evaluate the relevance of the descriptors generated by content-based indexing tools and suggest appropriate graphical user interfaces for non-specialist end users.

  2. Managing mitral regurgitation: focus on the MitraClip device

    PubMed Central

    Magruder, J Trent; Crawford, Todd C; Grimm, Joshua C; Fredi, Joseph L; Shah, Ashish S

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principle of surgical edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (MVR), the MitraClip percutaneous MVR technique has emerged as a minimally invasive option for MVR. This catheter-based system has been widely demonstrated to be safe, although inferior to surgical MVR. Studies examining patients with ≥3+ mitral regurgitation (MR) show that, for all patients treated, freedom from death, surgery, or MR ≥3+ is in the 75%–80% range 1 year following MitraClip implantation. Despite its inferiority to surgical therapy, in high-risk surgical patients, data suggest that the MitraClip system can be employed safely and that it can result in symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients, while not precluding future surgical options. MitraClip therapy also appears to reduce heart failure readmissions in the high-risk cohort, which may lead to an economic benefit. Ongoing study is needed to clarify the impact of percutaneous mitral valve clipping on long-term survival in high-risk populations, as well as its role in other patient populations, such as those with functional MR. PMID:27110142

  3. Design/Analysis of Metal/Composite Bonded Joints for Survivability at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    A major design and analysis challenge for the JWST ISM structure is the metal/composite bonded joints that will be required to survive down to an operational ultra-low temperature of 30K (-405 F). The initial and current baseline design for the plug-type joint consists of a titanium thin walled fitting (1-3mm thick) bonded to the interior surface of an M555/954-6 composite truss square tube with an axially stiff biased lay-up. Metallic fittings are required at various nodes of the truss structure to accommodate instrument and lift-point bolted interfaces. Analytical experience and design work done on metal/composite bonded joints at temperatures below liquid nitrogen are limited and important analysis tools, material properties, and failure criteria for composites at cryogenic temperatures are virtually nonexistent. Increasing the challenge is the difficulty in testing for these required tools and parameters at 30K. A preliminary finite element analysis shows that failure due to CTE mismatch between the biased composite and titanium or aluminum is likely. Failure is less likely with Invar, however an initial mass estimate of Invar fittings demonstrates that Invar is not an automatic alternative. In order to gain confidence in analyzing and designing the ISM joints, a comprehensive joint development testing program has been planned and is currently running. The test program is designed for the correlation of the analysis methodology, including tuning finite element model parameters, and developing a composite failure criterion for the effect of multi-axial composite stresses on the strength of a bonded joint at 30K. The testing program will also consider stress mitigation using compliant composite layers and potential strength degradation due to multiple thermal cycles. Not only will the finite element analysis be correlated to the test data, but the FEA will be used to guide the design of the test. The first phase of the test program has been completed and the

  4. Invar effect in n-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, {alpha}{sub ht}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and L-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Reznichenko, L. A. Akhnazarova, V. V.; Shilkina, L. A.; Razumovskaya, O. N.; Dudkina, S. I.

    2009-05-15

    An X-ray diffraction analysis of two commercial sets of niobium pentaoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) of Nbo-Pt grade has been performed. Each set reveals the coexistence of three modifications: n-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, {alpha}{sub ht}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and L-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Anomalous behavior in the structural characteristics, with the occurrence of plateaus upon heating (the invar effect), is established for each phase. It is suggested that the coincidence of the temperature ranges with constant unit-cell parameters in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and complex Nb-containing oxides indicates the unified nature of the invar effect, which is related to the defect state of objects under study.

  5. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells. These results suggest that histone H3 clipping operates as part of post-translational modification system in CC. PMID:27698925

  6. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells. These results suggest that histone H3 clipping operates as part of post-translational modification system in CC.

  7. Decision blocks: A tool for automating decision making in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eick, Christoph F.; Mehta, Nikhil N.

    1991-01-01

    The human capability of making complex decision is one of the most fascinating facets of human intelligence, especially if vague, judgemental, default or uncertain knowledge is involved. Unfortunately, most existing rule based forward chaining languages are not very suitable to simulate this aspect of human intelligence, because of their lack of support for approximate reasoning techniques needed for this task, and due to the lack of specific constructs to facilitate the coding of frequently reoccurring decision block to provide better support for the design and implementation of rule based decision support systems. A language called BIRBAL, which is defined on the top of CLIPS, for the specification of decision blocks, is introduced. Empirical experiments involving the comparison of the length of CLIPS program with the corresponding BIRBAL program for three different applications are surveyed. The results of these experiments suggest that for decision making intensive applications, a CLIPS program tends to be about three times longer than the corresponding BIRBAL program.

  8. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  9. YUCSA: A CLIPS expert database system to monitor academic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toptsis, Anestis A.; Ho, Frankie; Leindekar, Milton; Foon, Debra Low; Carbonaro, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The York University CLIPS Student Administrator (YUCSA), an expert database system implemented in C Language Integrated Processing System (CLIPS), for monitoring the academic performance of undergraduate students at York University, is discussed. The expert system component in the system has already been implemented for two major departments, and it is under testing and enhancement for more departments. Also, more elaborate user interfaces are under development. We describe the design and implementation of the system, problems encountered, and immediate future plans. The system has excellent maintainability and it is very efficient, taking less than one minute to complete an assessment of one student.

  10. Testing validation tools on CLIPS-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.; Combs, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system which was developed at the Lockheed Software Technology Center and Artificial Intelligence Center between 1986 and 1990. EVA is an integrated set of generic tools to validate any knowledge-based system written in any expert system shell such as C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), ART, OPS5, KEE, and others. Many validation tools have been built in the EVA system. In this paper, we describe the testing results of applying the EVA validation tools to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Reconfiguration (FDIR) expert system, written in CLIPS, obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, You-Lin Liao, Chun-Wei; Ling, Jing-Jenn

    2014-06-16

    The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

  12. Single clips versus multi-firing clip device for closure of mucosal incisions after peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM)

    PubMed Central

    Verlaan, Tessa; Ponds, Fraukje A. M.; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Fockens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: After Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM), the mucosal incision is closed with endoscopically applied clips. After each clip placement, a subsequent clipping device has to be introduced through the working channel. With the Clipmaster3, three consecutive clips can be placed without reloading which could reduce closure time. We performed a prospective study evaluating efficacy, safety, and ease of use. Closure using Clipmaster3 was compared to closure with standard clips. Methods: Patients undergoing closure with the Clipmaster3 were compared to patients who underwent POEM with standard clip closure. Results: In total, 12 consecutive POEM closures with Clipmaster3 were compared to 24 standard POEM procedures. The Clipmaster3 and the standard group did not differ in sex distribution, age (42 years [29 – 49] vs 41 years [34 – 54] P = 0.379), achalasia subtype, disease duration, length of the mucosal incision (25.0 mm [20 – 30] vs 20.0 mm [20 – 30], P = 1.0), and closure time (622 seconds [438 – 909] vs 599 seconds [488 – 664] P = 0.72). Endoscopically successful closure could be performed in all patients. The proportion of all clips used that were either displaced or discarded was larger for Clipmaster3 (8.8 %) compared to standard closure (2.0 %, P  = 0.00782). Ease of handling VAS (visual analogue scale) score for Clipmaster3 did not differ between endoscopist and endoscopy nurse (7 out of 10). Conclusions: Clipmaster3 is feasible and safe for closure of mucosal incisions after POEM. Clipmaster3 was not associated with reduced closure time. Compared to standard closure, more Clipmaster3 clips were displaced or discarded to achieve successful closure. A training effect cannot be excluded as a cause of these results. Study registration: NCT01405417 PMID:27747277

  13. Extravasal occlusion of large vessels with titanic clips: efficiency, indications, and contraindications.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Yu V; Kim, A I; Kotov, S A

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of extravasal occlusion of blood vessels with titanic clips "Atrauclip" and "Ligaclip extra" was studied in order to reveal indications and contraindications to their use. Occlusion with the clips of both types was ineffective in vessels with a diameter of >7.0 mm. Arteritis or the presence of an intravascular occlusion facility in the vessel were also the contraindications for clip occlusion. In overcases the procedure of occlusion with titanic clips was efficient and atraumatic.

  14. Dorsal minithoracotomy for ductus arteriosus clip closure in premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Walter V A; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Ribeiro, Paulo J F; Evora, Paulo R B; Menardi, Antonio C; Ferreira, Cesar A; Alves, Lafaiete; Bassetto, Solange

    2004-03-01

    We present a new surgical technique for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion in premature neonates (PN). Through a dorsal minithoracotomy the PDA is dissected extrapleurally with q-tips and clipped. The short surgical time, avoidance of pleural drainage, and prevention of late breast deformity are the operation highlights. PMID:14992947

  15. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  16. Improving NAVFAC's total quality management of construction drawings with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antelman, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A diagnostic expert system to improve the quality of Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) construction drawings and specification is described. C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and computer aided design layering standards are used in an expert system to check and coordinate construction drawings and specifications to eliminate errors and omissions.

  17. Equation-Method for correcting clipping errors in OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Nargis; Kleerekoper, Anthony; Muhammad, Nazeer; Cheetham, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the digital modulation technique used by 4G and many other wireless communication systems. OFDM signals have significant amplitude fluctuations resulting in high peak to average power ratios which can make an OFDM transmitter susceptible to non-linear distortion produced by its high power amplifiers (HPA). A simple and popular solution to this problem is to clip the peaks before an OFDM signal is applied to the HPA but this causes in-band distortion and introduces bit-errors at the receiver. In this paper we discuss a novel technique, which we call the Equation-Method, for correcting these errors. The Equation-Method uses the Fast Fourier Transform to create a set of simultaneous equations which, when solved, return the amplitudes of the peaks before they were clipped. We show analytically and through simulations that this method can, correct all clipping errors over a wide range of clipping thresholds. We show that numerical instability can be avoided and new techniques are needed to enable the receiver to differentiate between correctly and incorrectly received frequency-domain constellation symbols. PMID:27386375

  18. ASTP 15th Anniversary Clip-Media Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This release is comprised of 5 separate clips, including the following: CL 762 Astronauts/Cosmonauts Visit to KSC and Walt Disney World; CL 739 ASTP Joint Crew Activities; CL 748 ASTP Astronauts/Cosmonauts Horlock Ranch Visit; CL 758 T-21 ASTP Training - US/USSR; and CL 743 ASTP Joint Crew Training in the Soviet Union.

  19. CLIPS enhanced with objects, backward chaining and explanation facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrobi, M.; Anastasiadis, S.; Khalife, B.; Kontogianis, K; Demori, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this project we extend C Language Production System (CLIPS), an existing Expert System shell, by creating three new options. Specifically, first we create a compatible with CLIPS environment that allows for defining objects and object hierarchies, second we provide means to implement backward chaining in a pure forward chaining environment, and finally we give some simple explanation facilities for the derivations the system has made. Objects and object hierarchies are extended so that facts can be automatically inferred, and placed in the fact base. Backward chaining is implemented by creating run time data structures which hold the derivation process allowing for a depth first search. The backward chaining mechanism works not only with ground facts, but also creates bindings for every query that involves variables, and returns the truth value of such a query as well as the relevant variable bindings. Finally, the WHY and HOW explanation facilities allow for a complete examination of the derivation process, the rules triggered, and the bindings created. The entire system is integrated with the original CLIPS code, and all of its routines can be invoked as CLIPS commands.

  20. 1. Photocopy of drawing (from newspaper clipping entitled 'Iowa State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of drawing (from newspaper clipping entitled 'Iowa State Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb,' located at Council Bluffs Free Library in scrapbook catalogued 'Iowa -- Deaf, School for the') Artist unknown approximately 1868-1887 MAIN FACADE - Iowa Institute for Education of the Deaf & Dumb, South Avenue & State Route 92 Vicinity, Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County, IA

  1. Another Way of Tracking Moving Objects Using Short Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Romanque, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Physics teachers have long employed video clips to study moving objects in their classrooms and instructional labs. A number of approaches exist, both free and commercial, for tracking the coordinates of a point using video. The main characteristics of the method described in this paper are: it is simple to use; coordinates can be tracked using…

  2. Student Views on Learning Environments Enriched by Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosterelioglu, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to identify student views regarding the enrichment of instructional process via video clips based on the goals of the class. The study was conducted in Educational Psychology classes at Amasya University Faculty of Education during the 2012-2013 academic year. The study was implemented on students in the Classroom Teaching and…

  3. Enhanced use of CLIPS at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerre, K. H.; Parkinson, W. J.; Osowski, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Early efforts for producing expert systems for engineering applications used a limited subset of C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) features. The implementation details of previous expert systems and of the current expert system, which is used for training operators in the control of the Isotope Separation System, are discussed.

  4. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  5. An Exploration of Gender Bias in Computer Clip Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines over 14,000 clip art images for gender bias. Finds that only 4% of images depicted women and that those images present women in stereotypical roles, such as secretaries, nurses, teachers. Notes the irony that communication instructors expend much effort persuading students that gender-free prose is the new model--while visually still…

  6. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  7. Sticker Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Laura Corbin

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science activity on the bonding of chemical compounds. Assigns students the role of either a cation or anion and asks them to write the ions they may bond with. Assesses students' understanding of charge, bonding, and other concepts. (YDS)

  8. Quality Ratings for Frequency-Shaped Peak-Clipped Speech: Results for Listeners with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma-Spytek, Linda; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated ratings of amplified speech quality characterized by peak clipping, a common form of distortion in hearing aids, with eight college students having moderate/severe hearing losses. Both clipping level and interaction of the frequency-response shaping with clipping level significantly affected perceived speech quality. A…

  9. 21 CFR 884.2685 - Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2685 Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. (a) Identification. A fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator is a device designed to establish electrical contact between fetal...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2685 - Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2685 Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. (a) Identification. A fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator is a device designed to establish electrical contact between fetal...

  11. 21 CFR 884.2685 - Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2685 Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. (a) Identification. A fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator is a device designed to establish electrical contact between fetal...

  12. Structure, magnetic and microwave properties of FeNi invar nanoparticles obtained by electrical explosion of wire in different preparation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Bhagat, S. M.; Bagazeev, A. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Ballesteros, A.; Beketov, I. V.; Safronov, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of close to invar (Fe0.635Ni0.365) composition were prepared by the electrical explosion of wire using different conditions to insure different values of overheating rates. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, low temperature nitrogen adsorption, magnetic and microwave measurements were used for the characterization of MNPs. Increase of the energy injected into the wire led to increase of the specific surface (Ssp) of the produced MNPs from 4.6 to 13.5 m2/g. The fabricated MNPs were spherical and weakly aggregated with the average weighted diameter in the range of 54-160 nm depending on the Ssp. The phase composition of FeNi MNPs consists of two solid solutions of Ni in α-phase and γ-phase lattices. The increase of the energy injected into the wire leads to increase of the α-phase from 5 to 10 wt% as the injected energy raised from 0.8 to 2.5 times the sublimation energies of the wire material. Comparative analysis of structure magnetic and microwave properties showed that the obtained MNPs are important magnetic materials with high saturation magnetization and significant zero field microwave absorption which can be expected to lead to important technological applications.

  13. Performance evaluation of peak-clipped optical BPSK-SSB modulated signal.

    PubMed

    Sampath, K I Amila; Takano, Katsumi

    2015-07-27

    This study examines the performance of peak-clipped optical BPSK-SSB signal. The effectiveness of peak clipping for PAPR reduction and the degradation caused by peak clipping are numerically analyzed. PAPR of optical BPSK-SSB signal becomes high because of the peaky Hilbert-transformed signal component. PAPR improvement of 43.7% is attained by clipping the peaks of the Hilbert-transformed signal. Assessment of spectral degradation reveals that both waveform clipping and modulator nonlinearity contribute to sideband suppression degradation. Analyses of the 100-km transmitted signal results show that PAPR reduction by peak clipping alleviates the nonlinear phase shift caused by self-phase modulation (SPM), which produces a less degraded signal at the detector. Peak clipping can improve the SPM threshold of the studied system by 2.63 dB. PMID:26367640

  14. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https

  15. QPA-CLIPS: A language and representation for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    QPA-CLIPS is an extension of CLIPS oriented towards process control applications. Its constructs define a dependency network of process actions driven by sensor information. The language consists of three basic constructs: TASK, SENSOR, and FILTER. TASK's define the dependency network describing alternative state transitions for a process. SENSOR's and FILTER's define sensor information sources used to activate state transitions within the network. Deftemplate's define these constructs and their run-time environment is an interpreter knowledge base, performing pattern matching on sensor information and so activating TASK's in the dependency network. The pattern matching technique is based on the repeatable occurrence of a sensor data pattern. QPA-CIPS has been successfully tested on a SPARCStation providing supervisory control to an Allen-Bradley PLC 5 controller driving molding equipment.

  16. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  17. A new alligator-clip compound for molecular electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Timo; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William A.

    2004-06-01

    We used the B3LYP flavor of density functional calculations to study new alligator-clip compounds for molecular electronics with platinum electrodes. First, with commonly used S-based linkage molecule 3-methyl-1,2-dithiolane (MDTL) we find that after chemisorption on Pt(1 1 1) the most stable structure is ring-opened with a binding energy of 32.44 kcal/mol. Among several alternative alligator-clip compounds we find that P-based molecules lead to much higher binding energies. For the ring-closed structure of 3-methyl-1,2-diphospholane (MDPL) a binding energy of 47.72 kcal/mol was calculated and even 54.88 kcal/mol for the ring-opened molecule. Thus, MDPL provides a more stable link to the metal surface and might increase the conductance.

  18. iCLIP: Protein–RNA interactions at nucleotide resolution

    PubMed Central

    Huppertz, Ina; Attig, Jan; D’Ambrogio, Andrea; Easton, Laura E.; Sibley, Christopher R.; Sugimoto, Yoichiro; Tajnik, Mojca; König, Julian; Ule, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key players in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Precise knowledge about their binding sites is therefore critical to unravel their molecular function and to understand their role in development and disease. Individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) identifies protein–RNA crosslink sites on a genome-wide scale. The high resolution and specificity of this method are achieved by an intramolecular cDNA circularization step that enables analysis of cDNAs that truncated at the protein–RNA crosslink sites. Here, we describe the improved iCLIP protocol and discuss critical optimization and control experiments that are required when applying the method to new RBPs. PMID:24184352

  19. Object oriented development of engineering software using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, C. John

    1991-01-01

    Engineering applications involve numeric complexity and manipulations of a large amount of data. Traditionally, numeric computation has been the concern in developing an engineering software. As engineering application software became larger and more complex, management of resources such as data, rather than the numeric complexity, has become the major software design problem. Object oriented design and implementation methodologies can improve the reliability, flexibility, and maintainability of the resulting software; however, some tasks are better solved with the traditional procedural paradigm. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), with deffunction and defgeneric constructs, supports the procedural paradigm. The natural blending of object oriented and procedural paradigms has been cited as the reason for the popularity of the C++ language. The CLIPS Object Oriented Language's (COOL) object oriented features are more versatile than C++'s. A software design methodology based on object oriented and procedural approaches appropriate for engineering software, and to be implemented in CLIPS was outlined. A method for sensor placement for Space Station Freedom is being implemented in COOL as a sample problem.

  20. Using CLIPS to represent knowledge in a VR simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberg, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is an exciting use of advanced hardware and software technologies to achieve an immersive simulation. Until recently, the majority of virtual environments were merely 'fly-throughs' in which a user could freely explore a 3-dimensional world or a visualized dataset. Now that the underlying technologies are reaching a level of maturity, programmers are seeking ways to increase the complexity and interactivity of immersive simulations. In most cases, interactivity in a virtual environment can be specified in the form 'whenever such-and-such happens to object X, it reacts in the following manner.' CLIPS and COOL provide a simple and elegant framework for representing this knowledge-base in an efficient manner that can be extended incrementally. The complexity of a detailed simulation becomes more manageable when the control flow is governed by CLIPS' rule-based inference engine as opposed to by traditional procedural mechanisms. Examples in this paper will illustrate an effective way to represent VR information in CLIPS, and to tie this knowledge base to the input and output C routines of a typical virtual environment.

  1. Implementation of a frame-based representation in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assal, Hisham; Myers, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge representation is one of the major concerns in expert systems. The representation of domain-specific knowledge should agree with the nature of the domain entities and their use in the real world. For example, architectural applications deal with objects and entities such as spaces, walls, and windows. A natural way of representing these architectural entities is provided by frames. This research explores the potential of using the expert system shell CLIPS, developed by NASA, to implement a frame-based representation that can accommodate architectural knowledge. These frames are similar but quite different from the 'template' construct in version 4.3 of CLIPS. Templates support only the grouping of related information and the assignment of default values to template fields. In addition to these features frames provide other capabilities including definition of classes, inheritance between classes and subclasses, relation of objects of different classes with 'has-a', association of methods (demons) of different types (standard and user-defined) to fields (slots), and creation of new fields at run-time. This frame-based representation is implemented completely in CLIPS. No change to the source code is necessary.

  2. CLIP Identifies Nova-Regulated RNA Networks in the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ule, Jernej; Jensen, Kirk B.; Ruggiu, Matteo; Mele, Aldo; Ule, Aljaž; Darnell, Robert B.

    2003-11-01

    Nova proteins are neuron-specific antigens targeted in paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia (POMA), an autoimmune neurologic disease characterized by abnormal motor inhibition. Nova proteins regulate neuronal pre-messenger RNA splicing by directly binding to RNA. To identify Nova RNA targets, we developed a method to purify protein-RNA complexes from mouse brain with the use of ultraviolet cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP). Thirty-four transcripts were identified multiple times by Nova CLIP. Three-quarters of these encode proteins that function at the neuronal synapse, and one-third are involved in neuronal inhibition. Splicing targets confirmed in Nova-/- mice include c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, neogenin, and gephyrin; the latter encodes a protein that clusters inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors, two previously identified Nova splicing targets. Thus, CLIP reveals that Nova coordinately regulates a biologically coherent set of RNAs encoding multiple components of the inhibitory synapse, an observation that may relate to the cause of abnormal motor inhibition in POMA.

  3. Impact of forage clipping treatments on performance of winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, S A; Ullah, H; Mohammad, F; Khalil, I H; Alam, M; Shahwar, D; Malik, M F A; Jamal, Y

    2013-01-01

    Farmers in northern parts of Pakistan face severe shortage of green forage for their livestock during the harsh winter season. Winter wheat has the potential to be used as a dual-purpose crop for forage plus grain production in these areas. Ten elite winter wheat lines from Oklahoma State University were evaluated at Hazara Research Station Abbottabad under unclipped and clipped treatment level during 2005-06. The material was planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with a row length of four meters and a row to row space of 25 cm. Data were recorded on green forage yield, plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, days to maturity, spike weight, biological weight, and grain yield. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among genotypes for all traits except spike length. Similarly all traits except spikelets/spike exhibited significant differences between unclipped and clipped treatment levels. Genotype x clipping interaction was non-significant for all traits except grain yield. Overall, winter wheat lines OK98G508W and OK00611W performed better for important traits such as early maturity, biological yield and grain yield, although over-environment testing is needed before recommendations can be made to the farmers. PMID:24301789

  4. A simple method to control bleeding by stationary paper clips as an alternate to raney clips during coronal incisions.

    PubMed

    Waknis, Pushkar Prakash; Prasad, G S V; Wadje, Satyajit

    2013-03-01

    The value of coronal incisions in maxillofacial surgery has been well documented. The incision provides excellent access to the upper facial skeleton aiding in adequate access, good anatomic reduction of fractures and hidden scar. The associated bleeding with raising a bicoronal flap is a matter of concern to beginner surgeons. This often prevents the regular use of this approach. Textbooks have recommended the use of Raney clips but these are not available routinely in India and are expensive. We have utilized simple stationary paper clips, autoclaved and used for surgery. This not only provide haemostasis but also aids in holding the flap during dissection. This technique would be of great help to young surgeons and in developing countries where economics plays a major role in surgery. PMID:24431826

  5. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  6. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  7. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  8. Using CLIPS as the cornerstone of a graduate expert systems course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun

    1991-01-01

    The effective use of the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) as a cornerstone in a graduate expert systems course is described. The course include 8 or 9 hours of in-depth lecturing in CLIPS, as well as a broad coverage of major topics and techniques in expert systems. As part of the requirements of the course, students solved two small yet non-trival problems in CLIPS before going on to develop a toy expert system in CLIPS in an incremental manner as the term project. Furthermore, students were required to evaluate CLIPS programs written by their classmates. An anonymous questionnaire at the end of the semester revealed that the students responded very favorably to the course, especially their experience with CLIPS.

  9. Integrating an object system into CLIPS: Language design and implementation issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auburn, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the reasons why an object system with integrated pattern-matching and object-oriented programming facilities is desirable for CLIPS and how it is possible to integrate such a system into CLIPS while maintaining the run-time performance and the low memory usage for which CLIPS is known. The requirements for an object system in CLIPS that includes object-oriented programming and integrated pattern-matching are discussed and various techniques for optimizing the object system and its integration with the pattern-matcher are presented.

  10. Do bib clips pose a cross-contamination risk at the dental clinic?

    PubMed

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Lucier, Rebekah; Kublin, Claire L; Fong, Jennifer M; Goldfein, Joshua; Baker, David L; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Kawai, Toshihisa; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2012-07-01

    Although multiple-use dental napkin holders have a relatively low risk of transmitting infection, they do require disinfection between patients. This study sought to: 1) determine the presence of bacterial load on two types of clips of reusable bib chains after dental procedures at the Endodontics and Orthodontics clinics at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine; and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of disinfecting the clips. These specialty clinics represent a wide spectrum of patients, procedures, and appointment times. Bacterial load on the bib clips was determined immediately following dental treatments-both before and after their disinfection-during morning and afternoon sessions. The results revealed that, after treatments, there was a statistically significant difference when comparing the two clinics for bacterial burden on the clips. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in bacterial load on the two types of clips. Disinfection of the bib clips was highly effective in both clinics. Clinically, the results suggest that due to the nature of the treatment, the demographic population, and the type of bib clips used, patients in different clinics may be exposed to varying bacterial concentrations on the bib clips, and thus to different possible cross-contamination risks. Future analyses will be performed to identify the bacterial species in samples from both pre- and post-disinfected clips, and to determine if they harbor disease-causing bacterial species that can pose a potential, yet undetermined risk for cross-contamination.

  11. Novel Use of Endoscopic Clips as Fiducials for Radiotherapy in Small Bowel Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Vanessa; Soriano, Frederick B.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Lossos, Izidore S.; Saigal, Kunal; Sussman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman was diagnosed with duodenal grade 1 follicular lymphoma. The patient underwent radiotherapy and on surveillance enteroscopy, the lymphoma was persistently identified in the duodenum and jejunum. Endoscopic clips were used as fiducials to better localize the tumor during radiotherapy. Endoscopic clips are increasingly used as tumor localization tools because of their favorable risk-benefit ratio. In our case, endoscopic clipping was necessary to properly localize the tumor after prior treatment failure, and the patient now has no evidence of disease. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of clips in tumor localization and improved disease-related morbidity. PMID:26157870

  12. Comprehensive analysis of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found on dental bib clips.

    PubMed

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Murphy, Christina M; Powers, Anne; Kublin, Claire L; Jeong, Youjin Natalie; DiMattia, Michelle; Pham, Linh; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Lombard, Maureen; Hanley, James B; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-use dental bib clips are considered to present relatively low risks for transmitting infections and, thus, are thought to only require disinfection between patient visits. This study was designed to: 1) determine the presence and composition of bacterial contaminants on reusable rubber-faced metal bib clips after dental treatment at the hygiene clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfection for this clip type. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial contaminant loads on the surfaces of the clips were investigated immediately after hygiene treatments were rendered and again after clips were disinfected. The species and strains of bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray analyses. The results demonstrated that although the use of disinfection proved to be significantly effective, some clips retained at least one bacterium on their surfaces after disinfection. Although the bacterial species present on disinfected clips were typical skin or environmental isolates, some were oral in origin. In the study's settings, bacterial presence on the clips did not indicate an infectious disease problem. The different bacterial loads on clips suggest that cross-contamination risks may not be the same for all clinics, and that this difference may be related to the type of treatments and services performed.

  13. Clipping of ipsilateral posterior communicating and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Welch, Babu G

    2015-01-01

    The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 . PMID:25554845

  14. PAPR reduction techniques for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhaojun; Sun, Lu

    2014-07-01

    In the ultraviolet communication system, ACO-OFDM technology can effectively suppress inter-symbol interference on the system performance, and further improve the transmission rate of the system. However, ACO-OFDM has a high peak to average power ratio (PAPR), and high PAPR not only reduces the power efficiency of the optical modulator, but also bring damage to the human eye or skin. In order to solve the above problem, according to ACO-OFDM signal characteristics, two clipping and filtering algorithms are used, and its performance is simulated, the simulations show that the two algorithms are able to inhibit well the PAPR of ACO-OFDM system.

  15. Over-the-scope clip closure of gastrocutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Pinto, Eduardo; Pereira, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Macedo, Guilherme

    2016-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient, with Batten's disease, submitted to a surgical gastrostomy in 2005, and had it replaced in 2007, 2011 and 2014 with one with a filled balloon as its internal retention mechanism. In 2015, she presented to the emergency room due to stomal enlargement, leakage and chemical dermatitis and cellulitis. A 12 mm over-the-scope clip was placed, after anchoring the fistula edges with the twin grasper and suction of the defect into the applicator cap. Endoscopic resolution of the fistula was achieved. PMID:27615017

  16. [LAPAROSCOPIC MYOMECTOMY WITH UTERINE ARTERY CLIPPING VERSUS CONVENTIONAL LAPAROSCOPIC MYOMECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are one of the most common benign smooth muscle tumors in women, with a prevalence of 20 to 40% in women over the age of 35 years. Fifty percent of them may necessitate treatment, because of bleeding, pelvic pain and infertility. Laparoscopic myomectomy is one of the treatment options. The major concern of myomectomy either by open procedure or by laparoscopy is the bleeding encountered during the operation. One of the methods to reduce the intraoperative blood loss and to prevent excessive bleeding is the clipping of both uterine arteries and aa. ovaricae. PMID:26817264

  17. Linear pi-Acceptor-Templated Dynamic Clipping to Macrobicycles and[2]Rotaxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Klivansky, Liana M.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane; Cao, Dennis; Liu, Yi

    2009-04-30

    Functional rotaxanes are one of the representative nanoscale molecular machines that have found applications in many areas, including molecular electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), photo controllable smart surfaces, and nanovalves. With the advent of molecular recognition and self-assembly, such molecular compounds can now be obtained efficiently through template-directed synthesis. One of the common strategies of making [2]rotaxanes involves the clipping of a macrocycle around a preformed dumbbell-shaped template in a [1+1] or [2+2] manner. While early examples were based on irreversible kinetic pathway through covalent bond formation, recent advances on reversible dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) has attracted great attention to this field. By virtue of thermodynamically controlled equilibria, DCC has provided highly efficient and versatile synthetic routes in the selection of specific products from a complex system. Among the several reversible reactions in the category of DCC reactions, the imine formation has proven to be very versatile in macrocyclization to give complex interlocked molecular compounds. Cryptands are three dimensional bicyclic hosts with preorganized cavities capable of inclusion of ions and small molecules. Replacing the nitrogen bridgeheads in common cryptands with aromatic ring systems gives cyclophane-based macrobicycles. The introduction of aromatic ring systems into a preorganized cage-like geometry facilitates ion-{pi} interactions and {pi}-{pi} interactions, resulting in novel metal sandwiches, fluoride receptors, and host-guest complexes. In particular, the seminal work by Gibson, Huang and coworkers on cryptand complexation with paraquat and diquat guests have resulted in the efficient synthesis of mechanically interlocked rotaxanes. The synthesis of cyclophane-based macrobicycles, however, was mostly realized through multiple reaction steps and in high-dilution conditions, which often suffered from low yield and

  18. Scissoring of a Cobalt Alloy Aneurysm Clip causing Slippage during Cerebral Aneurysm Surgery: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kariyattil, Rajeev; Panikar, Dilip

    2013-02-01

    Clip slippage is a rare occurrence, and the scissoring or torsional failure of aneurysm clips is rarer still. Titanium clips have been implicated in a few such reported cases. The authors report its occurrence while using a fenestrated cobalt alloy clip for an internal carotid artery aneurysm which was identified by intraoperative angiography and rectified by re-applying a non-fenestrated cobalt alloy clip. The possible mechanism of this complication, and measures that may prevent its occurrence, including meticulous dissection, decompression when possible, proper clip selection, and intraoperative angiogram are described. PMID:23573404

  19. Distinguishing Bonds.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond.

  20. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  1. A cost-effective strategy for nonoscillatory convection without clipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Niknafs, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    Clipping of narrow extrema and distortion of smooth profiles is a well known problem associated with so-called high resolution nonoscillatory convection schemes. A strategy is presented for accurately simulating highly convective flows containing discontinuities such as density fronts or shock waves, without distorting smooth profiles or clipping narrow local extrema. The convection algorithm is based on non-artificially diffusive third-order upwinding in smooth regions, with automatic adaptive stencil expansion to (in principle, arbitrarily) higher order upwinding locally, in regions of rapidly changing gradients. This is highly cost effective because the wider stencil is used only where needed-in isolated narrow regions. A recently developed universal limiter assures sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without introducing artificial diffusion or numerical compression. An adaptive discriminator is constructed to distinguish between spurious overshoots and physical peaks; this automatically relaxes the limiter near local turning points, thereby avoiding loss of resolution in narrow extrema. Examples are given for one-dimensional pure convection of scalar profiles at constant velocity.

  2. A fast video clip retrieval algorithm based on VA-file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangjie; Dong, DaoGuo; Miao, Xiaoping; Xue, XiangYang

    2003-12-01

    Video clip retrieval is a significant research topic of content-base multimedia retrieval. Generally, video clip retrieval process is carried out as following: (1) segment a video clip into shots; (2) extract a key frame from each shot as its representative; (3) denote every key frame as a feature vector, and thus a video clip can be denoted as a sequence of feature vectors; (4) retrieve match clip by computing the similarity between the feature vector sequence of a query clip and the feature vector sequence of any clip in database. To carry out fast video clip retrieval the index structure is indispensable. According to our literature survey, S2-tree [17] is the one and only index structure having been applied to support video clip retrieval, which combines the characteristics of both X-tree and Suffix-tree and converts the series vectors retrieval to string matching. But S2-tree structure will not be applicable if the feature vector's dimension is beyond 20, because the X-tree itself cannot be used to sustain similarity query effectively when dimensions of vectors are beyond 20. Furthermore, it cannot support flexible similarity definitions between two vector sequences. VA-file represents the vector approximately by compressing the original data and it maintains the original order when representing vectors in a sequence, which is a very valuable merit for vector sequences matching. In this paper, a new video clip similarity model as well as video clip retrieval algorithm based on VA-File are proposed. The experiments show that our algorithm incredibly shortened the retrieval time compared to sequential scanning without index structure.

  3. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with

  4. Prospective validation of the CLIP score: a new prognostic system for patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) Investigators.

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    Prognosis of patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on both residual liver function and tumor extension. The CLIP score includes Child-Pugh stage, tumor morphology and extension, serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and portal vein thrombosis. We externally validated the CLIP score and compared its discriminatory ability and predictive power with that of the Okuda staging system in 196 patients with cirrhosis and HCC prospectively enrolled in a randomized trial. No significant associations were found between the CLIP score and the age, sex, and pattern of viral infection. There was a strong correlation between the CLIP score and the Okuda stage. As of June 1999, 150 patients (76.5%) had died. Median survival time was 11 months, overall, and it was 36, 22, 9, 7, and 3 months for CLIP categories 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 to 6, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the CLIP score had additional explanatory power above that of the Okuda stage. This was true for both patients treated with locoregional therapy or not. A quantitative estimation of 2-year survival predictive power showed that the CLIP score explained 37% of survival variability, compared with 21% explained by Okuda stage. In conclusion, the CLIP score, compared with the Okuda staging system, gives more accurate prognostic information, is statistically more efficient, and has a greater survival predictive power. It could be useful in treatment planning by improving baseline prognostic evaluation of patients with HCC, and could be used in prospective therapeutic trials as a stratification variable, reducing the variability of results owing to patient selection.

  5. Capturing Students' Attention: Movie Clips Set the Stage for Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badura, Amy S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a study that evaluated using popular movie clips, shown in the first class meeting of an abnormal psychology course, in relation to student enthusiasm. Compares two classes of female juniors, one using clips and one class not using them. States that the films portrayed psychological disorders. (CMK)

  6. Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Using Multiple Fenestrated Clips for Complete Occlusion of Large Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189

  7. Using Short Movie and Television Clips in the Economics Principles Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a teaching method that uses powerful contemporary media, movie and television clips, to demonstrate the enormous breadth and depth of economic concepts. Many different movie and television clips can be used to show the power of economic analysis. The author describes the scenes and the economic concepts within those scenes for…

  8. Using Film Clips to Teach Teen Pregnancy Prevention: "The Gloucester 18" at a Teen Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…

  9. 21 CFR 884.2685 - Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. 884.2685 Section 884.2685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... clip electrode and applicator is a device designed to establish electrical contact between fetal...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2685 - Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....2685 Section 884.2685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Monitoring Devices § 884.2685 Fetal scalp clip electrode and applicator. (a) Identification. A fetal scalp... and an external monitoring device by means of pinching skin tissue with a nonreusable clip....

  11. [Clip Sheets from BOCES. Opportunities. Health. Careers. = Oportunidades. Salud. Una Camera En...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Geneseo. Coll. at Geneseo. Migrant Center.

    This collection of 83 clip sheets, or classroom handouts, was created to help U.S. migrants learn more about health, careers, and general "opportunities" including education programs. They are written in both English and Spanish and are presented in an easily understandable format. Health clip-sheet topics include the following: Abuse; AIDS;…

  12. Travel, Sabbatical, and Study Leave Policies in College Libraries. CLIP Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Carolyn, Comp.; Morrill, Allen S., Comp.

    The "College Library Information Packet (CLIP) Note" series is known for providing college and university libraries with reviews and current documentation on library practices and procedures of relevance to them. This "CLIP Note" provides information and sample policies on travel, sabbaticals, and study leaves of absence in small academic…

  13. Using Brief Instructional Video Clips to Foster Communication, Reflection, and Collaboration in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, William; Dikkers, Amy Garrett; Parker, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this collaborative study, university researchers introduced the short video clips of teaching and learning within two elementary schools; these clips were shared in site faculty meetings to encourage dialogue and collaboration. Researchers conducted pre- and post-surveys with teachers and pre- and post-interviews with principals to understand…

  14. The "Isms" of Art. Introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints that will focus on ten art movements from the past 150 years. Includes information on three art movements, or "isms": Classicism, Romanticism, and Realism. Discusses the Clip and Save Art Print format and provides information on three artists. (CMK)

  15. Using a Videotape Clip to Demonstrate the Fallibility of Eyewitness Testimony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Nancy R.; Dyck, Jennifer L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses a video clip of a robbery from the film "Robocop" to illustrate the fallibility of eyewitness testimony. Students view the clip and complete a multiple-choice test concerning the episode. The ubiquitous poor test performance can be used for an interesting and productive discussion. (MJP)

  16. Bonds Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar outlines…

  17. Yankee bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, P. )

    1993-10-01

    Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

  18. CLIPS: A tool for the development and delivery of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule-based language developed by the Software Technology Branch at the Johnson Space Center. CLIPS provides a complete environment for the construction of rule-based expert systems. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high probability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. Other key features of CLIPS include a powerful rule syntax, an interactive development environment, high performance, extensibility, a verification/validation tool, extensive documentation, and source code availability. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2,500 users throughout the public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches of the military, numerous Federal bureaus, government contractors, 140 universities, and many companies.

  19. Key frame extraction from unstructured consumer video clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, Christophe; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-01-01

    We present a key frame extraction method dedicated to summarize unstructured consumer video clips acquired from digital cameras. Analysis of spatio-temporal changes over time provides meaningful information about the scene and the cameraman's general intents. First, camera and object motion are estimated and used to derive motion descriptors. A video is segmented into homogeneous segments based on major types of camera motion (e.g., pan, zoom, pause, steady). Dedicated rules are used to extract candidate key frames from each segment. Confidence measures are computed for the candidates to enable ranking in semantic relevance. This method is scalable so that we can produce any desired number of key frames from the candidates. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our method by comparing results with the ground truth agreed by multiple judges.

  20. Generating target system specifications from a domain model using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugumaran, Vijayan; Gomaa, Hassan; Kerschberg, Larry

    1991-01-01

    The quest for reuse in software engineering is still being pursued and researchers are actively investigating the domain modeling approach to software construction. There are several domain modeling efforts reported in the literature and they all agree that the components that are generated from domain modeling are more conducive to reuse. Once a domain model is created, several target systems can be generated by tailoring the domain model or by evolving the domain model and then tailoring it according to the specified requirements. This paper presents the Evolutionary Domain Life Cycle (EDLC) paradigm in which a domain model is created using multiple views, namely, aggregation hierarchy, generalization/specialization hierarchies, object communication diagrams and state transition diagrams. The architecture of the Knowledge Based Requirements Elicitation Tool (KBRET) which is used to generate target system specifications is also presented. The preliminary version of KBRET is implemented in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  1. Sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without clipping of narrow extrema

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Niknafs, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for accurately simulating highly convective flows containing discontinuities such as density fronts or shock waves, without distorting smooth profiles or clipping narrow local extrema. The convection algorithm is based on non-artificially-diffusive third-order upwinding in smooth regions, with automatic adaptive stencil expansion to (in principle, arbitrarily) higher order upwinding locally, in regions of rapidly changing gradients. This is highly cost-effective because the wider stencil is used only where needed - in isolated narrow regions. A recently developed universal limiter assures sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without introducing artificial diffusion or numerical compression. An adaptive discriminator is constructed to distinguish between spurious overshoots and physical peaks; this automatically relaxes the limiter near local turning points, thereby avoiding loss of resolution in narrow extrema. Examples are given for one-dimensional pure convection of scalar profiles at constant velocity.

  2. Hader bar and clip attachment retained mandibular complete denture

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi; Kapoor, Vikram; Gupta, Ridhimaa

    2013-01-01

    Bar and clip attachments significantly improve the level of satisfaction of denture-wearing patients by enhancing the retention and stability of the prosthesis. These attachments have been most commonly used for connecting the prosthesis to implants, but they can be effectively used to retain tooth-supported prosthesis as well. The primary functions of bar attachments are splinting the abutments together, even distribution of forces to the abutments and supporting areas, guiding the prosthesis into place, improving the retention, stability, support and comfort of the patient. The primary requirement for the use of bar attachments is the availability of sufficient vertical and buccolingual space for the proper placement of the bar, sleeves, teeth arrangement and sufficient thickness of acrylic denture base to minimise incidence of denture fracture in the area of bar assembly. PMID:24145505

  3. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  4. Ultrasonography-Guided Surgical Clip Placement for Tumor Localization in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Inyoung; Kook, Shin Ho; Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Chan Heun; Park, Yong Lai; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the feasibility of using surgical clips as markers for tumor localization and their effect on the imaging evaluation of treatment responses after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods A total of 16 breast cancers confirmed by needle biopsy in 15 patients were included in this study from October 2012 to June 2014. Under ultrasonography (US)-guidance, the surgical clips were placed prior to NAC. Additional mammography, breast US, and breast magnetic resonance examinations were performed within 10 days before surgery. The time period from marker insertion to operation date was documented. Images acquired via the three modalities were evalu-ated for the following parameters: location of clip, clip migration (>1 cm), the presence of complications from clip placement, and the effect of clips on the assessment of treatment. Results The mean time period was 128.6±34.4 days (median, 132.0 days) from the date of clip insertion to the date of surgery. The mean number of inserted clips was 2.3±0.7 (median, 2.0). Clip migration was not visualized by imaging in any patient, and there were no complications reported. Surgical clips did not negatively affect the assessment of treatment responses to NAC. Conclusion Surgical clips may replace commercial tissue markers for tumor localization in breast cancer patients undergoing NAC without migration. Surgical clips are well tolerated and safe for the patient, easily visualized on imaging, do not interfere with treatment response, and are cost-effective. PMID:25834610

  5. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  6. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  7. Design, evaluation, and dissemination of a plastic syringe clip to improve dosing accuracy of liquid medications.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Garrett J; Dinh, Cindy; Gutierrez, Amanda; Lukomnik, Julia; Lu, Benjamin; Shah, Kamal; Slough, Tara; Yeh, Ping Teresa; Mirabal, Yvette; Gray, Lauren Vestewig; Marton, Stephanie; Adler, Michelle; Schutze, Gordon E; Wickham, Hadley; Oden, Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Pediatricians in Africa requested a tool to improve caregiver dosing of liquid antiretroviral medication. We developed, evaluated and disseminated a clip to control the amount of medication drawn into an oral syringe. In a laboratory, a user tested clips of different lengths, corresponding to different volumes, by drawing water into a syringe with a clip. In Texas and Malawi, 149 adults attempted to measure Pepto-Bismol™ using a syringe with a clip, a syringe without a clip, and a dosing cup, in a randomly assigned order. In the laboratory, the volume of liquid, ranging from 1 to 4.5 mL, drawn into the syringe was always within at least 5 μL of the intended dose. In Texas, 84% of doses were accurate within ±10%, vs. 63% using the syringe alone, and 21% with the dosing cup. In Malawi, 98% of doses were accurate to within ±10%, vs. 90% using the syringe alone, and 27% with the dosing cup. For target accuracy values within ±45% (±21%), a significantly higher fraction of Houston (Kamangira) participants delivered an accurate dose using the syringe with the clip than with the syringe alone (p < 0.05). The clip enables a greater proportion of users to accurately measure liquid medication.

  8. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  9. Filshie clip closure: determination of closure through the analysis of X-rays.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Richard Edward

    2008-11-01

    The Filshie method is a tubal occlusion method commonly used to prevent pregnancy. In medical negligence cases where it is suspected that closure of a Filshie clip may be faulty, lawyers may call on expert surgeons to assess whether or not a clip is closed on the basis of visual examination of the X-rays. However, it is not uncommon for experts to disagree. The aim of this work was to reduce the uncertainty in determining whether or not Filshie clips had been correctly closed. An estimate of the error in the estimate of the clip height was made by propagating measurement errors through a mathematical model. The effects of angle of presentation of the clip, digitisation of the image and resolution of the measurements were studied and the method was applied to two cases. The analysis indicated that measurement errors were least when the digitisation of the image was at 600dpi, angle of presentation of the clip was less than 40 degrees and the measurements could be made to an accuracy of +/-1pixel. Under these conditions it was possible to determine clip closure height with an error of less than +/-0.2mm.

  10. Use of multiple clips for tubal occlusion in interval laparoscopic sterilization: circumstances and consequences.

    PubMed

    Chi, I C

    1994-11-01

    The use of multiple clips for the occlusion of the Fallopian tubes has been reported in interval laparoscopic sterilization, but the circumstances leading to the performance of the multiple-clip procedure and its effects on safety and efficacy have not been carefully studied. A data set from international multi-center clinical trials of Filshie clips and Wolf (Hulka) clips was used to examine the possible reasons for performing this procedure for 102 women. Their complications, complaints, and surgical and post-surgical events before discharge and during one month of follow-up were compared with those of the 408 women whose tubes were occluded by single clip. Results indicate that multiple clips were most often used when surgical difficulties (and to a much lesser degree, tubal and/or mesosalpingeal injury) were encountered during the sterilization procedure. No increased risk of short-term complications or complaints (including pelvic pain) was found at one-month follow-up for those patients who received multiple clips. PMID:7859450

  11. [Design and In Vitro Experimental Study of an Endoscopic Multiple-clip Applier].

    PubMed

    Ge, Shuchen; Song, Chengli; Yan, Shiju

    2016-02-01

    Considering the problems such as reposition limited, easily detached and singly fired of the existing clip products, we developed an endoscopic multiple-clip applier which can apply 4 clips fired successively at a time. Th instrument also equipped with an independent grasper which can be used to clamp target tissues. In order to explor its feasibility and effectiveness of endoluminal closure of gastric perforation, 22 pig stomachs were making a 1 cm full-thickness incision from outside and closed by multiple-clip applier (n = 12) in vitro. Outcome was measured by bursting pressure and compared with negative control (n = 5) and hand suture (n = 5). We set a threshold pressure value (10 mm Hg) for a secure closure. Except 2 cases of invalid data, the mean bursting pressures of negative control, multiple-clip applier, hand suture were (1.5 ± 0.3) mm Hg, (46.0 ± 7.1) mm Hg, and (72.5 ± 7.7) mm Hg, respectively. The results showed that bursting pressure of multiple-clip applier was significantly higher than that of negative control (P < 0.05) and threshold value. Multiple-clip applier can be served as an effective and safe device to perform the endoluminal closure of gastric perforation. PMID:27382756

  12. Chalcogen bond: a sister noncovalent bond to halogen bond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhou; Ji, Baoming; Zhang, Yu

    2009-07-16

    A sister noncovalent bond to halogen bond, termed chalcogen bond, is defined in this article. By selecting the complexes H(2)CS...Cl(-), F(2)CS...Cl(-), OCS...Cl(-), and SCS...Cl(-) as models, the bond-length change, interaction energy, topological property of the electron charge density and its Laplacian, and the charge transfer of the chalcogen bond have been investigated in detail theoretically. It was found that the similar misshaped electron clouds of the chalcogen atom and the halogen atom result in the similar properties of the chalcogen bond and the halogen bond. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Comparative outcome analysis of anterior choroidal artery aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling or surgical clipping

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takachika; Hirohata, Masaru; Noguchi, Kei; Komaki, Satoru; Orito, Kimihiko; Morioka, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms with endovascular coiling or surgical clipping may increase the risk of ischemic complications owing to the critical territory supplied by the AChA. We analyzed the surgical results of endovascular coiling and surgical clipping for AChA aneurysms performed in a single institution, as well as the role of indocyanine green-videoangiography (ICG-VAG) and motor-evoked potential (MEP). Methods: We analyzed 50 patients (51 aneurysms; 21 men, 29 women; mean age: 58 years) including 25 with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with endovascular coiling or surgical clipping between April 1990 and October 2013. The complication rates and clinical outcomes of the coil group (mean follow-up: 61 months) and the clip group (mean follow-up: 121 months) were analyzed with a modified Rankin scale. Results: The overall clinical outcome of the coil group (95%) was better than that of the clip group (85%). Especially, the outcomes in the coil group were better in the first investigated period (1990–2007) (P < 0.05). However, after the introduction of ICG-VAG and MEP, the outcomes in the clip group improved significantly (P = 0.005), and treatment-related complications decreased from 20 to 4.7%. Eleven aneurysms (coil group: 8, clip group: 3) showed small neck remnants but no remarkable regrowth, except for 1 case during the mean follow-up period of 91 months. Conclusions: Surgical clipping of AChA aneurysms has become safer because of ICG-VAG and MEP monitoring. Coiling and clipping of AChA aneurysms showed good and comparable outcomes with these monitoring methods. PMID:27583175

  14. Torque-velocity relationship during cycle ergometer sprints with and without toe clips.

    PubMed

    Capmal, S; Vandewalle, H

    1997-01-01

    The torque-velocity relationship in cycling has been studied during all-out sprints (n = 6 subjects) with and without toe clips on an electronic Lode ergometer with strain gauges, to estimate the importance of the expected decrease in torque, velocity and power output. As previously found with different cycling protocols, the torque-velocity relationship was linear for all-out sprints with toe clips. A similar relationship was observed when cycling without toe clips but the torque-velocity relationship was inflected downwards at low or high velocities in several subjects who were not regular cyclists. The pulling action during the rise of the pedal at low velocities cannot explain why the torque-velocity relationship is not hyperbolic for cycling exercises with toe clips because similar relationships were observed without toe clips. The maximal power output was significantly higher during cycling with toe clips (782 W vs 668 W, P < 0.05), probably because of the pulling action at low and medium velocities as indicated by the higher value of the extrapolated maximal torque T0 (138 N x m vs 122 N x m, P < 0.05). In contrast, the maximal extrapolated velocity, V0 and peak velocity were not significantly improved by the use of toe clips. The comparison of the angle-torque patterns at low and high velocities suggested that the kinetic energy of the legs can be transformed into power output when cycling without toe clips as well as it can when cycling with toe clips.

  15. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  16. Stent-Assisted Clip Placement for Complex Internal Carotid Artery Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Khan, Asif A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.; Sherr, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We report two procedures using a stent-assisted microsurgical clip placement to treat complex intracranial aneurysms originating from supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. CASE DESCRIPTIONS In both procedures, primary clip placement was considered technically difficult due to either complex morphology or inferior protrusion of aneurysm fundus within the interclinoid space. A nitinol self-expanding stent was placed across the neck of the aneurysm either preoperatively or intraoperatively. Obliteration of aneurysm and patency of the artery was confirmed by angiography after clip placement. CONCLUSION Description of an integrated open microsurgical and endovascular approach and review of literature pertaining to considerations for treatment approach are discussed. PMID:26958150

  17. Successful Removal of Football Helmet Face-Mask Clips After 1 Season of Use

    PubMed Central

    Scibek, Jason S.; Gatti, Joseph M.; McKenzie, Jennifer I.

    2012-01-01

    Context Whereas many researchers have assessed the ability to remove loop straps in traditional face-mask attachment systems after at least 1 season of use, research in which the effectiveness of the Riddell Quick Release (QR) Face Guard Attachment System clip after 1 season has been assessed is limited. Objective To examine the success rate of removing the QR clips after 1 season of use at the Football Championship Subdivision level. We hypothesized that 1 season of use would negatively affect the removal rate of the QR clip but repeated clip-removal trials would improve the removal rate. Design Retrospective, quasi-experimental design. Setting Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants Sixty-three football helmets from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university located in western Pennsylvania used during the 2008 season were tested. Intervention(s) Three certified athletic trainers (2 men, 1 woman; age = 31.3 ± 3.06 years, time certified = 9.42 ± 2.65 years) attempted to remove the QR clips from each helmet with the tool provided by the manufacturer. Helmets then were reassembled to allow each athletic trainer to attempt clip removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were total left clips removed (TCR-L), total right clips removed (TCR-R), and total clips removed (TCR). Success rate of clip removal (SRCR) also was assessed. Results Percentages for TCR-L, TCR-R, and TCR were 100% (189 of 189), 96.30% (182 of 189), and 98.15% (371 of 378), respectively. A paired-samples t test revealed a difference between TCR-R and TCR-L (t188 = −2.689, P = .008, μd = 0.037, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.064, −0.010). The percentage for SRCR was 96.30% (n = 182), whereas SRCR percentages for trials 1, 2, and 3 were 95.24% (n = 60), 98.41% (n = 62), and 95.24% (n = 60), respectively, and did not represent a difference (F2,186 = 0.588, P = .56, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99). Conclusions Our results indicated favorable and

  18. Constructing complex graphics applications with CLIPS and the X window system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faul, Ben M.

    1990-01-01

    This article will demonstrate how the artificial intelligence concepts in CLIPS used to solve problems encountered in the design and implementation of graphics applications within the UNIX-X Window System environment. The design of an extended version of CLIPS, called XCLIPS, is presented to show how the X Windows System graphics can be incorporated without losing DOS compatibility. Using XCLIPS, a sample scientific application is built that applies solving capabilities of both two and three dimensional graphics presentations in conjunction with the standard CLIPS features.

  19. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with

  20. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with

  1. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with

  2. Determination of dosimetric perturbations caused by aneurysm clip in stereotactic radiosurgery using gel phantoms and EBT-Gafchromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Geso, M.; Ackerly, T.; Brown, S.; Chua, Z.; He, C.; Wong, C. J.; Powell, C. E.; Ho, A.; Qiao, G.; Solomon, D. H.; Patterson, W.; Droege, J. M.

    2008-02-15

    Some radiotherapy patients are treated with titanium surgical aneurysm clips in the radiation field. This is of particular importance for stereotactic radiosurgery brain treatments, where the length of the blade of the clip may be comparable to the size of the radiation field. This study seeks to determine the extent of the dosimetric effects caused by surgical clips in stereotactic radiosurgery, using polyacrylamide gel phantoms and EBT type Gafchromic films. Using gel phantoms scanned with magnetic resonance imaging scanner, dose enhancement of around 20% was noted at distances less than 2 mm away from the clip surface. Gafchromic films showed about 6% variations in the dose up to few millimeters from the clip. These experimental results confirmed results predicted by Monte Carlo simulation techniques for higher density material surgical clips such as lead and platinum. Moreover, these experimental measurements clearly indicate dose reduction due to radiation attenuation behind the clip of about 4%.

  3. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  4. Hemodynamic and neural responses to renal denervation of the nerve to the clipped kidney by cryoablation in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Noreen F; Pajewski, Russell; Chen, Haiping; Littrup, Peter J; Maliszewska-Scislo, Maria

    2016-01-15

    Renal artery stenosis is increasing in prevalence. Angioplasty plus stenting has not proven to be better than medical management. There has been a reluctance to use available denervation methodologies in this condition. We studied conscious, chronically instrumented, two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) Goldblatt rats, a model of renovascular hypertension, to test the hypothesis that renal denervation by cryoablation (cryo-DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma and tissue ANG II, and contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham (ShC) or right renal artery clipping (2K-1C), placement of telemetry transmitters, and pair-feeding with a 0.4% NaCl diet. After 6 wk, rats were randomly assigned to cryo-DNX or sham cryotreatment (sham DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney. MAP was elevated in 2K-1C and decreased significantly in both ShC cryo-DNX and 2K-1C cryo-DNX. Tissue norepinephrine was ∼85% lower in cryo-DNX kidneys. Plasma ANG II was higher in 2K-1C sham DNX but not in 2K-1C cryo-DNX vs ShC. Renal tissue ANG II in the clipped kidney decreased after cryo-DNX. Baseline integrated RSNA of the unclipped kidney was threefold higher in 2K-1C versus ShC and decreased in 2K-1C cryo-DNX to values similar to ShC. Maximum reflex response of RSNA to baroreceptor unloading in 2K-1C was lower after cryo-DNX. Thus, denervation by cryoablation of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases not only MAP but also plasma and renal tissue ANG II levels and RSNA to the contralateral kidney in conscious, freely moving 2K-1C rats.

  5. Hemodynamic and neural responses to renal denervation of the nerve to the clipped kidney by cryoablation in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Noreen F; Pajewski, Russell; Chen, Haiping; Littrup, Peter J; Maliszewska-Scislo, Maria

    2016-01-15

    Renal artery stenosis is increasing in prevalence. Angioplasty plus stenting has not proven to be better than medical management. There has been a reluctance to use available denervation methodologies in this condition. We studied conscious, chronically instrumented, two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) Goldblatt rats, a model of renovascular hypertension, to test the hypothesis that renal denervation by cryoablation (cryo-DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma and tissue ANG II, and contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham (ShC) or right renal artery clipping (2K-1C), placement of telemetry transmitters, and pair-feeding with a 0.4% NaCl diet. After 6 wk, rats were randomly assigned to cryo-DNX or sham cryotreatment (sham DNX) of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney. MAP was elevated in 2K-1C and decreased significantly in both ShC cryo-DNX and 2K-1C cryo-DNX. Tissue norepinephrine was ∼85% lower in cryo-DNX kidneys. Plasma ANG II was higher in 2K-1C sham DNX but not in 2K-1C cryo-DNX vs ShC. Renal tissue ANG II in the clipped kidney decreased after cryo-DNX. Baseline integrated RSNA of the unclipped kidney was threefold higher in 2K-1C versus ShC and decreased in 2K-1C cryo-DNX to values similar to ShC. Maximum reflex response of RSNA to baroreceptor unloading in 2K-1C was lower after cryo-DNX. Thus, denervation by cryoablation of the renal nerve to the clipped kidney decreases not only MAP but also plasma and renal tissue ANG II levels and RSNA to the contralateral kidney in conscious, freely moving 2K-1C rats. PMID:26582638

  6. Combined suture and clipping for the reconstruction of a ruptured blister-like aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Archavlis, Eleftherios; Giese, Alf

    2016-10-01

    Blister-like aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) present a severe therapeutical challenge. While several reconstructive techniques are in use in case of acute rupture sacrifice of the parent vessel may be required. We present a combined technique of micro-sutures and clip application to repair the parent vessel in an intraoperatively ruptured blister-like aneurysm. Following temporary trapping of an intraoperatively ruptured 7-mm blister-like aneurysm four 8-0 nylon sutures were applied to adapt the vessel walls and support the branches of subsequently applied mini-clips. The combination of micro-sutures and mini-clips might be a valuable alternative to direct clipping or suturing in some cases with intraoperative rupture of blister-like aneurysms. PMID:27514829

  7. Combined suture and clipping for the reconstruction of a ruptured blister-like aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Archavlis, Eleftherios; Giese, Alf

    2016-10-01

    Blister-like aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) present a severe therapeutical challenge. While several reconstructive techniques are in use in case of acute rupture sacrifice of the parent vessel may be required. We present a combined technique of micro-sutures and clip application to repair the parent vessel in an intraoperatively ruptured blister-like aneurysm. Following temporary trapping of an intraoperatively ruptured 7-mm blister-like aneurysm four 8-0 nylon sutures were applied to adapt the vessel walls and support the branches of subsequently applied mini-clips. The combination of micro-sutures and mini-clips might be a valuable alternative to direct clipping or suturing in some cases with intraoperative rupture of blister-like aneurysms.

  8. Adaptive feedback cancellation in hearing aids with clipping in the feedback path.

    PubMed

    Freed, Daniel J

    2008-03-01

    Adaptive linear filtering algorithms are commonly used to cancel feedback in hearing aids. The use of these algorithms is based on the assumption that the feedback path is linear, so nonlinearities in the feedback path may affect performance. This study investigated the effect on feedback canceller performance of clipping of the feedback signal arriving at the microphone, as well as the benefit of applying identical clipping to the cancellation signal so that the cancellation path modeled the nonlinearity of the feedback path. Feedback signal clipping limited the amount of added stable gain that the feedback canceller could provide, and caused misadjustment in response to high-level inputs, by biasing adaptive filter coefficients toward lower magnitudes. Cancellation signal clipping mitigated these negative effects, permitting higher amounts of added stable gain and less misadjustment in response to high-level inputs, but the benefit was reduced in the presence of the highest-level inputs. PMID:18345849

  9. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  10. Late calcific mitral stenosis after MitraClip procedure in a dialysis-dependent patient.

    PubMed

    Pope, Nicolas H; Lim, Scott; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2013-05-01

    The EVEREST II trial investigated the MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing surgical procedures. Although mitral stenosis was not reported in this cohort, this trial excluded patients receiving dialysis. We report a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive, dialysis-dependent patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and severe MR, who was considered at high operative risk because of frailty. She was treated with a MitraClip as part of the REALISM high-risk registry. Her symptomatic MR improved but severe symptomatic mitral stenosis developed 28 months after the MitraClip procedure. At that point, she was felt to be a better operative candidate but required open mitral valve replacement. Pathologic examination demonstrated significant calcification of the leaflets around the MitraClip devices.

  11. Embedded CLIPS for SDI BM/C3 simulation and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossage, Brett; Nanney, Van

    1990-01-01

    Nichols Research Corporation is developing the BM/C3 Requirements Analysis Tool (BRAT) for the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command. BRAT uses embedded CLIPS/Ada to model the decision making processes used by the human commander of a defense system. Embedding CLlPS/Ada in BRAT allows the user to explore the role of the human in Command and Control (C2) and the use of expert systems for automated C2. BRAT models assert facts about the current state of the system, the simulated scenario, and threat information into CLIPS/Ada. A user-defined rule set describes the decision criteria for the commander. We have extended CLIPS/Ada with user-defined functions that allow the firing of a rule to invoke a system action such as weapons release or a change in strategy. The use of embedded CLIPS/Ada will provide a powerful modeling tool for our customer at minimal cost.

  12. The effect of ether anesthesia on fin-clipping rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1953-01-01

    As part of an experimental program to learn the effects of stocking lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior, 141, 392 fingerlings were marked at the Charlevoix (Michigan) Station of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in October 1952. The adipose fin was removed from all fish, the right pelvic from the remainder. A random sample of 2, 417 of the fish showed an average total length of 4.0 inches (range, 2.7 to 5.4). The mean weight of all fish marked was slightly less than one-third ounce (49 fish per pound). The local women, none of whom had previous experience in the work, were employed to mark the fish. Bone-cutting forceps were used for excision of the fins, and each worker wore a bobbinet glove to facilitate handling of the fish. On alternate days the fish were anesthetized with ether before marking, to determine the effect of its use on the fin-clipping rate.

  13. Supplemental knowledge acquisition through external product interface for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Tim; Ebaud, Stephen; Loftin, Bowen R.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally, the acquisition of knowledge for expert systems consisted of the interview process with the domain or subject matter expert (SME), observation of domain environment, and information gathering and research which constituted a direct form of knowledge acquisition (KA). The knowledge engineer would be responsible for accumulating pertinent information and/or knowledge from the SME(s) for input into the appropriate expert system development tool. The direct KA process may (or may not) have included forms of data or documentation to incorporate from the SME's surroundings. The differentiation between direct KA and supplemental KA (indirect) would be the difference in the use of data. In acquiring supplemental knowledge, the knowledge engineer would access other types of evidence (manuals, documents, data files, spreadsheets, etc.) that would support the reasoning or premises of the SME. When an expert makes a decision in a particular task, one tool that may have been used to justify a recommendation, would have been a spreadsheet total or column figure. Locating specific decision points from that data within the SME's framework would constitute supplemental KA. Data used for a specific purpose in one system or environment would be used as supplemental knowledge for another, specifically a CLIPS project.

  14. ICADS: A cooperative decision making model with CLIPS experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, Jens; Myers, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative decision making model is described which is comprised of six concurrently executing domain experts coordinated by a blackboard control expert. The focus application field is architectural design, and the domain experts represent consultants in the area of daylighting, noise control, structural support, cost estimating, space planning, and climate responsiveness. Both the domain experts and the blackboard were implemented as production systems, using an enhanced version of the basic CLIPS package. Acting in unison as an Expert Design Advisor, the domain and control experts react to the evolving design solution progressively developed by the user in a 2-D CAD drawing environment. A Geometry Interpreter maps each drawing action taken by the user to real world objects, such as spaces, walls, windows, and doors. These objects, endowed with geometric and nongeometric attributes, are stored as frames in a semantic network. Object descriptions are derived partly from the geometry of the drawing environment and partly from knowledge bases containing prototypical, generalized information about the building type and site conditions under consideration.

  15. Percutaneous mitral heart valve repair--MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Jay V; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Jalaj; Paudel, Rajiv; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Doshi, Tina V; Gotsis, William; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common cardiac valvular disease in the United States. Approximately 4 million people have severe MR and roughly 250,000 new diagnoses of MR are made each year. Mitral valve surgery is the only treatment that prevents progression of heart failure and provides sustained symptomatic relief. Mitral valve repair is preferred over replacement for the treatment of MR because of freedom from anticoagulation, reduced long-term morbidity, reduced perioperative mortality, improved survival, and better preservation of left ventricular function compared with valve replacement. A large proportion of patients in need of valve repair or replacement do not undergo such procedures because of a perceived unacceptable perioperative risk. Percutaneous catheter-based methods for valvular pathology that parallel surgical principles for valve repair have been developed over the last few years and have been proposed as an alternate measure in high-risk patients. The MitraClip (Abbott Labs) device is one such therapy and is the subject of this review.

  16. High dynamic range image display with halo and clipping prevention.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Gabriele; Marsi, Stefano; Ramponi, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    The dynamic range of an image is defined as the ratio between the highest and the lowest luminance level. In a high dynamic range (HDR) image, this value exceeds the capabilities of conventional display devices; as a consequence, dedicated visualization techniques are required. In particular, it is possible to process an HDR image in order to reduce its dynamic range without producing a significant change in the visual sensation experienced by the observer. In this paper, we propose a dynamic range reduction algorithm that produces high-quality results with a low computational cost and a limited number of parameters. The algorithm belongs to the category of methods based upon the Retinex theory of vision and was specifically designed in order to prevent the formation of common artifacts, such as halos around the sharp edges and clipping of the highlights, that often affect methods of this kind. After a detailed analysis of the state of the art, we shall describe the method and compare the results and performance with those of two techniques recently proposed in the literature and one commercial software. PMID:21078576

  17. Clipping polygon faces through a polyhedron of vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohner, Michel A. (Inventor); Florence, Judit K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulator combines flight data and polygon face terrain data to provide a CRT display at each window of the simulated aircraft. The data base specifies the relative position of each vertex of each polygon face therein. Only those terrain faces currently appearing within the pyramid of vision defined by the pilots eye and the edges of the pilots window need be displayed at any given time. As the orientation of the pyramid of vision changes in response to flight data, the displayed faces are correspondingly displaced, eventually moving out of the pyramid of vision. Faces which are currently not visible (outside the pyramid of vision) are clipped from the data flow. In addition, faces which are only partially outside of pyramid of vision are reconstructed to eliminate the outside portion. Window coordinates are generated defining the distance between each vertex and each of the boundary planes forming the pyramid of vision. The sign bit of each window coordinate indicates whether the vertex is on the pyramid of vision side of the associated boundary panel (positive), or on the other side thereof (negative). The set of sign bits accompanying each vertex constitute the outcode of that vertex. The outcodes (O.C.) are systematically processed and examined to determine which faces are completely inside the pyramid of vision (Case A--all signs positive), which faces are completely outside (Case C--All signs negative) and which faces must be reconstructed (Case B--both positive and negative signs).

  18. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  19. The Buffer Diagnostic Prototype: A fault isolation application using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Ken

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes problem domain characteristics and development experiences from using CLIPS 6.0 in a proof-of-concept troubleshooting application called the Buffer Diagnostic Prototype. The problem domain is a large digital communications subsystems called the real-time network (RTN), which was designed to upgrade the launch processing system used for shuttle support at KSC. The RTN enables up to 255 computers to share 50,000 data points with millisecond response times. The RTN's extensive built-in test capability but lack of any automatic fault isolation capability presents a unique opportunity for a diagnostic expert system application. The Buffer Diagnostic Prototype addresses RTN diagnosis with a multiple strategy approach. A novel technique called 'faulty causality' employs inexact qualitative models to process test results. Experimental knowledge provides a capability to recognize symptom-fault associations. The implementation utilizes rule-based and procedural programming techniques, including a goal-directed control structure and simple text-based generic user interface that may be reusable for other rapid prototyping applications. Although limited in scope, this project demonstrates a diagnostic approach that may be adapted to troubleshoot a broad range of equipment.

  20. PaperClip: A Simple Method for Flexible Multi-Part DNA Assembly.

    PubMed

    Trubitsyna, Maryia; Liu, Chao-Kuo; Salinas, Alejandro; Elfick, Alistair; French, Christopher E

    2017-01-01

    Joining DNA sequences to create linear and circular constructs is a basic requirement in molecular biology. Here we describe PaperClip, a recently developed method, which enables assembly of multiple DNA sequences in one reaction in a combinatorial manner. In contrast to other homology-based multi-part assembly methods currently available, PaperClip allows assembly of a given set of parts in any order without requiring specific single-use oligonucleotides for each assembly order. PMID:27671936

  1. Prophylactic clipping and post-polypectomy bleeding: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boumitri, Christine; Mir, Fazia A.; Ashraf, Imran; Matteson-Kome, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Puli, Srinivas R.; Bechtold, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bleeding after polypectomy is a common issue associated with colonoscopy. To help prevent post-polypectomy bleeding, many endoscopists place clips at the site. However, this practice remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the efficacy of clip placement in the prevention of post-polypectomy bleeding. Methods Multiple databases, including Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane databases, and recent abstracts from major American meetings were searched in April 2016. Using the DerSimonian and Laird (random effects) model with odds ratio (OR), a meta-analysis was performed of post-polypectomy bleeding with prophylactic clip versus no prophylactic clip. Results Five hundred and thirty potential articles and abstracts were discovered. Thirty-five articles were reviewed, with 12 studies satisfying the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant difference in prophylactic clipping versus no prophylactic clipping for post-polypectomy bleeding in all polyps was found when all studies (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 0.56–4.00; P=0.42), only peer-reviewed studies where abstracts were excluded (OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.42–1.69; P=0.63), and only randomized controlled trials (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 0.69–2.24; P=0.47) were analyzed. Conclusions The use of prophylactic clipping for all polypectomies does not seem to prevent post-polypectomy bleeding and should not be a routine practice. However, for large polyps (>2 cm), prophylactic clipping may or may not be beneficial in preventing post-polypectomy bleeding. Further studies are required to fully evaluate this subgroup.

  2. Analysis of physiological and behavioural parameters in mice after toe clipping as newborns.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Dagmar C; Asner, Igor N; Seifert, Burkhardt; Bürki, Kurt; Cinelli, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the short- and long-term impact of toe clipping, a commonly used method for marking and simultaneously taking biopsies of pups, which is controversially discussed because of its potentially negative impact on animals. Furthermore, we have analysed animal welfare aspects such as health, behaviour, development, stress and detrimental effects in young animals and in adults after toe clipping at postnatal days 3 (P3) and 7 (P7). Our findings indicate that for both P3 and P7 pups amputations at the second phalange of one toe of each paw do not have any negative effects on growth and physical development and that the clipped pups do not suffer from rejection by their mother. Our data indicate that even though at both ages no abnormalities have been detected in histology, clipping at P7 is the preferable age for an adequate marking mostly because of the small size of the toes at P3. This was also confirmed by grip tests at the age of 12 weeks where P3 animals had lower grip strength than control animals, whereas P7 pups did not show any impairment. Hotplate tests indicated that toe clipping performed at P3 and P7 did not cause hyperalgesia at the amputation stump. Serum corticosterone analysis directly performed on P7 pups after clipping indicated that major stress was provoked mainly through the handling and not because of the clipping itself. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that toe clipping is from a morphological, physiological and welfare point of view an acceptable method for marking and genotyping newborn mice.

  3. Effects of fin clipping on survival and position-holding behavior of brown darters, Etheostoma edwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Champagne, C.E.; Austin, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    Advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has allowed conservation biologists to use small portions of tissue to obtain genetic material for population genetic and taxonomic study. Fin clips are used extensively in large-sized fishes, but it is unclear how clipping enough fin tissue for genetic analysis will affect survival of smaller fishes such as minnows and darters, which are among the most threatened organisms in North America. We tested for effects of fin clipping on survival and swimming performance of non-threatened Brown Darters (Etheostoma edwini) in order to justify similar tissue collection in co-occurring endangered Okaloosa Darters (E. okaloosae). We collected 48 E. edwini from a small stream in northwest Florida, transported them to the laboratory, and randomly assigned them to one of three experimental groups: control, entire right pectoral fin removed, or rear half of caudal fin removed. Successful amplification of DNA indicated that our fin clips were large enough for genetic analysis using PCR. No mortality occurred during a two-month observation period. Fin regeneration was almost complete and we could not visually distinguish clipped fins from control fins after two months. We then randomly assigned fish into the same three experimental groups, clipped fins, and evaluated their ability to hold position at 20 cm/sec in an experimental flow chamber. Neither fish size nor treatment type affected position-holding behavior. Fin clipping does not adversely affect survival and swimming performance of E. edwini maintained in the laboratory. Additional research on the effects of fin clipping on small-sized fishes should be conducted in the field to evaluate survival under natural conditions. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  4. Public Awareness of Melioidosis in Thailand and Potential Use of Video Clips as Educational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Chansrichavala, Praveen; Wongsuwan, Nittayasee; Suddee, Suthee; Malasit, Mayura; Hongsuwan, Maliwan; Wannapinij, Prapass; Kitphati, Rungreung; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Michie, Susan; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    Background Melioidosis causes more than 1,000 deaths in Thailand each year. Infection occurs via inoculation, ingestion or inhalation of the causative organism (Burkholderia pseuodmallei) present in soil and water. Here, we evaluated public awareness of melioidosis using a combination of population-based questionnaire, a public engagement campaign to obtain video clips made by the public, and viewpoints on these video clips as potential educational tools about the disease and its prevention. Methods A questionnaire was developed to evaluate public awareness of melioidosis, and knowledge about its prevention. From 1 March to 31 April 2012, the questionnaire was delivered to five randomly selected adults in each of 928 districts in Thailand. A video clip contest entitled “Melioidosis, an infectious disease that Thais must know” was run between May and October 2012. The best 12 video clips judged by a contest committee were shown to 71 people at risk from melioidosis (diabetics). Focus group interviews were used to evaluate their perceptions of the video clips. Results Of 4,203 Thais who completed our study questionnaire, 74% had never heard of melioidosis, and 19% had heard of the disease but had no further knowledge. Most participants in all focus group sessions felt that video clips were beneficial and could positively influence them to increase adherence to recommended preventive behaviours, including drinking boiled water and wearing protective gear if in contact with soil or environmental water. Participants suggested that video clips should be presented in the local dialect with simple words rather than medical terms, in a serious manner, with a doctor as the one presenting the facts, and having detailed pictures of each recommended prevention method. Conclusions In summary, public awareness of melioidosis in Thailand is very low, and video clips could serve as a useful medium to educate people and promote disease prevention. Presented in Part World

  5. Host shoot clipping depresses the growth of weedy hemiparasitic Pedicularis kansuensis.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Wei; Li, Yun-Ju; Guan, Kai-Yun; Li, Ai-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Root hemiparasitic plants show optimal growth when attached to a suitable host by abstracting water and nutrients. Despite the fact that damage to host plants in the wild occurs frequently in various forms (e.g. grazing), effects of host damage on growth and physiological performance of root hemiparasites remain unclear. In this study, host shoot clipping was conducted to determine the influence of host damage on photosynthetic and growth performance of a weedy root hemiparasite, Pedicularis kansuensis, and its interaction with a host, Elymus nutans. Photosynthetic capacity, tissue mineral nutrient content and plant biomass of P. kansuensis were significantly improved when attached to a host plant. Host clipping had no effect on quantum efficiency (ΦPSII), but significantly reduced the growth rate and biomass of P. kansuensis. In contrast, clipping significantly improved photosynthetic capacity and accumulation of potassium in E. nutans. No significant decrease in biomass was observed in clipped host plants. By changing nutrient absorption and allocation, clipping affected the interaction between P. kansuensis and its host. Our results showed that host clipping significantly suppressed the growth of weedy P. kansuensis, but did not affect biomass accumulation in E. nutans. We propose that grazing (a dominant way of causing host damage in the field) may have a potential in the control against the weedy hemiparasite.

  6. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  7. Anticipation of high arousal aversive and positive movie clips engages common and distinct neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Tsafrir; Carlson, Joshua M; Rubin, Denis; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne

    2015-04-01

    The neural correlates of anxious anticipation have been primarily studied with aversive and neutral stimuli. In this study, we examined the effect of valence on anticipation by using high arousal aversive and positive stimuli and a condition of uncertainty (i.e. either positive or aversive). The task consisted of predetermined cues warning participants of upcoming aversive, positive, 'uncertain' (either aversive or positive) and neutral movie clips. Anticipation of all affective clips engaged common regions including the anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, caudate, inferior parietal and prefrontal cortex that are associated with emotional experience, sustained attention and appraisal. In contrast, the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions implicated in reward processing, were selectively engaged during anticipation of positive clips (depicting sexually explicit content) and the mid-insula, which has been linked to processing aversive stimuli, was selectively engaged during anticipation of aversive clips (depicting graphic medical procedures); these three areas were also activated during anticipation of 'uncertain' clips reflecting a broad preparatory response for both aversive and positive stimuli. These results suggest that a common circuitry is recruited in anticipation of affective clips regardless of valence, with additional areas preferentially engaged depending on whether expected stimuli are negative or positive.

  8. Mechanics of mitral valve edge-to-edge-repair and MitraClip procedure.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shamik; He, Zhaoming

    2015-01-01

    The edge-to-edge repair (ETER) technique has been used as a stand-alone procedure, or as a secondary procedure with ring annuloplasty for degenerative, functional mitral regurgitation, or for mitral regurgitation of other kinds of valvular etiologies. The percutaneous MitraClip technique based on ETER has been used in patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. However, adverse events such as residual mitral regurgitation, and clip detachment or fracture indicate that the mechanics underlying these procedures is not well understood. Therefore, current studies on mitral valve functionality and mechanics related to the ETER and MitraClip procedures are reviewed to improve the efficacy and safety of both procedures. Extensive in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies related to ETER and MitraClip procedures along with MitraClip clinical trial results are presented and discussed herein. The ETER suture force and the mitral valve tissue mechanics and hemodynamics of each procedure are discussed. A quantitative understanding of the interplay of mitral valve components and as to biological response to the procedures remains challenging. Based on mitral valve mechanics, ETER or MitraClip therapy can be optimized to enhance repair efficacy and durability.

  9. Boolean Combinations of Implicit Functions for Model Clipping in Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive method of model clipping for computer-assisted surgical planning. The model is separated by a data filter that is defined by the implicit function of the clipping path. Being interactive to surgeons, the clipping path that is composed of the plane widgets can be manually repositioned along the desirable presurgical path, which means that surgeons can produce any accurate shape of the clipped model. The implicit function is acquired through a recursive algorithm based on the Boolean combinations (including Boolean union and Boolean intersection) of a series of plane widgets’ implicit functions. The algorithm is evaluated as highly efficient because the best time performance of the algorithm is linear, which applies to most of the cases in the computer-assisted surgical planning. Based on the above stated algorithm, a user-friendly module named SmartModelClip is developed on the basis of Slicer platform and VTK. A number of arbitrary clipping paths have been tested. Experimental results of presurgical planning for three types of Le Fort fractures and for tumor removal demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of our recursive algorithm and robustness of the module. PMID:26751685

  10. Acquisition and processing pitfall with clipped traces in surface-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2016-02-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) is widely used in estimating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity. In the MASW method, generating a reliable dispersion image in the frequency-velocity (f-v) domain is an important processing step. A locus along peaks of dispersion energy at different frequencies allows the dispersion curves to be constructed for inversion. When the offsets are short, the output seismic data may exceed the dynamic ranges of geophones/seismograph, as a result of which, peaks and (or) troughs of traces will be squared off in recorded shot gathers. Dispersion images generated by the raw shot gathers with clipped traces would be contaminated by artifacts, which might be misidentified as Rayleigh-wave phase velocities or body-wave velocities and potentially lead to incorrect results. We performed some synthetic models containing clipped traces, and analyzed amplitude spectra of unclipped and clipped waves. The results indicate that artifacts in the dispersion image are dependent on the level of clipping. A real-world example also shows how clipped traces would affect the dispersion image. All the results suggest that clipped traces should be removed from the shot gathers before generating dispersion images, in order to pick accurate phase velocities and set reasonable initial inversion models.

  11. Magnetic resonance angiography with ultrashort echo times reduces the artefact of aneurysm clips.

    PubMed

    Gönner, F; Lövblad, K O; Heid, O; Remonda, L; Guzman, R; Barth, A; Schroth, G

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated the ability of an ultrashort echo time (TE) three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) sequence to reduce the metal artefact of intracranial aneurysm clips and to display adjacent cerebral arteries. In five patients (aged 8-72 years) treated with Elgiloy or Phynox aneurysm clips we prospectively performed a conventional (TE 6.0 ms) and a new ultrashort TE (TE 2.4 ms) 3D TOF MRA. We compared the diameter of the clip-induced susceptibility artefact and the detectability of flow in adjacent vessels. The mean artefact diameter was 22.3+/-6.4 mm (range 14-38 mm) with the ultrashort TE and 27.7+/-6.4 mm (range 19-45 mm) with the conventional MRA ( P<0.0001). This corresponded to a diameter reduction of 19.5+/-9.2%. More parts of adjacent vessels were detected, but with less intense flow signal. The aneurysm dome and neck remained within the area of signal loss and were therefore not displayed. Ultrashort TE MRA is a noninvasive and fast method for improving detection of vessels adjacent to clipped intracranial aneurysms, by reducing clip-induced susceptibility artefact. The method cannot, however, be used to show remnants of the aneurysm neck or sac as a result of imperfect clipping. PMID:12221447

  12. Surgical mitral valve intervention following a failed MitraClip procedure.

    PubMed

    Elhmidi, Yacine; Voss, Bernhard; Lange, Rüdiger

    2016-09-18

    The MitraClip procedure has shown promising results in patients with high surgical risk. However, data concerning outcomes of open mitral valve surgery for failed MitraClip procedures are sparse. In a retrospective clinical investigation, baseline characteristics, intraoperative and histopathological findings, surgical indications and results of patients who required surgery after a failed MitraClip procedure were collected. Between March 2010 and May 2016, 25 patients presented at our department with severe mitral valve regurgitation following a failed MitraClip procedure. Leaflet destruction or severe adhesions between leaflets and the implanted clip were the commonest intraoperative findings. Upon surgery, the mitral valve was either repaired (n=5, 20%) or replaced (n=20, 80%) with a biological prosthesis. Four patients who had presented in cardiogenic shock prior to the operation died within the first 30 days. In the majority of cases, mitral valve replacement is preferred over repair due to severe leaflet damage following the MitraClip procedure. Only those patients who present in cardiogenic shock are at extremely high risk for in-hospital mortality. PMID:27640017

  13. Towards patient-specific finite-element simulation of MitralClip procedure.

    PubMed

    Mansi, T; Voigt, I; Assoumou Mengue, E; Ionasec, R; Georgescu, B; Noack, T; Seeburger, J; Comaniciu, D

    2011-01-01

    MitralClip is a novel minimally invasive procedure to treat mitral valve (MV) regurgitation. It consists in clipping the mitral leaflets together to close the regurgitant hole. A careful preoperative planning is necessary to select respondent patients and to determine the clipping sites. Although preliminary indications criteria are established, they lack prediction power with respect to complications and effectiveness of the therapy in specific patients. We propose an integrated framework for personalized simulation of MV function and apply it to simulate MitralClip procedure. A patient-specific dynamic model of the MV apparatus is computed automatically from 4D TEE images. A biomechanical model of the MV, constrained by the observed motion of the mitral annulus and papillary muscles, is employed to simulate valve closure and MitralClip intervention. The proposed integrated framework enables, for the first time, to quantitatively evaluate an MV finite-element model in-vivo, on eleven patients, and to predict the outcome of MitralClip intervention in one of these patients. The simulations are compared to ground truth and to postoperative images, resulting in promising accuracy (average point-to-mesh distance: 1.47 +/- 0.24 mm). Our framework may constitute a tool for MV therapy planning and patient management.

  14. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years. PMID:23443315

  15. Effect of vertical misfit and clip material on stress distribution of overdentures under masticatory loading.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Zen, Bruno Massucato; Bacchi, Atais

    2016-10-01

    Framework misfit is a common problem observed in overdentures, which might result in prosthetic and biological complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vertical misfit and clip material on the stress distribution in an overdenture-retaining bar system under masticatory loading. A 3-D finite element model of a resorbed jaw was created, including two implants and a bar-clip retained overdenture. A pressure of 100 MPa was applied to the right mandibular first molar. Different vertical misfit levels (50, 100, and 200 µm) and clip materials (plastic or gold) were evaluated. Data were evaluated using von Mises stress and microstrain. Vertical misfit amplification caused an increase in the microstrain values in the peri-implant bone tissue next to the ill-fitted component and increased the stresses in the prosthetic screws. The clip material influenced the stress and microstrain distribution in the prosthetic components and bone tissue. The levels of vertical misfit seem to be closely linked with the stress values in the prosthetic screws, mainly to that of the ill-fitted component. The gold clip presented an increase in the stress compared to the plastic clip.

  16. Clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness for semi-active cable damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, F.; Boston, C.

    2011-04-01

    This paper investigates numerically and experimentally clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness for semi-active cable damping. From simulations it is concluded that unclipped and clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness is equivalent to unclipped and clipped LQR. It is shown that optimized unclipped viscous damping with negative stiffness generates critical cable damping by an anti-node at the actuator position. The resulting curvature at the actuator position is larger than the curvature close to the anchors due to the disturbance forces which may lead to premature cable fatigue at the actuator position. Optimized clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness does not show this drawback, can be implemented using a semi-active damper and produces twice as much cable damping as optimal viscous damping. Close to the optimal tuning, it leads to approximately the same control force as optimal semi-active friction damping with negative stiffness, which explains the superior cable damping. The superior damping results from the negative stiffness that increases the damper motion. Clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness is validated on a strand cable with a magneto-rheological damper. The measured cable damping is twice that achieved by emulated viscous damping, which confirms the numerical results. A tuning rule for clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness of real cables with flexural rigidity is given.

  17. Boolean Combinations of Implicit Functions for Model Clipping in Computer-Assisted Surgical Planning.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiqin; Chen, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive method of model clipping for computer-assisted surgical planning. The model is separated by a data filter that is defined by the implicit function of the clipping path. Being interactive to surgeons, the clipping path that is composed of the plane widgets can be manually repositioned along the desirable presurgical path, which means that surgeons can produce any accurate shape of the clipped model. The implicit function is acquired through a recursive algorithm based on the Boolean combinations (including Boolean union and Boolean intersection) of a series of plane widgets' implicit functions. The algorithm is evaluated as highly efficient because the best time performance of the algorithm is linear, which applies to most of the cases in the computer-assisted surgical planning. Based on the above stated algorithm, a user-friendly module named SmartModelClip is developed on the basis of Slicer platform and VTK. A number of arbitrary clipping paths have been tested. Experimental results of presurgical planning for three types of Le Fort fractures and for tumor removal demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of our recursive algorithm and robustness of the module.

  18. SU-E-J-201: Position Verification in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Using Tantalum Clips in the Lumpectomy Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Santvoort, J van; Van der Drift, M; Kuipers, J; Mast, M; Van Egmond, J; Struikmans, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To find out whether tantalum surgical clips can be used for online position verification in treatment of the lumpectomy cavity (LC) in breast cancer patients. Tantalum is a high density metal that could be visible on Electronic Portal Images (EPIs) and be an affordable alternative to gold markers. Clips are considered more representative for the LC position than nearby bony structures. Methods: In twelve patients the surgeon had placed 2 to 5 tantalum clips in the LC. The AP and lateral fields used for portal imaging, were adapted. In doing so, both bony structures and tantalum clips were visible on EPIs. The following analyses were performed:1. Image degradation, with respect to delineating the CTV, of the axial CT slices by artefacts because of the tantalum clips was evaluated by a radiation oncologist;2. The visibility of the tantalum clips on the EPIs was evaluated by four radiation therapists (RTTs);3. Bony anatomy and tantalum clip matches were performed on the same images independently by two observers. Results: 1. Delineation of the CTV by the radiation oncologist was not hampered by CT image artefacts because of the clips.2. The mean score for visibility of the clips on the EPIs, analysed by the four RTTs, was 5.6 on a scale of 10 (range 3.9 – 8.0).3. In total 12 patients with 16 fractions each were analysed. The differences between clip match and bone match are significant with a mean vector length of 5.2 mm (SD 1.9 mm) for the difference. Conclusion: Results of matches on tantalum clips as compared to matches on bony structures differ substantially. Therefore clip matches can result in smaller CTV to PTV margins than bone matches. Visibility of the clips on EPIs is sufficient, so they can be an alternative to gold markers.

  19. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.

  20. Novel endoscopic over-the-scope clip system

    PubMed Central

    Armellini, Elia; Crinò, Stefano Francesco; Orsello, Marco; Ballarè, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Saettone, Silvia; Montino, Franco; Occhipinti, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports our experience with a new over-the-scope clip in the setting of recurrent bleeding and oesophageal fistula. We treated five patients with the over-the-scope Padlock Clip™. It is a nitinol ring, with six inner needles preassembled on an applicator cap, thumb press displaced by the Lock-It™ delivery system. The trigger wire is located alongside the shaft of the endoscope, and does not require the working channel. Three patients had recurrent bleeding lesions (bleeding rectal ulcer, post polypectomy delayed bleeding and duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion) and two patients had a persistent respiratory-esophageal fistula. In all patients a previous endoscopic attempt with standard techniques had been useless. All procedures were conducted under conscious sedation but for one patient that required general anaesthesia due to multiple comorbidities. We used one Padlock Clip™ for each patient in a single session. Simple suction was enough in all of our patients to obtain tissue adhesion to the instrument tip. A remarkably short application time was recorded for all cases (mean duration of the procedure: 8 min). We obtained technical and immediate clinical success for every patient. No major immediate, early or late (within 24 h, 7 d or 4 wk) adverse events were observed, over follow-up durations lasting a mean of 109.4 d. One patient, treated for duodenal bulb bleeding from a Dieulafoy's lesion, developed signs of mild pancreatitis 24 h after the procedure. The new over-the-scope Padlock Clip™ seems to be simple to use and effective in different clinical settings, particularly in “difficult” scenarios, like recurrent bleeding and respiratory-oesophageal fistulas. PMID:26730172

  1. Novel endoscopic over-the-scope clip system.

    PubMed

    Armellini, Elia; Crinò, Stefano Francesco; Orsello, Marco; Ballarè, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Saettone, Silvia; Montino, Franco; Occhipinti, Pietro

    2015-12-28

    This paper reports our experience with a new over-the-scope clip in the setting of recurrent bleeding and oesophageal fistula. We treated five patients with the over-the-scope Padlock Clip™. It is a nitinol ring, with six inner needles preassembled on an applicator cap, thumb press displaced by the Lock-It™ delivery system. The trigger wire is located alongside the shaft of the endoscope, and does not require the working channel. Three patients had recurrent bleeding lesions (bleeding rectal ulcer, post polypectomy delayed bleeding and duodenal Dieulafoy's lesion) and two patients had a persistent respiratory-esophageal fistula. In all patients a previous endoscopic attempt with standard techniques had been useless. All procedures were conducted under conscious sedation but for one patient that required general anaesthesia due to multiple comorbidities. We used one Padlock Clip™ for each patient in a single session. Simple suction was enough in all of our patients to obtain tissue adhesion to the instrument tip. A remarkably short application time was recorded for all cases (mean duration of the procedure: 8 min). We obtained technical and immediate clinical success for every patient. No major immediate, early or late (within 24 h, 7 d or 4 wk) adverse events were observed, over follow-up durations lasting a mean of 109.4 d. One patient, treated for duodenal bulb bleeding from a Dieulafoy's lesion, developed signs of mild pancreatitis 24 h after the procedure. The new over-the-scope Padlock Clip™ seems to be simple to use and effective in different clinical settings, particularly in "difficult" scenarios, like recurrent bleeding and respiratory-oesophageal fistulas.

  2. Short term exposure to attractive and muscular singers in music video clips negatively affects men's body image and mood.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D

    2012-09-01

    Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood.

  3. Short term exposure to attractive and muscular singers in music video clips negatively affects men's body image and mood.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, K E; Volcevski-Kostas, D

    2012-09-01

    Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5 min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood. PMID:22673451

  4. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  5. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  6. Utility of crankshaft clips for middle cerebral artery aneurysms: A single-center experience of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo; Asakuno, Keizoh; Nemoto, Akio; Niimura, Kaku; Yoshimoto, Haruko; Shiramizu, Hideki; Ubagai, Ryu; Yuzawa, Miki; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Applying more than one clip for a complicated-shaped aneurysm is an established strategy, particularly for middle cerebral arteries (MCA). However, obliterating the cleft of the internal elastic lamina with a single clip is theoretically possible because the line is usually on a single plane. Crankshaft clips were reformed for that purpose decades ago, but are not widely used and have been described in almost no report ever since. Methods: To reconsider and describe the utility of crankshaft clips for complicated MCA aneurysms and to articulate the advantages and limitations of the clips, we meticulously analyzed a series of more than 150 cases in which the crankshaft clips were used, predominantly for treatment of MCA aneurysms, at Moriyama Memorial Hospital between August 2010 and December 2015. Results: Readjustment of the clip was not necessary in almost all cases, and the first application was the final one. None of the patients had morbidity or mortality related to the surgical technique. To date, we have not experienced any trouble or recurrence. Conclusions: Crankshaft clips are useful and safe for clipping of complicated MCA aneurysms. PMID:27583177

  7. [Artefacts in the CT scan caused by surgical clips and central venous catheters and the use of new materials].

    PubMed

    Schadel, A; Böttcher, H D; Haverkamp, U; Wagner, W; Schmilowski, G M

    1984-03-01

    When metal clips and venous catheters have been used the computerized tomography shows artifacts, which make it computerized tomography shows artifacts, which make it difficult to have a reliable and accurate diagnosis, because the X- raying of the metal clips and the venous catheter gives radiating lines, so called streaking. We have tested new materials for the metal clips and a new polymer to replace the substance of the venous catheter with the intention that the materials should have the same density as the normal tissues. With a new metal for the clips and a new polymer for the venous catheters, mixed with metal ions, the computerized tomography does not show streaking.

  8. Dosimetric Impact of Surgical Clips in Electron Beam Treatment of Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, Michael S. Zhao Li; Cao Minsong; Lopez, Jeffrey P.; Das, Indra J.

    2010-07-01

    Titanium clips are commonly used to delineate the location of the tumor bed during breast cancer surgery. Electron beams are frequently used to boost radiation dose to the breast cavity. This research investigated the effect on such boost treatments as a result of metallic clip perturbation potentially exhibited through attenuation and scatter processes using measurements with Gafchromic film and treatment planning simulation with both generalized Gaussian pencil beam and electron Monte Carlo algorithms. Results showed that the potential effect of clip interference is unidentifiable from both algorithms. Dosimetry with Gafchromic external beam therapy film did detect dose perturbations caused by the titanium clips in proximal plane, 0.23 mm away, resulting in 3.0% backscatter and 2.4% attenuation at 6 MeV and 2.0% backscatter and 6.7% attenuation at 9 MeV. The noise contribution of the film scanner is estimated to be about 0.4% and nearly 2% uncertainty in film calibration. As a result, we conclude that the magnitude of dose perturbations from clip is negligible for clinical findings.

  9. A combined PAPR-reduction technique for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Tiantian; Guo, Mengqi; Tang, Xizi; Wang, Zhansheng; Qiao, Yaojun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a combined peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction technique for asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) system. The proposed PAPR-reduction technique combines discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-spread technique with peak-clipping technique. For a tradeoff between PAPR and BER performance, the clipping ratio (CR) in peak-clipping technique is set to 2.2. Under this CR, a 6 dB of PAPR reduction can be obtained by the combined PAPR-reduction technique at the probability of 10-3 and BER performance is barely affected by the clipping distortion. The transmission experiment over 100-km SSMF has been implemented to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. At the forward error correction (FEC) limit, ACO-OFDM with the combined PAPR-reduction technique has 1.8 dB improvement of received sensitivity compared to ACO-OFDM with DFT-spread technique and 3.8 dB improvement compared to conventional ACO-OFDM.

  10. Role of Dynactin in Endocytic Traffic: Effects of Dynamitin Overexpression and Colocalization with CLIP-170

    PubMed Central

    Valetti, Caterina; Wetzel, Dawn M.; Schrader, Michael; Hasbani, M. Josh; Gill, Steven R.; Kreis, Thomas E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    1999-01-01

    The flow of material from peripheral, early endosomes to late endosomes requires microtubules and is thought to be facilitated by the minus end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin. The microtubule-binding protein CLIP-170 may also play a role by providing an early link to endosomes. Here, we show that perturbation of dynactin function in vivo affects endosome dynamics and trafficking. Endosome movement, which is normally bidirectional, is completely inhibited. Receptor-mediated uptake and recycling occur normally, but cells are less susceptible to infection by enveloped viruses that require delivery to late endosomes, and they show reduced accumulation of lysosomally targeted probes. Dynactin colocalizes at microtubule plus ends with CLIP-170 in a way that depends on CLIP-170’s putative cargo-binding domain. Overexpression studies using p150Glued, the microtubule-binding subunit of dynactin, and mutant and wild-type forms of CLIP-170 indicate that CLIP-170 recruits dynactin to microtubule ends. These data suggest a new model for the formation of motile complexes of endosomes and microtubules early in the endocytic pathway. PMID:10588646

  11. Regeneration of the rat carotid artery after clipping injury. Part I. A morphological study.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, T; Yonekawa, Y; Yamamoto, M; Kaku, Y; Ogata, N; Taniguchi, T

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the natural course of the morphological regeneration of the endothelium and smooth muscle of the rat carotid artery after clipping injury. Vascular damage was produced by clipping the right carotid arteries of Wistar rats. Endothelial regeneration was confirmed by the injection of Evans blue dye and the detection of factor VIII-related antigen. The volume of the smooth muscle cell layer and the luminal size were measured by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. Immediately after arterial injury, Evans blue dye freely permeated the smooth muscle layer, suggesting that complete endothelial denudation had occurred. Endothelial regrowth started within 24 hours and was fastest on the third and fourth days after injury. The endothelial injury was repaired within 5 days. The area of the smooth muscle layer did not change immediately after clipping injury, but it gradually increased within a month. The luminal area of the injured artery increased during the 3-month recovery period. These findings suggest that endothelial regrowth is completed within a week after clipping injury, whereas smooth muscle cell regrowth is slower. In addition, arteriosclerotic luminal narrowing did not occur during recovery of the rat carotid artery from clipping injury.

  12. Response of ecosystem respiration to experimental warming and clipping in Tibetan alpine meadow at three elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, G.; Zhang, Y.-J.; Zhang, X.-Z.; Shi, P.-L.; Zhou, Y.-T.; Li, Y.-L.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to understand the response of ecosystem respiration (Reco) to warming and clipping in the alpine meadow of Tibet. A field warming experiment using open top chambers was conducted in three alpine meadow sites at elevation 4313 m, 4513 m and 4693 m on the Tibetan Plateau since July 2008. Clipping was conducted three times a year since 2009. Reco was measured from June to September in 2010-2012. For most cases, the seasonal variation of Reco was mainly affected by soil water content rather than soil and air temperature, especially under warmer environment. Experimental warming tended to decrease seasonal average Reco by 21.6% and 10.9% at elevation 4313 m and 4513 m, respectively, but significantly increased seasonal average Reco by 11.3% at elevation 4693 m. The different responses of Reco to experimental warming could be mainly dependent on temperature and water availability condition. Clipping decreased seasonal average Reco by 6.9%, 36.9% and 31.6% at elevation 4313 m, 4513 m and 4693 m. The consistent declines caused by clipping may be mainly attributed to clipping-induced decline in aboveground biomass. Our findings suggested that the response of Reco to warming differed among the alpine meadow and was regulated by soil water content on the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. A better way of fitting clips? A comparative study with respect to physical workload.

    PubMed

    Gaudez, Clarisse; Wild, Pascal; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The clip fitting task is a frequently encountered assembly operation in the car industry. It can cause upper limb pain. During task laboratory simulations, upper limb muscular activity and external force were compared for 4 clip fitting methods: with the bare hand, with an unpowered tool commonly used at a company and with unpowered and powered prototype tools. None of the 4 fitting methods studied induced a lower overall workload than the other three. Muscle activity was lower at the dominant limb when using the unpowered tools and at the non-dominant limb with the bare hand or with the powered tool. Fitting clips with the bare hand required a higher external force than fitting with the three tools. Evaluation of physical workload was different depending on whether external force or muscle activity results were considered. Measuring external force only, as recommended in several standards, is insufficient for evaluating physical workload.

  14. Combined discrete Fourier transform precoding and clipping using direct detection optical OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2015-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally the bit error rate (BER) performance of intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system by combining discrete Fourier transform (DFT) precoding with clipping. The experimental results show that the received sensitivity at a BER of 10-4 for a 12 Gs/s DFT-precoded and clipped OFDM signal and after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 3.5 dB when compared with the original OFDM systems in the SMF link, and by 2.5 dB when compared with compared with the DFT-precoded OFDM signals. When compared with the DFT-precoded QPSK OFDM signal, the DFT-precoded and clipped OFDM QPSK signal can achieve approximately 4.5 dB of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction at a complementary cumulative distribution functional value of 10-3.

  15. A Monoclonal Antibody That Discriminates Between SNAP-Tagged and CLIP-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bialon, Magdalena; Grezella, Clara; Friesen, Ludmila; Sieben, Thorsten; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Fischer, Rainer; Barth, Stefan; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    SNAP-tag technology allows recombinant proteins to be covalently labeled to O(6)-benzylguanine (BG)-modified substrates with 1:1 stoichiometry. By attaching according fluorophores, this method is ideally suited for in vitro and in vivo imaging, as well as protein interaction analyses. Fluorophores modified with BG react with the SNAP-tag, whereas those modified with O(2)-benzylcytosine (BC) conjugate to a more recent derivative known as the CLIP-tag. The orthogonal substrate specificity of the SNAP- and CLIP-tags extends the range of applications by allowing double labeling. We previously developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes both tags. In this study, we describe a new mAb, which is specific for the SNAP-tag alone. Therefore, this mAb allows discrimination between SNAP- and CLIP-tags within a broad range of immunological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry.

  16. Journal of Glenn T. Seaborg, 1945--1960. Appendix press clippings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This book contains a limited sampling of press clippings from 1945 to 1960. A section of press clippings 1961-1971 has also been produced as Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory PUB-625. Journal of Glenn T. Seaborg: Appendix (December 1989). Many of these press clippings describe, significant events in my career. The reader may be interested in reading about these events in more detail. I have kept a daily diary since I was 14 years old (1927) and my diary has been printed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and is available here, and at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley, the University of California at Los Angeles Main Library, the, University of California at Santa Barbara, the National Archives and the Library of Congress.

  17. A better way of fitting clips? A comparative study with respect to physical workload.

    PubMed

    Gaudez, Clarisse; Wild, Pascal; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The clip fitting task is a frequently encountered assembly operation in the car industry. It can cause upper limb pain. During task laboratory simulations, upper limb muscular activity and external force were compared for 4 clip fitting methods: with the bare hand, with an unpowered tool commonly used at a company and with unpowered and powered prototype tools. None of the 4 fitting methods studied induced a lower overall workload than the other three. Muscle activity was lower at the dominant limb when using the unpowered tools and at the non-dominant limb with the bare hand or with the powered tool. Fitting clips with the bare hand required a higher external force than fitting with the three tools. Evaluation of physical workload was different depending on whether external force or muscle activity results were considered. Measuring external force only, as recommended in several standards, is insufficient for evaluating physical workload. PMID:26154222

  18. Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide Aptamers, CLIPs to Inhibit RAGE Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reverdatto, Sergey; Rai, Vivek; Xue, Jing; Burz, David S.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Peptide aptamers are small proteins containing a randomized peptide sequence embedded into a stable protein scaffold, such as Thioredoxin. We developed a robust method for building a Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide aptamers (CLIPs) of high complexity, containing ≥3×1010 independent clones, to be used as a molecular tool in the study of biological pathways. The Thioredoxin scaffold was modified to increase solubility and eliminate aggregation of the peptide aptamers. The CLIPs was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify peptide aptamers that bind to various domains of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). NMR spectroscopy was used to identify interaction surfaces between the peptide aptamers and RAGE domains. Cellular functional assays revealed that in addition to directly interfering with known binding sites, peptide aptamer binding distal to ligand sites also inhibits RAGE ligand-induced signal transduction. This finding underscores the potential of using CLIPs to select allosteric inhibitors of biological targets. PMID:23785412

  19. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  20. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, David J.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical.

  1. Integrating Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) graphics and extended memory packages with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callegari, Andres C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to mix CLIPS with graphics and how to overcome PC's memory limitations by using the extended memory available in the computer. By adding graphics and extended memory capabilities, CLIPS can be converted into a complete and powerful system development tool, on the other most economical and popular computer platform. New models of PCs have amazing processing capabilities and graphic resolutions that cannot be ignored and should be used to the fullest of their resources. CLIPS is a powerful expert system development tool, but it cannot be complete without the support of a graphics package needed to create user interfaces and general purpose graphics, or without enough memory to handle large knowledge bases. Now, a well known limitation on the PC's is the usage of real memory which limits CLIPS to use only 640 Kb of real memory, but now that problem can be solved by developing a version of CLIPS that uses extended memory. The user has access of up to 16 MB of memory on 80286 based computers and, practically, all the available memory (4 GB) on computers that use the 80386 processor. So if we give CLIPS a self-configuring graphics package that will automatically detect the graphics hardware and pointing device present in the computer, and we add the availability of the extended memory that exists in the computer (with no special hardware needed), the user will be able to create more powerful systems at a fraction of the cost and on the most popular, portable, and economic platform available such as the PC platform.

  2. Surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling for elderly patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Dan; Su, Yin; O'Malley, Alistair J.; Labropoulos, Nicos; Goodney, Phillip; MacKenzie, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The comparative effectiveness of the two treatment options (surgical clipping and endovascular coiling) for ruptured cerebral aneurysms has not been studied in real-world practice in the United States. We investigated the association of treatment method for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2007 to 2012, using a 100% sample of Medicare fee-for-service claims data. An instrumental variable analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and create pseudo-randomization on treatment method. In sensitivity analysis, controlling only for measured confounding, we used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting, with mixed effects to account for clustering at the HRR level. Results During the study period, there were 3,210 patients, who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms, and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1,206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping, and 2,004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference of coiling in comparison to clipping for 1-year postoperative mortality (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.70-1.54), likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.72-1.58), or 30-day readmission rate (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 0.70-1.87). Clipping however was associated with 2.7 days longer length of stay (LOS) (95%CI, 0.45-4.99). The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted and inverse probability weighted models. Conclusions In a cohort of Medicare patients, we did not demonstrate a difference in mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and readmissions between clipping and coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with slightly longer LOS. PMID:26311713

  3. Arginine Decarboxylase of Oats Is Clipped from a Precursor into Two Polypeptides Found in the Soluble Enzyme 1

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Russell L.; Smith, Katherine E.; Bell, Erin; Cellino, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    We have examined soluble oat (Avena sativa) arginine decarboxylase by probing its structure with polyclonal antibodies that separately recognize amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal antigens and with a monoclonal antibody that immunoprecipitates enzyme activity. These experiments indicated that oat arginine decarboxylase is clipped from a 66,000-D precursor polypeptide into 42,000- and 24,000-D produce polypeptides. Both of these are found in the enzyme and may be held together by disulfide bonds. A full-length precursor protein could not be detected in plants but could be produced by expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the expression of the cDNA in E. coli, with antibodies and using pulse labeling with [35S]methionine, indicated that the bulk of the expressed protein was the full-length 66,000-D form. Small amounts of 42,000- and 24,000-D polypeptides could also be detected. A reconstruction experiment, adding a radioactively labeled full-length protein isolated from E. coli to powdered oat leaves, supported the idea that the protein extraction method used for western blots was not likely to result in artifactual proteolytic degradation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16652937

  4. Endovascular Coiling of Aneurysm Remnants after Clipping in Patients with Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, S.; Cellerini, M.; Villa, G.; Ammannati, F.; Paoli, L.; Mennonna, P.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The vast majority of intracranial aneurysms can be obliterated completely with surgical clipping. However, postoperative remnants occur in about 4 to 8% of patients who undergo postoperative angiography. Endovascular embolization has been successfully performed in patients with postoperative aneurysm remnant and it may represent a therapeutic alternative to surgical reintervention. Twelve aneurysm remnants after surgical clipping were treated with endovascular embolization using GDC. All aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Our experience confirms the feasibility and relative safety of this treatment strategy that may be considered a valid alternative to reintervention. PMID:20584434

  5. Combining discrete cosine transform with clipping for PAPR reduction in intensity-modulated OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-peng; Chen, Shou-fa; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Ming; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is reduced by combining the discrete cosine transform (DCT) with clipping in optical intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM/DD) OFDM systems. First, the data are transformed into new modified data by DCT. Second, the proposed scheme utilizes the clipping technique to further reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. We experimentally demonstrate that the optical OFDM transmission system with this proposed scheme can achieve significant performance improvement in terms of PAPR and bit error rate (BER) compared with the original optical OFDM systems.

  6. Using a CLIPS expert system to automatically manage TCP/IP networks and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faul, Ben M.

    1991-01-01

    A expert system that can directly manage networks components on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network is described. Previous expert systems for managing networks have focused on managing network faults after they occur. However, this proactive expert system can monitor and control network components in near real time. The ability to directly manage network elements from the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is accomplished by the integration of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and a Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) parser into the CLIPS artificial intelligence language.

  7. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  8. A CLIPS-based tool for aircraft pilot-vehicle interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, Thomas D.; Rogers, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot-Vehicle Interface of modern aircraft is the cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor link between the pilot, the avionics modules, and all other systems on board the aircraft. To assist pilot-vehicle interface designers, a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) based tool was developed that allows design information to be stored in a table that can be modified by rules representing design knowledge. Developed for the Apple Macintosh, the tool allows users without any CLIPS programming experience to form simple rules using a point and click interface.

  9. Using Multiple Bonding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to bond to tooth structure, some micro-mechanical some chemical, some a combination. Different dentin bonding materials have different bonding strengths to differently prepared surfaces, and because of differences in their nature, different areas of tooth structure present peculiar bonding challenges. This paper will review a variety of material types, elucidating their particular bonding strengths and commenting on improved bonding strategies to increase durability, strength, and favorable pulpal response. In this discussion, resin dentin bonding systems, glass ionomers, Gluma, resin cements, and newer combined products will br reviewed. PMID:26485903

  10. Using Multiple Bonding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to bond to tooth structure, some micro-mechanical some chemical, some a combination. Different dentin bonding materials have different bonding strengths to differently prepared surfaces, and because of differences in their nature, different areas of tooth structure present peculiar bonding challenges. This paper will review a variety of material types, elucidating their particular bonding strengths and commenting on improved bonding strategies to increase durability, strength, and favorable pulpal response. In this discussion, resin dentin bonding systems, glass ionomers, Gluma, resin cements, and newer combined products will br reviewed.

  11. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  12. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  13. Predicting Factors of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Following Surgical Clipping in Unruptured and Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in the incidence, predicting factors, and clinical course of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) following surgical clipping between unruptured (UIA) and ruptured intracranial aneurysm (RIA). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 752 patients (UIA : 368 and RIA : 384) who underwent surgical clipping during 8 years. The incidence and predicting factors of CSDH development in the UIA and RIA were compared according to medical records and radiological data. Results The incidence of postoperative CSDH was higher in the UIA (10.9%) than in the RIA (3.1%) (p=0.000). In multivariate analysis, a high Hounsfield (HF) unit (blood clots) for subdural fluid collection (SFC), persistence of SFC ≥5 mm and male sex in the UIA and A high HF unit for SFC and SFC ≥5 mm without progression to hydrocephalus in the RIA were identified as the independent predicting factors for CSDH development (p<0.05). Conclusion There were differences in the incidence and predicting factors for CSDH following surgical clipping between UIA and RIA. Blood clots in the subdural space and persistence of SFC ≥5 mm were predicting factors in both UIA and RIA. However, progression to hydrocephalus may have in part contributed to low CSDH development in the RIA. We suggest that cleaning of blood clots in the subdural space and efforts to minimize SFC ≥5 mm at the end of surgery is helpful to prevent CSDH following aneurysmal clipping.

  14. HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licatalosi, Donny D.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Ule, Jernej; Kayikci, Melis; Chi, Sung Wook; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Wang, Xuning; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Protein-RNA interactions have critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. However, applying biochemical methods to understand such interactions in living tissues has been challenging. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova revealed extremely reproducible RNA-binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3' untranslated regions, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.

  15. Efficacy of the Ovesco Clip for Closure of Endoscope Related Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Angsuwatcharakon, Phonthep; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Rattanachu-ek, Thawee; Sottisuporn, Jaksin; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the efficacy and other treatment outcomes of Ovesco clip closure of iatrogenic perforation. Methods. Retrospective study from 3 tertiary-care hospitals in Thailand. Patients with iatrogenic perforation who underwent immediate endoscopic closure by Ovesco clip were included. Patients' demographic data, perforation size, number of Ovesco clips used, fasting day, length of hospital stay, success rates, and complication rate were recorded. Technical success was defined as closure achievement during endoscopic procedure and clinical success was defined as the patient can be discharged without the need of additional surgical or radiological intervention. Results. There were 6 iatrogenic perforations in 2 male and 4 female patients. The median age was 59 years (range 39–78 years). The locations of perforation were 5 duodenal walls and 1 rectosigmoid junction. The median perforation size was 13 mm (range 10–40 mm). The technical success was 100% and the clinical success was 83.3%. The success rates per locations were 100% in colon and 80% in duodenum, respectively. The median fasting time was 5 days (range 1–10 days) and the median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range 2–22 days). There was no mortality in any. Conclusion. Ovesco clip seems to be an effective and safe tool for a closure of iatrogenic perforation. PMID:27293368

  16. Bayesian hidden Markov models to identify RNA-protein interaction sites in PAR-CLIP.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jonghyun; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2014-06-01

    The photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) has been increasingly used for the global mapping of RNA-protein interaction sites. There are two key features of the PAR-CLIP experiments: The sequence read tags are likely to form an enriched peak around each RNA-protein interaction site; and the cross-linking procedure is likely to introduce a specific mutation in each sequence read tag at the interaction site. Several ad hoc methods have been developed to identify the RNA-protein interaction sites using either sequence read counts or mutation counts alone; however, rigorous statistical methods for analyzing PAR-CLIP are still lacking. In this article, we propose an integrative model to establish a joint distribution of observed read and mutation counts. To pinpoint the interaction sites at single base-pair resolution, we developed a novel modeling approach that adopts non-homogeneous hidden Markov models to incorporate the nucleotide sequence at each genomic location. Both simulation studies and data application showed that our method outperforms the ad hoc methods, and provides reliable inferences for the RNA-protein binding sites from PAR-CLIP data. PMID:24571656

  17. Effects of Watching Captioned Movie Clip on Vocabulary Development of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Tanriverdi, Belgin

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of watching a closed-captioned movie clip on incidental vocabulary learning in a pre-test post-test experimental design. 120 college students from a college preparatory class, who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL), participated in the study. Two weeks before the treatment, all of the…

  18. Rotaxanes synthesized through sodium-ion-templated clipping of macrocycles around nonconjugated amide and urea functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Liu, Yi-Hung; Peng, Shie-Ming; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien

    2014-04-14

    A single urea or amide functionality in a dumbbell-shaped guest can be "clipped" by a macrocycle generated from a diamine and a dialdehyde through the templating effect of a Na(+) ion (see scheme). The resulting imine-containing rotaxanes can then be reduced to allow isolation of stable amine-based rotaxanes.

  19. A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips.

    PubMed

    Erisman, Shannon M; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote functioning is enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness intervention in a laboratory setting on emotional experiences and regulation in response to distressing, positive, and affectively mixed film clips. Although there were no condition (mindfulness vs. control) effects on reports of emotional response or difficulties in regulation after the distressing film clip, participants in the mindfulness condition reported significantly greater positive affect in response to the positive film. Additionally, participants in the mindfulness condition reported more adaptive regulation (approaching significance, medium to large effect size) in response to the affectively mixed clip and significantly less negative affect immediately after this clip, although not after a recovery period. No significant differences emerged between conditions on physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate) throughout the study.

  20. Using CLIPS in the domain of knowledge-based massively parallel programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Jiri J.

    1994-01-01

    The Program Development Environment (PDE) is a tool for massively parallel programming of distributed-memory architectures. Adopting a knowledge-based approach, the PDE eliminates the complexity introduced by parallel hardware with distributed memory and offers complete transparency in respect of parallelism exploitation. The knowledge-based part of the PDE is realized in CLIPS. Its principal task is to find an efficient parallel realization of the application specified by the user in a comfortable, abstract, domain-oriented formalism. A large collection of fine-grain parallel algorithmic skeletons, represented as COOL objects in a tree hierarchy, contains the algorithmic knowledge. A hybrid knowledge base with rule modules and procedural parts, encoding expertise about application domain, parallel programming, software engineering, and parallel hardware, enables a high degree of automation in the software development process. In this paper, important aspects of the implementation of the PDE using CLIPS and COOL are shown, including the embedding of CLIPS with C++-based parts of the PDE. The appropriateness of the chosen approach and of the CLIPS language for knowledge-based software engineering are discussed.

  1. Utilizing Simulation-Based Training of Video Clip Instruction for the Store Service Operations Practice Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Che-Hung; Yen, Yu-Ren; Wu, Pai-Lu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a store service operations practice course based on simulation-based training of video clip instruction. The action research of problem-solving strategies employed for teaching are by simulated store operations. The counter operations course unit used as an example, this study developed 4 weeks of subunits for…

  2. The "Clipping Thesis": An Exercise in Developing Critical Thinking and Online Database Searching Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnich, Nancy P.; McCarthy, Carrol B.

    1986-01-01

    Designed to help high school students develop critical thinking and writing skills, the "Clipping Thesis" project requires students to find newspaper and journal articles on a given topic through printed indexes or online searching, read the articles, write brief and final summaries of their readings, and compile a bibliography. (EM)

  3. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherase, Mihai R.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2011-10-01

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g-1 in increments of 5 µg g-1. The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings.

  4. Effect of Toe Clips During Bicycle Ergometry on VO2 max.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Roger S.; Sparling, Phillip B.

    1985-01-01

    Eight men participated in three randomized maximal oxygen uptake tests to investigate the hypothesis that the use of toe clips on bicycle ergometers produced a higher VO2 max. No significant difference in mean VO2 max or performance time was observed. (Author/MT)

  5. Portable inference engine: An extended CLIPS for real-time production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach; Homeier, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The present C-Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) architecture has not been optimized to deal with the constraints of real-time production systems. Matching in CLIPS is based on the Rete Net algorithm, whose assumption of working memory stability might fail to be satisfied in a system subject to real-time dataflow. Further, the CLIPS forward-chaining control mechanism with a predefined conflict resultion strategy may not effectively focus the system's attention on situation-dependent current priorties, or appropriately address different kinds of knowledge which might appear in a given application. Portable Inference Engine (PIE) is a production system architecture based on CLIPS which attempts to create a more general tool while addressing the problems of real-time expert systems. Features of the PIE design include a modular knowledge base, a modified Rete Net algorithm, a bi-directional control strategy, and multiple user-defined conflict resolution strategies. Problems associated with real-time applications are analyzed and an explanation is given for how the PIE architecture addresses these problems.

  6. Forage nutritive value of plant samples collected by clipping or rumen evacuation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing nutritive value and intake of forage by an animal is important to understand methane production data from individual animals in a grazed environment. Digestibility of forages is typically evaluated as the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) using a clipped forage sample; however, beef...

  7. Predicting Factors of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Following Surgical Clipping in Unruptured and Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in the incidence, predicting factors, and clinical course of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) following surgical clipping between unruptured (UIA) and ruptured intracranial aneurysm (RIA). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 752 patients (UIA : 368 and RIA : 384) who underwent surgical clipping during 8 years. The incidence and predicting factors of CSDH development in the UIA and RIA were compared according to medical records and radiological data. Results The incidence of postoperative CSDH was higher in the UIA (10.9%) than in the RIA (3.1%) (p=0.000). In multivariate analysis, a high Hounsfield (HF) unit (blood clots) for subdural fluid collection (SFC), persistence of SFC ≥5 mm and male sex in the UIA and A high HF unit for SFC and SFC ≥5 mm without progression to hydrocephalus in the RIA were identified as the independent predicting factors for CSDH development (p<0.05). Conclusion There were differences in the incidence and predicting factors for CSDH following surgical clipping between UIA and RIA. Blood clots in the subdural space and persistence of SFC ≥5 mm were predicting factors in both UIA and RIA. However, progression to hydrocephalus may have in part contributed to low CSDH development in the RIA. We suggest that cleaning of blood clots in the subdural space and efforts to minimize SFC ≥5 mm at the end of surgery is helpful to prevent CSDH following aneurysmal clipping. PMID:27651863

  8. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B

    2011-10-21

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm(2) area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g(-1) in increments of 5 µg g(-1). The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings.

  9. Polymer Basics: Classroom Activities Manipulating Paper Clips to Introduce the Structures and Properties of Polymers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umar, Yunusa

    2014-01-01

    A simple and effective hands-on classroom activity designed to illustrate basic polymer concepts is presented. In this activity, students build primary structures of homopolymers and different arrangements of monomers in copolymer using paper clips as monomers. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of polymer structures,…

  10. Pseudohypoxic brain swelling after elective clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Nishioka, Toshikazu

    2009-12-01

    A case of pseudohypoxic brain swelling, a newly defined entity, is described. The patient experienced generalized seizures and did not awake initially after a seemingly uneventful elective craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Neuroimaging findings demonstrated diffuse brain swelling, especially in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami. The rarity of this postoperative complication is addressed and the pathogenesis discussed.

  11. Discussion Guide for Film Clip Series--"The Team Approach in Education: Twenty Questions on Film."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Garda W.; And Others

    This discussion guide is part of a multi-media package of audiovisual and written materials designed to assist trainers of teams in a school setting, particularly for use with teams of teachers and auxiliaries (paraprofessionals). The purpose of the film clip series--to stimulate discussion that is geared to problem solving--is discussed, and the…

  12. Arsenic microdistribution and speciation in toenail clippings of children living in a historic gold mining area.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Dora C; Dowling, Kim; Gerson, Andrea R; Sim, Malcolm R; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Russell, Robert; McOrist, Gordon

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic is naturally associated with gold mineralisation and elevated in some soils and mine waste around historical gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. To explore uptake, arsenic concentrations in children's toenail clippings and household soils were measured, and the microdistribution and speciation of arsenic in situ in toenail clipping thin sections investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. The ability to differentiate exogenous arsenic was explored by investigating surface contamination on cleaned clippings using depth profiling, and direct diffusion of arsenic into incubated clippings. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 2.1 microg/g (n=29) in clipping samples and from 3.3 to 130 microg/g (n=22) in household soils, with significant correlation between transformed arsenic concentrations (Pearson's r=0.42, P=0.023) when household soil was treated as independent. In clipping thin sections (n=2), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping showed discrete layering of arsenic consistent with nail structure, and irregular arsenic incorporation along the nail growth axis. Arsenic concentrations were heterogeneous at 10x10 microm microprobe spot locations investigated (<0.1 to 13.3 microg/g). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra suggested the presence of two distinct arsenic species: a lower oxidation state species, possibly with mixed sulphur and methyl coordination (denoted As(approximately III)(-S, -CH3)); and a higher oxidation state species (denoted As(approximately V)(-O)). Depth profiling suggested that surface contamination was unlikely (n=4), and XRF and XANES analyses of thin sections of clippings incubated in dry or wet mine waste, or untreated, suggested direct diffusion of arsenic occurred under moist conditions. These findings suggest that arsenic in soil contributes to some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures among children resident in areas of historic gold mining activity in

  13. Arsenic microdistribution and speciation in toenail clippings of children living in a historic gold mining area

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Dora C.; Dowling, Kim; Gerson, Andrea R.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Newville, Matthew; Russell, Robert; McOrist, Gordon

    2010-05-04

    Arsenic is naturally associated with gold mineralization and elevated in some soils and mine waste around historical gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. To explore uptake, arsenic concentrations in children's toenail clippings and household soils were measured, and the microdistribution and speciation of arsenic in situ in toenail clipping thin sections investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. The ability to differentiate exogenous arsenic was explored by investigating surface contamination on cleaned clippings using depth profiling, and direct diffusion of arsenic into incubated clippings. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 2.1 {micro}g/g (n = 29) in clipping samples and from 3.3 to 130 {micro}g/g (n = 22) in household soils, with significant correlation between transformed arsenic concentrations (Pearson's r = 0.42, P = 0.023) when household soil was treated as independent. In clipping thin sections (n = 2), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping showed discrete layering of arsenic consistent with nail structure, and irregular arsenic incorporation along the nail growth axis. Arsenic concentrations were heterogeneous at 10 x 10 {micro}m microprobe spot locations investigated (< 0.1 to 13.3 {micro}g/g). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra suggested the presence of two distinct arsenic species: a lower oxidation state species, possibly with mixed sulphur and methyl coordination (denoted As{sub (-S, -ch3)}{sup {approx}III}); and a higher oxidation state species (denoted As{sub (-O)}{sup {approx}V}). Depth profiling suggested that surface contamination was unlikely (n = 4), and XRF and XANES analyses of thin sections of clippings incubated in dry or wet mine waste, or untreated, suggested direct diffusion of arsenic occurred under moist conditions. These findings suggest that arsenic in soil contributes to some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures among children resident in areas of historic

  14. Arsenic microdistribution and speciation in toenail clippings of children living in a historic gold mining area.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Dora C; Dowling, Kim; Gerson, Andrea R; Sim, Malcolm R; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Russell, Robert; McOrist, Gordon

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic is naturally associated with gold mineralisation and elevated in some soils and mine waste around historical gold mining activity in Victoria, Australia. To explore uptake, arsenic concentrations in children's toenail clippings and household soils were measured, and the microdistribution and speciation of arsenic in situ in toenail clipping thin sections investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. The ability to differentiate exogenous arsenic was explored by investigating surface contamination on cleaned clippings using depth profiling, and direct diffusion of arsenic into incubated clippings. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 2.1 microg/g (n=29) in clipping samples and from 3.3 to 130 microg/g (n=22) in household soils, with significant correlation between transformed arsenic concentrations (Pearson's r=0.42, P=0.023) when household soil was treated as independent. In clipping thin sections (n=2), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping showed discrete layering of arsenic consistent with nail structure, and irregular arsenic incorporation along the nail growth axis. Arsenic concentrations were heterogeneous at 10x10 microm microprobe spot locations investigated (<0.1 to 13.3 microg/g). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra suggested the presence of two distinct arsenic species: a lower oxidation state species, possibly with mixed sulphur and methyl coordination (denoted As(approximately III)(-S, -CH3)); and a higher oxidation state species (denoted As(approximately V)(-O)). Depth profiling suggested that surface contamination was unlikely (n=4), and XRF and XANES analyses of thin sections of clippings incubated in dry or wet mine waste, or untreated, suggested direct diffusion of arsenic occurred under moist conditions. These findings suggest that arsenic in soil contributes to some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures among children resident in areas of historic gold mining activity in

  15. Evaluation of clip localization for different kilovoltage imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation setup

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, Andreas; Ng, Sook-Kien; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Jurgen; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2009-03-15

    Surgical clip localization and image quality were evaluated for different types of kilovoltage cone beam imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation (PBI) setup. These modalities included (i) clinically available radiographs and cone beam CT (CB-CT) and (ii) various alternative modalities based on partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. An anthropomorphic torso-breast phantom with surgical clips was used for the imaging studies. The torso phantom had artificial lungs, and the attached breast phantom was a mammographic phantom with realistic shape and tissue inhomogeneities. Three types of clips of variable size were used in two orthogonal orientations to assess their in-/cross-plane characteristics for image-guided setup of the torso-breast phantom in supine position. All studies were performed with the Varian on-board imaging (OBI, Varian) system. CT reconstructions were calculated with the standard Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm. First, the radiographs were studied for a wide range of viewing angles to characterize image quality for various types of body anatomy in the foreground/background of the clips. Next, image reconstruction quality was evaluated for partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. Since these modalities led to reconstructions with strong artifacts due to insufficient input data, a knowledge-based CT reconstruction method was also tested. In this method, the input data to the reconstruction algorithm were modified by combining complementary data sets selected from the treatment and reference projections. Different partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT scan types were studied depending on the total arc angle, angular increment between the consequent views (CT projections), orientation of the arc center with respect to the imaged breast and chest wall, and imaging field size. The central angles of the viewing arcs were either tangential or orthogonal to the chest wall. Several offset positions of the phantom with respect to the reference position were

  16. Female sterilization with Hulka clips--initial experience at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rahman, A A; Sivanesaratnam, V; Nuruddin, A A

    1982-09-01

    The initial experience with the use of Hulka clips for sterilization in 100 patients is reported. In July, 1979, University Hospital physicians in Kuala Lumpur introduced spring-loaded clips, and have found the procedure to be safe and the method acceptable. The 86 patients available for the followup were admitted 1 day prior to the operation for a detailed interview, physical and pelvic examinations, pap smear, and hemoglobin estimation. The laparoscopy was performed under general anesthesia, although others report using local anesthesia, and the patients were discharged the following day. Follow-up was conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. The women were between 25-40 years old and the majority were para 3-5; 10.5% had only 2 live births. The average age of the patients' youngest child at the time of sterilization was 2.8. Indians comprised the largest ethnic group. The problems encountered at laparoscopy generally occurred in the initial stages of the study and included: difficulty at insertion of trochar, inability to visualize fimbria, tubal transection, and the need for additional clips to ensure occlusion. 2 pregnancies were reported, 1 patient had a luteal phase pregnancy and in the other patient, the left tube was only partially occluded. The actual failure rate in the series was 1.16%, which is acceptable and similar to other reports. A distinct advantage of the clip was the low incidence of tubal transection, .6%, which is a more common occurrence with silastic bands. In addition, the clips offer good prospects for reversibility, compared to other sterilization methods.

  17. Deposition characteristics of methamphetamine and amphetamine in fingernail clippings and hair sections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Liang; Yin, Rea-Ming; Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Ray H

    2004-09-01

    Fingernail clippings collected from 97 consenting females, who admitted amphetamines and/or opiates use and are currently under treatment, were quantitatively analyzed for the presence of methamphetamine and amphetamine. Sixty-two subjects were found positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine. Paired nail-hair specimens were collected from 6 of these subjects for a 12-week period and analyzed to determine the duration of detectability and deposition characteristics of amphetamines in fingernails; whether data derived from the analysis of nail clippings and hair sections are reflective of drug use patterns; and whether there is a relationship between the analytical data derived from the paired nail-hair specimens. Typical sample pre-treatment procedures and GC-MS protocols were evaluated to establish the validity of various analytical parameters and to ensure that the resulting data can be properly interpreted. Major findings include 1. Methamphetamine was found in the nails of 62 subjects collected in Week 0. The distribution of methamphetamine concentrations (ng/mg) in these nail samples are range, 0.46-61.50; mean, 9.96; and standard deviation: 13.33. The corresponding data for amphetamine are < 0.20-5.42, 0.93, and 1.01, respectively. 2. Sectional analyses of hair samples collected from 6 subjects in Week 0 show methamphetamine concentrations peak at different distances from the root. 3. The concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in nail clippings are generally lower than the first 1.5-cm section of hair samples collected at the same time from the same individual. 4. Amphetamine/ methamphetamine concentration ratios in nail clippings and hair samples are comparable. 5. Methamphetamine concentration in the nail clippings collected at Weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 decreases in a pattern similar to that exhibited by the first 1.5-cm sections of the hair samples collected at the same time.

  18. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I.; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to 131iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The ‘Genrisk-T’ cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the ‘UkrAm’ cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation. PMID:25957251

  19. Mitral Valve Clip for Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed T.; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of the 500,000 North American patients with chronic mitral regurgitation may be poor candidates for mitral valve surgery. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of percutaneous mitral valve repair using mitral valve clips in candidates at prohibitive risk for surgery. Data Sources We searched articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library published from 1994 to February 2014 for evidence of effectiveness and harms; for economic literature we also searched NHS EED and Tufts CEA registry. Grey literature was also searched. Review Methods Primary studies were sought from existing systematic reviews that had employed reliable search and screening methods. Newer studies were sought by searching the period subsequent to the last search date of the review. Two reviewers screened records and assessed study validity. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized, generic assessment for non-randomized studies, and the Phillips checklist for economic studies. Results Ten studies including 1 randomized trial were included. The majority of the direct comparative evidence compared the mitral valve clip repair with surgery in patients not particularly at prohibitive surgical risk. Irrespective of degenerative or functional chronic mitral regurgitation etiology, evidence of effectiveness and harms is inconclusive and of very low quality. Very-low-quality evidence indicates that percutaneous mitral valve clip repair may provide a survival advantage, at least during the first 1 to 2 years, particularly in medically managed chronic functional mitral regurgitation. Because of limitations in the design of studies, the cost-effectiveness of mitral valve clips in patients at prohibitive risk for surgery also could not be established. Limitations Because of serious concerns of risk of bias, indirectness, and imprecision, evidence is of very low quality. Conclusions No meaningful

  20. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-07-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to (131)iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The 'Genrisk-T' cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the 'UkrAm' cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation.

  1. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  2. Evaluation of stiffness and plastic deformation of active ceramic self-ligating bracket clips after repetitive opening and closure movements

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Grace Kelly Martins; Roque, Juliano Alves; Segundo, Aguinaldo Silva Garcez; Suzuki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether repetitive opening and closure of self-ligating bracket clips can cause plastic deformation of the clip. METHODS: Three types of active/interactive ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 20) were tested: In-Ovation C, Quicklear and WOW. A standardized controlled device performed 500 cycles of opening and closure movements of the bracket clip with proper instruments and techniques adapted as recommended by the manufacturer of each bracket type. Two tensile tests, one before and one after the repetitive cycles, were performed to assess the stiffness of the clips. To this end, a custom-made stainless steel 0.40 x 0.40 mm wire was inserted into the bracket slot and adapted to the universal testing machine (EMIC DL2000), after which measurements were recorded. On the loading portion of the loading-unloading curve of clips, the slope fitted a first-degree equation curve to determine the stiffness/deflection rate of the clip. RESULTS: The results of plastic deformation showed no significant difference among bracket types before and after the 500 cycles of opening and closure (p = 0.811). There were significant differences on stiffness among the three types of brackets (p = 0.005). The WOW bracket had higher mean values, whereas Quicklear bracket had lower values, regardless of the opening/closure cycle. CONCLUSION: Repetitive controlled opening and closure movements of the clip did not alter stiffness or cause plastic deformation. PMID:26352844

  3. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  4. Intraoperative Combined Use of Somatosensory Evoked Potential, Microvascular Doppler Sonography, and Indocyanine Green Angiography in Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhili; Zhang, Guanni; Huang, Guangfu; Wang, Zhengyu; Tan, Haibin; Liu, Jinping; Li, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining application of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), microvascular Doppler sonography (MDS), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery. Material/Methods A total of 158 patients undergoing an intracranial aneurysm clipping operation were recruited. All patients were evaluated with intraoperative SEP and MDS monitoring, and 28 of them were evaluated with intraoperative combined monitoring of SEP, MDS, and ICGA. Results The SEP waves dropped during temporary occlusion of arteries in 19 cases (12.0%), and returned to normal after the clips were repositioned. After aneurysms were clipped, the vortex flow signals were detected by MDS in 6 cases. The aneurysm neck remnants were detected by ICGA in 2 cases of olfactory artery (OA) and in 1 case of middle cerebral artery (MCA), which disappeared after the clips were repositioned. Postoperative CTA or DSA showed that aneurysms were clipped completely and parent arteries and perforating vessels were patent. GOS at 1 month after the surgery was good in 111 cases (70.3%), mild disability in 22 cases (13.9%), severe disability in 14 cases (8.9%), vegetative state in 5 cases (3.2%), and death in 6 cases (3.8%). Conclusions Intraoperative combining application of SEP, MDS, and ICGA can reduce brain tissue ischemia and damage and disability and mortality rate after effective clipping of intracranial aneurysms, thereby improving surgical outcomes. PMID:26845425

  5. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  6. Bond percolation in films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1988-04-01

    Bond percolation in films with simple cubic structure is considered. It is assumed that the probability of a bond being present between nearest-neighbor sites depends on the distances to surfaces. Based on the relation between the Potts model and the bond percolation model, and using the mean-field approximation, the phase diagram and profiles of the percolation probability have been obtained.

  7. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  8. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  9. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  10. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping – i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics - on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample. PMID:26065683

  11. Developmental and Behavioral Effects of Toe Clipping on Neonatal and Preweanling Mice with and without Vapocoolant Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Paluch, Lee-Ronn; Lieggi, Christine C; Dumont, Magali; Monette, Sebastien; Riedel, Elyn R; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Toe clipping is used to identify and genotype preweanling mice, but the procedure generates concerns relevant to pain and distress. The few pertinent studies available evaluated mice between postnatal days (PND) 3 and 7, advocate the use of toe clipping in mice PND 7 or younger, and identify handling as the most distressing aspect of the procedure. Because both toe and tail clipping may be necessary in older mice to obtain sufficient DNA for genotyping, we surmised that performing these procedures concurrently to minimize handling would be beneficial. We also examined reflex development until PND 21 and adult behavior at 8 to 10 wk of age in mice toe clipped at PND 7 or 17 and the benefits of using topical vapocoolant anesthesia. C57BL/6J pups at PND 7 and 17 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 1) clipping of digit 3 of contralateral fore- and hindpaws; 2) toe clipping after topical vapocoolant anesthesia; 3) unclipped, unsprayed controls; and, 4) unclipped and vapocoolant-sprayed. Compared with unanesthetized pups, those sprayed with vapocoolant vocalized and struggled more when handled and had more bleeding, erythema, and swelling, which persisted for as long as 12 h after toe clipping. Reflex development, anxiety, locomotion, and motor coordination were not different among groups or with regard to the age of toe clipping. No tissue reaction was noted microscopically in paws collected at 10 wk of age. We conclude that the use of vapocoolant cannot be recommended due to its harmful effects and that toe clipping at PND 7 or 17 does not significantly affect the long-term welfare of mice. PMID:24602538

  12. X-ray fluorescence measurements of arsenic micro-distribution in human nail clippings using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Gherase, Mihai R; Desouza, Elstan D; Farquharson, Michael J; McNeill, Fiona E; Kim, Chang-Yong; Fleming, David E B

    2013-09-01

    Arsenic (As) distribution in nail clippings from three healthy human subjects was investigated using the microbeam experimental setup of the hard x-ray micro-analysis (HXMA) beamline from the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron. A pair of toenail and fingernail clippings was collected from each of three subjects (one contributed two fingernail clippings). The fingernail and toenail clippings were embedded in polyester resin and cut in cross-sectional slices with an average thickness of 270 µm. Nine nail clipping cross sections were analyzed from the three subjects. The same method was used to produce five cross sections of nail phantom clippings with concentrations of As ranging from 0 to 20 µg g−1, in increments of 5 µg g−1. These samples were used to produce a calibration line for the As Kα peak. The energy of the x-ray beam was set at 13 keV for optimal excitation of As and the beam size was 28 × 10 µm2. Each sample was analyzed using a point-by-point scanning technique in a 45° beam-sample and 90° beam-detector geometry. The dwelling time was set at 30 s for the human nail clippings and 20 s for the nail phantom clippings, using a step size of 50 µm in both the horizontal and vertical directions for all samples. As concentration for each point was calculated based on the calibration line parameters and the fitted amplitude of the observed As Kα peak. As concentration maps were produced for each nail clipping cross section. The maps show that small regions (<0.1 mm2) with higher As concentrations (>1 µg g−1) are located predominantly in the ventral and dorsal layers of the nail. The results are in agreement with findings reported in a recent study and can be linked to nail histology and keratin structure. PMID:24137704

  13. Effects of Tail Clipping on Larval Performance and Tail Regeneration Rates in the Near Eastern Fire Salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ori; Polevikove, Antonina; Blank, Lior; Goedbloed, Daniel; Küpfer, Eliane; Gershberg, Anna; Koplovich, Avi; Blaustein, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tail-tip clipping is a common technique for collecting tissue samples from amphibian larvae and adults. Surprisingly, studies of this invasive sampling procedure or of natural tail clipping--i.e., bites inflicted by predators including conspecifics--on the performance and fitness of aquatic larval stages of urodeles are scarce. We conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects of posterior tail clipping (~30 percent of tail) on Near Eastern fire salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata) larvae. In a laboratory study, we checked regeneration rates of posterior tail-tip clipping at different ages. Regeneration rates were hump-shaped, peaking at the age of ~30 days and then decreasing. This variation in tail regeneration rates suggests tradeoffs in resource allocation between regeneration and somatic growth during early and advanced development. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment, under constant larval densities, we assessed how tail clipping of newborn larvae affects survival to, time to, and size at metamorphosis. Repeated measures ANOVA on mean larval survival per pond revealed no effect of tail clipping. Tail clipping had correspondingly no effect on larval growth and development expressed in size (mass and snout-vent length) at, and time to, metamorphosis. We conclude that despite the given variation in tail regeneration rates throughout larval ontogeny, clipping of 30% percent of the posterior tail area seems to have no adverse effects on larval fitness and survival. We suggest that future use of this imperative tool for the study of amphibian should take into account larval developmental stage during the time of application and not just the relative size of the clipped tail sample.

  14. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with

  15. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  16. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  17. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christian R.; Benlachtar, Yannis; Killey, Robert I.; Milder, Peter A.

    2011-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has recently gained substantial interest in high capacity optical fiber communications. Unlike wireless systems, optical OFDM systems are constrained by the limited resolution of the ultra high-speed digital-to-analog converters (DAC) and analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Additionally, the situation is exacerbated by the large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) inherent in OFDM signals. In this paper, we study the effects of clipping and quantization noise on the system performance. We analytically quantify the introduced distortion as a function of bit resolution and clipping ratio, both at the DAC and ADC. With this we provide a back-to-back signal-to-noise ratio analysis to predict the bit error rate of the system, assuming a fixed received optical power and ideal electrical-optical-electrical conversion. Simulation and experimental results are used to confirm the validity of the expressions.

  18. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian R; Benlachtar, Yannis; Killey, Robert I; Milder, Peter A

    2011-08-29

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has recently gained substantial interest in high capacity optical fiber communications. Unlike wireless systems, optical OFDM systems are constrained by the limited resolution of the ultra high-speed digital-to-analog converters (DAC) and analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Additionally, the situation is exacerbated by the large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) inherent in OFDM signals. In this paper, we study the effects of clipping and quantization noise on the system performance. We analytically quantify the introduced distortion as a function of bit resolution and clipping ratio, both at the DAC and ADC. With this we provide a back-to-back signal-to-noise ratio analysis to predict the bit error rate of the system, assuming a fixed received optical power and ideal electrical-optical-electrical conversion. Simulation and experimental results are used to confirm the validity of the expressions. PMID:21935139

  19. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  20. Integrating knowledge and control into hypermedia-based training environments: Experiments with HyperCLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The issues of knowledge representation and control in hypermedia-based training environments are discussed. The main objective is to integrate the flexible presentation capability of hypermedia with a knowledge-based approach to lesson discourse management. The instructional goals and their associated concepts are represented in a knowledge representation structure called a 'concept network'. Its functional usages are many: it is used to control the navigation through a presentation space, generate tests for student evaluation, and model the student. This architecture was implemented in HyperCLIPS, a hybrid system that creates a bridge between HyperCard, a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to data bases and other applications, and CLIPS, a highly portable government-owned expert system shell.

  1. DYNACLIPS (DYNAmic CLIPS): A dynamic knowledge exchange tool for intelligent agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cengeloglu, Yilmaz; Khajenoori, Soheil; Linton, Darrell

    1994-01-01

    In a dynamic environment, intelligent agents must be responsive to unanticipated conditions. When such conditions occur, an intelligent agent may have to stop a previously planned and scheduled course of actions and replan, reschedule, start new activities and initiate a new problem solving process to successfully respond to the new conditions. Problems occur when an intelligent agent does not have enough knowledge to properly respond to the new situation. DYNACLIPS is an implementation of a framework for dynamic knowledge exchange among intelligent agents. Each intelligent agent is a CLIPS shell and runs a separate process under SunOS operating system. Intelligent agents can exchange facts, rules, and CLIPS commands at run time. Knowledge exchange among intelligent agents at run times does not effect execution of either sender and receiver intelligent agent. Intelligent agents can keep the knowledge temporarily or permanently. In other words, knowledge exchange among intelligent agents would allow for a form of learning to be accomplished.

  2. Pigtail catheter "propping" for MitraClip percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Kully; Butler, Robert; Large, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    In recent years percutaneous therapy has emerged as a feasible and effective option for the treatment of mitral regurgitation, particularly in cases where the risks of conventional cardiac surgery are prohibitively high. To date the most widely used percutaneous approach is beating heart, edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular-Structural Heart, Menlo Park, CA). The technique requires simultaneous grasping and approximation of both mitral valve leaflets prior to securing and releasing the clip. However, this may be technically challenging or indeed impossible in patients with failure of coaptation, particularly when there is a large coaptation gap. We present an approach for overcoming this relatively common obstacle based on "propping" the anterior mitral valve leaflet toward its posterior counterpart with a diagnostic pigtail catheter to reduce the coaptation gap and to allow grasping of both leaflets without difficulty. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26959728

  3. Comparison of form in potential functions while maintaining upright posture during exposure to stereoscopic video clips.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Kenichiro; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Fujikake, Kazuhiro; Miyao, Masaru; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is caused by sensory conflict, the disagreement between vergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. VIMS can be measured by psychological and physiological methods. We propose a mathematical methodology to measure the effect of three-dimensional (3D) images on the equilibrium function. In this study, body sway in the resting state is compared with that during exposure to 3D video clips on a liquid crystal display (LCD) and on a head mounted display (HMD). In addition, the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was completed immediately afterward. Based on the statistical analysis of the SSQ subscores and each index for stabilograms, we succeeded in determining the quantity of the VIMS during exposure to the stereoscopic images. Moreover, we discuss the metamorphism in the potential functions to control the standing posture during the exposure to stereoscopic video clips.

  4. Comparison of form in potential functions while maintaining upright posture during exposure to stereoscopic video clips.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Kenichiro; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Fujikake, Kazuhiro; Miyao, Masaru; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is caused by sensory conflict, the disagreement between vergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. VIMS can be measured by psychological and physiological methods. We propose a mathematical methodology to measure the effect of three-dimensional (3D) images on the equilibrium function. In this study, body sway in the resting state is compared with that during exposure to 3D video clips on a liquid crystal display (LCD) and on a head mounted display (HMD). In addition, the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was completed immediately afterward. Based on the statistical analysis of the SSQ subscores and each index for stabilograms, we succeeded in determining the quantity of the VIMS during exposure to the stereoscopic images. Moreover, we discuss the metamorphism in the potential functions to control the standing posture during the exposure to stereoscopic video clips. PMID:24111406

  5. ECLIPS: An extended CLIPS for backward chaining and goal-directed reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeier, Peter V.; Le, Thach C.

    1991-01-01

    Realistic production systems require an integrated combination of forward and backward reasoning to reflect appropriately the processes of natural human expert reasoning. A control mechanism that consists solely of forward reasoning is not an effective way to promptly focus the system's attention as calculation proceeds. Often, expert system programmers will attempt to compensate for this lack by using data to enforce the desired goal directed control structure. This approach is inherently flawed in that it is attempting to use data to fulfill the role of control. This paper will describe our implementation of backward chaining in C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), and show how this has shortened and simplified various CLIPS programs. This work was done at the Aerospace Corporation, and has general applicability.

  6. An Intriguing Case Report of Functional Mitral Regurgitation Treated With MitraClip

    PubMed Central

    Duino, Vincenzo; Fiocca, Luigi; Musumeci, Giuseppe; D’Elia, Emilia; Gori, Mauro; Cerchierini, Elisa; Valsecchi, Orazio; Senni, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is frequent in patients with heart failure (HF). It develops as a consequence of left ventricle (LV) geometry alterations, causing imbalance between increased tethering forces and decreased closing forces exerted on the mitral valve apparatus during systole. FMR is known to change at rest and during effort, due to preload–afterload changes, myocardial ischemia, and/or LV dysfunction. Despite optimized medical therapy, an FMR can be responsible of shortness of breath limiting quality of life and decompensation. In this report, we present a case of dynamic FMR treated with MitraClip. MitraClip implantation is a successful and innovative opportunity for HF patients with FMR. PMID:25997036

  7. Weak bond screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  8. Improved binding site assignment by high-resolution mapping of RNA-protein interactions using iCLIP.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Christian; Curk, Tomaz; Anders, Simon; Schwarzl, Thomas; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Sieber, Jana; Hollerer, Ina; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Huber, Wolfgang; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2015-08-11

    Individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) allows the determination of crosslinking sites of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) on RNAs. iCLIP is based on ultraviolet light crosslinking of RBPs to RNA, reverse transcription and high-throughput sequencing of fragments terminating at the site of crosslinking. As a result, start sites of iCLIP fragments are expected to cluster with a narrow distribution, typically representing the site of direct interaction between the RBP and the RNA. Here we show that for several RBPs (eIF4A3, PTB, SRSF3, SRSF4 and hnRNP L), the start sites of iCLIP fragments show a fragment length-dependent broader distribution that can be shifted to positions upstream of the known RNA-binding site. We developed an analysis tool that identifies these shifts and can improve the positioning of RBP binding sites.

  9. A CLIPS expert system for maximizing alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, B. A.; Jones, D. D.; Rhykerd, R. L.; Rhykerd, L. M.; Rhykerd, C. L., Jr.; Rhykerd, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    An alfalfa management expert system originally developed by Purdue University agricultural scientists on the PC Plus expert system shell from Texas Instrument has been updated and successfully converted to CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System). This reduces the cost and legal restrictions associated with making the expert system available to agribusiness industries, extension personnel and farm managers and operators. The expert system includes recommendations concerning soil drainage, liming, P and K fertilization, weed control, variety selection and seeding rate including pure live seeds.

  10. Plantar pressure of clipless and toe-clipped pedals in cyclists - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrea; Pemberton, Troy; Ghosh, Subhajit; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Summary To determine the effect of clipless and toe-clipped pedals on plantar foot pressure while cycling. Seven bikers and 11 healthy volunteers were tested on a Giant ATX Team mountain bike, Tekscan Clinical 5.24 F-scan® system with an inner sole pressure sensor, a Tacx Cycle force One Turbo Trainer and a Cateye Mity 8 computerized speedometer were used. The subjects wore Shimano M037 shoes and used a standard clipless and toe-clipped pedal. The seat height was set at 100% of subject’s trochanteric height. Plantar pressures were recorded over 12 consecutive crank cycles at a constant speed for each of the power outputs. The videos were analysed to record the pressure exerted at 12 positions on the foot for each variable. Whether there is any dominance of any of the metatarsals, and any difference in plantar pressures between clipped and clipless pedal. There was a significant difference in the pressure at many positions of the foot, but the sites were different for each individual. General regression analysis indicated that pedal type had a statistically significant effect on plantar pressure at the sites of 1st metatarsal (p=0.042), 3rd metatarsal (p<0.001), 5th metatarsal (<0.001), 2nd (p=0.018) and 5th toe (p<0.001), lateral midfoot (p<0.001) and central heel (p<0.001) areas. Clipless pedals produce higher pressures which are more spread across the foot than toe-clipped pedals. This may have implications for their use in the prevention and/or management of overuse injuries in the knee and foot. PMID:23738240

  11. Power efficient and colorless PON upstream system using asymmetric clipping optical OFDM and TDMA technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Qiao, Yaojun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2012-04-01

    Asymmetric clipping optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) based time division multiple access (TDMA) Passive Optical Network (PON) upstream transmission architecture is proposed. The system features low power consumption, colorless, and cost effectiveness. Performance and validity of 10 Gb/s upstream transmission are studied and confirmed by simulation. Performance degradation due to interference from rogue Optical Network Unit (ONU) is also studied.

  12. Closure of gastrointestinal defects with Ovesco clip: long-term results and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Dhumane, Parag; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Tuszynski, Thierry; Marie, Christian; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Meduri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Over-The-Scope Clip (OTSC®, Ovesco Endoscopy GmbH, Tübingen, Germany) is an innovative clipping device that provides a strong tissue grasp and compression without provoking ischemia or laceration. In this retrospective study we evaluated immediate and long-term success rates of OTSC deployment in various pathologies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Methods: A total of 45 patients (35 female, 10 male) with an average age of 56 years old (range, 24–90 years) were treated with an OTSC for GI defects resulting from a diagnostic or interventional endoscopic procedure (acute setting group) or for fistula following abdominal surgery (chronic setting group). All procedures were performed with CO2 insufflation. Results: From January 2012 to December 2015 a total of 51 OTSCs were delivered in 45 patients for different kinds of GI defects. Technical success was always achieved in the acute setting group with an excellent clip adherence and a clinical long-term success rate of 100% (15/15). Meanwhile, considering the chronic setting group, technical success was achieved in 50% of patients with a long-term clinical success of 37% (11/30); two minor complications occurred. A total of three patients died due to causes not directly related to clip deployment. Overall clinical success rate was achieved in 58% cases (26/45 patients). A mean follow-up period of 17 months was accomplished (range, 1–36 months). Conclusion: OTSC deployment is an effective and minimally-invasive procedure for GI defects in acute settings. It avoids emergency surgical repair and it allows, in most cases, completion of the primary endoscopic procedure. OTSC should be incorporated as an essential technique of today’s modern endoscopic armamentarium in the management of GI defects in acute settings. OTSCs were less effective in cases of chronic defects. PMID:27582884

  13. Afterload mismatch after MitraClip insertion for functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Melisurgo, Giulio; Ajello, Silvia; Pappalardo, Federico; Guidotti, Andrea; Agricola, Eustachio; Kawaguchi, Masanori; Latib, Azeem; Covello, Remo Daniel; Denti, Paolo; Zangrillo, Alberto; Alfieri, Ottavio; Maisano, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Afterload mismatch, defined as acute impairment of left ventricular function after mitral surgery, is a major issue in patients with low ejection fraction and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Safety and efficacy of MitraClip therapy have been assessed in randomized trials, but limited data on its acute hemodynamic effects are available. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and prognostic role of afterload mismatch in patients affected by FMR treated with MitraClip therapy. We retrospectively analyzed patients affected by FMR and submitted to MitraClip therapy from October 2008 to December 2012. Patients were assigned to 2 groups according to the occurrence of the afterload mismatch: patients with afterload mismatch (AM+) and without afterload mismatch (AM-). Of 73 patients, 19 (26%) experienced afterload mismatch in the early postoperative period. Among preoperative variables, end-diastolic diameter (71 ± 8 vs 67 ± 7 mm, p = 0.02) and end-systolic diameter (57 ± 9 vs 53 ± 7 mm, p = 0.04) were both significantly larger in AM+ group. An increased incidence of right ventricular dysfunction (68% vs 31%, p = 0.049) and pulmonary hypertension (49 ± 10 vs 40 ± 10 mm Hg, p = 0.0009) was found in AM+ group. Before hospital discharge, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) became similar in both groups (31 ± 9% vs 33 ± 11%, p = 0.65). Long-term survival was comparable between the 2 groups (p = 0.44). A low LVEF in the early postoperative period (LVEF <17%) was significantly associated with higher mortality rate in long-term follow-up (p = 0.048). In conclusion, reduction of mitral regurgitation with MitraClip can cause afterload mismatch; however, this phenomenon is transient, without long-term prognostic implications.

  14. Virtual Reality Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping Simulation With Real-time Haptic Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Luciano, Cristian J.; Bailey, Daniel P.; Elsenousi, Abdussalam; Roitberg, Ben Z.; Bernardo, Antonio; Banerjee, P. Pat; Charbel, Fady T.

    2014-01-01

    Background With the decrease in the number of cerebral aneurysms treated surgically and the increase of complexity of those treated surgically, there is a need for simulation-based tools to teach future neurosurgeons the operative techniques of aneurysm clipping. Objective To develop and evaluate the usefulness of a new haptic-based virtual reality (VR) simulator in the training of neurosurgical residents. Methods A real-time sensory haptic feedback virtual reality aneurysm clipping simulator was developed using the Immersive Touch platform. A prototype middle cerebral artery aneurysm simulation was created from a computed tomography angiogram. Aneurysm and vessel volume deformation and haptic feedback are provided in a 3-D immersive VR environment. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was also simulated. Seventeen neurosurgery residents from three residency programs tested the simulator and provided feedback on its usefulness and resemblance to real aneurysm clipping surgery. Results Residents felt that the simulation would be useful in preparing for real-life surgery. About two thirds of the residents felt that the 3-D immersive anatomical details provided a very close resemblance to real operative anatomy and accurate guidance for deciding surgical approaches. They believed the simulation is useful for preoperative surgical rehearsal and neurosurgical training. One third of the residents felt that the technology in its current form provided very realistic haptic feedback for aneurysm surgery. Conclusion Neurosurgical residents felt that the novel immersive VR simulator is helpful in their training especially since they do not get a chance to perform aneurysm clippings until very late in their residency programs. PMID:25599200

  15. Incorporating CLIPS into a personal-computer-based Intelligent Tutoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. Computer Sciences Corporation, Applied Technology Division, Houston Operations has been tasked by the Spacecraft Software Division at NASA/Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) to develop a number of lTS's in a variety of domains and on many different platforms. This paper will address issues facing the development of an ITS on a personal computer using the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) language. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. There are many issues to consider when using CLIPS to develop an ITS on a personal computer. Some of these issues are the following: when to use CLIPS and when to use a procedural language such as C, how to maximize speed and minimize memory usage, and how to decrease the time required to load your rule base once you are ready to deliver the system. Based on experiences in developing the CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System (CLIPSITS) on an IBM PC clone and an intelligent Physics Tutor on a Macintosh 2, this paper reports results on how to address some of these issues. It also suggests approaches for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.

  16. [Rapid 3-Dimensional Models of Cerebral Aneurysm for Emergency Surgical Clipping].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takehiko; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Oguma, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Naoki; Otani, Keisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-08-01

    We developed a method for manufacturing solid models of cerebral aneurysms, with a shorter printing time than that involved in conventional methods, using a compact 3D printer with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)resin. We further investigated the application and utility of this printing system in emergency clipping surgery. A total of 16 patients diagnosed with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from cerebral aneurysm rupture were enrolled in the present study. Emergency clipping was performed on the day of hospitalization. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine(DICOM)data obtained from computed tomography angiography(CTA)scans were edited and converted to stereolithography(STL)file formats, followed by the production of 3D models of the cerebral aneurysm by using the 3D printer. The mean time from hospitalization to the commencement of surgery was 242 min, whereas the mean time required for manufacturing the 3D model was 67 min. The average cost of each 3D model was 194 Japanese Yen. The time required for manufacturing the 3D models shortened to approximately 1 hour with increasing experience of producing 3D models. Favorable impressions for the use of the 3D models in clipping were reported by almost all neurosurgeons included in this study. Although 3D printing is often considered to involve huge costs and long manufacturing time, the method used in the present study requires shorter time and lower costs than conventional methods for manufacturing 3D cerebral aneurysm models, thus making it suitable for use in emergency clipping. PMID:27506842

  17. Non invasive evaluation of cardiomechanics in patients undergoing MitrClip procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last recent years a new percutaneous procedure, the MitraClip, has been validated for the treatment of mitral regurgitation. MitraClip procedure is a promising alternative for patients unsuitable for surgery as it reduces the risk of death related to surgery ensuring a similar result. Few data are present in literature about the variation of hemodynamic parameters and ventricular coupling after Mitraclip implantation. Methods Hemodynamic data of 18 patients enrolled for MitraClip procedure were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained the day before the procedure (T0) and 21 ± 3 days after the procedure (T1), including evaluation of Ejection Fraction, mitral valve regurgitation severity and mechanism, forward Stroke Volume, left atrial volume, estimated systolic pulmonary pressure, non invasive echocardiographic estimation of single beat ventricular elastance (Es(sb)), arterial elastance (Ea) measured as systolic pressure • 0.9/ Stroke Volume, ventricular arterial coupling (Ea/Es(sb) ratio). Data were expressed as median and interquartile range. Measures obtained before and after the procedure were compared using Wilcoxon non parametric test for paired samples. Results Mitraclip procedure was effective in reducing regurgitation. We observed an amelioration of echocardiographic parameters with a reduction of estimated systolic pulmonary pressure (45 to 37,5 p = 0,0002) and left atrial volume (110 to 93 p = 0,0001). Despite a few cases decreasing in ejection fraction (37 to 35 p = 0,035), the maintained ventricular arterial coupling after the procedure (P = 0,67) was associated with an increasing in forward stroke volume (60,3 to 78 p = 0,05). Conclusion MitraClip is effective in reducing mitral valve regurgitation and determines an amelioration of hemodynamic parameters with preservation of ventricular arterial coupling. PMID:23642140

  18. [Persistent Disturbance of Consciousness after Clipping of an Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm due to Pseudohypoxic Brain Swelling].

    PubMed

    Masamura, Tomona; Kurita, Akihide; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A patient developed persistent disturbance of consciousness after uneventful clipping of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm under general anesthesia. Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) was suspected because computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse brain swelling, especially in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami. Steroid pulse therapy in addition to antiedematous drugs and anticonvulsant improved the consciousness. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to PHBS in a case of persistent disturbance of consciousness after uneventful craniotomy.

  19. Galaxy and mass assembly: Redshift space distortions from the clipped galaxy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, F.; Blake, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Heavens, A. F.; Heymans, C.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first cosmological measurement derived from a galaxy density field subject to a "clipping" transformation. By enforcing an upper bound on the galaxy number density field in the galaxy and mass assembly survey (GAMA), contributions from the nonlinear processes of virialization and galaxy bias are greatly reduced. This leads to a galaxy power spectrum which is easier to model, without calibration from numerical simulations. We develop a theoretical model for the power spectrum of a clipped field in redshift space, which is exact for the case of anisotropic Gaussian fields. Clipping is found to extend the applicability of the conventional Kaiser prescription by more than a factor of 3 in wave numbers, or a factor of 30 in terms of the number of Fourier modes. By modeling the galaxy power spectrum on scales k <0.3 h Mpc-1 and density fluctuations δg<4 we measure the normalized growth rate f σ8(z =0.18 )=0.29 ±0.10 .

  20. Initial Results of Endoscopic Gastrocutaneous Fistula Closure in Children Using an Over-the-Scope Clip

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Robert; Abrajano, Claire; Koppolu, Raji; Stevens, Megan; Nyznyk, Sarah; Chao, Stephanie; Bruzoni, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrocutaneous fistula (GCF) occurs commonly in pediatric patients after removal of long-term gastrostomy tubes. Although open repair is generally successful, endoscopic approaches may offer benefits in terms of incisional complications, postoperative pain, and procedure time. In addition, endoscopic approaches may offer particular benefit in patients with varied degrees of skin irritation or erosion surrounding a GCF, making surgical repair difficult, or patients with significant comorbidities, making minimal intervention and anesthesia time preferable. Over-the-scope (OSC) clips are a new technology that enables endoscopic closure of intestinal fistulas up to 2 cm in diameter. Six pediatric patients underwent endoscopic GCF closure using OSC clips under Institutional Review Board approval. The procedure was technically successful in 5 of 6 cases with an average operating time of 29 minutes. The technical failure required an open revision, whereas all other patients reported full healing of the GCF site at 1 month. All successful cases were performed as outpatients without postoperative narcotics. In addition, all patients reported high satisfaction with the procedure and cosmetic results. Endoscopic GCF closure using an OSC clip is technically feasible in the pediatric population. Based on limited cases with a 1-month follow-up, the functional and cosmetic results of technically successful cases are excellent. Endoscopic GCF closure is a potential alternative to standard surgical closure in patients with skin irritation or erosion and/or significant comorbidities. PMID:25531644

  1. Learning to Predict miRNA-mRNA Interactions from AGO CLIP Sequencing and CLASH Data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuheng; Leslie, Christina S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent technologies like AGO CLIP sequencing and CLASH enable direct transcriptome-wide identification of AGO binding and miRNA target sites, but the most widely used miRNA target prediction algorithms do not exploit these data. Here we use discriminative learning on AGO CLIP and CLASH interactions to train a novel miRNA target prediction model. Our method combines two SVM classifiers, one to predict miRNA-mRNA duplexes and a second to learn a binding model of AGO’s local UTR sequence preferences and positional bias in 3’UTR isoforms. The duplex SVM model enables the prediction of non-canonical target sites and more accurately resolves miRNA interactions from AGO CLIP data than previous methods. The binding model is trained using a multi-task strategy to learn context-specific and common AGO sequence preferences. The duplex and common AGO binding models together outperform existing miRNA target prediction algorithms on held-out binding data. Open source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/leslielab/chimiric. PMID:27438777

  2. The Herschel/SPIRE Spectrometer Deglitching/Clipping Tasks and Statistical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeLeu, G.; Méalier, A.-L.; Benielli, D.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Surace, C.; Fulton, T. R.; Imhof, P.; Polehampton, E.; Vibert, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is a cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency for astronomical observations in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns) and has been launched in May 2009 with three instruments onboard : SPIRE, PACS, HIFI. This paper focuses on the development and the statistical analysis of two phenomena treated by the pipeline through both tasks ClippingCorrection and Deglitching. Glitches have to be re-moved to avoid the introduction of unwanted artefacts in the spectral energy distribution across all wavelengths. Clipped signals in the time-line are problematic as they represent missed samples. If left uncorrected, missed or erroneous samples can lead to further difficulties in particular when the time-lines are converted into spectra. This paper describes the new reconstructed method based on an adaptive algorithm using wavelet decomposition parameters. We also present statistic tool to analyze clipping and deglitching phenomena. The tool shows ratios and indicators that are calculated and plotted allowing visual monitoring. The various aggregated values give a synthetic graphical representation of the quality of the observation including Instrument and Telescope Temperatures behaviours. This tool has been developed as a plug-in of the HIPE environment.

  3. Skin conductance and memory fragmentation after exposure to an emotional film clip in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; van Oorsouw, Kim; Simeon, Daphne

    2010-05-30

    It is often assumed that when confronted with an emotional event, patients with DPD inhibit information processing. It is also thought that this fosters memory fragmentation. This hypothesis has not been tested in chronic depersonalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal pattern of autonomic responding to emotional material in depersonalization disorder, along with concomitant deficits in subjective and objective memory formation (i.e., difficulties to form a coherent narrative consisting of an ordered sequence of events). Participants with depersonalization disorder (n=14) and healthy control participants (n=14) viewed an emotional video clip while their skin conductance (SC) levels were measured. Peritraumatic dissociation was measured before and after the clip, and memory performance was measured 35 min after viewing. Compared to controls, depersonalized participants exhibited a distinctly different temporal pattern of autonomic responding, characterized by an earlier peak and subsequent flattening of SCLs. Maximum SCLs did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, unlike the control group, depersonalized participants showed no SC recovery after clip offset. In terms of memory performance, patients exhibited objective memory fragmentation, which they also reported subjectively. However, they did not differ from controls in free recall performance. Apparently, emotional responding in DPD is characterized by a shortened latency to peak with subsequent flattening and is accompanied by memory fragmentation in the light of otherwise unremarkable memory functioning. PMID:20381160

  4. Rapid and Efficient Production of Coronary Artery Ligation and Myocardial Infarction in Mice Using Surgical Clips

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Michael Taylor; Vandergriff, Adam; Cores, Jhon; Henry, Eric; Allen, Tyler A.; Caranasos, Thomas George; Wang, Zegen; Zhang, Tianxia; Zhang, Jinying; Cheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Aims The coronary artery ligation model in rodents mimics human myocardial infarction (MI). Normally mechanical ventilation and prolonged anesthesia period are needed. Recently, a method has been developed to create MI by popping-out the heart (without ventilation) followed by immediate suture ligation. Mortality is high due to the time-consuming suture ligation process while the heart is exposed. We sought to improve this method and reduce mortality by rapid coronary ligation using a surgical clip instead of a suture. Methods and Results Mice were randomized into 3 groups: clip MI (CMI), suture MI (SMI), or sham (SHAM). In all groups, heart was manually exposed without intubation through a small incision on the chest wall. Unlike the conventional SMI method, mice in the CMI group received a metal clip on left anterior descending artery (LAD), quickly dispensed by an AutoSuture Surgiclip™. The CMI method took only 1/3 of ligation time of the standard SMI method and improved post-MI survival rate. TTC staining and Masson’s trichrome staining revealed a similar degree of infarct size in the SMI and CMI groups. Echocardiograph confirmed that both SMI and CMI groups had a similar reduction of ejection fraction and fraction shortening over the time. Histological analysis showed that the numbers of CD68+ macrophages and apoptotic cells (TUNEL-positive) are indistinguishable between the two groups. Conclusion This new method, taking only less than 3 minutes to complete, represents an efficient myocardial infarction model in rodents. PMID:26599500

  5. Learning to Predict miRNA-mRNA Interactions from AGO CLIP Sequencing and CLASH Data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuheng; Leslie, Christina S

    2016-07-01

    Recent technologies like AGO CLIP sequencing and CLASH enable direct transcriptome-wide identification of AGO binding and miRNA target sites, but the most widely used miRNA target prediction algorithms do not exploit these data. Here we use discriminative learning on AGO CLIP and CLASH interactions to train a novel miRNA target prediction model. Our method combines two SVM classifiers, one to predict miRNA-mRNA duplexes and a second to learn a binding model of AGO's local UTR sequence preferences and positional bias in 3'UTR isoforms. The duplex SVM model enables the prediction of non-canonical target sites and more accurately resolves miRNA interactions from AGO CLIP data than previous methods. The binding model is trained using a multi-task strategy to learn context-specific and common AGO sequence preferences. The duplex and common AGO binding models together outperform existing miRNA target prediction algorithms on held-out binding data. Open source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/leslielab/chimiric. PMID:27438777

  6. Efficient DNA extraction from nail clippings using the protease solution from Cucumis melo.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Nishimura, Sayaka; Okuno, Teruko; Rakuman, Miki; Takii, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of genomic information, obtaining genomic DNA easily from biological specimens has become more and more important. This article proposes an efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from nail clippings. Nail clippings can be easily obtained, are thermostable and easy to transport, and have low infectivity. The drawback of their use, however, has been the difficulty of extracting genomic material from them. We have overcome this obstacle using the protease solution obtained from Cucumis melo. The keratinolytic activity of the protease solution was 1.78-fold higher than that of proteinase K, which is commonly used to degrade keratin. With the protease solution, three times more DNA was extracted than when proteinase K was used. In order to verify the integrity of the extracted DNA, genotype analysis on 170 subjects was performed by both PCR-RFLP and Real Time PCR. The results of the genotyping showed that the extracted DNA was suitable for genotyping analysis. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient extraction method for using nail clippings as a genome source and a research tool in molecular epidemiology, medical diagnostics, and forensic science.

  7. Lake trout fin-clipping rates at two national fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1965-01-01

    The successful stocking of the hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior has imporved the outlook for rehabilitating stocks reduced to an extremely low level by predation from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Marking the fish by fin-clipping to determine growth and survival benefits from holding young-of-the-year lake trout in the hatchery overwinter was begun in 1952-53 and continued through 1954-55. Boat and shore--and spring and fall--plants of yearlings were compared in subsequent experiments to reduce costs of planting and improve survival. Hatchery lake trout now are marked primarily to distinguish them from wild fish in assessment of natural reproduction. Year-to-year and local variations of the mark also supply information on individual plants. Recent large increases in numbers of lake trout stocked required development of an efficient, economical system of clipping fins on a mass-production basis. Data on marking rates were collected in 1958-63 at the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlifes's Pendills Creek and Charlevois National Fish Hatcheries (both in Michigan), where more than 3.5 million fish were fin-clipped.

  8. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  9. Plastic bread-bag clips in the gastrointestinal tract: report of 5 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Newell, K J; Taylor, B; Walton, J C; Tweedie, E J

    2000-01-01

    Plastic bread-bag clips have been identified as a cause of local perforation or obstruction at many sites in the gastrointestinal tract. This study is the largest case series yet reported, consisting of 3 cases presenting as small-bowel perforation, 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at laparotomy during vascular surgery and 1 case in which the clip was found incidentally in the small bowel at autopsy. In all cases there was no radiographic evidence to suggest a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract. People older than 60 years of age who have either partial or full dentures seem to be particularly at risk for the accidental ingestion of these devices. If accidentally ingested, plastic bread-bag clips represent a significant health hazard. As the population ages, small-bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of such clips may occur with increasing frequency. The authors recommend elimination or redesign of the clips, to prevent their being swallowed and becoming impacted in the small bowel or to allow them to be identified in the gastrointestinal tract by conventional radiography. PMID:10701390

  10. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  11. Chemical bonding technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plueddemann, E.

    1986-01-01

    Primers employed in bonding together the various material interfaces in a photovoltaic module are being developed. The approach develops interfacial adhesion by generating actual chemical bonds between the various materials bonded together. The current status of the program is described along with the progress toward developing two general purpose primers for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), one for glass and metals, and another for plastic films.

  12. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  13. Comparisons of the clinical outcomes of thoracoscopic sympathetic surgery for palmar hyperhidrosis: R4 sympathicotomy versus R4 sympathetic clipping versus R3 sympathetic clipping

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seok; Haam, Seokjin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Thoracoscopic sympathetic surgery is regarded as a definitive treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis. However, the optimal surgical strategy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes based on the level and type of sympathetic disconnection in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods From January 2009 to December 2014, 101 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis underwent thoracoscopic sympathetic surgery at Gangnam Severance Hospital. Complete follow-up information was obtained from 59 patients. We retrospectively analyzed the results of operation, degree of palmar sweating (%), grade of compensatory sweating (none, mild, moderate, severe, very severe), grade of satisfaction (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, dissatisfied, very dissatisfied), and recurrence/failure. Results R4 sympathicotomy, R4 sympathetic clipping, and R3 sympathetic clipping were performed in 16, 20, and 23 patients, respectively. The mean degree of palmar sweating after sympathetic surgery was not significantly different between these three groups (17.50% vs. 27.00% vs. 29.78%; P=0.38). The rate of life-bothering compensatory sweating was lower in the R4 sympathicotomy group compared with those of other two groups (0% vs. 25%, 47.8%; P=0.09). The rate of very satisfied to moderate grades of satisfaction were lower in the R3 sympathetic clipping group compared with those of other two groups (93.8%, 100% vs. 73.9%; P=0.07). The rate of recurrence/failure rates were lower in the R4 sympathicotomy group compared with those of other two groups (12.50% vs. 35.00%, 34.8%; P=0.25). Sympathetic surgery at the R3 level was the only significant risk factor for patient dissatisfaction (odd ratio =12.353, 95% confidence interval =1.376–110.914; P=0.025). Conclusions Our data support that R4 sympathicotomy had lower grades of compensatory sweating, higher grades of satisfaction, and lower rates of recurrence/failure. We therefore consider R4 sympathicotomy as an optimal

  14. The Sibling Bond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Stephen P.; Kahn, Michael D.

    The relationships among brothers and sisters are infinitely varied, but whatever their characteristics, these bonds last throughout life. This book examines the sibling relationship as a distinctive emotional, passionate, painful, and solacing power. Chapter 1, "Unraveling the Sibling Bond," addresses research on siblings and development of the…

  15. Chemical Bonds I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

  16. Universal nanopatternable interfacial bonding.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Garland, Shaun; Howland, Michael; Revzin, Alexander; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-12-01

    A nanopatternable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomer layer is demonstrated as an interfacial adhesive for its intrinsic transferability and universal adhesiveness. Utilizing the well-established surface modification and bonding techniques of PDMS surfaces, irreversible bonding is formed (up to 400 kPa) between a wide range of substrate pairs, representing ones within and across different materials categories, including metals, ceramics, thermoset, and thermoplastic polymers.

  17. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  18. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  19. The dissociative bond.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other. PMID:23282044

  20. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  1. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  2. Psychophysiological Correlates of Sexually and Non-Sexually Motivated Attention to Film Clips in a Workload Task

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. PMID:22216305

  3. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

  4. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. PMID:22216305

  5. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, C.

    2015-10-01

    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  6. Deep Sclerectomy With a New Nonabsorbable Uveoscleral Implant (Esnoper-Clip): 1-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parera-Arranz, Angels; Romera-Romera, Pau; Castellvi-Manent, Jordi; Sabala-Llopart, Antoni; de la Cámara-Hermoso, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the safety and the effectiveness of deep sclerectomy (DS) with a new nonabsorbable uveoscleral hema implant (Esnoper-Clip) designed to increase trabecular and uveoscleral outflow and to achieve higher intrascleral blebs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with open-angle glaucoma, who underwent DS with an Esnoper-Clip implant, were included in this study. All patients were followed up after 12 months. Results: A significant decrease in intraocular pressure was observed after surgery, changing from a preoperative mean of 26.6±5.2 mm Hg to a postoperative mean of 15.3±5 mm Hg (P<0.001) at 12 months. There was also a significant reduction in the number of glaucoma drugs needed, varying from 2.5 per patient to 0.3 (P<0.001) 1 year after surgery. The main intrascleral lake height and volume at 12 months was 0.7±0.1 mm and 3.9±1.3 mm3, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. The main postoperative complications were a positive Seidel test result at 24 hours in 2 eyes (7.4%), hyphema in 2 eyes (7.4%), and choroidal detachment in 1 eye (3.7%). All these complications resolved successfully. The need for additional mitomycin-C injections was recorded in 4 eyes (14.8%), twice in 2 of them. Twelve eyes (44.4%) underwent postsurgical Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture with a mean time between surgery and this procedure of 4.3 months. Mean intraocular pressure after Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture decreased from 19.2 to 15.5 mm Hg (P<0.001). Conclusion: DS with an uveoscleral hema implant (Esnoper-Clip) is a safe and effective technique for the management of open-angle glaucoma. PMID:25836660

  7. The Halogen Bond.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Milani, Roberto; Pilati, Tullio; Priimagi, Arri; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-02-24

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  8. The Halogen Bond

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  9. Identification of CELF1 RNA targets by CLIP-seq in human HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Le Tonquèze, Olivier; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Legagneux, Vincent; Paillard, Luc; Audic, Yann

    2016-06-01

    The specific interactions between RNA-binding proteins and their target RNAs are an essential level to control gene expression. By combining ultra-violet cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and massive SoliD sequencing we identified the RNAs bound by the RNA-binding protein CELF1, in human HeLa cells. The CELF1 binding sites deduced from the sequence data allow characterizing specific features of CELF1-RNA association. We present therefore the first map of CELF1 binding sites in human cells. PMID:27222809

  10. A spectral method for determining the percentage of live herbage material in clipped samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    A laboratory spectroradiometric method for the rapid determination of live/dead vegetation percentages from clipped grass samples has been developed and preliminarily tested. The method utilizes the red and photographic infrared reflectance or radiance differences between green vegetation and that of dead vegetation. Mixtures of green and dead material were found to have reflectances or radiances proportional to the percentage of green material present. This method offers the possibility that rapid live/dead spectroradiometric determinations may replace the tedious hand-sorting now generally in use for many situations.

  11. Atrial Septal Defect Closure for Right-to-Left Shunting Following a MitraClip Repair.

    PubMed

    Al'Aref, Subhi J; Bergman, Geoffrey; Wong, S Chiu

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous repair of the mitral valve has been widely adopted for the treatment of primary, symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation in patients at prohibitive risk for surgical intervention. We present a case of an elderly female patient with moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation who underwent MitraClip procedure, with postprocedural course remarkable for the development of right-to-left shunting and hypoxia, for which the patient underwent a percutaneous repair of the atrial septal defect with immediate recovery of oxygen saturation. PMID:27591693

  12. A CLIPS-based expert system for the evaluation and selection of robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nour, Mohamed A.; Offodile, Felix O.; Madey, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype expert system for intelligent selection of robots for manufacturing operations. The paper first develops a comprehensive, three-stage process to model the robot selection problem. The decisions involved in this model easily lend themselves to an expert system application. A rule-based system, based on the selection model, is developed using the CLIPS expert system shell. Data about actual robots is used to test the performance of the prototype system. Further extensions to the rule-based system for data handling and interfacing capabilities are suggested.

  13. Low-bit-rate encoder for picture signals using a centre-clipping quantiser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasami, P.; Faruqui, M. N.

    1986-02-01

    For improved performance of a predictive coding system used for encoding picture signals at low bit rates, it is necessary to design not only an efficient predictor, but also an efficient quantizer that produces minimum perceptible distortion. The paper describes a scheme in which a special quantizer called a 'center-clipping quantizer' (CCQ) is used in a ratio PCM coder. The subjective quality of the picture at 1.58 bit/pel is similar to that of an ADPCM coder at 3 bit/pel, giving an advantage of more than 6 dB in performance.

  14. CLIPS meets the connection machine: Or how to create a parallel production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geyer, Steve

    1990-01-01

    Production systems usually present unacceptable run-times when faced with applications requiring tens of thousands to millions of facts. Many efforts have focused on the use of parallelism as a way to increase overall system performance. While these efforts have increased pattern matching and rule evaluation rates, they have only indirectly dealt with the problems faced by fact burdened applications. We have implemented PPS, a version of CLIPS running on the Connection Machine, to directly address the problems faced by these applications. This paper will describe our system, discuss its implementation, and present results.

  15. Acute limb ischemia caused by incorrect deployment of a clip-based arterial closure device

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciuchowicz, Łukasz; Stefaniak, Karolina; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Failure of a vascular closure device most commonly results in a hemorrhage or pseudoaneurysm formation. In this paper a rare case of severe acute limb ischemia following incorrect deployment of a clip-based closure device (Starclose SE, Abbott Vascular) in a 31-year-old woman is presented. Symptoms of acute limb ischemia occurred at the start of the ambulation, 6 h after completion of the procedure. Because of the severity of ischemia the patient was treated surgically, and limb perfusion was successfully restored. An attempt of closure of an inadvertently punctured narrow superficial femoral artery was identified as the cause of this complication. PMID:27458492

  16. How to summarize a 6,000-word paper in a six-minute video clip.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Vachon, Patrick; Daudelin, Genevieve; Hivon, Myriam

    2013-05-01

    As part of our research team's knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) efforts, we created a six-minute video clip that summarizes, in plain language, a scientific paper that describes why and how three teams of academic entrepreneurs developed new health technologies. Recognizing that video-based KTE strategies can be a valuable tool for health services and policy researchers, this paper explains the constraints and sources of inspiration that shaped our video production process. Aiming to provide practical guidance, we describe the steps and tools that we used to identify, refine and package the key content of the scientific paper into an original video format. PMID:23968634

  17. Dual Selectivity Expressed in [2+2+1] Dynamic Clipping of Unsymmetrical [2]Catenanes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi

    2010-06-11

    A {pi}-templated dynamic [2+2+1] clipping protocol is established for the synthesis of [2]catenanes from two parts dialdehyde, two parts diamine and one part tetracationic cyclophane. It is further diversified for the selective formation of an unsymmetrical [2]catenane showing great translational selectivity by employing two different dialdehydes in a one-pot reaction. The dual selectivity and the dynamic nature are verified by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal structural studies and exchange experiments.

  18. Clips & Snips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jacqueline; Riggs, Howard N.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching eighth-grade students about the Middle Ages at St. John's School in St. Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. Explores a lesson in Montreal history offered to third- and fourth-grade students at the city's Hampstead School. Describes an environmental education unit for kindergarteners at Montreal's Edinburgh School. (DK)

  19. Clip & Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art movement called Cubism that began with two artists, Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Discusses possible activities for students and discusses the life of Max Weber. Focuses on Weber's painting, "Rush Hour, New York." (CMK)

  20. Media Clips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron; Marion, Charlie

    1996-01-01

    Two lessons, 1 dealing with Social Security taxes and the other with the Dow Jones industrial average, are presented along with 10 questions and answers designed to demonstrate to students that mathematics is useful, current, and newsworthy. (AIM)

  1. Responses to water depth and clipping of twenty−three plant species in an Indian monsoonal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; van der Valk, Arnold; Davis, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    Responses of species to disturbances give insights into how species might respond to future wetland changes. In this study, species of monsoonal wetlands belonging to various functional types (graminoid and non−graminoid emergents, submersed aquatic, floating−leaved aquatic) varied in their growth responses to water depth and harvesting. We tested the effects of water depth (moist soil, flooded) and clipping (unclipped, and clipped) on the biomass and longevity of twenty−three dominant plant species of monsoonal wetlands in the Keoladeo National Park, India in a controlled experiment. With respect to total biomass and survival, six species responded positively to flooding and twelve species responded negatively to clipping. Responses to flooding and clipping, however, sometimes interacted. Individualistic responses of species to water levels and clipping regimes were apparent; species within a functional group did not always respond similarly. Therefore, detailed information on the individualistic responses of species may be needed to predict the vegetation composition of post−disturbance wetlands. In particular, as demands for fresh water increase around the world, studies of life history constraints and responses to hydrological changes will aid wetland managers in developing strategies to conserve biodiversity.

  2. Real-time surgery simulation of intracranial aneurysm clipping with patient-specific geometries and haptic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Providing suitable training for aspiring neurosurgeons is becoming more and more problematic. The increasing popularity of the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms leads to a lack of simple surgical situations for clipping operations, leaving mainly the complex cases, which present even experienced surgeons with a challenge. To alleviate this situation, we have developed a training simulator with haptic interaction allowing trainees to practice virtual clipping surgeries on real patient-specific vessel geometries. By using specialized finite element (FEM) algorithms (fast finite element method, matrix condensation) combined with GPU acceleration, we can achieve the necessary frame rate for smooth real-time interaction with the detailed models needed for a realistic simulation of the vessel wall deformation caused by the clamping with surgical clips. Vessel wall geometries for typical training scenarios were obtained from 3D-reconstructed medical image data, while for the instruments (clipping forceps, various types of clips, suction tubes) we use models provided by manufacturer Aesculap AG. Collisions between vessel and instruments have to be continuously detected and transformed into corresponding boundary conditions and feedback forces, calculated using a contact plane method. After a training, the achieved result can be assessed based on various criteria, including a simulation of the residual blood flow into the aneurysm. Rigid models of the surgical access and surrounding brain tissue, plus coupling a real forceps to the haptic input device further increase the realism of the simulation.

  3. Junk-Bond Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a long-predicted decline in the fortunes of small private colleges is beginning to show up in the bond market, as the number of colleges now rated in the junk category has nearly doubled. (EV)

  4. Bonding with your newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your baby begin to feel a strong attachment with each other. You may feel great love ... L, Saison J, et al. Building a secure attachment bond with your baby. Helpguide.org. www.helpguide. ...

  5. Detecting Defective Solder Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R.; Barney, J.; Decker, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    Method is noncontact and nondestructive. Technique detects solder bonds in solar array of other large circuit board, using thermal-imaging camera. Board placed between heat lamp and camera. Poor joints indiated by "cold" spots on the infrared image.

  6. Bonding aerogels with polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, F.M.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1989-11-01

    Aerogels, porous silica glasses with ultra-fine cell size (30nm), are made by a solution gelation (sol-gel) process. The resulting gel is critical point dried to densities from 0.15--0.60 g/cc. This material is machinable, homogeneous, transparent, coatable and bondable. To bond aerogel an adhesive should have long cure time, no attack on the aerogel structure, and high strength. Several epoxies and urethanes were examined to determine if they satisfied these conditions. Bond strengths above 13 psi were found with double bubble and DP-110 epoxies and XI-208/ODA-1000 and Castall U-2630 urethanes. Hardman Kalex Tough Stuff'' A-85 hardness urethane gave 18 psi bond strength. Hardman A-85, Tuff-Stuff'' was selected for further evaluation because it produced bond strengths comparable to the adherend cohesive strength. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Impact of Preprocedural Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on 1-Year Outcomes After MitraClip Implantation (from the ACCESS-EU Phase I, a Prospective, Multicenter, Nonrandomized Postapproval Study of the MitraClip Therapy in Europe).

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ulrich; Maisano, Francesco; Butter, Christian; Franzen, Olaf; Baldus, Stephan; Hausleiter, Jörg; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Sievert, Horst; Geist, Volker; Widder, Julian Daniel; Moccetti, Tiziano; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2016-09-15

    This report describes the 12-month outcomes of the a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of the MitraClip therapy in Europe (ACCESS-EU postapproval study of MitraClip therapy) with respect to preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Transcatheter deployment of the MitraClip device may be considered for patients who are not suitable for conventional surgery. A total of 567 patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip therapy. Of those, 393 had functional MR (FMR) and were subdivided by preprocedural LVEF (A: 10% to 20%, B: >20% to 30%, C: >30% to 40%, D: >40%). Procedural safety and efficacy and treatment outcomes including MR grade, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, 6-minute walk test, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were analyzed at baseline, 30 days, and 12 months. Baseline mean logistic EuroSCORE was 25 ± 19; 87% of patients were in NYHA classes III or IV (A: 96%, B: 83%, C: 90%, D: 86%). There was no incidence of death or stroke intraprocedurally. Eleven patients died within 30 days with no differences among subgroups. Kaplan-Meier survival at 12 months was 81.8% (A: 71%, B: 79%, C: 87%, D: 86%). There was a significant improvement in MR severity at 30 days and 12 months (p <0.0001). At 12 months, all subgroups experienced similar improvements in NYHA class, 6-minute walk test, and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. This real-world registry reports promising results of MitraClip therapy in patients with FMR. In conclusion, the low rates of hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with FMR-even in patients with severely reduced LVEF-provide additional evidence of substantial benefits after MitraClip implantation. PMID:27575279

  8. [Ligation of the retrobulbar vascular-nervous bunch during performance of evisceration and enucleation using titanic clips in ophthalmic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rykov, S A; Torchinskaia, N V; Bakbardina, I I; Simchuk, I V

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of hemostasis achievement during conduction of a retrobulbar vascular-nervous bunch ligation (RVNBL), using titanic clips while evisceroenucleation performance, was studied up. A comparative analysis of clinical and functional results of surgical treatment of 36 patients, suffering terminal dolorous glaucoma and disaster of a sympathetic ophthalmia complication after an eye penetrating wounding occurrence. In 16 patients (the first group) a standard method of a hemostasis achievement was used while doing evisceroenucleation - a deep orbital tamponade for 5 minutes. In 20 patients (the second group) a procedure of RVNBL was conducted, using titanic clips before the bunch transsection doing. There was established, that while doing a RVNPL using titanic clips, a hemorrhage never occurs, a retrobulbar hematoma do not formated, the soft tissues reaction in the early postoperative period is less pronounced, and the patients postoperative rehabilitation period shortens.

  9. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  10. An action video clip database rated for familiarity in China and Germany.

    PubMed

    Umla-Runge, Katja; Zimmer, Hubert D; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei

    2012-12-01

    Stimulus material for studying object-directed actions is needed in different research contexts, such as action observation, action memory, and imitation. Action items have been generated many times in individual laboratories across the world, but they are used in very few experiments. For future studies in the field, it would be worthwhile to have a larger set of action stimulus material available to a broader research community. Some smaller action databases have already been published, but those often focus on psycholinguistic parameters and static action stimuli. With this article, we introduce an action database with dynamic action stimuli. The database contains action descriptions of 1,754 object-directed actions that have been rated for familiarity in Germany and in China. For 784 of these actions, action video clips are available. With the use of our database, it is possible to identify actions that differ in familiarity between Western and Eastern cultures. This variable may be of interest to some researchers in the field, since it has been shown that familiarity influences action information processing. Action descriptions are listed and categorized in tables that can be downloaded, along with the corresponding video clips, as supplemental material.

  11. Microtubule plus end–associated CLIP-170 initiates HSV-1 retrograde transport in primary human cells

    PubMed Central

    Jovasevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic microtubules (MTs) continuously explore the intracellular environment and, through specialized plus end–tracking proteins (+TIPs), engage a variety of targets. However, the nature of cargoes that require +TIP-mediated capture for their movement on MTs remains poorly understood. Using RNA interference and dominant-negative approaches, combined with live cell imaging, we show that herpes simplex virus particles that have entered primary human cells exploit a +TIP complex comprising end-binding protein 1 (EB1), cytoplasmic linker protein 170 (CLIP-170), and dynactin-1 (DCTN1) to initiate retrograde transport. Depletion of these +TIPs completely blocked post-entry long-range transport of virus particles and suppressed infection ∼5,000-fold, whereas transferrin uptake, early endosome organization, and dynein-dependent movement of lysosomes and mitochondria remained unaffected. These findings provide the first insights into the earliest stages of viral engagement of MTs through specific +TIPs, akin to receptors, with therapeutic implications, and identify herpesvirus particles as one of a very limited number of cargoes absolutely dependent on CLIP-170–mediated capture to initiate transport in primary human cells. PMID:26504169

  12. Comparative Study of Personality Trait Characteristics and Reactivity in Schizophrenia Using a Film Clip Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dinzeo, Thomas J; Sledjeski, Eve; Durner, Christopher; Docherty, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    The empirical examination of personality characteristics related to the experience of strong negative emotions and the associated physiological response may help account for idiosyncratic responses to life events in schizophrenia. The current study examines the relationship between levels of neuroticism and arousability and physiological and emotional reactivity during the viewing of film clips with differing emotional valance. Data were collected on emotional and cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity across experimental conditions for a sample of outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a comparison group of nonpsychiatric controls. Levels of both neuroticism and arousability were significantly associated with increased negative emotion and physiological reactivity during the negative film clip task, although different patterns emerged across participant groups. Most notably, trait characteristics were inversely related to heart rate reactivity in patients but not controls. This relationship remained significant even after we controlled for disengagement coping behaviors. Cortisol response was not related to personality characteristics in either participant group. Findings were generally consistent with previous research, providing additional evidence for the role of trait characteristics in the response to events. PMID:26721177

  13. Traction-assisted colonic endoscopic submucosal dissection using clip and line: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yoji; Uedo, Noriya; Kato, Minoru; Hamada, Kenta; Aoi, Kenji; Tonai, Yusuke; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colonic endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a challenging procedure because it is often difficult to maintain good visualization of the submucosal layer. To facilitate colonic ESD, we designed a novel traction method, namely traction-assisted colonic ESD using clip and line (TAC), and investigated its feasibility. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 23 patients with large colonic superficial lesions who had undergone TAC. The main outcome was the procedural success rate of TAC, which we defined as successful, sustained application of clip and line to the lesion until the end of the procedure. Results: The procedural success rate of TAC was 87 % (20/23). In all three unsuccessful cases, the lesions were in the proximal colon and the procedure times over 100 minutes. The overall mean procedure time was 61 min (95 % confidence interval, 18 – 172 min). We achieved en bloc resections of all lesions. There were no perforations or fatal adverse events. Conclusions: TAC is feasible and safe for colonic ESD and may improve the ease of performing this procedure. PMID:26793785

  14. Evaluation of clipping based iterative PAPR reduction techniques for FBMC systems.

    PubMed

    Kollár, Zsolt; Varga, Lajos; Horváth, Bálint; Bakki, Péter; Bitó, János

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates filter bankmulticarrier (FBMC), a multicarrier modulation technique exhibiting an extremely low adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) compared to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique. The low ACLR of the transmitted FBMC signal makes it especially favorable in cognitive radio applications, where strict requirements are posed on out-of-band radiation. Large dynamic range resulting in high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is characteristic of all sorts of multicarrier signals. The advantageous spectral properties of the high-PAPR FBMC signal are significantly degraded if nonlinearities are present in the transceiver chain. Spectral regrowth may appear, causing harmful interference in the neighboring frequency bands. This paper presents novel clipping based PAPR reduction techniques, evaluated and compared by simulations and measurements, with an emphasis on spectral aspects. The paper gives an overall comparison of PAPR reduction techniques, focusing on the reduction of the dynamic range of FBMC signals without increasing out-of-band radiation. An overview is presented on transmitter oriented techniques employing baseband clipping, which can maintain the system performance with a desired bit error rate (BER). PMID:24558338

  15. PAPR reduction in optical OFDM systems using asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Fang, Yong; Huang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanzan

    2015-08-01

    Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) is a promising technology in the next generation of high-speed and long-haul optical transmission, due to its high spectral efficiency, high speed of data transmission and strong ability of anti-dispersion. But optical OFDM system has a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). High PAPR will bring instantaneous high optical power to the optical OFDM system. Asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling based on fast Hartley transform for PAPR reduction is proposed in optical OFDM system. Firstly, IFFT/FFT module in each sub-block of traditional signal scrambling technique is replaced with inverse fast Hartley transform (IFHT) and fast Hartley transform (FHT) module, which yield to the real signal in OOFDM system. Then, asymmetrically clipping technique is applied to turn it into a positive and real signal. Finally, the signal with the minimum PAPR is selected for transmission in the fiber channel. The PAPR of the optical OFDM signal can be reduced effectively. And without the Hermitian symmetry, the space and computational complexity are reduced accordingly.

  16. ISLE: Intelligent Selection of Loop Electronics. A CLIPS/C++/INGRES integrated application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Lynn; Cary, Judson; Currie, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Intelligent Selection of Loop Electronics (ISLE) system is an integrated knowledge-based system that is used to configure, evaluate, and rank possible network carrier equipment known as Digital Loop Carrier (DLC), which will be used to meet the demands of forecasted telephone services. Determining the best carrier systems and carrier architectures, while minimizing the cost, meeting corporate policies and addressing area service demands, has become a formidable task. Network planners and engineers use the ISLE system to assist them in this task of selecting and configuring the appropriate loop electronics equipment for future telephone services. The ISLE application is an integrated system consisting of a knowledge base, implemented in CLIPS (a planner application), C++, and an object database created from existing INGRES database information. The embedibility, performance, and portability of CLIPS provided us with a tool with which to capture, clarify, and refine corporate knowledge and distribute this knowledge within a larger functional system to network planners and engineers throughout U S WEST.

  17. A parallel strategy for implementing real-time expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilyes, Laszlo A.; Villaseca, F. Eugenio; Delaat, John

    1994-01-01

    As evidenced by current literature, there appears to be a continued interest in the study of real-time expert systems. It is generally recognized that speed of execution is only one consideration when designing an effective real-time expert system. Some other features one must consider are the expert system's ability to perform temporal reasoning, handle interrupts, prioritize data, contend with data uncertainty, and perform context focusing as dictated by the incoming data to the expert system. This paper presents a strategy for implementing a real time expert system on the iPSC/860 hypercube parallel computer using CLIPS. The strategy takes into consideration not only the execution time of the software, but also those features which define a true real-time expert system. The methodology is then demonstrated using a practical implementation of an expert system which performs diagnostics on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This particular implementation uses an eight node hypercube to process ten sensor measurements in order to simultaneously diagnose five different failure modes within the SSME. The main program is written in ANSI C and embeds CLIPS to better facilitate and debug the rule based expert system.

  18. Clinical trial experience with the MitraClip catheter based mitral valve repair system.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; Godino, Cosmo; Giacomini, Andrea; Denti, Paolo; Arendar, Iryna; Buzzatti, Nicola; Canna, Giovanni La; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) confers a poor prognosis, in particular for patients with heart failure. Based on the results of the Euro Heart Survey, a large proportion of patients with mitral regurgitation is not referred to surgery and many other patients are rejected for cardiac surgery due to the high surgical risk or co-pathologies. Improving ventricular function with ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and CRT may reduce mitral regurgitation, but for most patients a mechanical intervention is ultimately preferable. Mitral valve surgery is invasive and requires a long recovery period; therefore, less invasive and effective approaches are highly desirable, particularly in high risk patients. Therefore, new techniques have been recently developed to treat MR with percutaneous approach. The MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) is used to treat both functional and degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. Its safety and efficacy has been initially tested in the Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair Study (EVEREST), while MitraClip has been compared to surgery in the EVEREST II randomized trial. Besides EVEREST trials, safety and efficacy of the device as well as its health economic value is under evaluation in ongoing registries. Although the field of catheter based management of MR is at an early stage, initial clinical results have demonstrated that catheter based approaches can reduce MR, suggesting there is a great deal of potential for clinical benefit to patients with MR.

  19. Practical Use of the Extended No Action Level (eNAL) Correction Protocol for Breast Cancer Patients With Implanted Surgical Clips

    SciTech Connect

    Penninkhof, Joan; Quint, Sandra; Baaijens, Margreet; Heijmen, Ben; Dirkx, Maarten

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the practical use of the extended No Action Level (eNAL) setup correction protocol for breast cancer patients with surgical clips and evaluate its impact on the setup accuracy of both tumor bed and whole breast during simultaneously integrated boost treatments. Methods and Materials: For 80 patients, two orthogonal planar kilovoltage images and one megavoltage image (for the mediolateral beam) were acquired per fraction throughout the radiotherapy course. For setup correction, the eNAL protocol was applied, based on registration of surgical clips in the lumpectomy cavity. Differences with respect to application of a No Action Level (NAL) protocol or no protocol were quantified for tumor bed and whole breast. The correlation between clip migration during the fractionated treatment and either the method of surgery or the time elapsed from last surgery was investigated. Results: The distance of the clips to their center of mass (COM), averaged over all clips and patients, was reduced by 0.9 {+-} 1.2 mm (mean {+-} 1 SD). Clip migration was similar between the group of patients starting treatment within 100 days after surgery (median, 53 days) and the group starting afterward (median, 163 days) (p = 0.20). Clip migration after conventional breast surgery (closing the breast superficially) or after lumpectomy with partial breast reconstructive techniques (sutured cavity). was not significantly different either (p = 0.22). Application of eNAL on clips resulted in residual systematic errors for the clips' COM of less than 1 mm in each direction, whereas the setup of the breast was within about 2 mm of accuracy. Conclusions: Surgical clips can be safely used for high-accuracy position verification and correction. Given compensation for time trends in the clips' COM throughout the treatment course, eNAL resulted in better setup accuracies for both tumor bed and whole breast than NAL.

  20. Top-down and Middle-down Protein Analysis Reveals that Intact and Clipped Human Histones Differ in Post-translational Modification Patterns.

    PubMed

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Sidoli, Simone; Fey, Stephen J; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins play a fundamental role in regulation of DNA-templated processes. There is also growing evidence that proteolytic cleavage of histone N-terminal tails, known as histone clipping, influences nucleosome dynamics and functional properties. Using top-down and middle-down protein analysis by mass spectrometry, we report histone H2B and H3 N-terminal tail clipping in human hepatocytes and demonstrate a relationship between clipping and co-existing PTMs of histone H3. Histones H2B and H3 undergo proteolytic processing in primary human hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2/C3A when grown in spheroid (3D) culture, but not in a flat (2D) culture. Using tandem mass spectrometry we localized four different clipping sites in H3 and one clipping site in H2B. We show that in spheroid culture clipped H3 proteoforms are mainly represented by canonical histone H3, whereas in primary hepatocytes over 90% of clipped H3 correspond to the histone variant H3.3. Comprehensive analysis of histone H3 modifications revealed a series of PTMs, including K14me1, K27me2/K27me3, and K36me1/me2, which are differentially abundant in clipped and intact H3. Analysis of co-existing PTMs revealed negative crosstalk between H3K36 methylation and H3K23 acetylation in clipped H3. Our data provide the first evidence of histone clipping in human hepatocytes and demonstrate that clipped H3 carry distinct co-existing PTMs different from those in intact H3.

  1. Effects of Fertilization and Clipping on Carbon, Nitrogen Storage, and Soil Microbial Activity in a Natural Grassland in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhimin; Xie, Yan; Hu, Liqun; Hu, Longxing; Xu, Shendong; Li, Daoxin; Wang, Gongfang; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-01-01

    Grassland managements can affect carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in grassland ecosystems with consequent feedbacks to climate change. We investigated the impacts of compound fertilization and clipping on grass biomass, plant and soil (0–20 cm depth) C, N storage, plant and soil C: N ratios, soil microbial activity and diversity, and C, N sequestration rates in grassland in situ in the National Dalaoling Forest Park of China beginning July, 2011. In July, 2012, the fertilization increased total biomass by 30.1%, plant C by 34.5%, plant N by 79.8%, soil C by 18.8% and soil N by 23.8% compared with the control, respectively. Whereas the clipping decreased total biomass, plant C and N, soil C and N by 24.9%, 30.3%, 39.3%, 18.5%, and 19.4%, respectively, when compared to the control. The plant C: N ratio was lower for the fertilization than for the control and the clipping treatments. The soil microbial activity and diversity indices were higher for the fertilization than for the control. The clipping generally exhibited a lower level of soil microbial activity and diversity compared to the control. The principal component analysis indicated that the soil microbial communities of the control, fertilization and clipping treatments formed three distinct groups. The plant C and N sequestration rates of the fertilization were significantly higher than the clipping treatment. Our results suggest that fertilization is an efficient management practice in improving the C and N storage of the grassland ecosystem via increasing the grass biomass and soil microbial activity and diversity. PMID:24914540

  2. Effects of substrate addition on soil respiratory carbon release under long-term warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Xue, Kai; Xue, Xian; Xu, Xia; Yang, Yuanhe; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms of soil respiratory carbon (C) release induced by substrates (i.e., plant derived substrates) are critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we sampled soils from a long-term field manipulative experiment and conducted a laboratory incubation to explore the role of substrate supply in regulating the differences in soil C release among the experimental treatments, including control, warming, clipping, and warming plus clipping. Three types of substrates (glucose, C3 and C4 plant materials) were added with an amount equal to 1% of soil dry weight under the four treatments. We found that the addition of all three substrates significantly stimulated soil respiratory C release in all four warming and clipping treatments. In soils without substrate addition, warming significantly stimulated soil C release but clipping decreased it. However, additions of glucose and C3 plant materials (C3 addition) offset the warming effects, whereas C4 addition still showed the warming-induced stimulation of soil C release. Our results suggest that long-term warming may inhibit microbial capacity for decomposition of C3 litter but may enhance it for decomposition of C4 litter. Such warming-induced adaptation of microbial communities may weaken the positive C-cycle feedback to warming due to increased proportion of C4 species in plant community and decreased litter quality. In contrast, clipping may weaken microbial capacity for warming-induced decomposition of C4 litter but may enhance it for C3 litter. Warming- and clipping-induced shifts in microbial metabolic capacity may be strongly associated with changes in plant species composition and could substantially influence soil C dynamics in response to global change. PMID:25490701

  3. The influence of laser clipped by the laser entrance hole on hohlraum radiation measurement on Shenguang-III prototype.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the x-ray flux exiting the target's laser entrance hole (LEH) is the most common diagnostic that quantifies the x-ray intensity inside the laser-driven hohlraum. However, this signal accounts for only a small portion of the incident laser power and thus is likely to be affected by unwanted x-ray background from non-target area, leading to an overestimation of the hohlraum drive. Unwanted emission might be produced when the laser light is clipped by the LEH (LEH clipping) because of a lack of clearance for laser spot, or with a laser spot comprising of discrete structure, or even with a poor pointing accuracy. Its influence on the hohlraum radiation diagnostic is investigated on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility with the typical 1 ns square pulse. The experiment employed three types of targets to excite the unwanted x-ray background from LEH clipping, unconverted light, and both effects, respectively. This work gives an absolute evaluation of x-ray produced by the LEH clipping, which is measured by flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRD) at multiple view angles. The result indicates that there is little variation in measured emission to various view angles, because the unwanted x-rays are mainly generated at the side face of the LEH lip when laser is obliquely incident. Therefore, the LEH clipping brings more overestimation in hohlraum radiation measurement at larger view angle since the hohlraum LEH as an emitting source viewed by FXRD is decreased as the view angle increases. In our condition, the LEH clipping contributes 2%-3.5% overestimation to the hohlraum flux measurement. PMID:24689582

  4. Contrasting Effects of Long-Term Grazing and Clipping on Plant Morphological Plasticity: Evidence from a Rhizomatous Grass.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiliang; Wu, Zinian; Liu, Zhiying; Hou, Xiangyang; Badgery, Warwick; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Qingshan; Hu, Ningning; Duan, Junjie; Ren, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of plant morphological plasticity in response to grazing and clipping of semiarid grassland can provide insight into the process of disturbance-induced decline in grassland productivity. In recent studies there has been controversy regarding two hypotheses: 1) grazing avoidance; and 2) growth limiting mechanisms of morphological plasticity in response to defoliation. However, the experimental evidence presented for the memory response to grazing and clipping of plants has been poorly reported. This paper reports on two experiments that tested these hypotheses in field and in a controlled environment, respectively. We examined the effects of long-term clipping and grazing on the functional traits and their plasticity for Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvelev (the dominate species) in the typical-steppe grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. There were four main findings from these experiments. (i) The majority of phenotypic traits of L. chinensis tended to significantly miniaturize in response to long-term field clipping and grazing. (ii) The significant response of morphological plasticity with and without grazing was maintained in a hydroponic experiment designed to remove environmental variability, but there was no significant difference in L. chinensis individual size traits for the clipping comparison. (iii) Plasticity indexes of L. chinensis traits in a controlled environment were significantly lower than under field conditions indicating that plants had partial and slight memory effect to long-term grazing. (iv) The allometry of various phenotypic traits, indicated significant trade-offs between leaf and stem allocation with variations in plant size induced by defoliation, which were maintained only under grazing in the hydroponic controlled environment experiment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the morphological plasticity of L. chinensis induced by artificial clipping was different with that by livestock grazing. The

  5. Effects of substrate addition on soil respiratory carbon release under long-term warming and clipping in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xuhui; Luo, Yiqi; Xue, Kai; Xue, Xian; Xu, Xia; Yang, Yuanhe; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms of soil respiratory carbon (C) release induced by substrates (i.e., plant derived substrates) are critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we sampled soils from a long-term field manipulative experiment and conducted a laboratory incubation to explore the role of substrate supply in regulating the differences in soil C release among the experimental treatments, including control, warming, clipping, and warming plus clipping. Three types of substrates (glucose, C3 and C4 plant materials) were added with an amount equal to 1% of soil dry weight under the four treatments. We found that the addition of all three substrates significantly stimulated soil respiratory C release in all four warming and clipping treatments. In soils without substrate addition, warming significantly stimulated soil C release but clipping decreased it. However, additions of glucose and C3 plant materials (C3 addition) offset the warming effects, whereas C4 addition still showed the warming-induced stimulation of soil C release. Our results suggest that long-term warming may inhibit microbial capacity for decomposition of C3 litter but may enhance it for decomposition of C4 litter. Such warming-induced adaptation of microbial communities may weaken the positive C-cycle feedback to warming due to increased proportion of C4 species in plant community and decreased litter quality. In contrast, clipping may weaken microbial capacity for warming-induced decomposition of C4 litter but may enhance it for C3 litter. Warming- and clipping-induced shifts in microbial metabolic capacity may be strongly associated with changes in plant species composition and could substantially influence soil C dynamics in response to global change.

  6. Effects of fertilization and clipping on carbon, nitrogen storage, and soil microbial activity in a natural grassland in southern China.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhimin; Xie, Yan; Hu, Liqun; Hu, Longxing; Xu, Shendong; Li, Daoxin; Wang, Gongfang; Fu, Jinmin

    2014-01-01

    Grassland managements can affect carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in grassland ecosystems with consequent feedbacks to climate change. We investigated the impacts of compound fertilization and clipping on grass biomass, plant and soil (0-20 cm depth) C, N storage, plant and soil C: N ratios, soil microbial activity and diversity, and C, N sequestration rates in grassland in situ in the National Dalaoling Forest Park of China beginning July, 2011. In July, 2012, the fertilization increased total biomass by 30.1%, plant C by 34.5%, plant N by 79.8%, soil C by 18.8% and soil N by 23.8% compared with the control, respectively. Whereas the clipping decreased total biomass, plant C and N, soil C and N by 24.9%, 30.3%, 39.3%, 18.5%, and 19.4%, respectively, when compared to the control. The plant C: N ratio was lower for the fertilization than for the control and the clipping treatments. The soil microbial activity and diversity indices were higher for the fertilization than for the control. The clipping generally exhibited a lower level of soil microbial activity and diversity compared to the control. The principal component analysis indicated that the soil microbial communities of the control, fertilization and clipping treatments formed three distinct groups. The plant C and N sequestration rates of the fertilization were significantly higher than the clipping treatment. Our results suggest that fertilization is an efficient management practice in improving the C and N storage of the grassland ecosystem via increasing the grass biomass and soil microbial activity and diversity.

  7. Contrasting Effects of Long-Term Grazing and Clipping on Plant Morphological Plasticity: Evidence from a Rhizomatous Grass

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiangyang; Badgery, Warwick; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Qingshan; Hu, Ningning; Duan, Junjie; Ren, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of plant morphological plasticity in response to grazing and clipping of semiarid grassland can provide insight into the process of disturbance-induced decline in grassland productivity. In recent studies there has been controversy regarding two hypotheses: 1) grazing avoidance; and 2) growth limiting mechanisms of morphological plasticity in response to defoliation. However, the experimental evidence presented for the memory response to grazing and clipping of plants has been poorly reported. This paper reports on two experiments that tested these hypotheses in field and in a controlled environment, respectively. We examined the effects of long-term clipping and grazing on the functional traits and their plasticity for Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvelev (the dominate species) in the typical-steppe grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. There were four main findings from these experiments. (i) The majority of phenotypic traits of L. chinensis tended to significantly miniaturize in response to long-term field clipping and grazing. (ii) The significant response of morphological plasticity with and without grazing was maintained in a hydroponic experiment designed to remove environmental variability, but there was no significant difference in L. chinensis individual size traits for the clipping comparison. (iii) Plasticity indexes of L. chinensis traits in a controlled environment were significantly lower than under field conditions indicating that plants had partial and slight memory effect to long-term grazing. (iv) The allometry of various phenotypic traits, indicated significant trade-offs between leaf and stem allocation with variations in plant size induced by defoliation, which were maintained only under grazing in the hydroponic controlled environment experiment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the morphological plasticity of L. chinensis induced by artificial clipping was different with that by livestock grazing. The

  8. The influence of laser clipped by the laser entrance hole on hohlraum radiation measurement on Shenguang-III prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Zhebin; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the x-ray flux exiting the target's laser entrance hole (LEH) is the most common diagnostic that quantifies the x-ray intensity inside the laser-driven hohlraum. However, this signal accounts for only a small portion of the incident laser power and thus is likely to be affected by unwanted x-ray background from non-target area, leading to an overestimation of the hohlraum drive. Unwanted emission might be produced when the laser light is clipped by the LEH (LEH clipping) because of a lack of clearance for laser spot, or with a laser spot comprising of discrete structure, or even with a poor pointing accuracy. Its influence on the hohlraum radiation diagnostic is investigated on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility with the typical 1 ns square pulse. The experiment employed three types of targets to excite the unwanted x-ray background from LEH clipping, unconverted light, and both effects, respectively. This work gives an absolute evaluation of x-ray produced by the LEH clipping, which is measured by flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRD) at multiple view angles. The result indicates that there is little variation in measured emission to various view angles, because the unwanted x-rays are mainly generated at the side face of the LEH lip when laser is obliquely incident. Therefore, the LEH clipping brings more overestimation in hohlraum radiation measurement at larger view angle since the hohlraum LEH as an emitting source viewed by FXRD is decreased as the view angle increases. In our condition, the LEH clipping contributes 2%-3.5% overestimation to the hohlraum flux measurement.

  9. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual images can produce rapid changes in testosterone concentrations. We explored the acute effects of video clips on salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance in highly trained male athletes (n=12). Saliva samples were collected on 6 occasions immediately before and 15 min after watching a brief video clip (approximately 4 min in duration) on a computer screen. The watching of a sad, erotic, aggressive, training motivational, humorous or a neutral control clip was randomised. Subjects then performed a squat workout aimed at producing a 3 repetition maximum (3RM) lift. Significant (P<0.001) relative (%) increases in testosterone concentrations were noted with watching the erotic, humorous, aggressive and training videos (versus control and sad), with testosterone decreasing significantly (versus control) after the sad clip. The aggressive video also produced an elevated cortisol response (% change) and more so than the control and humorous videos (P<0.001). A significant (P<0.003) improvement in 3RM performance was noted after the erotic, aggressive and training clips (versus control). A strong within-individual correlation (mean r=0.85) was also noted between the relative changes in testosterone and the 3RM squats across all video sessions (P<0.001). In conclusion, different video clips were associated with different changes in salivary free hormone concentrations and the relative changes in testosterone closely mapped 3RM squat performance in a group of highly trained males. Thus, speculatively, using short video presentations in the pre-workout environment offers an opportunity for understanding the outcomes of hormonal change, athlete behaviour and subsequent voluntary performance.

  10. SU-E-J-64: Feasibility Study of Surgical Clips for Fiducial Tracking in CyberKnife System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H; Yoon, J; Lee, E; Cho, S; Park, K; Choi, W; Baek, J; Keum, K; Koom, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of CyberKnife to track surgical clips used as fiducial markers. Methods: The Octavius 1000SRS detector and solid water (RW3) slab phantom were used with motion platform to evaluate the study. The RW3 slab phantom was set up to measure the dose distribution from coronal plane. It consists of 9 plates and the thickness of each plate is 10mm. Among them, one plate was attached with 3 surgical clips, which are orthogonally positioned on outer region of array. The length of attached clip was represented as 1cm on planning CT. The clip plate was placed on the 1000SRS detector and 3 slabs were stacked up on the plate to build the measuring depth. Below the detector, 5 slabs were set. The two-axis motion platform was programmed with 1D sinusoidal movement (20mm peak-to-peak, 3s period) toward superior/inferior and left/right directions to simulate target motion. During delivery, two clips were extracted by two X-ray imagers, which led to translational error correction only. Synchrony was also used for dynamic tracking. After the irradiation, the measured dose distribution of coronal plane was compared with the planar dose distribution calculated by the CyberKnife treatment planning system (Multiplan) for cross verification. The results were assessed by comparing the absolute Gamma (γ) index. Results: The dose distributions measured by the 1000SRS detector were in good agreements with those calculated by Multiplan. In the dosimetric comparison using γ-function criteria based on the distance-to-agreement of 3mm and the local dose difference of 3%, the passing rate with γ- parameter ≤1 was 91% in coronal plane. Conclusion: The surgical clips can be considered as new fiducials for robotic radiosurgery delivery by considering the target margin with less than 5mm.

  11. Chemical-milling solution for invar alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batiuk, W.

    1980-01-01

    Excellent surface finishes and tolerances are achieved using two formulations. Solution A gives finish of 3.17 micrometers after milling at 57 to 63 deg C. Constituents of A are: Hydrofluoric acid (70%), 5,8 oz/gal; nitric acid (40-42) degrees Baume), 40 oz/gal. Alternative solution gives 2.16 micrometer finish, and differs from A by addition of 7% phosphoric acid. Formulations eliminate channeling at root fillets, dishing, island formation, and overhangs.

  12. Copper-rich invar by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, K.; Qi, Qinian; Ilyushin, A. S.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1993-05-01

    An fcc alloy of composition Fe 64Cu 26Cr 7Ni 3 with a0 = 0.362 nm and an average crystalline size of 5 nm was produced by high-energy ball milling iron and copper powder in a stainless-steel container. The average number of electrons per atom is 8.7. The Curie temperature of the alloy is 410 K and the room-temperature magnetization is 48 JT -1 kg -1. The Mössbauer spectrum at 15 K shows a broad distribution of hyperfine field with an average of 15.6 T, which indicates coexistence of high and low moment states for iron. The alloy decomposes exothermically at 775 K to yield a mixture of bcc and fcc phases, but 50% of the iron remains in the fcc form with a low moment.

  13. Tasuki clipping combined with high flow bypass for ruptured, previously coiled, partially thrombosed giant aneurysm at the carotid bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Iihara, Koji; Maruyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenji; Nakajima, Norio; Kataoka, Hiroharu

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with a ruptured, partially thrombosed carotid bifurcation aneurysm after partial coiling, which was successfully treated by "tasuki" (a cloth sash crossing from one shoulder to the opposite hip, worn by relay marathon runners) clipping combined with radial artery and external carotid artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass. "Tasuki" clipping can overcome the dilemma between achieving early complete thrombosis in the blind sac and maintaining anterograde flow of the parent artery to prevent inadvertent occlusion of the perforators and anterior choroidal artery. PMID:23524504

  14. Exploring the Use of Isolated Expressions and Film Clips to Evaluate Emotion Recognition by People with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The current study presented 60 people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 60 controls with isolated facial emotion expressions, isolated vocal emotion expressions, and multimodal (i.e., film clips) stimuli that included contextual cues. All stimuli were presented via computer. Participants were required to indicate how the person in each stimulus was feeling using a forced-choice format. Additionally, for the film clips, participants had to indicate how they felt in response to the stimulus, and the level of intensity with which they experienced that emotion. PMID:27213280

  15. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  16. Judgments of Nonverbal Behaviour by Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can They Detect Signs of Winning and Losing from Brief Video Clips?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Christian; Furley, Philip; Mulhall, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing children are able to judge who is winning or losing from very short clips of video footage of behaviour between active match play across a number of sports. Inferences from "thin slices" (short video clips) allow participants to make complex judgments about the meaning of posture, gesture and body language. This…

  17. Biomolecular halogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Ho, P Shing

    2015-01-01

    Halogens are atypical elements in biology, but are common as substituents in ligands, including thyroid hormones and inhibitors, which bind specifically to proteins and nucleic acids. The short-range, stabilizing interactions of halogens - now seen as relatively common in biology - conform generally to halogen bonds characterized in small molecule systems and as described by the σ-hole model. The unique properties of biomolecular halogen bonds (BXBs), particularly in their geometric and energetic relationship to classic hydrogen bonds, make them potentially powerful tools for inhibitor design and molecular engineering. This chapter reviews the current research on BXBs, focusing on experimental studies on their structure-energy relationships, how these studies inform the development of computational methods to model BXBs, and considers how BXBs can be applied to the rational design of more effective inhibitors against therapeutic targets and of new biological-based materials.

  18. Insulation bonding test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.; Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.; Portwood, J. N.; Saunders, J. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Porter, A. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a system for testing the bonding of foam insulation attached to metal is described. The system involves the use of an impacter which has a calibrated load cell mounted on a plunger and a hammer head mounted on the end of the plunger. When the impacter strikes the insulation at a point to be tested, the load cell measures the force of the impact and the precise time interval during which the hammer head is in contact with the insulation. This information is transmitted as an electrical signal to a load cell amplifier where the signal is conditioned and then transmitted to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. The FFT analyzer produces energy spectral density curves which are displayed on a video screen. The termination frequency of the energy spectral density curve may be compared with a predetermined empirical scale to determine whether a igh quality bond, good bond, or debond is present at the point of impact.

  19. ClipCard: Sharable, Searchable Visual Metadata Summaries on the Cloud to Render Big Data Actionable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, P.; Davis, D.; Cunningham, R.

    2013-12-01

    Research firm IDC estimates that approximately 90 percent of the Enterprise Big Data go un-analyzed, as 'dark data' - an enormous corpus of undiscovered, untagged information residing on data warehouses, servers and Storage Area Networks (SAN). In the geosciences, these data range from unpublished model runs to vast survey data assets to raw sensor data. Many of these are now being collected instantaneously, at a greater volume and in new data formats. Not all of these data can be analyzed, nor processed in real time, and their features may not be well described at the time of collection. These dark data are a serious data management problem for science organizations of all types, especially ones with mandated or required data reporting and compliance requirements. Additionally, data curators and scientists are encouraged to quantify the impact of their data holdings as a way to measure research success. Deriving actionable insights is the foremost goal of Big Data Analytics (BDA), which is especially true with geoscience, given its direct impact on most of the pressing global issues. Clearly, there is a pressing need for innovative approaches to making dark data discoverable, measurable, and actionable. We report on ClipCard, a Cloud-based SaaS analytic platform for instant summarization, quick search, visualization and easy sharing of metadata summaries form the Dark Data at hierarchical levels of detail, thus rendering it 'white', i.e., actionable. We present a use case of the ClipCard platform, a cloud-based application which helps generate (abstracted) visual metadata summaries and meta-analytics for environmental data at hierarchical scales within and across big data containers. These summaries and analyses provide important new tools for managing big data and simplifying collaboration through easy to deploy sharing APIs. The ClipCard application solves a growing data management bottleneck by helping enterprises and large organizations to summarize, search

  20. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.