Science.gov

Sample records for bone cell cultures

  1. Comparison of manual and automated cultures of bone marrow stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Asako; Ichimura, Masaki; Tone, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masaru; Inoue, Minoru; Tojo, Arinobu; Kagami, Hideaki

    2015-11-01

    The development of an automated cell culture system would allow stable and economical cell processing for wider clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. However, it is crucial to determine whether the cells obtained by automated culture are comparable to those generated by manual culture. In the present study, we focused on the primary culture process of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering and investigated the feasibility of its automation using a commercially available automated cell culture system in a clinical setting. A comparison of the harvested BMSCs from manual and automated cultures using clinically acceptable protocols showed no differences in cell yields, viabilities, surface marker expression profiles, and in vivo osteogenic abilities. Cells cultured with this system also did not show malignant transformation and the automated process was revealed to be safe in terms of microbial contamination. Taken together, the automated procedure described in this report provides an approach to clinical bone tissue engineering.

  2. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural

  3. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  4. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo )

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  5. The Impairment of Osteogenesis in Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) Knockout Calvaria Cell Cultures Is Cell Density Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Guenaelle; Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Thomas, Mireille; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Aubin, Jane E.; Vico, Laurence; Marchat, David; Malaval, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) belongs to the "small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein" (SIBLING) family, whose members interact with bone cells and bone mineral. BSP is strongly expressed in bone and we previously showed that BSP knockout (BSP-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than wild type (BSP+/+) littermates, with lower bone remodelling. Because baseline bone formation activity is constitutively lower in BSP-/- mice, we studied the impact of the absence of BSP on in vitro osteogenesis in mouse calvaria cell (MCC) cultures. MCC BSP-/- cultures exhibit fewer fibroblast (CFU-F), preosteoblast (CFU-ALP) and osteoblast colonies (bone nodules) than wild type, indicative of a lower number of osteoprogenitors. No mineralized colonies were observed in BSP-/- cultures, along with little/no expression of either osteogenic markers or SIBLING proteins MEPE or DMP1. Osteopontin (OPN) is the only SIBLING expressed in standard density BSP-/- culture, at higher levels than in wild type in early culture times. At higher plating density, the effects of the absence of BSP were partly rescued, with resumed expression of osteoblast markers and cognate SIBLING proteins, and mineralization of the mutant cultures. OPN expression and amount are further increased in high density BSP-/- cultures, while PHEX and CatB expression are differentiatlly regulated in a manner that may favor mineralization. Altogether, we found that BSP regulates mouse calvaria osteoblast cell clonogenicity, differentiation and activity in vitro in a cell density dependent manner, consistent with the effective skeletogenesis but the low levels of bone formation observed in vivo. The BSP knockout bone microenvironment may alter the proliferation/cell fate of early osteoprogenitors. PMID:25710686

  6. [Modified method for whole bone marrow adherent culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhong, Zhao-Dong; Chen, Zhi-Chao; Zou, Ping

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate a more convenient and efficient method to cultivate the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by means of natural erythrocyte sedimentation principle, based on the whole bone marrow adherent method. The bone marrow was cultured with a six-well plate instead of the flasks.Firstly, the bone marrow specimen was cultivated with the MSC complete medium for 48 h, then the upper RBC-free supernatant layer was drawn and placed into the new wells to isolate MSC. Inverted microscope was used to observe the cell morphology and to record the adherent time of first cell passage, first passaging time. The traditional whole bone marrow adherent method was used as the control. The cell cycle and cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry,and the differentiative capacity of MSC into osteocyte and adipocyte was identified by alkaline phosphatase kit and oil red O, respectively. Besides, the proliferative curve of P1,P3,P5 of BMSC was depicted by counting method. The results showed that MSC cultured by the modified method highly expressed CD90, CD105, CD13, CD44 and lowly expressed CD14, CD45, CD34. Concerning the cell cycle feature, it was found that most of the cells were in G0/G1 phase (88.76%) , followed by G2/M phase (3.04%) and S phase (8.2%), which was in accordance with stem cell cycle characteristics. The proliferative curve showed a typical "S" type, and both the oil red O and alkaline phosphatase staining of MSC were positive. Compared with the traditional method, the modified method had the advantage of high adherence rate (P = 0.0001) and shorter passaging time for the first passage (P = 0.001), with the statistically significant difference. It is concluded that there is a large number of adherent, active and suspended MSC in the RBC-free supernatant layer after the culture of bone marrow for 48 h. Isolating MSC by the modified method is more convenient and efficient than the traditional whole bone marrow adherent method.

  7. Using cell and organ culture models to analyze responses of bone cells to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, Andrew A; Rawlinson, Simon C F

    2012-01-01

    Bone cells of the osteoblastic lineage are responsive to the local mechanical environment. Through integration of a number of possible loading-induced regulatory stimuli, osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast behaviour is organized to fashion a skeletal element of sufficient strength and toughness to resist fracture and crack propagation. Early pre-osteogenic responses had been determined in vivo and this led to the development of bone organ culture models to elucidate other pre-osteogenic responses where osteocytes and osteoblasts retain the natural orientation, connections and attachments to their native extracellular matrix. The application of physiological mechanical loads to bone in these organ culture models generates the regulatory stimuli. As a consequence, these experiments can be used to illustrate the distinctive mechanisms by which osteocytes and osteoblasts respond to mechanical loads and also differences in these responses, suggesting co-ordinated and cooperatively between cell populations. Organ explant cultures are awkward to maintain, and have a limited life, but length of culture times are improving. Monolayer cultures are much easier to maintain and permit the application of a particular mechanical stimulation to be studied in isolation; mainly direct mechanical strain or fluid shear strains. These allow for the response of a single cell type to the applied mechanical stimulation to be monitored precisely.The techniques that can be used to apply mechanical strain to bone and bone cells have not advanced greatly since the first edition. The output from such experiments has, however, increased substantially and their importance is now more broadly accepted. This suggests a growing use of these approaches and an increasing awareness of the importance of the mechanical environment in controlling normal bone cell behaviour. We expand the text to include additions and modifications made to the straining apparatus and update the research cited to

  8. Culturing bone marrow cells with dexamethasone and ascorbic acid improves osteogenic cell sheet structure

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, T.; Kira, T.; Onishi, T.; Uchihara, Y.; Imamura, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the structure and extracellular matrix molecule expression of osteogenic cell sheets created via culture in medium with both dexamethasone (Dex) and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) compared either Dex or AscP alone. Methods Osteogenic cell sheets were prepared by culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells in a minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with AscP, MEM with Dex, and MEM with Dex and AscP (Dex/AscP). The cell number and messenger (m)RNA expression were assessed in vitro, and the appearance of the cell sheets was observed after mechanical retrieval using a scraper. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was then wrapped with the cell sheets from the four different groups and subcutaneously implanted into rats. Results After mechanical retrieval, the osteogenic cell sheets from the MEM, MEM with AscP, and MEM with Dex groups appeared to be fragmented or incomplete structures. The cell sheets cultured with Dex/AscP remained intact after mechanical retrieval, without any identifiable tears. Culture with Dex/AscP increased the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular matrix proteins and cell number compared with those of the other three groups. More bridging bone formation was observed after transplantation of the β-TCP scaffold wrapped with cell sheets cultured with Dex/AscP, than in the other groups. Conclusions These results suggest that culture with Dex/AscP improves the mechanical integrity of the osteogenic cell sheets, allowing retrieval of the confluent cells in a single cell sheet structure. This method may be beneficial when applied in cases of difficult tissue reconstruction, such as nonunion, bone defects, and osteonecrosis. Cite this article: M. Akahane, T. Shimizu, T. Kira, T. Onishi, Y. Uchihara, T. Imamura, Y. Tanaka. Culturing bone marrow cells with dexamethasone and ascorbic acid improves osteogenic cell sheet structure. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:569–576. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.BJR-2016-0013.R1. PMID:27881440

  9. Use of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells and cultured bone marrow stromal cells in dogs with orthopaedic lesions.

    PubMed

    Crovace, A; Favia, A; Lacitignola, L; Di Comite, M S; Staffieri, F; Francioso, E

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical application in veterinary orthopedics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) for the treatment of some orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The authors carried out a clinical study on 14 dogs of different breed, age and size with the following lesions: 1 bone cyst of the glenoid rime; 2 nonunion of the tibia; 3 nonunion of the femur; 2 lengthening of the radius; 1 large bone defect of the distal radius;1 nonunion with carpus valgus; 4 Legg-Calvé-Perthés disease. In 9 cases the BMMCNs were used in combination with a three dimensional resorbable osteogenic scaffold the chemical composition and size of which facilitates the ingrowth of bone. In these cases the BMMNCs were suspended in an adequate amount of fibrin glue and then distribuited uniformly on a Tricalcium-Phosphate (TCP) scaffold onto which were also added some drops of thrombin. In 1 case of nonunion of the tibia and in 3 cases of Legg-Calvè-Perthés (LCP) disease the cultured BMSCs were used instead because of the small size of the dogs and of the little amount of aspirated bone marrow. X-ray examinations were performed immediately after the surgery. Clinical, ultrasounds and X-ray examinations were performed after 20 days and then every month. Until now the treated dogs have shown very good clinical and X-ray results. One of the objectives of the study was to use the BMMNCs in clinical application in orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The advantages of using the cells immediately after the bone marrow is collected, are that the surgery can be performed the same day, the cells do not need to be expanded in vitro, they preserve their osteogenic potential to form bone and promote the proper integration of the implant with the bone and lastly, the technique is easier and the costs are lower.

  10. Characterization of natural killer cells cultured from human bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoda, Y.; Kawakami, Z.; Shibuya, A.; Abe, T.

    1988-09-01

    Human bone marrow (BM) cells, depleted of nylon wool-adherent cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, were cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL2). After 21 or 24 days in culture, numerous lymphoid cells with multiple azurophilic granules and a morphology similar to large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were found. Two-color analysis of surface phenotype showed many of these cells to be NKH1-positive and a limited number of cells had other NK markers such as CD16, CD2, or CD8. The CD3 antigen was not coexpressed with NKH1. The cultured BM cells were cytotoxic for K562, Daudi, and Raji cell lines. The NKH1+, CD2-, CD3-, CD16- cells were sorted and, in addition to having the LGL morphology, were found to be cytotoxic for K562 cells (NK (K562)). The generation of NK(K562) activity was significantly suppressed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine plus ultraviolet light treatment, indicating that DNA synthesis is required. These experiments suggest that the described culture conditions allow differentiation of progenitor cells, into immature, but functionally active, NK cells.

  11. [In vitro culture of human autologous osteoblast cells on natural bone mineral].

    PubMed

    Behrens, P; Wolf, E; Bruns, J

    2000-02-01

    Different methods are available for the treatment of osseous defects. In recent years the use of autologous bone was established as the golden standard. However, significant disadvantages are limited availability of the bone graft and its harvest implies additional morbidity for the patient. Alternatives to the use of autologous bone, as allogeneic bone from bone banks or biomaterials like hydroxyapatite are therefore of special interest. However, the currently available methods have severe disadvantages; allogenic bone carries a high risk of transmitting infectious diseases, most biomaterials show an unsatisfying osseous integration as well as prolonged healing with disability for the patient. Therefore, the aim has to be the development of a biomaterial that is as close as possible to human bone. In this in vitro study the natural bone mineral Bio-Oss/Orthos was used as a matrix for human osteoblast-like cells isolated from bone marrow of healthy patients. Even after three months the cell showed typical osteblast-like behaviour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated the ability of Bio-Oss/Orthos to guide cell growth within its matrix structure and therefore mimics in vivo situation of the healthy bone. The results show that culturing human osteoblast-like cells under standardised conditions is possible and that the combination of human osteoblast-like cell with an appropriate matrix may have the potential for a new treatment option of osseous defects.

  12. Nonadherent culture method downregulates stem cell antigen-1 expression in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    DENG, BAOPING; DENG, WEIPING; XIAO, PINGNAN; ZENG, KUAN; ZHANG, SHINING; ZHANG, HONGWU; DENG, DAVID YB; YANG, YANQI

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are primarily isolated by their adherence to plastic and their in vitro growth characteristics. Expansion of these cells from an adherent culture is the only method to obtain a sufficient number of cells for use in clinical practice and research. However, little is known with regard to the effect of adherence to plastic on the phenotype of the cells. In the present study, bone marrow CD45−CD31−CD44− stem cell antigen (Sca)-1+ MSCs were sorted by flow cytometry and expanded in adherent cultures. The expression levels of the adhesion molecule, Sca-1, in the adherent cultures were compared with those from nonadherent cultures at different time points. The flow cytometry results indicated that the expression levels of Sca-1 decreased in the MSCs in the nonadherent cultures grown in ultra-low-adherent plates. Furthermore, the result was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at the same time points. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the loss of plastic adherence downregulated the expression of Sca-1. The observations may provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plastic adherent culture. PMID:26170908

  13. Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Protect Neurons and Modulate Microglia in Cell Culture Models of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sushil; Yang, Bing; Strong, Roger; Xi, Xiao Pei; Brenneman, Miranda; Grotta, James C.; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Savitz, Sean I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although several studies have provided evidence for the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) in animal models of stroke, the mechanisms underlying their benefits remain largely unknown. We have determined the neuroprotective potential of MNCs in primary neuronal cultures exposed to various injuries in vitro. Methods Cortical neurons in culture were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation, hypoxia, or hydrogen peroxide and cell death was assayed by MTT, caspase-3 activation or TUNEL labelling at 24 hrs. Cultures were randomized to co-treatment with MNC-derived supernatants or media before injury exposure. In separate experiments, macrophage or microglial cultures were exposed to lipopolypolysacharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of MNC-derived supernatants. Neuronal cultures were then exposed to conditioned media derived from activated macrophages or microglia. Cytokines from the supernantants of MNC cultures exposed to normoxia or hypoxia were also estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results MNC-derived supernatants attenuated neuronal death induced by OGD, hypoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and conditioned macrophage/microglial media and contain a number of trophic factors including IL-10, IGF-1, VEGF, and SDF-1. Conclusion MNCs provide broad neuroprotection against a variety of injuries relevant to stroke. PMID:20629187

  14. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of /sup 14/C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose.

  15. Bone marrow culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... There may be some bleeding at the puncture site. More serious risks, such as serious bleeding or infection, are very rare. Alternative Names Culture - bone marrow Images Bone marrow aspiration References ...

  16. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  17. Comparisons of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell isolation and culture methods in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Shi, Hongcan; Tan, Rongbang; Han, Shi; Ye, Gang; Pan, Shu; Sun, Fei; Liu, Xingchen

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical therapy, and various methods for isolation and cultivation of BMSCs have been reported. However, the best techniques are still uncertain. Therefore, we sought the most suitable among the four most common methods for BMSC separation from rabbits. BMSCs were obtained from untreated whole bone marrow (BM) adherent cultures, 3 volumes of red blood cells (RBC) lysed with ammonium chloride, 6 volumes of RBC lysed with ammonium chloride, and Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Then, isolated BMSCs were evaluated with respect to primary cell yield, number of CFU-F colonies, proliferative capacity, cell phenotype, and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Our data show that BMSCs were successfully isolated by all four methods, and each method was similar with regard to cell morphology, phenotype, and differentiation potential. However, BMSCs from untreated whole BM adherent cultures had greater primary cell yields, larger colonies, and the shortest primary culture time (P<0.05). Moreover, the 4(th) generation of cultured cells had the strongest proliferative activity, the fastest growth rate and the most numerous cells compared with other cell passage generations (P<0.05). In conclusion, untreated whole BM adherent cultures are best for rabbit BMSC isolation and the 4(th) generation of cells has the strongest proliferation capacity.

  18. Micropatterned Culture and Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using a Polydimethylsiloxane Microstencil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Ho; Bae, Jae-Sung; Lee, Hyun; Jin, Hee Kyung; Kim, Gyu Man

    2016-02-01

    A method for fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstencils was developed and its application to localized culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was tested. Unlike conventional culture methods, which culture cells on an entire surface, microscale cell culture provides precise control of the size and shape of stem cell patterns, and minimizes consumption of cells and culture media. A PDMS microstencil was fabricated by PDMS casting using an SU-8 mold prepared by photolithography. A pattern of 500-µm dots was tested. For the test, a PDMS microstencil was placed on a glass disk and cells were seeded on the stencil at a density of 5 x 10⁴ cells/cm². The hMSCs were cultured for 2 days at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere. The PDMS microstencil was removed after 2 days and the hMSC patterns were inspected under a microscope. The results confirmed that stem cells can be cultured using a PDMS microstencil. The micropatterned hMSCs retained their ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic cells. Thus, using a PDMS microstencil, stem cells can be cultured and differentiated in micropatterns in a precisely controlled manner, in any shape and size, for research and bioengineering applications.

  19. Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

  20. Estradiol synthesis and release in cultured female rat bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalei; Yang, Bei; Zou, Weiying; Lu, Xiaying; Xiong, Mingdi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jinglei; Gao, Junhong; Xu, Sifan; Zou, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into mature cell types of multiple tissues. Thus, they represent an alternative source for organ-specific cell replacement therapy in degenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that female rat BMSCs could differentiate into steroidogenic cells with the capacity for de novo synthesis of Estradiol-17 β (E2) under high glucose culture conditions with or without retinoic acid (RA). The cultured BMSCs could express the mRNA and protein for P450arom, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Moreover, radioimmunoassay revealed that BMSCs cultured in the present culture system produced and secreted significant amounts of testosterone, androstenedione, and E2. In addition, RA promoted E2 secretion but did not affect the levels of androgen. These results indicate that BMSCs can synthesize and release E2 and may contribute to autologous transplantation therapy for estrogen deficiency.

  1. Analysis of cells isolated from bone cultured on collagen gels and polystyrene culture dishes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, K.

    1981-01-01

    Bone is a complex tissue which contains three types of differentiated cells viz., osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. In mature bone, these cells are identified both by their location within the tissue and their morphological characteristics. In fetal tissue, one also finds many progenitor cells, fibroblasts and some cartilage cells. Each of these cell types has distinct functions which are reflected in their morphology, metabolic properties and response to hormones. Studies were also undertaken to evaluate the class of problems associated with electron microprobe analysis of the extracellular fluid space in bone. It was determined that differences in elemental composition in a small volume between cells and mineral cannot be quantitatively corrected for fluorescence, atomic number or absorption effects of the mineral. A study of the use of free-flow dialysis in the study of metal binding to protein demonstrates the anomalous behavior of mercury in this experimental approach and emphasizes the importance of a thorough examination of the control situation before protein to metal binding is examined.

  2. Kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells and supportive activities of stromal cells in a three-dimensional bone marrow culture system.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomonori; Hirabayashi, Yukio; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Tsuboi, Isao; Glomm, Wilhelm Robert; Yasuda, Masahiro; Aizawa, Shin

    2015-01-01

    In the bone marrow, hematopoietic cells proliferate and differentiate in close association with a three-dimensional (3D) hematopoietic microenvironment. Previously, we established a 3D bone marrow culture system. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics of hematopoietic cells, and more than 50% of hematopoietic progenitor cells, including CFU-Mix, CFU-GM and BFU-E in 3D culture were in a resting (non-S) phase. Furthermore, we examined the hematopoietic supportive ability of stromal cells by measuring the expression of various mRNAs relevant to hematopoietic regulation. Over the 4 weeks of culture, the stromal cells in the 3D culture are not needlessly activated and "quietly" regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation during the culture, resulting in the presence of resting hematopoietic stem cells in the 3D culture for a long time. Thus, the 3D culture system may be a new tool for investigating hematopoietic stem cell-stromal cell interactions in vitro.

  3. Therapeutic benefits in thalassemic mice transplanted with long term cultured bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Seigo; Walton, William; Hatada, Tomoko; Wofford, Anne; Fox, Raymond; Liu, Naiyou; Lill, Michael C.; Fair, Jeffery H.; Kirby, Suzanne L.; Smithies, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Objective Autologous bone marrow (BM) cells with a faulty gene corrected by gene targeting could provide a powerful therapeutic option for patients with genetic blood diseases. Achieving this goal is hindered by the low abundance of therapeutically useful BM cells and the difficulty of maintaining them in tissue culture long enough for completing gene targeting without them differentiating. Our objective was to devise a simple long-term culture system, using unfractioned BM cells, that maintains and expands therapeutically useful cells for ≥4 weeks. Materials and Methods From 2 to 60 million BM cells from wild-type (WT) mice, or from mice carrying a truncated erythropoietin receptor transgene (tEpoR-tg), were plated with or without irradiated fetal-liver derived AFT024 stromal cells in 25 cm2 culture flasks. Four-week cultured cells were analyzed and transplanted into sublethally irradiated thalassemic mice (1 million cells / mouse). Results After 4 weeks, the cultures with AFT024 cells had extensive “cobblestone” areas. Optimum expansion of Sca-1 positive cells was 5.5-fold with 20 × 106 WT cells/flask and 27-fold with 2 × 106 tEpoR-tg cells. More than 85% of thalassemic mice transplanted with either type of cells had almost complete reversal of their thalassemic phenotype for at least 6 months, including blood smear dysmorphology, reticulocytosis, high ferritin plasma levels and hepatic/renal hemosiderosis. Conclusion When plated at high cell densities on irradiated fetal-liver derived stromal cells, BM cells from WT mice maintain their therapeutic potential for 4 weeks in culture, which is sufficient time for correction of a faulty gene by targeting. PMID:21184801

  4. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D. )

    1990-12-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. (Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34)bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with (125I)PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself.

  5. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of tissue-engineered bone obtained from three-dimensional culture of a subset of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Federico; Falini, Giuseppe; Spelat, Renza; D'Aurizio, Federica; Puppato, Elisa; Pandolfi, Maura; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Impiombato, Francesco Saverio Ambesi; Curcio, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    Grafts of tissue-engineered bone represent a promising alternative in the treatment of large and small bone defects. Current approaches are often badly tolerated by patients because of invasiveness, ethical problems, culture, and possibility of infection. Autologous grafts have been indicated as a solution to such problems. Because of tissue availability, many have proposed the use of cultured cells derived from bone marrow expanded in culture and induced to differentiate in bone tissue. Data reported in the literature show that it is possible to produce tissue substitutes in vitro indeed, but results are not always concordant regarding the in vitro produced bone quality. In the present work, we investigated bone formation in aggregates of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced to differentiate in bone. After osteoinduction we characterized the mineral matrix produced using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Cells were obtained from bone marrow, subjected to immunodepletion for CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD56, CD66b, and glycophorin A using RosetteSep and cultured in a new formulation of medium for four passages and then were allowed to form spontaneous aggregates. At the end of proliferation before aggregation, cells were analyzed by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) for markers routinely used to characterize expanded mesenchymal stem cells and were found to be remarkably homogeneous for CD29 (99% ± 1%), CD73 (99% ± 1%), CD90 (95% ± 4%), CD105 (96% ± 4%), and CD133 (0% ± 1%) expression. Our results show that not only aggregated cells express the major markers of osteogenic differentiation, such as osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein, but also the inorganic matrix is made of an apatite structurally and morphologically similar to native bone even without a scaffold.

  6. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: in vitro cell culture studies.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope.

  7. Culture of osteogenic cells from human alveolar bone: a useful source of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Simão, Ana Maria S; Beloti, Marcio M; Rosa, Adalberto L; de Oliveira, Paulo T; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Pizauro, João M; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from osteoblastic-like cells of human alveolar bone. Cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion and maintained in primary culture in osteogenic medium until subconfluence. First passage cells were cultured in the same medium and at 7, 14, and 21 days, total protein content, collagen content, and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated. Bone-like nodule formation was evaluated at 21 days. Cells in primary culture at day 14 were washed with Tris-HCl buffer, and used to extract the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Cells expressed osteoblastic phenotype. The apparent optimum pH for PNPP hydrolysis by the enzyme was pH 10.0. This enzyme also hydrolyzes ATP, ADP, fructose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, pyrophosphate and beta-glycerophosphate. PNPPase activity was reduced by typical inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase. SDS-PAGE of membrane fraction showed a single band with activity of approximately 120 kDa that could be solubilized by phospholipase C or Polidocanol.

  8. EFFECTS OF PLATING DENSITY AND CULTURE TIME ON BONE MARROW STROMAL CELL CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Neuhuber, Birgit; Swanger, Sharon A.; Howard, Linda; Mackay, Alastair; Fischer, Itzhak

    2008-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells that have emerged as promising candidates for cell therapy in disorders including cardiac infarction, stroke and spinal cord injury. While harvesting methods used by different laboratories are relatively standard, MSC culturing protocols vary widely. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of initial plating density and total time in culture on proliferation, cell morphology, and differentiation potential of heterogeneous MSC cultures and more homogeneous cloned subpopulations. Methods Rat MSC were plated at 20, 200 and 2000 cells/cm2 and grown to 50% confluency. The numbers of population doublings and doubling times were determined within and across multiple passages. Changes in cell morphology and differentiation potential to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages were evaluated and compared among early, intermediate and late passages, as well as between heterogeneous and cloned MSC populations. Results We found optimal cell growth at a plating density of 200 cells/cm2. Cultures derived from all plating densities developed increased proportions of flat cells over time. Assays for chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis showed that heterogeneous MSC plated at all densities sustained the potential for all three mesenchymal phenotypes through at least passage 5; the flat subpopulation lost adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the initial plating density is not critical for maintaining a well-defined, multipotent MSC population. Time in culture, however, affects cell characteristics, suggesting that cell expansion should be limited, especially until the specific characteristics of different MSC subpopulations are better understood. PMID:18495329

  9. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells cultured by selective combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2).

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Naoki; Kawamura, Kenji; Hirose, Motohiro; Yajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshinori; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that bone marrow contains mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which can show osteoblastic differentiation when cultured in osteogenic medium containing ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. The differentiation results in the appearance of osteoblasts, together with the formation of bone matrix; thus, in vitro cultured bone (osteoblasts/bone matrix) could be fabricated by MSC culture. This type of cultured bone has already been used in clinical cases involving orthopaedic problems. To improve the therapeutic effect of the cultured bone, we investigated the culture conditions that contributed to extensive osteoblastic differentiation. Rat bone marrow was primarily cultured to expand the number of MSCs and further cultured in osteogenic medium for 12 days. The culture was also conducted in a medium supplemented with either bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), or with sequential combinations of both supplements. Among them, the sequential supplementation of FGF-2 followed by BMP-2 showed high alkaline phosphatase activity, sufficient bone-specific osteocalcein expression and abundant bone matrix formation of the MSC culture. These data implied that the number of responding cells or immature osteoblasts was increased by the supplementation of FGF-2 in the early phase of the culture and that these cells can show osteoblastic differentiation, of which capability was augmented by BMP-2 in the late phase. The sequential supplementation of these cytokines into MSC culture might be suitable for the fabrication of ideal cultured bone for use in bone tissue engineering.

  10. An in vitro 3D bone metastasis model by using a human bone tissue culture and human sex-related cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Salamanna, Francesca; Borsari, Veronica; Brogini, Silvia; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Cepollaro, Simona; Cadossi, Matteo; Martini, Lucia; Mazzotti, Antonio; Fini, Milena

    2016-01-01

    One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively. Bone tissue discarded from total hip replacement surgery was cultured in a rolling apparatus system in a normoxic or hypoxic environment. Gene expression profile, protein levels, histological, immunohistochemical and four-dimensional (4D) micro-CT analyses showed a noticeable specificity of breast and prostate cancer cells for bone colonization and ingrowth, thus highlighting the species-specific and sex-specific osteotropism and the need to widen the current knowledge on cancer-bone metastasis spread in human bone tissues. The results of this study support the application of this model in preclinical studies on bone metastases and also follow the 3R principles, the guiding principles, aimed at replacing/reducing/refining (3R) animal use and their suffering for scientific purposes. PMID:27765913

  11. Pre-culture period of mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic media influences their in vivo bone forming potential.

    PubMed

    Castano-Izquierdo, Harold; Alvarez-Barreto, José; van den Dolder, Juliette; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the in vitro pre-culture period in osteogenic media of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), influences their ability to regenerate bone when implanted in a critical size cranial defect. MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of 6-8 weeks old male Fisher rats and expanded in vitro in osteogenic media for different time periods (4, 10, and 16 days) in tissue culture plates (TCP), seeded on sintered titanium fiber meshes without the extracellular matrix (ECM) generated in vitro, and implanted in the rat cranium after 12 h. Thirty two adult Fisher rats received the implants, divided in four groups. Three groups were implanted with cells cultured for 4, 10, or 16 days in osteogenic media and at that time their alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition denoted that they were at different stages of their osteoblastic maturation (undifferentiated MSC, committed, and mature Osteoblasts, respectively). MSCs cultured without osteogenic media for 6 days were used as controls. The constructs were retrieved 4 weeks later and processed for histomorphometric analysis. Implants seeded with cells that have been cultured with osteogenic media for only 4 days revealed the highest bone formation. The lowest bone formation was obtained with the implants seeded with MSCs cultured for 16 days in the presence of osteogenic media. The results of this study suggested that the in vitro pre-culture period of MSCs is a critical factor for their ability to regenerate bone when implanted to an orthotopic site.

  12. Matrix formation is enhanced in co-cultures of human meniscus cells with bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Norah-Faye; Mulet-Sierra, Aillette; Jomha, Nadr M; Adesida, Adetola B

    2013-12-01

    The ultimate aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to supplement meniscus cells for meniscus tissue engineering and regeneration. Human menisci were harvested from three patients undergoing total knee replacements. Meniscus cells were released from the menisci after collagenase treatment. BMSCs were harvested from the iliac crest of three patients and were expanded in culture until passage 2. Primary meniscus cells and BMSCs were co-cultured in vitro in three-dimensional (3D) pellet culture at three different cell-cell ratios for 3 weeks under normal (21% O2 ) or low (3% O2 ) oxygen tension in the presence of serum-free chondrogenic medium. Pure BMSCs and pure meniscus cell pellets served as control groups. The tissue generated was assessed biochemically, histochemically and by quantitative RT-PCR. Co-cultures of primary meniscus cells and BMSCs resulted in tissue with increased (1.3-1.7-fold) deposition of proteoglycan (GAG) extracellular matrix (ECM) relative to tissues derived from BMSCs or meniscus cells alone under 21% O2 . GAG matrix formation was also enhanced (1.3-1.6-fold) under 3% O2 culture conditions. Alcian blue staining of generated tissue confirmed increased deposition of GAG-rich matrix. mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL1A2), type II collagen (COL2A1) and aggrecan were upregulated in co-cultured pellets. However, SOX9 and HIF-1α mRNA expression were not significantly modulated by co-culture. Co-culture of primary meniscus cells with BMSCs resulted in increased ECM formation. Co-delivery of meniscus cells and BMSCs can, in principle, be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies to repair meniscus defects.

  13. Long-term three-dimensional perfusion culture of human adult bone marrow mononuclear cells in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Finoli, Anthony; Nettleship, Ian; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2015-04-01

    The construction and long-term maintenance of three-dimensional in vitro bone marrow models is of great interest but still quite challenging. Here we describe the use of a multi-compartment hollow-fiber membrane based three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor for long-term culture of whole human bone marrow mononuclear cells. We also investigated bioreactors with incorporated open-porous foamed hydroxyapatite scaffolds, mimicking the in vivo bone matrix. Cells in bioreactors with and without scaffolds were cultured to 6 weeks and compared to Petri dish controls. Cells were analyzed for gene expression, surface markers by flow cytometry, metabolic activity, hematopoietic potential, viability, and attachment by immunocytochemistry. Cells in bioreactors were metabolic active during long-term culture. The percentages of hematopoietic stem cell and mature endothelial cell fractions were maintained in bioreactors. The expression of most of the analyzed genes stabilized and increased after long-term culture of 6 weeks. Compared to Petri dish culture controls, bioreactor perfusion culture improved in both the short and long-term, the colony formation unit capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. Cells attached to the ample surface area provided by hydroxyapatite scaffolds. The implementation of a hydroxyapatite scaffold did not influence colony formation capacity, percentages of cell type specific fractions, gene expression, cell viability or metabolic turnover when compared to control cells cultured in bioreactors without scaffolds. In conclusion, three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture enables long-term maintenance of primary human bone marrow cells, with hydroxyapatite scaffolds providing an in vivo-like scaffold for three-dimensional culture.

  14. Membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from ectopic mineralization and rat bone marrow cell culture.

    PubMed

    Simão, Ana Maria S; Beloti, Márcio M; Cezarino, Rodrigo M; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Pizauro, João M; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2007-04-01

    Cells from rat bone marrow exhibit the proliferation-differentiation sequence of osteoblasts, form mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro and release alkaline phosphatase into the medium. Membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase was obtained by method that is easy to reproduce, simpler and fast when compared with the method used to obtain the enzyme from rat osseous plate. The membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from cultures of rat bone marrow cells has a MW(r) of about 120 kDa and specific PNPP activity of 1200 U/mg. The ecto-enzyme is anchored to the plasma membrane by the GPI anchor and can be released by PIPLC (selective treatment) or polidocanol (0.2 mg/mL protein and 1% (w/v) detergent). The apparent optimum pH for PNPP hydrolysis by the enzyme was pH 10. This fraction hydrolyzes ATP (240 U/mg), ADP (350 U/mg), glucose 1-phosphate (1100 U/mg), glucose 6-phosphate (340 U/mg), fructose 6-phosphate (460 U/mg), pyrophosphate (330 U/mg) and beta-glycerophosphate (600 U/mg). Cooperative effects were observed for the hydrolysis of PPi and beta-glycerophosphate. PNPPase activity was inhibited by 0.1 mM vanadate (46%), 0.1 mM ZnCl2 (68%), 1 mM levamisole (66%), 1 mM arsenate (44%), 10 mM phosphate (21%) and 1 mM theophylline (72%). We report the biochemical characterization of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase obtained from rat bone marrow cells cultures, using a method that is simple, rapid and easy to reproduce. Its properties are compared with those of rat osseous plate enzyme and revealed that the alkaline phosphatase obtained has some kinetics and structural behaviors with higher levels of enzymatic activity, facilitating the comprehension of the mineralization process and its function.

  15. A method for measurement of drug sensitivity of myeloma cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Misund, Kristine; Baranowska, Katarzyna A; Holien, Toril; Rampa, Christoph; Klein, Dionne C G; Børset, Magne; Waage, Anders; Sundan, Anders

    2013-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment can profoundly affect tumor cell survival as well as alter antitumor drug activity. However, conventional anticancer drug screening typically is performed in the absence of stromal cells. Here, we analyzed survival of myeloma cells co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) using an automated fluorescence microscope platform, ScanR. By staining the cell nuclei with DRAQ5, we could distinguish between BMSC and myeloma cells, based on their staining intensity and nuclear shape. Using the apoptotic marker YO-PRO-1, the effects of drug treatment on the viability of the myeloma cells in the presence of stromal cells could be measured. The method does not require cell staining before incubation with drugs, and less than 5000 cells are required per condition. The method can be used for large-scale screening of anticancer drugs on primary myeloma cells. This study shows the importance of stromal cell support for primary myeloma cell survival in vitro, as half of the cell samples had a marked increase in their viability when cultured in the presence of BMSC. Stromal cell-induced protection against common myeloma drugs is also observed with this method.

  16. Scaffold-free and scaffold-assisted 3D culture enhances differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyasekar, Prasanna; Shyamsunder, Pavithra; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2016-02-01

    3D cultures of stem cells can preserve differentiation potential or increase the efficiency of methods that induce differentiation. Mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in 3D as scaffold-free spheroids or "mesoid bodies" (MBs) and as aggregates on poly(lactic) acid microspheres (MB/MS). 3D cultures demonstrated viable cells, interaction on multiple planes, altered cell morphology, and the formation of structures similar to epithelial cell bridges. Cell proliferation was limited in suspension cultures of MB and MB/MS; however, cells regained proliferative capacity when transferred to flat substrates of tissue culture plates (TCPs). Expanded as monolayer, cells retained expression of Sca-1 and CD44 stem cell markers. 3D cultures demonstrated enhanced potential for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation showing higher triglyceride accumulation and robust mineralization in comparison with TCP cultures. Enhanced and efficient adipogenesis was also observed in 3D cultures generated in a rotating cell culture system. Preservation of multilineage potential of BMSC was demonstrated in 5-azacytidine treatment of 3D cultures and TCP by expression of cardiac markers GATA4 and ACTA1 although functioning cardiomyocytes were not derived.

  17. Adherent cells in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture system are qualified dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-Bo; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    A widely-used method for generating dendritic cell (DC) is to culture bone marrow cells in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-containing medium for 6-10 days. Usually, non-adherent cells are used as qualified dendritic cells while the adherent ones are discarded as "non-dendritic cells" or macrophages. In this study, we show that the adherent cells are nearly identical to the non-adherent cells in both dendritic cell surface markers expression and main dendritic cell-related functions, hence to prove that these "junk cells" are actually qualified dendritic cells.

  18. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells undergo malignant transformation via indirect co-cultured with tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Yalan; Bai, Lu; Cui, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as well as being potential carriers for tumour therapy. However, the safety of using MSCs in tumours is unknown. Herein, we analyse malignant transformation of MSCs in the tumour microenvironment. Rat bone marrow MSCs were cultured with malignant rat glioma C6 cells without direct cell-cell contact. After 7 days, the cells were assessed for transformation using flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and chromosomal analysis. In addition, wild-type (WT) p53, mutant p53 and mdm2 was determined using Western blotting. Almost all MSCs became phenotypically malignant cells, with significantly decreased WT p53 expression and increased expression of mutant p53 and mdm2, along with an aneuploid karyotype. To evaluate tumorigenesis in vivo, the MSCs indirect co-cultured with C6 cells for 7 days were transplanted subcutaneously into immuno-deficient mice. The cells developed into a large tumour at the injection site within 8 weeks, with systemic symptoms including cachexia and scoliosis. Pathological and cytological analysis revealed poorly differentiated pleomorphic cells with a dense vascular network and aggressive invasion into the adjacent muscle. These data demonstrate that MSCs became malignant cancer cells when exposed to the tumour microenvironment and suggest that factors released from the cancer cells have a critical role in the malignant transformation of MSCs.

  19. A comparison of bioreactors for culture of fetal mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Teoh, Swee Hin; Teo, Erin Yiling; Khoon Chong, Mark Seow; Shin, Chong Woon; Tien, Foo Toon; Choolani, Mahesh A; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2010-11-01

    Bioreactors provide a dynamic culture system for efficient exchange of nutrients and mechanical stimulus necessary for the generation of effective tissue engineered bone grafts (TEBG). We have shown that biaxial rotating (BXR) bioreactor-matured human fetal mesenchymal stem cell (hfMSC) mediated-TEBG can heal a rat critical sized femoral defect. However, it is not known whether optimal bioreactors exist for bone TE (BTE) applications. We systematically compared this BXR bioreactor with three most commonly used systems: Spinner Flask (SF), Perfusion and Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors, for their application in BTE. The BXR bioreactor achieved higher levels of cellularity and confluence (1.4-2.5x, p < 0.05) in large 785 mm(3) macroporous scaffolds not achieved in the other bioreactors operating in optimal settings. BXR bioreactor-treated scaffolds experienced earlier and more robust osteogenic differentiation on von Kossa staining, ALP induction (1.2-1.6×, p < 0.01) and calcium deposition (1.3-2.3×, p < 0.01). We developed a Micro CT quantification method which demonstrated homogenous distribution of hfMSC in BXR bioreactor-treated grafts, but not with the other three. BXR bioreactor enabled superior cellular proliferation, spatial distribution and osteogenic induction of hfMSC over other commonly used bioreactors. In addition, we developed and validated a non-invasive quantitative micro CT-based technique for analyzing neo-tissue formation and its spatial distribution within scaffolds.

  20. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo. PMID:26808122

  1. New 3D-Culture Approaches to Study Interactions of Bone Marrow Adipocytes with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Herroon, Mackenzie Katheryn; Diedrich, Jonathan Driscoll; Podgorski, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes are a major component of the bone marrow that can critically affect metastatic progression in bone. Understanding how the marrow fat cells influence growth, behavior, and survival of tumor cells requires utilization of in vitro cell systems that can closely mimic the physiological microenvironment. Herein, we present two new three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to study adipocyte-tumor cell interactions in vitro. The first is a transwell-based system composed of the marrow-derived adipocytes in 3D collagen I gels and reconstituted basement membrane-overlayed prostate tumor cell spheroids. Tumor cells cultured under these 3D conditions are continuously exposed to adipocyte-derived factors, and their response can be evaluated by morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. We show via immunofluorescence analysis of metabolism-associated proteins that under 3D conditions tumor cells have significantly different metabolic response to adipocytes than tumor cells grown in 2D culture. We also demonstrate that this model allows for incorporation of other cell types, such as bone marrow macrophages, and utilization of dye-quenched collagen substrates for examination of proteolysis-driven responses to adipocyte- and macrophage-derived factors. Our second 3D culture system is designed to study tumor cell invasion toward the adipocytes and the consequent interaction between the two cell types. In this model, marrow adipocytes are separated from the fluorescently labeled tumor cells by a layer of collagen I. At designated time points, adipocytes are stained with BODIPY and confocal z-stacks are taken through the depth of the entire culture to determine the distance traveled between the two cell types over time. We demonstrate that this system can be utilized to study effects of candidate factors on tumor invasion toward the adipocytes. We also show that immunohistochemical analyses can be performed to evaluate the impact of direct interaction of prostate

  2. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  3. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  4. In vitro differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into neurons and glial cells and differential protein expression in a two-compartment bone marrow stromal cell/neuron co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xu; Shao, Ming; Peng, Haisheng; Bi, Zhenggang; Su, Zhiqiang; Li, Hulun

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)/neuron two-compartment co-culture model in which differentiation of BMSCs into neurons could occur without direct contact between the two cell types, and to investigate protein expression changes during differentiation of this entirely BMSC-derived population. Cultured BMSCs isolated from Wistar rats were divided into three groups: BMSC culture, BMSC/neuron co-culture and BMSC/neuron two-compartment co-culture. Cells were examined for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The electrophysiological behavior of the BMSCs was examined using patch clamping. Proteins that had significantly different expression levels in BMSCs cultured alone and co-cultured with neurons were studied using a protein chip-mass spectroscopy technique. Expression of NSE and GFAP were significantly higher in co-culture cells than in two-compartment co-culture cells, and significantly higher in both co-culture groups than in BMSCs cultured alone. Five proteins showed significant changes in expression during differentiation: TIP39_RAT and CALC_RAT underwent increases, and INSL6_RAT, PNOC_RAT and PCSK1_RAT underwent decreases in expression. We conclude that BMSCs can differentiate into neurons during both contact co-culture with neurons and two-compartment co-culture with neurons. The rate at which BMSCs differentiated into neurons was higher in contact co-culture than in non-contact co-culture.

  5. Differentiation of functionally active mouse T lymphocytes from functionally inactive bone marrow precursors II. Limited recovery of T-cell responses from mouse bone marrow in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Gorczynski, M; MacRae, S

    1977-11-01

    The limited differentiation of mature T cell function from mouse bone marrow in tissue culture is described and compared with similar differentiation occuring in vivo in irradiated bone marrow protected mice. Data are presented to show that a pool of precursors, similar in size to that able to produce early (transient?) regeneration in thymectomized recipients, is responsible for the development of mitogen responsive T cells active in MLC (proliferation) and CML (development of cytotoxic cells) assays. In contrast, a helper cell population which augments antibody formation from T-depleted normal spleen cells derives from a pool of similar precursors yet does not seem to be theta positive. Similarly, larger cells (perhaps typical of those giving rise to suppressor T cells in vivo) give rise to a suppressor cell pool after 4 days of culture, though again only a fraction of this suppressor activity could be attributed to theta positive cells. It is suggested that much of the data for regenration of T lymphocytes in vitro from T-depleted sources needs to be re-interpreted in terms of this evidence for a pool of post-thymic precursors of T cells in such T-deficient cell populations.

  6. Differentiation of functionally active mouse T lymphocytes from functionally inactive bone marrow precursors II. Limited recovery of T-cell responses from mouse bone marrow in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, M; MacRae, S

    1977-01-01

    The limited differentiation of mature T cell function from mouse bone marrow in tissue culture is described and compared with similar differentiation occuring in vivo in irradiated bone marrow protected mice. Data are presented to show that a pool of precursors, similar in size to that able to produce early (transient?) regeneration in thymectomized recipients, is responsible for the development of mitogen responsive T cells active in MLC (proliferation) and CML (development of cytotoxic cells) assays. In contrast, a helper cell population which augments antibody formation from T-depleted normal spleen cells derives from a pool of similar precursors yet does not seem to be theta positive. Similarly, larger cells (perhaps typical of those giving rise to suppressor T cells in vivo) give rise to a suppressor cell pool after 4 days of culture, though again only a fraction of this suppressor activity could be attributed to theta positive cells. It is suggested that much of the data for regenration of T lymphocytes in vitro from T-depleted sources needs to be re-interpreted in terms of this evidence for a pool of post-thymic precursors of T cells in such T-deficient cell populations. PMID:304032

  7. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  8. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the

  9. Human bone marrow and umbilical cord blood cells generate CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive T cells in murine fetal thymus organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, H; Gress, R E; Bare, C V; Leary, A G; Boyse, E A; Bard, J; Shultz, L D; Harris, D T; DeLuca, D

    1993-01-01

    Murine fetal thymus lobes isolated from both normal and scid/scid mice can be colonized by donor cells from either human bone marrow or human umbilical cord blood in vitro. Subsequent organ culture results in a transient production of a few CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive) cells and then the accumulation of CD4+ or CD8+ (single-positive) T cells. A significant number of immature T-cell intermediates (e.g., CD8low, CD3-/low cells) were present in early organ cultures, suggesting that these were progenitors of the mature CD3+/high single-positive T cells that dominated late cultures. Depletion of mature T cells from the donor-cell populations did not affect their ability to colonize thymus lobes. However, colonization depended on the presence of CD7+ progenitor T cells. Limiting dilution experiments using mature T-cell populations (human peripheral blood leukocytes, human bone marrow cells, and human umbilical cord blood cells) suggested that thymic organ culture supports the growth of progenitor T cells but does not support the growth of mature human T cells. Each of these donor populations produced single-positive populations with different CD4/CD8 ratios, suggesting that precursor cells from different sources differ qualitatively in their capacity to differentiate into T cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7902570

  10. Collagen-containing scaffolds enhance attachment and proliferation of non-cultured bone marrow multipotential stromal cells.

    PubMed

    El-Jawhari, Jehan J; Sanjurjo-Rodríguez, Clara; Jones, Elena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2016-04-01

    Large bone defects are ideally treated with autografts, which have many limitations. Therefore, osteoconductive scaffolds loaded with autologous bone marrow (BM) aspirate are increasingly used as alternatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth of multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) from unprocessed BM on a collagen-containing bovine bone scaffold (Orthoss(®) Collagen) with a non-collagen-containing bovine bone scaffold, Orthoss(®) . Another collagen-containing synthetic scaffold, Vitoss(®) was included in the comparison. Colonization of scaffolds by BM MSCs (n = 23 donors) was evaluated using microscopy, colony forming unit-fibroblast assay and flow-cytometry. The number of BM MSCs initially attached to Orthoss(®) Collagen and Vitoss(®) was similar but greater than Orthoss(®) (p = 0.001 and p = 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, the number of MSCs released from Orthoss(®) Collagen and Vitoss(®) after 2-week culture was also higher compared to Orthoss(®) (p = 0.010 and p = 0.023, respectively). Interestingly, collagen-containing scaffolds accommodated larger numbers of lymphocytic and myelomonocytic cells. Additionally, the proliferation of culture-expanded MSCs on Orthoss(®) collagen and Vitoss(®) was greater compared to Orthoss(®) (p = 0.047 and p = 0.004, respectively). Collectively, collagen-containing scaffolds were superior in supporting the attachment and proliferation of MSCs when they were loaded with unprocessed BM aspirates. This highlights the benefit of collagen incorporation into bone scaffolds for use with autologous bone marrow aspirates as autograft substitutes.

  11. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions

  12. Coculture strategies in bone tissue engineering: the impact of culture conditions on pluripotent stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Sathyanarayana; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P

    2012-08-01

    The use of pluripotent stem cell populations for bone tissue regeneration provides many opportunities and challenges within the bone tissue engineering field. For example, coculture strategies have been utilized to mimic embryological development of bone tissue, and particularly the critical intercellular signaling pathways. While research in bone biology over the last 20 years has expanded our understanding of these intercellular signaling pathways, we still do not fully understand the impact of the system's physical characteristics (orientation, geometry, and morphology). This review of coculture literature delineates the various forms of coculture systems and their respective outcomes when applied to bone tissue engineering. To understand fully the key differences between the different coculture methods, we must appreciate the underlying paradigms of physiological interactions. Recent advances have enabled us to extrapolate these techniques to larger dimensions and higher geometric resolutions. Finally, the contributions of bioreactors, micropatterned biomaterials, and biomaterial interaction platforms are evaluated to give a sense of the sophistication established by a combination of these concepts with coculture systems.

  13. Age-related decline in the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow cells cultured in three-dimensional collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S M; Glowacki, J

    2001-01-01

    Studies with human and animal culture systems indicate that a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells has the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts. There are conflicting reports on the effects of age on human marrow-derived osteogenic cells. In this study, we used a three dimensional (3D) culture system and quantitative RT-PCR methods to test the hypothesis that the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells decreases with age. Marrow was obtained from 39 men aged 37 to 86 years, during the course of total hip arthroplasty. Low-density mononuclear cells were seeded onto 3D collagen sponges and cultured for 3 weeks. Histological sections of sponges were stained for alkaline phosphatase activity and were scored as positive or negative. In the group < or = 50 years, 7 of 11 samples (63%) were positive, whereas only 5 of 19 (26%) of the samples in the group > or = 60 years were positive (p = 0.0504). As revealed by RT-PCR, there was no expression of alkaline phosphatase or collagen type I mRNA before culture, however there were strong signals after 3 weeks, an indication of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. We performed a quantitative, competitive RT-PCR assay with 8 samples (age range 38-80) and showed that the group < or = 50 years had 3-fold more mRNA for alkaline phosphatase than the group > or = 60 years (p = 0.021). There was a significant decrease with age (r = - 0.78, p = 0.028). These molecular and histoenzymatic data indicate that the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow cells decreases with age.

  14. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. {yields} Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. {yields} Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. {yields} qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  15. A 3D Culture System Enhances the Ability of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Support the Growth of Limbal Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Sheyla; Mei, Hua; Nakatsu, Martin N.; Baclagon, Elfren R.; Deng, Sophie X.

    2016-01-01

    The standard method of cultivating limbal epithelial progenitor/stem cells (LSCs) on a monolayer of mouse 3T3 feeder cells possesses the risk of cross-contamination in clinical applications. Human feeder cells have been used to eliminate this risk; however, efficiency from xenobiotic-free cultures on a monolayer appears to be lower than in the standard method using 3T3 cells. We investigated whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, could serve as feeder cells for the expansion of LSCs in the 3-dimensional (3D) system. Primary single human LSCs on a monolayer of 3T3s served as the control. Very poor growth was observed when single LSCs were cultured on BMSCs. When LSC clusters were cultured on a BMSC monolayer (CC-BM), 3D culture system (3D CC-BM) and fibrin 3D system (fibrin 3D CC-BM), the 3D CC-BM method supported a greater LSC expansion. The 3D CC-BM system produced a 2.5-fold higher cell growth rate than the control (p<0.05). The proportion of K14+ and p63αbright cells were comparable to those in the control (p>0.05), whereas the proportion of K12+ cells was lower (p<0.05). These results indicate that BMSCs can efficiently support the expansion of the LSC population in the 3D culture. PMID:26896856

  16. A study of murine bone marrow cells cultured in bioreactors which create an environment which simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Brother Desales

    1990-01-01

    Previous research indicated that mouse bone marrow cells could be grown in conditions of simulated microgravity. This environment was created in rotating bioreactor vessels. On three attempts mouse cells were grown successfully in the vessels. The cells reached a stage where the concentrations were doubling daily. Phenotypic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cell were hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells. One unsuccessful attempt was made to reestablish the immune system in immunocompromised mice using these cells. Since last summer, several unsuccessful attempts were made to duplicate these results. It was determined by electron microscopy that the cells successfully grown in 1989 contained virus particles. It was suggested that these virally parasitized cells had been immortalized. The work of this summer is a continuation of efforts to grow mouse bone marrow in these vessels. A number of variations of the protocol were introduced. Certified pathogen free mice were used in the repeat experiments. In some attempts the medium of last summer was used; in others Dexture Culture Medium containing Iscove's Medium supplemented with 20 percent horse serum and 10-6 M hydrocortisone. Efforts this summer were directed solely to repeating the work of last summer. Plans were made for investigations if stem cells were isolated. Immortalization of the undifferentiated stem cell would be attempted by transfection with an oncogenic vector. Selective differentiation would be induced in the stem cell line by growing it with known growth factors and immune response modulators. Interest is in identifying any surface antigens unique to stem cells that would help in their characterization. Another goal was to search for markers on stem cells that would distinguish them from stem cells committed to a particular lineage. If the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell was obtained, the pathways that would terminally convert it to myeloid, lyphoid

  17. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

  18. Immunomodulative efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in human platelet lysate.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Antoinette; Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk; Stolk, Meaghan; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Seifert, Martina

    2011-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are considered to be a promising tool for novel cell-based therapies. Clinical applications in solid organ transplantation were hampered by the dependence on animal serum for hMSCs clinical scale expansion until substitution with human platelet lysate (HPL) became a promising alternative. Therefore we focused on a direct comparison of immunomodulatory properties of hMSCs cultured in HPL or fetal calf serum (FCS). Phenotypic characterization, detection of cytokine secretion and effects on alloantigen- and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as degranulation of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T cells were applied in potency assays. We demonstrated that HPL-cultured MSCs have comparable immunomodulatory capacities to their FCS-cultured counterparts. The observed immunomodulatory properties include a beneficial inhibitory effect on immune cell proliferation and an unaffected viral T cell immunity. Thus, culturing hMSCs in HPL generates an efficient and safe expansion combined with intriguing immunomodulatory properties making these cells an attractive cell therapeutic tool.

  19. Mertk gene expression and photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis by cultured rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong-mei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Yu-zhao; Sun, Yi-qian; Zhang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that have been used for a broad spectrum of indications. Several investigations have used BM-MSCs to promote photoreceptor survival and suggested that BM-MSCs are a potential source of cell replacement therapy for some forms of retinal degeneration. Purpose To investigate the expression of the MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase (Mertk), involved in the disruption of RPE phagocytosis and the onset of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in rat BM-MSCs and to compare phagocytosis of the photoreceptor outer segment (POS) by BM-MSCs and RPE cells in vitro. Methods MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of Brown Norway rats. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT–PCR) and western blot analyses were used to examine the expression of Mertk. The phagocytized POS was detected with double fluorescent labeling, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results Mertk expression did not differ among the first three passages of BM-MSCs. Mertk gene expression was greater in the BM-MSCs than the RPE cells. Mertk protein expression in the BM-MSCs was similar to that in the RPE cells in the primary passage and was greater than that in the RPE cells in the other two passages. BM-MSCs at the first three passages phagocytized the POS more strongly than the RPE cells. The process of BM-MSC phagocytosis was similar to that of the RPE cells. Conclusions BM-MSCs may be an effective cell source for treating retinal degeneration in terms of phagocytosis of the POS. PMID:28210098

  20. Collagen‐containing scaffolds enhance attachment and proliferation of non‐cultured bone marrow multipotential stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    El‐Jawhari, Jehan J.; Sanjurjo‐Rodríguez, Clara; Jones, Elena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large bone defects are ideally treated with autografts, which have many limitations. Therefore, osteoconductive scaffolds loaded with autologous bone marrow (BM) aspirate are increasingly used as alternatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth of multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) from unprocessed BM on a collagen‐containing bovine bone scaffold (Orthoss® Collagen) with a non‐collagen‐containing bovine bone scaffold, Orthoss®. Another collagen‐containing synthetic scaffold, Vitoss® was included in the comparison. Colonization of scaffolds by BM MSCs (n = 23 donors) was evaluated using microscopy, colony forming unit‐fibroblast assay and flow‐cytometry. The number of BM MSCs initially attached to Orthoss® Collagen and Vitoss® was similar but greater than Orthoss® (p = 0.001 and p = 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, the number of MSCs released from Orthoss® Collagen and Vitoss® after 2‐week culture was also higher compared to Orthoss® (p = 0.010 and p = 0.023, respectively). Interestingly, collagen‐containing scaffolds accommodated larger numbers of lymphocytic and myelomonocytic cells. Additionally, the proliferation of culture‐expanded MSCs on Orthoss® collagen and Vitoss® was greater compared to Orthoss® (p = 0.047 and p = 0.004, respectively). Collectively, collagen‐containing scaffolds were superior in supporting the attachment and proliferation of MSCs when they were loaded with unprocessed BM aspirates. This highlights the benefit of collagen incorporation into bone scaffolds for use with autologous bone marrow aspirates as autograft substitutes. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 34:597–606, 2016. PMID:26466765

  1. Pre-degenerated peripheral nerves co-cultured with bone marrow-derived cells: a new technique for harvesting high-purity Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-pan; Wu, Min; Guan, Jian-zhong; Wang, Zhao-dong; Gao, Xu-bin; Liu, Yang-yang

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells play an important role in the peripheral nervous system, especially in nerve repair following injury, so artificial nerve regeneration requires an effective technique for obtaining purified Schwann cells. In vivo and in vitro pre-degeneration of peripheral nerves have been shown to obtain high-purity Schwann cells. We believed that in vitro pre-degeneration was simple and controllable, and available for the clinic. Thus, we co-cultured the crushed sciatic nerves with bone marrow-derived cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that, 3 hours after injury, a large number of mononuclear cells moved to the crushed nerves and a large number of bone marrow-derived cells infiltrated the nerve segments. These changes promoted the degradation of the nerve segments, and the dedifferentiation and proliferation of Schwann cells. Neural cell adhesion molecule and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression were detected in the crushed nerves. Schwann cell yield was 9.08 ± 2.01 × 104/mg. The purity of primary cultured Schwann cells was 88.4 ± 5.79%. These indicate a successful new method for obtaining Schwann cells of high purity and yield from adult crushed sciatic nerve using bone marrow-derived cells. PMID:27904498

  2. Strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Campos, Andrea P C; Martins Ferreira, Erlon H; San Gil, Rosane A S; Rossi, Alexandre M; Farina, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of strontium ranelate on the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures, a system that gave us the advantage of obtaining mineral samples produced exclusively during treatment. Cells were treated with strontium ranelate at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+). Mineral substances were isolated and analyzed by using a combination of methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The minerals produced in all cell cultures were typical bone-like apatites. No changes occurred in the local structural order or crystal size of the minerals. However, we noticed several relevant changes in the mineral produced under 0.5 mM Sr(2+): (1) increase in type-B CO3 (2-) substitutions, which often lead to the creation of vacancies in Ca(2+) and OH(-) sites; (2) incorporation of Sr(2+) by substituting slightly less than 10 % of Ca(2+) in the apatite crystal lattice, resulting in an increase in both lattice parameters a and c; (3) change in the PO4 (3-) environments, possibly because of the expansion of the lattice; (4) the Ca/P ratio of this mineral was reduced, but its (Ca+Sr)/P ratio was the same as that of the control, indicating that its overall cation/P ratio was preserved. Thus, strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

  3. Isolation, Culture, Differentiation, and Nuclear Reprogramming of Mongolian Sheep Fetal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaohu; Ling, Yu; Liu, Chunxia; Meng, Fanhua; Cao, Junwei; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Huanmin; Liu, Zongzheng; Zhang, Yanru

    2015-08-01

    We have characterized the differentiation potentiality and the developmental potential of cloned embryos of fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from Mongolian sheep. BMSCs were harvested by centrifuging after the explants method and the mononuclear cells obtained were cultured. The isolated BMSCs were uniform, with a fibroblast-like spindle or stellate appearance, and we confirmed expression of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG genes at passage 3 (P3) by RT-PCR. We measured the growth of the passage 1, 5, and 10 cultures and found exponential growth with a population doubling time of 29.7±0.05 h. We cultured the P3 BMSCs in vitro under inductive environments and were able to induce them to undergo neurogenesis and form cardiomyocytes and adipocytes. Donor cells at passages 3-4 were used for nuclear transfer (NT). We found the BMSCs could be expanded in vitro and used as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Thus, BMSCs are an attractive cell type for large-animal autologous studies and will be valuable material for somatic cell cloning and future transgenic research.

  4. Bone-forming capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells when cultured in the presence of human platelet lysate as substitute for fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Prins, Henk-Jan; Rozemuller, Henk; Vonk-Griffioen, Simone; Verweij, Vivienne G M; Dhert, Wouter J A; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke C M; Martens, Anton C M

    2009-12-01

    In tissue engineering, strategies are being developed to repair large bone defects by combining biomaterials and bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). For expansion of MSCs under good manufacturing practice conditions, human platelet lysate (PL) can serve as substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture media. We compared the in vivo bone-forming capacity of passage 3 MSCs cultured with either PL or FBS for nine different human donors. We also tested the growth kinetics, antigen expression profile, and the multilineage differentiation capacity in vitro of these MSCs. The in vivo bone-forming capacity was determined by seeding culture-expanded MSCs onto biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds. Hybrid constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice, retrieved after 6 weeks, and analyzed using histomorphometry. PL-supplemented cultures resulted in significantly larger colonies, shorter culture time period, and higher population doublings between P1 and P3 compared to FBS-containing cultures. No differences were observed in antigen expression profiles or differentiation capacities into the osteoblastic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages, qualitatively. In vivo bone formation with PL-supplemented cultures of MSCs was demonstrated in 9/9 donors versus 6/9 for FBS-supplemented cultures. These results warrant the use of PL for ex vivo expansion of human MSCs for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Serum-free isolation and culture system to enhance the proliferation and bone regeneration of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Takehiro; Kato, Toshiki; Kitamura, Yukiko; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Sato, Fujio; Ohneda, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    Cell therapy using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an attractive approach for many refractory diseases. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are considered as a favorable tool due to its abundance in the body, easy proliferation, and high cytokine production potency. In order to avoid the risks associated with the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture that includes batch variations and contamination with pathogens, development of serum-free culture system has been initiated. We have formulated a completely serum-free culture medium (SFM) that could be used not only for the expansion of AT-MSCs but also for initial isolation. We demonstrate that the AT-MSCs isolated and cultured in serum-free medium (AT-MSCs/SFM) possess high proliferation capacity and differentiation potency to osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondrocyte lineages in vitro. In in vivo bone fraction model analysis, AT-MSCs/SFM showed higher bone repair potency and quality of the regenerated bone than the cells cultured in serum-containing medium (AT-MSCs/SCM). This was attributed to the (i) presence of translated cells in the bone, as evidenced by in vivo imaging of the illuminated translated cells and (ii) high level of expression and induction capacity of AT-MSCs/SFM for cytokine BMP2, CCL2, and CCL5. Taken together, we report a new serum-free culture system for AT-MSCs that is suitable for cell therapy.

  6. Human bone marrow stem cells cultured under hypoxic conditions present altered characteristics and enhanced in vivo tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Tae-Wan; Jung, Byung-Joo; Lee, Youngseok; Shim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Soyon; Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chang-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of the vertebral body. The hBMSCs were cultured under either hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2; control) conditions and the characteristics as mesenchymal stem cells were compared. Results revealed that hypoxia reduced proliferative potential and colony-forming efficiency of hBMSCs, and significantly enhanced osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The hBMSCs enhanced the regenerative potential of bone in vivo. In vitro synthesis of soluble and insoluble collagen was significantly increased in the hypoxic condition. In vivo collagen tissue regeneration was also enhanced under the hypoxic condition, with concomitant increased expressions of various subtypes of collagen and lysyl-oxidase family mRNA. MicroRNA assays revealed that miR-155-5p, which negatively regulates HIF-1α, was significantly highly expressed. These observations demonstrate that hBMSCs obtained from human vertebrae exhibit altered characteristics under hypoxic conditions, and each factor contributing to hBMSC-mediated tissue healing should be evaluated with the goal of allowing their clinical application.

  7. Design and validation of a dynamic cell-culture system for bone biology research and exogenous tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Allori, Alexander C; Davidson, Edward H; Reformat, Derek D; Sailon, Alexander M; Freeman, James; Vaughan, Adam; Wootton, David; Clark, Elizabeth; Ricci, John L; Warren, Stephen M

    2016-10-01

    Bone lacunocanalicular fluid flow ensures chemotransportation and provides a mechanical stimulus to cells. Traditional static cell-culture methods are ill-suited to study the intricacies of bone biology because they ignore the three-dimensionality of meaningful cellular networks and the lacunocanalicular system; furthermore, reliance on diffusion alone for nutrient supply and waste product removal effectively limits scaffolds to 2-3 mm thickness. In this project, a flow-perfusion system was custom-designed to overcome these limitations: eight adaptable chambers housed cylindrical cell-seeded scaffolds measuring 12 or 24 mm in diameter and 1-10 mm in thickness. The porous scaffolds were manufactured using a three-dimensional (3D) periodic microprinting process and were composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate with variable thicknesses, strut sizes, pore sizes and structural configurations. A multi-channel peristaltic pump drew medium from parallel reservoirs and perfused it through each scaffold at a programmable rate. Hermetically sealed valves permitted sampling or replacement of medium. A gas-permeable membrane allowed for gas exchange. Tubing was selected to withstand continuous perfusion for > 2 months without leakage. Computational modelling was performed to assess the adequacy of oxygen supply and the range of fluid shear stress in the bioreactor-scaffold system, using 12 × 6 mm scaffolds, and these models suggested scaffold design modifications that improved oxygen delivery while enhancing physiological shear stress. This system may prove useful in studying complex 3D bone biology and in developing strategies for engineering thick 3D bone constructs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon.

  9. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

  10. 3D cell culture and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells plated onto jet-sprayed or electrospun micro-fiber scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Meadhbh Á; Renaud, Audrey; Gamblin, Anne-Laure; D'Arros, Cyril; Nedellec, Steven; Trichet, Valerie; Layrolle, Pierre

    2015-08-04

    A major limitation of the 2D culture systems is that they fail to recapitulate the in vivo 3D cellular microenvironment whereby cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions occur. In this paper, a biomaterial scaffold that mimics the structure of collagen fibers was produced by jet-spraying. This micro-fiber polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold was evaluated for 3D culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in comparison with a commercially available electrospun scaffold. The jet-sprayed scaffolds had larger pore diameters, greater porosity, smaller diameter fibers, and more heterogeneous fiber diameter size distribution compared to the electrospun scaffolds. Cells on jet-sprayed constructs exhibited spread morphology with abundant cytoskeleton staining, whereas MSCs on electrospun scaffolds appeared less extended with fewer actin filaments. MSC proliferation and cell infiltration occurred at a faster rate on jet-sprayed compared to electrospun scaffolds. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and ECM production as measured by ALP, collagen and calcium deposition was superior on jet-sprayed compared to electrospun scaffolds. The jet-sprayed scaffold which mimics the native ECM and permits homogeneous cell infiltration is important for 3D in vitro applications such as bone cellular interaction studies or drug testing, as well as bone tissue engineering strategies.

  11. The development of a mature collagen network in cartilage from human bone marrow stem cells in Transwell culture.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Alan D; Hardingham, Timothy E; Eyre, David R; Fernandes, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    Damaged hyaline cartilage shows a limited capacity for innate repair. Potential sources of cells to augment the clinical repair of cartilage defects include autologous chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. We have reported that culture of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with specific growth and differentiation factors as shallow multilayers on Transwell permeable membranes provided ideal conditions for chondrogenesis. Rigid translucent cartilaginous disks formed and expressed cartilage-specific structural proteins aggrecan and type II collagen. We report here the analysis of the collagen network assembled in these cartilage constructs and identify key features of the network as it became mature during 28 days of culture. The type II collagen was co-polymerized with types XI and IX collagens in a fibrillar network stabilized by hydroxylysyl pyridinoline cross-links as in epiphyseal and hyaline cartilages. Tandem ion-trap mass-spectrometry identified 3-hydroxylation of Proline 986 and Proline 944 of the α1(II) chains, a post-translational feature of human epiphyseal cartilage type II collagen. The formation of a type II collagen based hydroxy-lysyl pyridinoline cross-linked network typical of cartilage in 28 days shows that the Transwell system not only produces, secretes and assembles cartilage collagens, but also provides all the extracellular mechanisms to modify and generate covalent cross-links that determine a robust collagen network. This organized assembly explains the stiff, flexible nature of the cartilage constructs developed from hMSCs in this culture system.

  12. Effects of the bifunctional sulfoxide MMS350, a radiation mitigator, on hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures and on radioresistance of marrow stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ashwin; Epperly, Michael W; Cao, Shaonan; Franicola, Darcy; Shields, Donna; Wang, Hong; Wipf, Peter; Sprachman, Melissa M; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    The ionizing irradiation mitigator MMS350 prolongs survival of mice treated with total-body irradiation and prevents radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis when added to drinking water at day 100 after thoracic irradiation. The effects of MMS350 on hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture and on the radiobiology of derived bone marrow stromal cell lines were tested. Long-term bone marrow cultures were established from C57BL/6NTac mice and maintained in a high-humidity incubator, with 7% CO2 and the addition of 100 μM MMS350 at the weekly media change. Over 10 weeks in culture, MMS350 had no significant effect on maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell production, or on nonadherent cells or colony-forming units of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Stromal cell lines derived from non MMS350-treated long-term cultures or control stromal cells treated with MMS350 were radioresistant in the clonogenic survival curve assay. MMS350 is a non-toxic, highly water-soluble radiation mitigator that exhibits radioprotective effects on bone marrow stromal cells.

  13. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y. )

    1991-03-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity.

  14. Beneficial reciprocal effects of bone marrow stromal cells and Schwann cells from adult rats in a dynamic co‑culture system in vitro without intercellular contact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Na; Cui, Xiao-Jun; Su, Kai-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Jin-Hua

    2015-10-01

    In order to examine how implanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) encourage peripheral nerve regeneration, the present study investigated the interaction of BMSCs and Schwann cells (SCs) using an indirect in vitro co‑culture model. SCs and BMSCs were obtained from adult Sprague‑Dawley rats. The passaged BMSCs were CD29‑ and CD44‑positive but CD45‑negative and were co‑cultured with the primary SCs using a Millicell system, which allows BMSCs and SCs to grow in the same culture medium but without direct contact. Expression of the typical SC markers S‑100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of the treated BMSCs as well as the proliferation capacity of the co‑cultured SCs was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining on the 3rd and 5th day of co‑culture. Immunocytochemical staining showed that >75% of the BMSCs in the indirect co‑culture model were GFAP‑ and S‑100‑positive on the 3rd and 5th day after co‑culture, as opposed to <5% of the BMSCs in the control group. On the 3rd day after co‑culture, only a few co‑cultured BMSCs showed the typical SC‑like morphology, while most BMSCs still kept their native appearance. By contrast, on the 5th day after co‑culture, almost all of the co‑cultured BMSCs appeared with the typical SC‑like morphology. Furthermore, 70.71% of the SCs in the indirect co‑culture model were S‑100‑positive on the 5th day of co‑culture, as opposed to >30.43% of the SCs in the control group. These results indicated that BMSCs may interact synergistically with SCs with regard to promoting peripheral nerve regeneration.

  15. Investigation of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell response in direct culture.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Aaron F; Sallee, Amy; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Tayoba, Myla; Sanchez, Jorge; Liu, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-Zn-Ca ternary alloys have recently attracted significant interest for biomedical implant applications due to their promising biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to characterize as-cast Mg-xZn-0.5Ca (x=0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0wt.%) alloys, and determine the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) at the interface with the Mg-xZn-0.5Ca alloys. The direct culture method (i.e. seeding cells directly onto the surface of the sample) was established in this study to probe the highly dynamic cell-substrate interface and thus to elucidate the mechanisms of BMSC responses to dynamic alloy degradation. The results showed that the BMSC adhesion density on these alloys was similar to the cell-only positive control and the BMSC morphology appeared more anisotropic on the rapidly degrading alloy surfaces in comparison with the cell-only positive control. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6mM Mg(2+) ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on BMSC responses. We speculated that degradation-induced dynamic surface topography played an important role in modulating cell morphology at the interface. This study presents a clinically relevant in vitro model for screening bioresorbable alloys, and provides useful design guidelines for determining the degradation rate of implants made of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

  16. Pro-elastogenic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived smooth muscle cells on cultured aneurysmal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Ganesh; Gadepalli, Venkat S; Stoilov, Ivan; Mecham, Robert P; Rao, Raj R; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) involve slow proteolysis and loss of structural matrix components (collagen and elastin), which lead to wall thinning, weakening and ultimate rupture. At this time, no established non-surgical therapy is available to slow or arrest AAA growth. Inhibiting matrix metalloproteases (MMPs; e.g. MMP2 and -9) overexpressed within AAAs is insufficient to arrest AAA growth, since resident smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are poorly elastogenic and cannot overcome elastolysis to reinstate a healthy elastic matrix. Towards overcoming this limitation, this first study sought to determine the utility of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC)-derived SMCs to stimulate elastin and elastic matrix synthesis and assembly by aneurysmal SMCs (EaRASMCs). BM-MSCs were successfully differentiated into cells of an SMC lineage (SMLCs). Our study indicates that BM-MSC-derived SMLCs secrete trophic factors, contained in conditioned medium (CM) from their cultures, that, when exposed to EaRASMC cultures in real time, stimulate elastin precursor and matrix deposition and crosslinking by these elastogenically deficient cells, with added benefits in terms of attenuating MMPs, specifically MMP9. The results thus lend support to a proposed cell therapy for AAAs, based on the use of BM-MSC-derived SMLCs. Although we observed no particular improvement in elastic fibre formation, no attenuation of MMP2 activity and increase in amounts of active MMP2 enzyme, we believe that this study justifies follow-up studies to improve upon these outcomes. Future studies will explore the effects of concentrated CM collected from long-term SMLC cultures on EaRASMCs and also investigate the elastogenic output of SMLCs themselves. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Generation of large numbers of highly purified dendritic cells from bone marrow progenitor cells after co-culture with syngeneic murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Tahereh; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Safavi, Farinaz; Lauretti, Elisabetta; Khedmati, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2013-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are called the sentinels of the human immune system because of their function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) that elicit a protective immune response. Given that DCs have been used for many years as target cells in a great number of experiments, it became essential to devise a new method for producing DCs in higher quantities and of greater purity. Here we report a novel technique for obtaining more dendritic cells, and with higher purity, from in-vitro co-culture of bone marrow (BM) cells with splenocytes. From a total of 20 × 10(6) BM cells and 120 × 10(6)splenocytes, 3 × 10(6) BM cells along with 20 × 10(6)splenocytes were co-cultured in petri dishes for DC generation; 120 × 10(6) splenocytes from one C57BL/6 mouse were also co-cultured in petri dishes for DC generation. BM cells were the control group cultured in the same conditions except for the presence of splenocytes. Purity and maturation state of DCs were checked by lineage surface markers (CD11c, CD11b, CD8α, and F4/80) and the expression levels of MHCII as well as co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD80, and CD40). Endocytosis and thymidine uptake capacity were also used to test the functionality of DCs. The levels of IL-12p70, IL-23, and IL-10 were also checked in the supernatant of cultured cells by ELISA. The number of DCs derived from co-culture of BM and splenocytes (DCs(TME)) was at least twice that of BM-derived DCs in the absence of splenocytes. In addition, the purity of DCs after co-culture of BM and splenocytes was greater than that of DCs in the control culture (90.2% and 77.2%, respectively; p<0.05). While functional assays showed no differences between co-culture and control groups, IL-10 levels were significantly lower in DCs(TME) compared to BM-derived DCs in the absence of splenocytes (193 pg/ml and 630 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.05). The results of the present study show that the generation of DCs from BM progenitors is accelerated in the presence of

  18. Feasibility and Efficiency of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Culture with Allogeneic Platelet Lysate-Supplementation for Cell Therapy against Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chengbo; Wang, Zifeng; Hamauchi, Shuji; Abumiya, Takeo; Kazumata, Ken; Ito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Kohsuke; Takamoto, Shigeru; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing interest in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) as regeneration therapy against cerebral stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of hBMSC cultures with allogeneic platelet lysates (PLs). Platelet concentrates (PC) were harvested from healthy volunteers and made into single donor-derived PL (sPL). The PL mixtures (mPL) were made from three different sPL. Some growth factors and platelet cell surface antigens were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The hBMSCs cultured with 10% PL were analyzed for their proliferative potential, surface markers, and karyotypes. The cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) agents and injected into a pig brain. MRI and histological analysis were performed. Consequently, nine lots of sPL and three mPL were prepared. ELISA analysis showed that PL contained adequate growth factors and a particle of platelet surface antigens. Cell proliferation capacity of PLs was equivalent to or higher than that of fetal calf serum (FCS). No contradiction in cell surface markers and no chromosomal aberrations were found. The MRI detected the distribution of SPIO-labeled hBMSCs in the pig brain. In summary, the hBMSCs cultured with allogeneic PL are suitable for cell therapy against stroke. PMID:27840648

  19. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    capable of differentiating to mature neutrophillic granulocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells . Several T- cell lines including K45, JURKAT...CEM, K230 have been screened for produc- tion of Interleukin-3 by assay of supernatant from cell lines for proliferation of mouse IL-3 dependent...hematopoietic progeni- tor cell lines Lines 45 and 230 produce low levels of activity. "In contrast, IL-2 (T- cell growth factor) dependent human T- cell

  20. Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly Repeated Culture System: A New Device and Method for Obtaining Abundant Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junchao; Wu, Xuehui; Jin, Huiyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Deng, Moyuan; Xie, Zhao; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    To date, various types of cells for seeding regenerative scaffolds have been used for bone tissue engineering. Among seed cells, the mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (hUCMSCs) represent a promising candidate and hold potential for bone tissue engineering due to the the lack of ethical controversies, accessibility, sourced by non-invasive procedures for donors, a reduced risk of contamination, osteogenic differentiation capacities, and higher immunomodulatory capacity. However, the current culture methods are somewhat complicated and inefficient and often fail to make the best use of the umbilical cord (UC) tissues. Moreover, these culture processes cannot be performed on a large scale and under strict quality control. As a result, only a small quantity of cells can be harvested using the current culture methods. To solve these problems, we designed and evaluated an UC Wharton’s jelly repeated culture device. Using this device, hUCMSCs were obtained from the repeated cultures and their quantities and biological characteristics were compared. We found that using our culture device, which retained all tissue blocks on the bottom of the dish, the total number of obtained cells increased 15–20 times, and the time required for the primary passage was reduced. Moreover, cells harvested from the repeated cultures exhibited no significant difference in their immunophenotype, potential for multilineage differentiation, or proliferative, osteoinductive capacities, and final osteogenesis. The application of the repeated culture frame (RCF) not only made full use of the Wharton’s jelly but also simplified and specified the culture process, and thus, the culture efficiency was significantly improved. In summary, abundant hUCMSCs of dependable quality can be acquired using the RCF. PMID:25329501

  1. Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly repeated culture system: a new device and method for obtaining abundant mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhengqi; Hou, Tianyong; Xing, Junchao; Wu, Xuehui; Jin, Huiyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Deng, Moyuan; Xie, Zhao; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    To date, various types of cells for seeding regenerative scaffolds have been used for bone tissue engineering. Among seed cells, the mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hUCMSCs) represent a promising candidate and hold potential for bone tissue engineering due to the the lack of ethical controversies, accessibility, sourced by non-invasive procedures for donors, a reduced risk of contamination, osteogenic differentiation capacities, and higher immunomodulatory capacity. However, the current culture methods are somewhat complicated and inefficient and often fail to make the best use of the umbilical cord (UC) tissues. Moreover, these culture processes cannot be performed on a large scale and under strict quality control. As a result, only a small quantity of cells can be harvested using the current culture methods. To solve these problems, we designed and evaluated an UC Wharton's jelly repeated culture device. Using this device, hUCMSCs were obtained from the repeated cultures and their quantities and biological characteristics were compared. We found that using our culture device, which retained all tissue blocks on the bottom of the dish, the total number of obtained cells increased 15-20 times, and the time required for the primary passage was reduced. Moreover, cells harvested from the repeated cultures exhibited no significant difference in their immunophenotype, potential for multilineage differentiation, or proliferative, osteoinductive capacities, and final osteogenesis. The application of the repeated culture frame (RCF) not only made full use of the Wharton's jelly but also simplified and specified the culture process, and thus, the culture efficiency was significantly improved. In summary, abundant hUCMSCs of dependable quality can be acquired using the RCF.

  2. Schwann cells induce neuronal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Mercedes; Vaquero, Jesús; Oya, Santiago; Miguel, Miriam

    2005-04-04

    Bone marrow stromal cells are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells have been shown to have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under specific experimental conditions, using chemical factors. We now describe how bone marrow stromal cells can be induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are co-cultured with Schwann cells. When compared with chemical differentiation, expression of neuronal differentiation markers begins later, but one week after beginning co-culture, most bone marrow stromal cells showed a typical neuronal morphology. Our present findings support the transdifferentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, and the potential utility of these cells for the treatment of degenerative and acquired disorders of the nervous system.

  3. A Functional Assay to Assess Connexin43 Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication of Second Messengers in Cultured Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stains, Joseph P.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cell-to-cell transfer of small molecules is a fundamental way by which multicellular organisms coordinate function. Recent work has highlighted the complexity of biologic responses downstream of gap junctions. As the connexin-regulated effectors are coming into focus, there is a need to develop functional assays that allow the specific testing of biologically relevant second messengers. Here, we describe a modification of the classic gap junction parachute assay to assess biologically relevant molecules passed though gap junctions. PMID:27207296

  4. Bone-immune cell crosstalk: bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Mori, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Faccio, Roberta; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  5. Up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling increases both osteoblast-specific marker expression and bone marrow adipogenesis in Gja1Jrt/+ stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zappitelli, Tanya; Chen, Frieda; Aubin, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice carry a mutation in one allele of the gap junction protein α1 gene (Gja1), resulting in a G60S connexin 43 (Cx43) mutant protein that is dominant negative for Cx43 protein production of <50% of wild-type (WT) levels and significantly reduced gap junction formation and function in osteoblasts and other Cx43-expressing cells. Previously we reported that Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice exhibited early-onset osteopenia caused by activation of osteoclasts secondary to activation of osteoblast lineage cells, which expressed increased RANKL and produced an abnormal resorption-stimulating bone matrix high in BSP content. Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice also displayed early and progressive bone marrow atrophy, with a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity versus WT littermates but no increase in adipose tissues elsewhere in the body. BMP2/4 production and signaling were increased in Gja1(Jrt)/+ trabecular bone and osteogenic stromal cell cultures, which contributed to the up-regulated expression of osteoblast-specific markers (e.g., Bsp and Ocn) in Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and increased Pparg2 expression in bone marrow-derived adipoprogenitors in vitro. The elevated levels of BMP2/4 signaling in G60S Cx43-containing cells resulted at least in part from elevated levels of cAMP. We conclude that up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling in trabecular bone and/or stromal cells increases osteoblast-specific marker expression in hyperactive Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and may also increase bone marrow adipogenesis by up-regulation of Pparg2 in the Cx43-deficient Gja1(Jrt)/+ mouse model.

  6. In vitro quantitation of lethal and physiologic effects of total body irradiation on stromal and hematopoietic stem cells in continuous bone marrow cultures from Rf mice

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, J.S.; Eckner, R.J.; Otten, J.A.; Tennant, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of in vivo total body irradiation (TBI) and interval from TBI to explant of marrow on: stromal cell proliferation in vitro; stromal cell support of hematopoiesis in continuous bone marrow culture; and generation of WEHI-3 growth factor (GF)-dependent lines of hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated. Explant of marrow at 2, 4, 5, or 6 months after single fraction TBI (300-800 rad) was associated with decreased longevity of hemopoiesis and a decrease in the proliferative capacity of fibroblastic adherent-stromal colony forming cells (CFUf) as measured by colony size at 14 days and number of colonies per 10/sup 6/ cells plated. In contrast, explant of marrow 8 to 24 months after TBI produced cultures with longevity that was indistinguishable from age-matched control cultures (19-24 weeks). Marrow from irradiated first and second generation recipients of serially transferred marrow demonstrated a similar 7-month in vivo recovery period; however, the plateau maximum duration of hemopoiesis did not return to control levels. Purified stromal cell cultures were prepared by corticosteroid-deprivation of explanted marrow for 28 days and were then engrafted in vitro with marrow from C57BL/6J or RfM/UN mice that had been irradiated 1 month previously. Hemopoiesis in these cultures was restored, and they produced GM-CFUc and granulocytes for 15-24 weeks. Thus, healthy stroma supported growth of recently irradiated hemopoietic cells in vitro. Indirect effects of x-irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells through damage and repair in the stromal cell compartment can be effectively studied with the present bone marrow culture system. (JMT)

  7. Evolution of malignant plasmacytoma cell lines from K14E7 Fancd2−/− mouse long-term bone marrow cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichen; Hou, Wen; Epperly, Michael W.; Rigatti, Lora; Wang, Hong; Franicola, Darcy; Sivanathan, Aranee; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effect of expression of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV E7) oncogene on hematopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) derived from K14E7 (FVB) Fancd2−/− (129/Sv), K14E7 Fancd2+/+, Fancd2−/−, and control (FVB X 129/Sv) Fl mice. K14E7 Fancd2−/− and Fancd2−/− LTBMCs showed decreased duration of production of total nonadherent hematopoietic cells and progenitors forming day 7 and day 14 multilineage CFU-GEMM colonies in secondary cultures (7 wks and 8 wks respectively) compared to cultures from K14E7 Fancd2+/+ (17 wks) or control mice (18 wks) p < 0.0001. Marrow stromal cell lines derived from both K14E7 Fancd2−/− and Fancd2−/− cultures were radiosensitive, as were IL-3 dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell lines derived from K14E7 Fancd2−/− cultures. In contrast, Fancd2−/− mouse hematopoietic progenitor cell lines and fresh marrow were radioresistant. K14E7 Fancd2−/− mouse freshly explanted bone marrow expressed no detectable K14 or E7; however, LTBMCs produced K14 positive factor-independent (FI) clonal malignant plasmacytoma forming cell lines in which E7 was detected in the nucleus with p53 and Rb. Transfection of an E6/E7 plasmid into Fancd2−/−, but not control Fancd2+/+ IL-3 dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell lines, increased cloning efficiency, cell growth, and induced malignant cell lines. Therefore, the altered radiobiology of hematopoietic progenitor cells and malignant transformation in vitro by K14E7 expression in cells of the Fancd2−/− genotype suggests a potential role of HPV in hematopoietic malignancies in FA patients. PMID:27637088

  8. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-31

    numbers of granulocyte-progenitor cell colonies (GM-CFUc). We have now begun the molecular biology for molecular cloning and isolation of the gene...of the human IL-3 gene. The methods for this attack are described below. Molecular Cloning and Expression of the Gene for Human Interleukin-3 We have

  9. A robust and reproducible animal serum-free culture method for clinical-grade bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Anita; Oja, Sofia; Kilpinen, Lotta; Kaartinen, Tanja; Möller, Johanna; Laitinen, Saara; Korhonen, Matti; Nystedt, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Efficient xenofree expansion methods to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based culture methods are strongly encouraged by the regulators and are needed to facilitate the adoption of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies. In the current study we established a clinically-compliant and reproducible animal serum-free culture protocol for bone marrow-(BM-) MSCs based on an optimized platelet-derived supplement. Our study compared two different platelet-derived supplements, platelet lysate PL1 versus PL2, produced by two different methods and lysed with different amounts of freeze-thaw cycles. Our study also explored the effect of a low oxygen concentration on BM-MSCs. FBS-supplemented BM-MSC culture served as control. Growth kinetics, differentiation and immunomodulatory potential, morphology, karyotype and immunophenotype was analysed. Growth kinetics in long-term culture was also studied. Based on the initial results, we chose to further process develop the PL1-supplemented culture protocol at 20 % oxygen. The results from 11 individual BM-MSC batches expanded in the chosen condition were consistent, yielding 6.60 × 10(9) ± 4.74 × 10(9) cells from only 20 ml of bone marrow. The cells suppressed T-cell proliferation, displayed normal karyotype and typical MSC differentiation potential and phenotype. The BM-MSCs were, however, consistently HLA-DR positive when cultured in platelet lysate (7.5-66.1 %). We additionally show that culture media antibiotics and sterile filtration of the platelet lysate can be successfully omitted. We present a robust and reproducible clinically-compliant culture method for BM-MSCs based on platelet lysate, which enables high quantities of HLA-DR positive MSCs at a low passage number (p2) and suitable for clinical use.

  10. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    After 6 hours, slides were rinsed and labeled with phalloidin conjugated to Alexa 568 (Life Technologies ). Cells were imaged with an Olympus FV300...osteoblasts were first removed from the matrix decellularized with deoxycholate. The cells on matrix grown with 52 pg/ml estradiol, the normal...focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Therefore we examined FAK plaque formation in BRMS1 cells cultured on MC3T3E-1 osteoblasts cultured in the bioreactor with

  11. Cultured Human Periosteum-Derived Cells Can Differentiate into Osteoblasts in a Perioxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Mediated Fashion via Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Eun; Park, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jeong-Won; Kang, Young-Hoon; Park, Bong-Wook; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. In this study, we used dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, to investigate whether BMP signaling is involved in the positive effects of PPARγ agonists on osteogenic phenotypes of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. Both histochemical detection and bioactivity of ALP were clearly increased in the periosteum-derived cells treated with the PPARγ agonist at day 10 of culture. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist also caused an increase in alizarin red S staining and calcium content in the periosteum-derived osteoblasts at 2 and 3 weeks of culture. In contrast, dorsomorphin markedly decreased ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and calcium content in both the cells treated with PPARγ agonist and the cells cultured in osteogenic induction media without PPARγ agonist during the culture period. In addition, the PPARγ agonist clearly increased osteogenic differentiation medium-induced BMP-2 upregulation in the periosteum-derived osteoblastic cells at 2 weeks of culture as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunocytochemical analyses. Although further study will be needed to clarify the mechanisms of PPARγ-regulated osteogenesis

  12. Cultured Human Periosteum-Derived Cells Can Differentiate into Osteoblasts in a Perioxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Mediated Fashion via Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Eun; Park, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jeong-Won; Kang, Young-Hoon; Park, Bong-Wook; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. In this study, we used dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, to investigate whether BMP signaling is involved in the positive effects of PPARγ agonists on osteogenic phenotypes of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. Both histochemical detection and bioactivity of ALP were clearly increased in the periosteum-derived cells treated with the PPARγ agonist at day 10 of culture. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist also caused an increase in alizarin red S staining and calcium content in the periosteum-derived osteoblasts at 2 and 3 weeks of culture. In contrast, dorsomorphin markedly decreased ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and calcium content in both the cells treated with PPARγ agonist and the cells cultured in osteogenic induction media without PPARγ agonist during the culture period. In addition, the PPARγ agonist clearly increased osteogenic differentiation medium-induced BMP-2 upregulation in the periosteum-derived osteoblastic cells at 2 weeks of culture as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunocytochemical analyses. Although further study will be needed to clarify the mechanisms of PPARγ-regulated osteogenesis

  13. Using brain slice cultures of mouse brain to assess the effect of growth factors on differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bratincsák, András; Lonyai, Anna; Shahar, Tal; Hansen, Arne; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Mezey, Eva

    2007-03-30

    Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs) have been reported to form neurons and supportive cells in the brain. We describe a technique that combines the simplicity of in vitro studies with many of the advantages of in vivo experiments. We cultured mouse brain slices, deposited GFP-tagged BMDSCs evenly distributed on their surfaces, and then added test factors to the culture medium. Addition of both SDF-1 and EGF resulted in morphological changes of BMDSC and in the induction of islet-1, a marker of neuroepithelial progenitors. We conclude that organotypic tissue culture (OTC) may allow us to detect the effects of exogenous factors on the differentiation of BMDSCs (or any other type of stem cells) in an environment that may resemble the CNS after brain injury. Once such factors have been identified they could be evaluated for tissue regeneration in more complex, whole animal models.

  14. Interactions between Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adipocytes, and Osteoblasts in a 3D Tri-Culture Model of Hyperglycemic Conditions in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Torri E.; Hammoudi, Taymour M.; Kemp, Melissa L.; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that uncontrolled diabetes and consequential hyperglycemic conditions can lead to increased incidence of osteoporosis. Osteoblasts, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all components of the bone marrow microenvironment and thus may have an effect on diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the influence of these three cell types on each other, especially in the context of hyperglycemia. Thus, we developed a hydrogel-based 3D culture platform engineered to allow live-cell retrieval in order to investigate the interactions between MSCs, osteoblasts, and adipocytes in mono-, co-, and tri-culture configurations under hyperglycemic conditions for 7 days of culture. Gene expression, histochemical analysis of differentiation markers, and cell viability were measured for all cell types, and MSC-laden hydrogels were degraded to retrieve cells to assess colony-forming capacity. Multivariate models of gene expression data indicated that primary discrimination was dependent on neighboring cell type, validating the need for co-culture configurations to study conditions modeling this disease state. MSC viability and clonogenicity were reduced when mono- and co-cultured with osteoblasts in high glucose levels. In contrast, MSCs had no reduction of viability or clonogenicity when cultured with adipocytes in high glucose conditions and adipogenic gene expression indicated that cross-talk between MSCs and adipocytes may occur. Thus, our unique culture platform combined with post-culture multivariate analysis provided novel insight into cellular interactions within the MSC microenvironment and highlights the necessity of multi-cellular culture systems for further investigation of complex pathologies such as diabetes and osteoporosis. PMID:24463781

  15. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  16. An Exploratory Clinical Trial for Idiopathic Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head by Cultured Autologous Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Augmented with Vascularized Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Tomoki; Goto, Koji; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Ueda, Michiko; Kasai, Yasunari; Maekawa, Taira; Tada, Harue; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ION) is a painful disorder that progresses to collapse of the femoral head and destruction of the hip joint. Although its precise pathology remains unknown, the loss of blood supply causing the loss of living bone-forming cells is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. Transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising tool for regenerating the musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transplantation of cultured autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in combination with vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of advanced stage ION in a clinical trial. Ten patients with stage 3 ION were enrolled in this study. Autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured with autologous serum, and cells (0.5–1.0×108) were transplanted after mixing with β-TCP granules in combination with vascularized iliac bone grafts. Patients were assessed 24 months after treatment. The primary and secondary endpoints were progression of the radiological stage and changes in bone volume at the femoral head, and clinical score, respectively. Nine of ten patients completed the protocol, seven of whom remained at stage 3, and the remaining two cases progressed to stage 4. The average bone volume increased from 56.5±8.5 cm3 to 57.7±10.6 cm3. The average clinical score according to the Japan Orthopaedic Association improved from 65.6±25.5 points to 87.9±19.0 points. One severe adverse event was observed, which was not related to the clinical trial. Although the efficacy of cell transplantation was still to be determined, all procedures were successfully performed and some young patients with extensive necrotic lesions with pain demonstrated good bone regeneration with amelioration of symptoms. Further improvements in our method using MSCs and the proper selection of patients will open a new approach for the

  17. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  18. Autologous bone marrow-derived cultured mesenchymal stem cells delivered in a fibrin spray accelerate healing in murine and human cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Vincent; Iwamoto, Satori; Chartier, Molly; Yufit, Tatyana; Butmarc, Janet; Kouttab, Nicholas; Shrayer, David; Carson, Polly

    2007-06-01

    The nonhematopoietic component of bone marrow includes multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) capable of differentiating into fat, bone, muscle, cartilage, and endothelium. In this report, we describe the cell culture and characterization, delivery system, and successful use of topically applied autologous MSC to accelerate the healing of human and experimental murine wounds. A single bone marrow aspirate of 35-50 mL was obtained from patients with acute wounds (n = 5) from skin cancer surgery and from patients with chronic, long-standing, nonhealing lower extremity wounds (n = 8). Cells were grown in vitro under conditions favoring the propagation of MSC, and flow cytometry and immunostaining showed a profile (CD29+, CD44+, CD105+, CD166+, CD34-, CD45-) highly consistent with published reports of human MSC. Functional induction studies confirmed that the MSC could differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. The cultured autologous MSC were applied up to four times to the wounds using a fibrin polymer spray system with a double-barreled syringe. Both fibrinogen (containing the MSC) and thrombin were diluted to optimally deliver a polymerized gel that immediately adhered to the wound, without run-off, and yet allowing the MSC to remain viable and migrate from the gel. Sequential adjacent sections from biopsy specimens of the wound bed after MSC application showed elongated spindle cells, similar to their in vitro counterparts, which immunostained for MSC markers. Generation of new elastic fibers was evident by both special stains and antibodies to human elastin. The application of cultured cells was safe, without treatment-related adverse events. A strong direct correlation was found between the number of cells applied (greater than 1 x 10(6) cells per cm2 of wound area) and the subsequent decrease in chronic wound size (p = 0.0058). Topical application of autologous MSC also stimulated closure of full-thickness wounds in diabetic mice (db

  19. In vitro generation of whole osteochondral constructs using rabbit bone marrow stromal cells, employing a two-chambered co-culture well design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelei; Ng, Kian Siang; Ravi, Sujata; Goh, James C H; Toh, Siew Lok

    2016-04-01

    The regeneration of whole osteochondral constructs with a physiological structure has been a significant issue, both clinically and academically. In this study, we present a method using rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on a silk-RADA peptide scaffold in a specially designed two-chambered co-culture well for the generation of multilayered osteochondral constructs in vitro. This specially designed two-chambered well can simultaneously provide osteogenic and chondrogenic stimulation to cells located in different regions of the scaffold. We demonstrated that this co-culture approach could successfully provide specific chemical stimulation to BMSCs located on different layers within a single scaffold, resulting in the formation of multilayered osteochondral constructs containing cartilage-like and subchondral bone-like tissue, as well as the intermediate osteochondral interface. The cells in the intermediate region were found to be hypertrophic chondrocytes, embedded in a calcified extracellular matrix containing glycosaminoglycans and collagen types I, II and X. In conclusion, this study provides a single-step approach that highlights the feasibility of rabbit BMSCs as a single-cell source for multilayered osteochondral construct generation in vitro.

  20. Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Neuron-Like Cells In Vitro and Co-Cultured with Biological Scaffold as Transplantation Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Yue-Lin; Liu, Shu-Ling; Hou, Shu-Ping; Mao, Guo-Chao; Liu, Ning; Ji, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Autograft and allograft transplantation are used to prompt the regeneration of axons after nerve injury. However, the poor self-regeneration caused by the glial scar and growth inhibitory factors after neuronal necrosis limit the efficacy of these methods. The purpose of this study was to develop a new chitosan porous scaffold for cell seeding. Material/Methods The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and tissue-engineered biomaterial scaffold compound were constructed and co-cultured in vitro with the differentiated BMSCs of Wistar rats and chitosan scaffold in a 3D environment. The purity of the third-generation BMSCs culture was identified using flow cytometry and assessment of induced neuronal differentiation. The scaffolds were prepared by the freeze-drying method. The internal structure of scaffolds and the change of cells’ growth and morphology were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The proliferation of cells was detected with the MTT method. Results On day 5 there was a significant difference in the absorbance value of the experimental group (0.549±0.0256) and the control group (0.487±0.0357) (P>0.05); but on day 7 there was no significant difference in the proliferation of the experimental group (0.751±0.011) and the control group and (0.78±0.017) (P>0.05). Conclusions Tissue engineering technology can provide a carrier for cells seeding and is expected to become an effective method for the regeneration and repair of nerve cells. Our study showed that chitosan porous scaffolds can be used for such purposes. PMID:27225035

  1. Different combinations of growth factors for the tenogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in monolayer culture and in fibrin-based three-dimensional constructs.

    PubMed

    Bottagisio, Marta; Lopa, Silvia; Granata, Valentina; Talò, Giuseppe; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Moretti, Matteo; Barbara Lovati, Arianna

    2017-03-16

    Tendon injuries are severe burdens in clinics. The poor tendon healing is related to an ineffective response of resident cells and inadequate vascularization. Thanks to the high proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capability, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source to support the tendon repair. To date, the association of various growth factors to induce the in vitro tenogenic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells is poorly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the tenogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs by testing the combination of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-12 and 14) with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both in 2D and 3D cultures within fibrin-based constructs. After 7 and 14 days, the tenogenic differentiation was assessed by analyzing cell metabolism and collagen content, the gene expression of tenogenic markers and the histological cell distribution and collagen deposition within 3D constructs. Our results demonstrated that the association of BMP-14 with TGF-β3 and VEGF enhanced the BMSC tenogenic differentiation both in 2D and 3D cultures. This study supports the use of fibrin as hydrogel-based matrix to generate spheroids loaded with tenogenic differentiated BMSCs that could be used to treat tendon lesions in the future.

  2. Co-culture of bone marrow stem cells and macrophages indicates intermediate mechanism between local inflammation and innate immune system in diabetic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Li, Hao; Li, Bo; Gong, Qiulin; Chen, Xinmin; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic periodontitis (DP), which has been shown to cause alveolar bone loss, is among the most common complications associated with diabetes. The precise mechanisms underlying alveolar bone loss in patients with DP remain unclear. Therefore, the present study established a co-culture system of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and macrophages, in order to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying DP-associated alveolar bone loss in vitro. In addition, Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection and high glucose levels were used to induce DP in mice. The present study evaluated the protein expression levels of various chemokines and the migration of BMSCs and macrophages. The protein expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were significantly increased in the BMSCs exposed to high glucose and PG, which may have been due to the activation of MAPK. In addition, DP induction in mice was associated with the release of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) from BMSCs and the secretion of chemokine (C-C Motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and tumor necrosis factor-α from macrophages, which was associated in turn with enhanced adhesion and chemotaxis of macrophages. The results of the present study suggested that DP led to the upregulation of CCL2 in the periodontal tissues and enhanced macrophage infiltration via the CCL2/CCR2 axis, which in turn promoted alveolar bone loss. PMID:27446245

  3. Deflazacort increases osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow culture and the ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H.; Kang, Y. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Moon, I. K.; Yim, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Han, K. O.; Jang, H. C.; Yoon, H. K.; Han, I. K.

    2001-01-01

    Information on precise effects of deflazacort on bone cell function, especially osteoclasts, is quite limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to test effects of deflazacort on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow cultures and on the regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand (RANKL) mRNA expressions by RT-PCR in the ST2 marrow stromal cells. TRAP-positive mononuclear cells increased after the treatment of deflazacort at 10(-9) to 10(-7) M alone for 6 days in a dose-dependent manner. Number of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells (MNCs) increased significantly with combined treatment of deflazacort at 10(-7) M and 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M compared to that of cultures treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone (p<0.05). Exposure to deflazacort at 10(-7) M in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M in the last 3-day culture had greater stimulatory effect on osteoclast-like cell formation than that of the first 3-day culture did. Deflazacort at 10(-10) -10(-6) M downregulated OPG and upregulated RANKL in mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that deflazacort stimulate osteoclast precursor in the absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and enhance differentiation of osteoclasts in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3. These effects are, in part, thought to be mediated by the regulation of the expression of OPG and RANKL mRNA in marrow stromal cells. PMID:11748360

  4. In vitro and in vivo co-culture of chondrocytes and bone marrow stem cells in photocrosslinked PCL-PEG-PCL hydrogels enhances cartilage formation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chao-Yin; Ku, Kuan-Lin; Yang, Shu-Rui; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Peng, Sydney; Peng, Yu-Shiang; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Chondrocytes (CH) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) are sources that can be used in cartilage tissue engineering. Co-culture of CHs and BMSCs is a promising strategy for promoting chondrogenic differentiation. In this study, articular CHs and BMSCs were encapsulated in PCL-PEG-PCL photocrosslinked hydrogels for 4 weeks. Various ratios of CH:BMSC co-cultures were investigated to identify the optimal ratio for cartilage formation. The results thus obtained revealed that co-culturing CHs and BMSCs in hydrogels provides an appropriate in vitro microenvironment for chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage matrix production. Co-culture with a 1:4 CH:BMSC ratio significantly increased the synthesis of GAGs and collagen. In vivo cartilage regeneration was evaluated using a co-culture system in rabbit models. The co-culture system exhibited a hyaline chondrocyte phenotype with excellent regeneration, resembling the morphology of native cartilage. This finding suggests that the co-culture of these two cell types promotes cartilage regeneration and that the system, including the hydrogel scaffold, has potential in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  6. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Roney, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse bone marrow cells. The dendritic cells grown in culture facilitate experiments that may require large number of dendritic cells without great expense or use of large number of mice.

  7. Cell-based therapies for regenerating bone

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular therapies to replenish bone lost due to acquired conditions such as trauma, infection, tumor, periprosthetic osteolysis and other etiologies have become widespread. Traditional, open, surgical bone grafting techniques have given way to newer cellular therapies that are potentially less invasive and have a lower complication rate and faster recovery time. These new technologies include bone marrow harvesting with concentration of osteoprogenitor cells with/without cell culture, scaffolds which are both osteoconductive and osteoinductive, attempts to facilitate mesenchymal stem cell and osteoprogenitor cell homing both locally and systemically, genetic engineering of specialized stem cells, and the use of potentially immune-privileged fetal and other types of stem cells. Some of these techniques have already been introduced into the orthopaedic clinic, whereas others are still in the pre-clinical testing phase. Given the limited supply of autologous graft, these new techniques will have a dramatic impact on bone regeneration in the future. PMID:24436510

  8. Xeno-free culture condition for human bone marrow and umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells using human umbilical cord blood serum

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeli, Azadeh; Moshrefi, Mojgan; Shamsara, Ali; Eftekhar-vaghefi, Seyed Hasan; Nematollahi-mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used in cell culture laboratories, risk of zoonotic infections and allergic side effects create obstacles for its use in clinical trials. Therefore, an alternative supplement with proper inherent growth-promoting activities is demanded. Objective: To find FBS substitute, we tested human umbilical cord blood serum (hUCS) for proliferation of human umbilical cord matrix derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBM-MSCs). Materials and Methods: Umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates, delivered by Caesarian section, was collected and the serum was separated. hUC-MSCs and hBM-MSCs were isolated and characterized by assessment of cell surface antigens by flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The cells were then cultured in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) by conventional methods in three preparations: 1- with hUCS, 2- with FBS, and 3- without serum supplements. Cell proliferation was measured using WST-1 assay, and cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. Results: The cells cultured in hUCS and FBS exhibited similar morphology and mesenchymal stem cells properties. WST-1 proliferation assay data showed no significant difference between the proliferation rate of either cells following hUCS and FBS supplementation. Trypan blue exclusion dye test also revealed no significant difference for viability between hUCS and FBS groups. A significant difference was detected between the proliferation rate of stem cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium compared with serum-free medium. Conclusion: Our results indicate that human umbilical cord serum can effectively support proliferation of hBM-MSCS and hUC-MSCs in vitro and can be used as an appropriate substitute for FBS, especially in clinical studies. PMID:27738658

  9. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    PubMed Central

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  10. In vitro models of periodontal cells: a comparative study of long-term gingival, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cell cultures in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Maria Cristina Trigo; Costa, Maria Adelina; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2007-06-01

    Human gingival (HG), periodontal ligament (HPL) and alveolar bone (HAB) cells (first subculture) were cultured (10(4) cells/cm2) for 35 days in alpha-Minimal Essential Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum in the presence of (i) ascorbic acid (AA, 50 microg/mL), (ii) AA + beta-glycerophosphate (betaGP, 10 mM) and (iii) AA + betaGP + dexamethasone (Dex, 10 nM). Cultures were assessed for cell attachment and spreading, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and matrix mineralization. HG cell cultures presented a high proliferation rate, a low ability to synthesize ALP and ACP and the formation of a non-mineralized extracellular matrix, regardless the experimental situation. HPL cell cultures were very sensitive to the culture conditions and showed a high proliferation rate, synthesis of moderate levels of ALP and ACP and a modest matrix mineralization in the presence of AA + betaGP + Dex. HAB cell cultures presented a growth rate lower than that of HG and HPL cells, a high ALP activity and comparatively low levels of ACP, and the ready formation of a heavy mineralized matrix in the presence of betaGP. In the three periodontal cell cultures, Dex enhanced cell proliferation and expression of osteoblastic markers. Results showed that betaGP and Dex allowed the modulation of the cell proliferation/differentiation behavior within the proposed physiological and regenerative capabilities of these periodontal cells.

  11. Bone repair and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  12. Conversion of Normal Ly-1-Positive B-Lineage Cells into Ly-1-Positive Macrophages in Long-Term Bone Marrow Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Shigeki; Tominaga, Akira; Migita, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira

    1990-01-01

    We obtained eight different cell lines in the long-term bone marrow culture system that showed a germ-line configuration of the joining (J) region segments of the Ig heavy-chain (IgH) genes. Their surface markers were CD45R+, Ly-1+, Lyb-2+, cIgM-, sIgM-, Ia-, Thy-1-, Mac-1-, and IL-2R (Tac)+. Use of very young mice and the presence of IL-5 were important for preferential promotion of the survival of B-lineage lymphocytes bearing the Ly-1 markers. When we treated two of them (J8 and J10) with 5-azacytidine for 24 h followed by co-culture with stromal cells and IL-.5, they became Ly-1+, sIgM+ B cells, and Ly-1+, Mac-1+ macrophagelike cells, respectively. After other early lymphoid lines (J1, J8, and J13) were maintained by co-culture with ST2 and IL-5 for more than a year, they showed a heterogeneous DNA rearrangement profile of the J region segment of the IgH gene, although only J13 rearranged the κ-light chain gene. Northern blot analysis revealed that these cell lines expressed Cμ-mRNA, and λ5-mRNA, consistent with normal pre-B cells. Intriguingly, J1, J8, and J13 expressed c-fms mRNA constitutively. When J13 cells were co-cultured with ST2 and GM-CSF in place of ST2 and IL-5, they acquired Mac-1 expression and retained Ly-1 expression. They were morphologically macrophages, nonspecific-esterase-positive, and showed phagocytosis of latex beads. These results support evidence for a close relationship between the myeloid and Ly-1+ B-cell pathways of differentiation, and indicate that our IL- 5-dependent clones are multipotential intermediates in differentiation from pro-B cells to B cells and macrophages. PMID:2136207

  13. Co-culture of primary CLL cells with bone marrow mesenchymal cells, CD40 ligand and CpG ODN promotes proliferation of chemoresistant CLL cells phenotypically comparable to those proliferating in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Purroy, Noelia; Abrisqueta, Pau; Carabia, Júlia; Carpio, Cecilia; Palacio, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells residing in the bone marrow (BM) and in secondary lymphoid tissues receive survival and proliferative signals from the microenvironment, resulting in persistence of residual disease after treatment. In this study, we characterized primary CLL cells cultured with BM stromal cells, CD40 ligand and CpG ODN to partially mimic the microenvironment in the proliferative centers. This co-culture system induced proliferation and chemoresistance in primary CLL cells. Importantly, co-cultured primary CLL cells shared many phenotypical features with circulating proliferative CLL cells, such as upregulation of ZAP-70 and CD38 and higher CD49d and CD62L expression. This indicates aggressiveness and capability to interact with surrounding cells, respectively. In addition, levels of CXCR4 were decreased due to CXCR4 internalization after CXCL12 stimulation by BM stromal cells. We suggest that this co-culture system can be used to test drugs and their combinations that target the proliferative and drug resistant CLL cells. PMID:25544766

  14. Biosynthesis of bone proteins [SPP-1 (secreted phosphoprotein-1, osteopontin), BSP (bone sialoprotein) and SPARC (osteonectin)] in association with mineralized-tissue formation by fetal-rat calvarial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, T; Bellows, C G; Kasugai, S; Butler, W T; Sodek, J

    1991-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the expression of bone proteins and the formation of mineralized-tissue matrix, the biosynthesis of non-collagenous bone proteins was studied in cultures of fetal-rat calvarial cells, which form mineralized nodules of bone-like tissue in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate. The temporal pattern of protein synthesis in both mineralizing and non-mineralizing cultures was studied by metabolic labelling with [35S]methionine, 35SO4(2-) or 32PO4(3-) over a 5-day period. After a 24 h labelling period, the culture media were harvested and the cell layers extracted sequentially with aq. 0.5 M-NH3, followed by 4 M-guanidinium chloride (GdmCl), 0.5 M-EDTA and a second extraction with 4 M-GdmCl. Protein associated with collagenous bone matrix was analysed after digestion with bacterial collagenase. On the basis of [35S]methionine labelling, the major proteins extracted from the mineralizing matrix were secreted phosphoprotein-1 (SPP-1; osteopontin), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and a 14 kDa phosphoprotein. The presence of SPP-1 and BSP in the conditioned media of both mineralizing and non-mineralizing cultures and their incorporation into the mineralizing nodules indicated that these proteins associate with preformed mineral crystals. However, some BSP was also present in GdmCl extracts and, together with a 35 kDa sulphated protein, was released from a bacterial-collagenase digestion of the tissue residue in both non-mineralizing and mineralizing cultures. Two forms of sulphated SPP-1 were identified, a highly phosphorylated 44 kDa species being the predominant form in the mineralized matrix. The BSP was more highly sulphated but less phosphorylated than SPP-1. Bone SPARC (secreted protein, acid and rich in cysteine) protein (osteonectin) was present almost entirely in the conditioned media and did not incorporate 32PO4(3-) or 35SO4(2-). The SPP-1 and the 14 kDa protein were susceptible to thrombin digestion, the 44 kDa SPP-1 being

  15. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    for metastatic breast cancer cells to grow or remain dormant. This hypothesis is being tested using a 3D bioreactor of ECM, derived from osteoblasts...dormant human cells to proliferate in the bioreactor in co-culture with OB. The effect appears to depend on prostaglandin production. Chronic...growth of cancer cells, murine osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1, were grown for 2 months in the bioreactor with a basal medium of αMEM with 10mM β

  16. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth by triiodothyronine in cell cultures from bone marrow of normal and anemic rats with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Malgor, L A; Valsecia, M E; Verges, E G; de Markowsky, E E

    1995-01-01

    In order to make a contribution in clarifying the role of thyroid hormones on modulation of erythropoiesis and to gain a further insight on the effects of these hormones in the anemia of chronic renal failure (CRF), we studied the action of triiodo-1-thyronine (LT3) and DT3, a dextrorotary non-calorigenic isomer of T3 on late (CFU-E) and early (BFU-E) committed erythroid precursor cells from bone marrow of normal and anemic uremic rats. Cultures were prepared using the methylcellulose technique containing a standard dose (182 mU/ml) of erythropoietin (Ep), LT3 and DT3 in doses of 0.5 and 1.5 micrograms/ml. Thyroid hormones were added to cultures in the absence of Ep. Our results demonstrated that LT3 and DT3 produced a direct and significant stimulation of CFU-E formation and a moderate increase of BFU-E. A dose-correlation was apparent in cultures containing thyroid hormones. DT3 was somewhat less active than LT3. As expected, Ep also produced a significant increase in erythroid colony formation, mainly CFU-E. It is notheworthy that the effects of LT3, DT3 and Ep on erythroid colony growth were significantly higher in marrow cultures from anemic rats with CRF, indicating an increased proliferative cell kinetics of committed erythroid cells in response to these drugs.

  17. [The process of heme synthesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultured under fibroblast growth factor bFGF and hypoxic conditions].

    PubMed

    Poleshko, A G; Lobanok, E S; Mezhevikina, L M; Fesenko, E E; Volotkovskiĭ, I D

    2014-01-01

    It was demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor bFGF influences the process of heme synthesis, the proliferation activity and viability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in culture under hypoxic conditions. The addition of fibroblast growth factor bFGF (7 ng/ml) to the medium under above conditions led to the accumulation of aminolevulinic acid--an early porphyrin and heme precursor, an increase in CD 71 expression--a transferrin receptor, and also a decrease in porphyrin pigments and heme contents--a late precursor and end products of heme synthesis, respectively. It was found that cultivation of the cells under hypoxic conditions and bFGF is an optimum to maintain high viability and proliferation capacity of the mesenchymal stem cells.

  18. Enhanced hepatic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in spheroidal aggregate culture on a decellularized liver scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ji; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Yujia; Li, Yi; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Wu, Xiujuan; Xie, Mingjun; Bu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the combination of aggregate culture and decellularized liver scaffolds (DLSs) promoted the hepatic differentiation of murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) into high yields of mature hepatocytes in vitro. Four culturing methods for differentiation [single cell (2D), spheroids (3D), 2D + DLS and 3D + DLS] were studied. To determine the differentiation stages of the MSCs, RT-qPCR of the hepatocyte genes, immunostaining of hepatocyte markers, and functional analyses were all performed. Compared with the other groups, hepatocyte-like cells which differentiated from BM-MSC spheroids on extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited more intensive staining of stored glycogen, an elevated level of urea biosynthesis and albumin secretion as well as the higher expression of hepatocyte-specific genes. Our results indicated that DLSs combined with spheroidal aggregate culture may be used as an effective method to facilitate the hepatic maturation of BM-MSCs and may have future applications in stem cell-based liver regenerative medicine. PMID:27314916

  19. Osteogenic and angiogenic potentials of monocultured and co-cultured human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells on three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunqing; Kim, Sungwoo; Fahrenholtz, Monica; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    The use of biodegradable beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds holds great promise for bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of β-TCP on bone and endothelial cells are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate cell proliferation and differentiation of mono- or co-cultured human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a three-dimensional porous, biodegradable β-TCP scaffold. In co-culture studies, the ratios of hBMSCs:HUVECs were 5:1, 1:1 and 1:5. Cellular morphologies of HUVECs, hBMSCs and co-cultured HUVECs/hBMSCs on the β-TCP scaffolds were monitored using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was monitored by measuring the amount of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) whereas hBMSC and HUVEC differentiation was assessed using the osteogenic and angiogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and PECAM-1 (CD31), respectively. Results show that HUVECs, hBMSCs and hBMSCs/HUVECs adhered to and proliferated well on the β-TCP scaffolds. In monoculture, hBMSCs grew faster than HUVECs on the β-TCP scaffolds after 7 days, but HUVECs reached similar levels of proliferation after 14 days. In monoculture, β-TCP scaffolds promoted ALP activities of both hBMSCs and HUVECs when compared to those grown on tissue culture well plates. ALP activity of cells in co-culture was higher than that of hBMSCs in monoculture. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results indicate that runx2 and alp gene expression in monocultured hBMSCs remained unchanged at days 7 and 14, but alp gene expression was significantly increased in hBMSC co-cultures when the contribution of individual cell types was not distinguished.

  20. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Serena; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Trubiani, Oriana; Giuliani, Alessandra

    2017-02-10

    This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D) images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT), the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block-DB) cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE). The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating) medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells' morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage) but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs.

  1. The use of bone marrow stromal cells (bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells) for alveolar bone tissue engineering: basic science to clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hideaki; Agata, Hideki; Inoue, Minoru; Asahina, Izumi; Tojo, Arinobu; Yamashita, Naohide; Imai, Kohzoh

    2014-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising field of regenerative medicine in which cultured cells, scaffolds, and osteogenic inductive signals are used to regenerate bone. Human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are the most commonly used cell source for bone tissue engineering. Although it is known that cell culture and induction protocols significantly affect the in vivo bone forming ability of BMSCs, the responsible factors of clinical outcome are poorly understood. The results from recent studies using human BMSCs have shown that factors such as passage number and length of osteogenic induction significantly affect ectopic bone formation, although such differences hardly affected the alkaline phosphatase activity or gene expression of osteogenic markers. Application of basic fibroblast growth factor helped to maintain the in vivo osteogenic ability of BMSCs. Importantly, responsiveness of those factors should be tested under clinical circumstances to improve the bone tissue engineering further. In this review, clinical application of bone tissue engineering was reviewed with putative underlying mechanisms.

  2. Culturing adult human bone marrow stem cells on gelatin scaffold with pNIPAAm as transplanted grafts for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Perng, Cherng-Kang; Kao, Chung-Lan; Yang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, Wen-Bin; Chu, Yue-Ru; Wang, Hsiao-Jung; Ma, Hsu; Ku, Hung-Hai; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2008-03-01

    Skin tissue engineering is a possible solution for the treatment of extensive skin defect. The ultimate goal of skin tissue engineering is to restore the complete functions of native skin, but until now the structures and functions of skins are only partially restored. By negative immunoselection (CD45 and glycophorin A), we isolated and cultivated adult human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) that are of multilineage differentiation potential. In this study, we first demonstrated that by using gelatin/thermo-sensitive poly N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAAm) and the immunocompromised mice model, the hBMSCs possess the differentiation potential of epidermis and the capability of healing skin wounds. The in vitro observations and the results of the scanning electron microscope showed that the hBMSCs can attach and proliferate in the gelatin/thermo-sensitive pNIPAAm. To further monitor the in vivo growth effect of the hBMSCs in the skin-defected nude mice, the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene was transduced into the hBMSCs by the murine stem cell viral vector. The results showed that the rates of cell growth and wound recovery in the hBMSC-treated group were significantly higher than those in the control group, which was only treated with the gelatin/pNIPAAm (p < 0.01). More importantly, the re-epithelialization markers of human pan-cytokeratin and E-cadherin were significantly increased on day 7, day 14, and day 21 after the hBMSC-scaffold with the pNIPAAM in the mice with skin defects (p < 0.05). Moreover, the stem cell markers of human CD13 and CD105 were gradually decreased during the period of wound healing. In sum, this novel method provides a transferring system for cell therapies and maintains its temperature-sensitive property of easy-peeling by lower-temperature treatment. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo GFP imaging systems provide a new imaging modality for understanding the differentiation process and the effective expression of stem cells in wound

  3. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Serena; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Trubiani, Oriana; Giuliani, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D) images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT), the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block—DB) cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE). The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating) medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells’ morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage) but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs. PMID:28208578

  4. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  5. Osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded on irradiated allogenic bone.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Dohi, Yoshiko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Akahane, Manabu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-02-01

    Allogenic bone grafting, a technique used in orthopaedic surgery, has several problems, including low osteogenic activity. To overcome the problem, this study aimed to determine whether in vivo osteogenesis could be enhanced using allogenic irradiated bone grafts after seeding with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The allogenic bone cylinders were extracted from ACI rats and sterilized by irradiation. Donor BMSCs were obtained from fresh Fischer 344 (F344) rat bone marrow by cell culture. The allogenic bone with or without BMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into syngeneic F344 rats. At 4 weeks after transplantation, high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-specific osteocalcin mRNA expression and newly formed bone were detected in the allogenic bone with BMSCs. The origin of the newly formed bone was derived from cultured donor BMSCs. However, none of these identifiers of osteogenesis were detected in either the fresh or the irradiated allogenic bone without BMSCs. These results indicate the availability of autologous BMSCs to heighten the osteogenic response of allogenic bone. Our present tissue-engineering method might contribute to a wide variety of allogenic bone grafting techniques in clinical settings.

  6. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  7. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models. PMID:27896266

  8. Tissue Engineered Bone Grafts: Biological Requirements, Tissue Culture and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Mirjam; Grayson, Warren L.; Wan, Leo Q.; Marolt, Darja; Drobnic, Matej; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The tremendous need for bone tissue in numerous clinical situations and the limited availability of suitable bone grafts are driving the development of tissue engineering approaches to bone repair. In order to engineer viable bone grafts, one needs to understand the mechanisms of native bone development and fracture healing, as these processes should ideally guide the selection of optimal conditions for tissue culture and implantation. Engineered bone grafts have been shown to have capacity for osteogenesis, osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteointegration - functional connection between the host bone and the graft. Cells from various anatomical sources in conjunction with scaffolds and osteogenic factors have been shown to form bone tissue in vitro. The use of bioreactor systems to culture cells on scaffolds before implantation further improved the quality of the resulting bone grafts. Animal studies confirmed the capability of engineered grafts to form bone and integrate with the host tissues. However, the vascularization of bone remains one of the hurdles that need to be overcome if clinically sized, fully viable bone grafts are to be engineered and implanted. We discuss here the biological guidelines for tissue engineering of bone, the bioreactor cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells on three-dimensional scaffolds, and the need for vascularization and functional integration of bone grafts following implantation. PMID:19075755

  9. VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells promotes bone formation of tissue-engineered bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boling; Li, Xihai; Liang, Guiqing; Liu, Xianxiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo vascularization and bone formation activity of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of VEGF165 in rat bone marrow MSCs was confirmed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The MSCs were cultured together with nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (NHAC) to form tissue-engineered bone. Untransfected MSCs were used as controls. The mice were sacrificed, and the bone xenografts were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified for the degree of vascularization and new bone formation. Based on our results, expression of the VEGF165 gene was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry following transfection and 4 weeks of selection. The co-cultured NHAC- and VEGF-transfected MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared to the controls (P<0.05). In the mice that received the tissue-engineered bone xenografts, clumps of cartilage cells, irregular bone-like tissue and microvessels were observed. The growth of these structures progressed with time. In the control mice, however, only small amounts of bone-like and fibrotic tissue were observed. The differences between the control and experimental groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, VEGF165‑transfected bone marrow MSCs promotes vascularization of tissue-engineered bone and ectopic osteogenesis.

  10. STROMAS: A Series of Microgravity Experiments on Bone Forming Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liu; Massimilano, Monticone; Federico, Tortelli; Matalija, Pujic; Alessandra, Ruggiu; Ranieri, Cancedda

    2008-06-01

    We developed a novel 3D in vitro culture system by seeding cells onto porous bioceramics, mimicking the physiological niche of bone turn-over and enhancing cellular differentiation respective to conventional 2D Petri Dish cultures. Having overcome several technological difficulties, in a series of STROMA spaceflight experiments 3D cultures of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors were maintained and conserved in automated bioreactors on orbit. Genechip analysis revealed an inhibition of cell proliferation in microgravity. Unexpectedly, genes related to various processes of neural development were significantly upregulated in microgravity, raising the question on the lineage restriction in BMSC.

  11. Identification of Bone Marrow-Derived Soluble Factors Regulating Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-02-14

    Maintaining properties of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in culture for regenerative applications remains a great challenge. An emerging approach of constructing a culture environment mimicking the bone marrow niche to regulate BMSC activities has been developed. In this study, we have demonstrated a systematic approach to identify soluble factors of interest extracted from human bone marrow and used them in BMSC culture for tissue regeneration. We have found that lipocalin-2 and prolactin are key factors in bone marrow, involved in regulating BMSC activities. Treating the cell with lipocalin-2 and prolactin delays cellular senescence of BMSCs and primes the cell for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We have also demonstrated that BMSCs pretreated with lipocalin-2 and prolactin can enhance the repair of calvarial defects in mice. Together, our study provides research evidence of using a viable approach to prime BMSC properties in vitro for improving cell-based tissue regeneration in vivo.

  12. BMP7 promotes adipogenic but not osteo-/chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived stem cells in high-density micro-mass culture.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Katja; Endres, Michaela; Ringe, Jochen; Flath, Bernd; Manz, Rudi; Häupl, Thomas; Sittinger, Michael; Kaps, Christian

    2007-10-15

    The objective of our study was to elucidate the potential of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) to initiate distinct mesenchymal lineage development of human adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in three-dimensional micro-mass culture. Expanded MSC were cultured in high-density micro-masses under serum-free conditions that favor chondrogenic differentiation and were stimulated with 50-200 ng/ml BMP7 or 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGFbeta3) as control. Histological staining of proteoglycan with alcian blue, mineralized matrix according to von Kossa, and lipids with Oil Red O, immunostaining of type II collagen as well as real-time gene expression analysis of typical chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic marker genes showed that BMP7 promoted adipogenic differentiation of MSC. Micro-masses stimulated with BMP7 developed adipocytic cells filled with lipid droplets and showed an enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker genes fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and the adipose most abundant transcript 1 (apM1). Development along the chondrogenic lineage or stimulation of osteogenic differentiation were not evident upon stimulation with BMP7 in different concentrations. In contrast, TGFbeta3 directed MSC to form a cartilaginous matrix that is rich in proteoglycan and type II collagen. Gene expression analysis of typical chondrocyte marker genes like cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), link protein, aggrecan, and types IIalpha1 and IXalpha3 collagen confirmed chondrogenic differentiation of MSC treated with TGFbeta3. These results suggest that BMP7 promotes the adipogenic and not the osteogenic or chondrogenic lineage development of human stem cells when assembled three-dimensionally in micro-masses.

  13. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  14. Three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stromal cells and differentiated osteoblasts on human bio-derived bone scaffolds supports active multi-lineage hematopoiesis in vitro: Functional implication of the biomimetic HSC niche

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaobing; Zhu, Biao; Wang, Xiaodong; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Chunsen

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche, consisting of two major crucial components, namely osteoblasts (OBs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is responsible for the fate of HSPCs. Thus, closely mimicking the HSPC niche ex vivo may be an efficient strategy with which to develop new culture strategies to specifically regulate the balance between HSPC self-renewal and proliferation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel HSPC three-dimensional culture system by co-culturing bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs without any cytokines as feeder cells and applying bio-derived bone from human femoral metaphyseal portion as the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the excellent biocompatibility of bio-derived bone with bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that many cytokines, which play key roles in HSPC regulation, were comprehensively secreted, while ELISA revealed that extracellular matrix molecules were also highly expressed. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining proved that our system could be used to supply a long-term culture of HSPCs. Flow cytometric analysis and qPCR of p21 expression demonstrated that our system significantly promoted the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays confirmed that our system has the ability for both the expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HPCs) and the maintenance of a primitive cell subpopulation of HSCs. The severe-combined immunodeficient mouse repopulating cell assay revealed the promoting effects of our system on the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs. In conclusion, our system may be a more comprehensive and balanced system which not only promotes the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, but also maintains primitive HPCs with superior phenotypic and

  15. Bone-like nodules formed by human bone marrow stromal cells: comparative study and characterization.

    PubMed

    Schecroun, N; Delloye, C h

    2003-03-01

    Autologous bone marrow stromal cells have been proposed as an adjuvant in the treatment of bone nonunion. This cell therapy would require the establishment of culture conditions that permit the rapid expansion of these cells ex vivo while retaining their potential for further differentiation. Our aim was to achieve a full differentiation process using human bone marrow aspirates. We first analyzed the effects of mineralization medium (with ascorbic acid and phosphate) and dexamethasone (dex) during the primary culture of human bone marrow stromal (HBMS) cells on the proliferation/differentiation behavior of first-passage cells. The most appropriate schedule was then selected to further characterize this differentiation model. We showed that primary culture of HBMS cells in proliferation medium (DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum), with a 48-h treatment by mineralization medium and dex resulted in a better osteoblastic differentiation of first-passage cells than primary culture carried out in mineralization medium with or without dex. We showed that culture of HBMS cells under these conditions (primary culture in proliferation medium, followed by subculture in mineralization medium) led to the formation of specifically mineralized bone-like nodules similar to the ones observed with rat bone marrow stromal cells. Our nodules exhibited three distinct cell types, reproducing in vitro a tissue-like structure. This treatment demonstrated an optimal proliferation and expression of osteoblastic markers such as alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. The primary culture allowed the multiplication of the number of adherent progenitor cells at the initial time of plating by a mean factor of 44,000, which was found to be negatively correlated with age. Thus, this differentiation model could provide a new tool to elaborate an autologous cell therapy designed to enhance osteogenesis.

  16. Lutein, a carotenoid, suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in cultures.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    Lutein, a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, suppressed IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The survival of mature osteoclasts was also suppressed by lutein in cultures. When lutein was added to the cultures of osteoblasts, lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules by elevating BMP2 expression and inhibiting sclerostin expression. Lutein may be beneficial for bone health.

  17. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    SciTech Connect

    Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.

    1985-10-01

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of /sup 3/H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to /sup 3/H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of /sup 45/Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of /sup 45/Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products.

  18. Exogenous Nkx2.5- or GATA-4-transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and myocardial cell co-culture on the treatment of myocardial infarction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 transfection with myocardial extracellular environment co-culture on the transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into differentiated cardiomyocytes. Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 were transfected into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs, and then injected into the periphery of infarcted myocardium of a myocardial infarction rabbit model. The effects of these gene transfections and culture on the infarcted myocardium were observed and the results may provide an experimental basis for the efficient myocardial cell differentiation of BMSCs. The present study also suggested that these cells may provide a source and clinical basis for myocardial injury repair via stem cell transplantation. The present study examined whether Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 exogenous gene transfection with myocardial cell extracellular environment co-culture were able to induce the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiac cells. In addition, the effect of these transfected BMSCs on the repair of the myocardium following myocardial infarction was determined using New Zealand rabbit models. The results demonstrated that myocardial cell differentiation was significantly less effective following exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 alone compared with that of transfection in combination with extracellular environment co-culture. In addition, the results of the present study showed that exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 into myocardial cell extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs was able to significantly enhance the ability to repair, mitigating the death of myocardial cells and activation of the myocardium in rabbits with myocardial infarction compared with those of the rabbits transplanted with untreated BMSCs. In conclusion, the exogenous Nkx2.5 and GATA-4 gene transfection into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs induced increased differentiation into myocardial

  19. Quantitative evaluation of regularized phase retrieval algorithms on bone scaffolds seeded with bone cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, L.; Langer, M.; Tavella, S.; Ruggiu, A.; Peyrin, F.

    2016-05-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, there has been a growing interest in studying the combination of bone scaffolds and cells that can maximize newly formed bone. In-line phase-contrast x-ray tomography was used to image porous bone scaffolds (Skelite©), seeded with bone forming cells. This technique allows the quantification of both mineralized and soft tissue, unlike with classical x-ray micro-computed tomography. Phase contrast images were acquired at four distances. The reconstruction is typically performed in two successive steps: phase retrieval and tomographic reconstruction. In this work, different regularization methods were applied to the phase retrieval process. The application of a priori terms for heterogeneous objects enables quantitative 3D imaging of not only bone morphology, mineralization, and soft tissue formation, but also cells trapped in the pre-bone matrix. A statistical study was performed to derive statistically significant information on the different culture conditions.

  20. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Proliferation depended on prostaglandin, (PGE2) production. Chronic oxidative stress of the ECM with H2O2 did not affect cancer cell growth . However...modification of the composition and structure of the ECM, and how cytokines and growth factors affect the cancer cells. The goal was to modify the composition... growth of the cancer cells. In order to determine how an ECM, formed under estrogen deprivation, would affect the growth of cancer cells, murine

  1. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  2. Bone cells and bone turnover in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R

    2015-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists that in addition to the well-known complications of diabetes, increased fracture risk is an important morbidity. This risk is probably due, at least in part, to altered bone remodeling and bone cell function in diabetes. Circulating biochemical markers of bone formation, including P1NP, osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase have been found to be decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may be predictive of fractures independently of bone mineral density (BMD). These findings have been corroborated by preliminary histomorphometric data. Reductions in the bone resorption marker serum CTx in T2D have also been reported. Serum sclerostin levels have been found to be increased in T2D and appear to be predictive of fracture risk independent of BMD. Other factors such as bone marrow fat saturation, advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) accumulation, and microarchitectural changes might also relate to bone cell function and fracture risk in diabetes.

  3. Smurf Control in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Di

    2010-01-01

    The homologous to the E6-assosiated protein carboxyl terminus (HECT) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 is the first E3 ligase to be implicated in regulating bone cell function. The involvement of Smurf1 in multiple signaling pathways and pathological conditions is presently an area of extensive scientific interest. This review highlights recent works exploring Smurf-regulated biological processes in bone cells and highlights recent discoveries surrounding the regulatory mechanisms modulating its catalytic activity and substrate recognition capability. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of targeting the HECT E3s through the development of small-molecule inhibitors as an anticancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:20512916

  4. Indirect co‑culture of vascular smooth muscle cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibits vascular calcification and downregulates the Wnt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng'en; Fang, Xin; Zhou, Shaoqiong; Li, Wei; Guan, Siming

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is widely considered to be a crucial clinical indicator of cardiovascular disease. Recently, certain properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been hypothesized to have potential in treating cardiovascular diseases. However, their effect on the initiation and progression of VC remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate whether MSCs indirectly mediate VC and their impact on the Wnt signaling pathways. A Transwell system was selected to establish the indirect co‑culture environment, and hence, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were indirectly co‑cultured in the presence or absence of MSCs at a ratio of 1:1. Osteogenic medium (OS) was added to imitate a calcifying environment. Fourteen days later, VSMCs in the lower layers of the Transwell plates were harvested. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium nodules were markedly increased in calcific VSMCs induced by OS. However, these parameters were significantly decreased in VSMCs by indirectly co‑culturing with MSCs in the same medium. Furthermore, the messenger RNA expression levels of osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were notably increased in VSMCs cultured in OS, but reduced by indirect interaction with MSCs. In addition, the activities of canonical and noncanonical Wnt ligands, wingless‑type MMTV integration site family, number 5A (Wnt5a), receptor tyrosine kinase‑like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) and β‑catenin, which are important in the process of VC, were downregulated by indirect contact with MSCs in OS. Thus, indirect co‑culture with MSCs inhibits VC and downregulates the Wnt signaling pathways.

  5. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  6. Improved adipogenic in vitro differentiation: comparison of different adipogenic cell culture media on human fat and bone stroma cells for fat tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ghoniem, Amir-Alexander; Açil, Yahya; Wiltfang, Jörg; Gierloff, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    To date there is no sufficient in vitro fat tissue engineering and a protocol has not been well established for this purpose. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro influence of two different adipogenic growth media for their stimulation potential on different cell lineages to clearly define the most potent adipogenic growth media for future in vitro tissue engineering approaches. The samples for differentiation were composed of human adipogenic-derived stroma cells (hADSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSCs). A normal adipogenic medium (NAM) and a specific adipogenic medium (SAM) were tested for their adipogenic stimulation potential. After 10 days and 21 days the relative gene expression was measured for the adipogenic marker genes PPARγ2, C/EBPα, FABP4, LPL, and GLUT4 detected through real time reverse transcriptase polymease chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other study variables were the comparison between NAM and SAM and between the used cells hADSCs and hMSCs. Additionally an Oil-Red staining was performed after 21 days. Our results revealed that only SAM was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the differentiation process in contrast to NAM for 10 days and 21 days. As well was SAM superior to differentiate the used cell lineages. This was evaluated by the detected marker genes PPARγ2, C/EBPα, FABP4, LPL, and GLUT4 through real time RT-PCR and by Oil-Red staining. In addition, the hMSCs proofed to be equal donor cells for adipogenic differentiation especially when stimulated by SAM. The results suggest that the SAM should be established as a new standard medium for a more promising in vitro adipogenic differentiation.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, Johanna A.; Pietilae, Mika; Salonen, Riikka J.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  8. Chondrocytes Directly Transform into Bone Cells in Mandibular Condyle Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Y.; Zhou, X.; Han, X.; Jing, J.; von der Mark, K.; Wang, J.; de Crombrugghe, B.; Hinton, R.J.; Feng, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, it has been widely accepted that hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo apoptosis prior to endochondral bone formation. However, very recent studies in long bone suggest that chondrocytes can directly transform into bone cells. Our initial in vivo characterization of condylar hypertrophic chondrocytes revealed modest numbers of apoptotic cells but high levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, some dividing cells, and clear alkaline phosphatase activity (early bone marker). Ex vivo culture of newborn condylar cartilage on a chick chorioallantoic membrane showed that after 5 d the cells on the periphery of the explants had begun to express Col1 (bone marker). The cartilage-specific cell lineage–tracing approach in triple mice containing Rosa 26tdTomato (tracing marker), 2.3 Col1GFP (bone cell marker), and aggrecan CreERT2 (onetime tamoxifen induced) or Col10-Cre (activated from E14.5 throughout adult stage) demonstrated the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells in vivo. This transformation was initiated at the inferior portion of the condylar cartilage, in contrast to the initial ossification site in long bone, which is in the center. Quantitative data from the Col10-Cre compound mice showed that hypertrophic chondrocytes contributed to ~80% of bone cells in subchondral bone, ~70% in a somewhat more inferior region, and ~40% in the most inferior part of the condylar neck (n = 4, P < 0.01 for differences among regions). This multipronged approach clearly demonstrates that a majority of chondrocytes in the fibrocartilaginous condylar cartilage, similar to hyaline cartilage in long bones, directly transform into bone cells during endochondral bone formation. Moreover, ossification is initiated from the inferior portion of mandibular condylar cartilage with expansion in one direction. PMID:26341973

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Undale, Anita H; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-10-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells in clinical applications. The ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, and other tissues of mesenchymal origin, makes them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. Patients who experience fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia, have benefited from human mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Because of their ability to modulate immune responses, allogeneic transplant of these cells may be feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. The field of regenerative medicine is still facing considerable challenges; however, with the progress achieved thus far, the promise of stem cell therapy as a viable option for fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases is closer to reality. In this review, we update the biology and clinical applicability of human mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Repair and Metabolic Bone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Undale, Anita H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential alternative to embryonic stem cells in clinical applications. The ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate into multiple tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, and other tissues of mesenchymal origin, makes them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. Patients who experience fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia, have benefited from human mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Because of their ability to modulate immune responses, allogeneic transplant of these cells may be feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. The field of regenerative medicine is still facing considerable challenges; however, with the progress achieved thus far, the promise of stem cell therapy as a viable option for fracture nonunion and metabolic bone diseases is closer to reality. In this review, we update the biology and clinical applicability of human mesenchymal stem cells for bone repair and metabolic bone diseases. PMID:19797778

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-11-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell-related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E-mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells.

  12. Modeling selective elimination of quiescent cancer cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Cavnar, Stephen P; Rickelmann, Andrew D; Meguiar, Kaille F; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer.

  13. Allogenous bone grafts improved by bone marrow stem cells and platelet growth factors: clinical case reports.

    PubMed

    Filho Cerruti, Humberto; Kerkis, Irina; Kerkis, Alexandre; Tatsui, Nelson Hidekazu; da Costa Neves, Adriana; Bueno, Daniela Franco; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2007-04-01

    In order to increase the amount of available bone where dental implants must be placed, the present study has associated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from bone marrow aspirate and bone scaffold (BS) in 32 patients aged between 45 and 75 years old. The MNC attainment and the adherence to the BS were confirmed through histology, cell culture, and scanning electron microscopy. The clinical results, analyzed by computed tomography, have showed that the scaffolds were well integrated and adapted to the cortical bone. We can conclude that the process of healing observed in the patients was due to the presence of mesenchymal stem cell in MNC fraction in the bone grafts.

  14. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K.; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P.; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:28000662

  15. Repair of Segmental Bone Defect Using Totally Vitalized Tissue Engineered Bone Graft by a Combined Perfusion Seeding and Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ya-Fei; Li, Xiang; Hu, Yun-Yu; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D) scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the “Totally Vitalized TEBG” (TV-TEBG) which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. Methods In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP) technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC) method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC) method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC) method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. Results Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and maxillofacial

  16. [Bone and Stem Cells. Intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Various kinds of cell types, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic cells, and mesenchymal cells, have been reported to exist in the bone marrow and communicate with each other. Although there have been many previous studies about bone marrow microenvironment, most of them were analyzed by conventional methods such as histological analysis and flow cytometry. These methods could not observe the dynamic cell movement in living bone marrow. Recently rapid development of fluorescent imaging techniques enables us to understand the cellular dynamics in vivo . That's why we have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital two-photon microscopy. Here we show the latest data and the detailed methodology of intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment, and also discuss its further application.

  17. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  18. Three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stromal cells and differentiated osteoblasts on human bio-derived bone scaffolds supports active multi-lineage hematopoiesis in vitro: Functional implication of the biomimetic HSC niche.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobing; Zhu, Biao; Wang, Xiaodong; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Chunsen

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche, consisting of two major crucial components, namely osteoblasts (OBs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), is responsible for the fate of HSPCs. Thus, closely mimicking the HSPC niche ex vivo may be an efficient strategy with which to develop new culture strategies to specifically regulate the balance between HSPC self-renewal and proliferation. The aim of this study was to establish a novel HSPC three-dimensional culture system by co-culturing bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs without any cytokines as feeder cells and applying bio-derived bone from human femoral metaphyseal portion as the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the excellent biocompatibility of bio-derived bone with bone marrow-derived MSCs and OBs differentiated from MSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that many cytokines, which play key roles in HSPC regulation, were comprehensively secreted, while ELISA revealed that extracellular matrix molecules were also highly expressed. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining proved that our system could be used to supply a long-term culture of HSPCs. Flow cytometric analysis and qPCR of p21 expression demonstrated that our system significantly promoted the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays confirmed that our system has the ability for both the expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HPCs) and the maintenance of a primitive cell subpopulation of HSCs. The severe-combined immunodeficient mouse repopulating cell assay revealed the promoting effects of our system on the expansion of long-term primitive transplantable HSCs. In conclusion, our system may be a more comprehensive and balanced system which not only promotes the self-renewal and ex vivo expansion of HSPCs, but also maintains primitive HPCs with superior

  19. The regulation of bone turnover in ameloblastoma using an organotypic in vitro co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Tuula M; Day, Richard M; Fedele, Stefano; Salih, Vehid M

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm with benign histopathology, but extensive, local infiltrative capacity through the bone tissue it originates in. While the mechanisms of ameloblastoma invasion through the bone and bone absorption are largely unknown, recent investigations have indicated a role of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand regulatory mechanisms. Here, we present results obtained using a novel in vitro organotypic tumour model, which we have developed using tissue engineering techniques. Using this model, we analysed the expression of genes involved in bone turnover and detected a 700-fold increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand levels in the co-culture models with ameloblastoma cells cultured with bone cells. The model described here can be used for gene expression studies, as a basis for drug testing or for a more tailored platform for testing of the behaviour of different ameloblastoma tumours in vitro. PMID:27746893

  20. Stem Cells and Calcium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, W.; Liu, X.; Weir, M.D.; Xu, H.H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity for dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. This article reviews recent developments in stem cell delivery via CPC for bone regeneration. This includes: (1) biofunctionalization of the CPC scaffold, (2) co-culturing of osteoblasts/endothelial cells and prevascularization of CPC, (3) seeding of CPC with different stem cell species, (4) human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) and bone marrow MSC (hBMSC) seeding on CPC for bone regeneration, and (5) human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) seeding with CPC for bone regeneration. Cells exhibited good attachment/proliferation in CPC scaffolds. Stem-cell-CPC constructs generated more new bone and blood vessels in vivo than did the CPC control without cells. hUCMSCs, hESC-MSCs, and hiPSC-MSCs in CPC generated new bone and blood vessels similar to those of hBMSCs; hence, they were viable cell sources for bone engineering. CPC with hESC-MSCs and hiPSC-MSCs generated new bone two- to three-fold that of the CPC control. Therefore, this article demonstrates that: (1) CPC scaffolds are suitable for delivering cells; (2) hUCMSCs, hESCs, and hiPSCs are promising alternatives to hBMSCs, which require invasive procedures to harvest with limited cell quantity; and (3) stem-cell-CPC constructs are highly promising for bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications. PMID:24799422

  1. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. )

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  2. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ecarot-Charrier, B; Bouchard, F; Delloye, C

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  3. Conditioned Media from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhanced Bone Regeneration in Rat Calvarial Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Osugi, Masashi; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Inukai, Takeharu; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering has recently become available as a treatment procedure for bone augmentation. However, this procedure has several problems, such as high capital investment and expensive cell culture, complicated safety and quality management issues regarding cell handling, and patient problems with the invasive procedure of cell collection. Moreover, it was reported that stem cells secrete many growth factors and chemokines during their cultivation, which could affect cellular characteristics and behavior. This study investigated the effect of stem-cell-cultured conditioned media on bone regeneration. Cultured conditioned media from human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) enhanced the migration, proliferation, and expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as osteocalcin and Runx2, of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in vitro. MSC-CM includes cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, a prepared bone defect of a rat calvarial model was implanted in five different rat groups using one of the following graft materials: human MSCs/agarose (MSCs), MSC-CM/agarose (MSC-CM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without serum [DMEM(−)]/agarose [DMEM(−)], PBS/agarose (PBS), and defect only (Defect). After 4 and 8 weeks, implant sections were evaluated using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the MSC-CM group had a greater area of newly regenerated bone compared with the other groups (p<0.05) and histological analysis at 8 weeks indicated that the newly regenerated bone bridge almost covered the defect. Interestingly, the effects of MSC-CM were stronger than those of the MSC group. In vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining of transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein also showed that migration of rMSCs to the bone defect in the MSC-CM group was greater than in the other groups. These results demonstrated that MSC-CM can regenerate bone

  4. Bone marrow derived stem cells in joint and bone diseases: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Marmotti, Antonio; de Girolamo, Laura; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Bruzzone, Matteo; Mattia, Silvia; Rossi, Roberto; Montaruli, Angela; Dettoni, Federico; Castoldi, Filippo; Peretti, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Stem cells have huge applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their use is currently not restricted to the life-threatening diseases but also extended to disorders involving the structural tissues, which may not jeopardize the patients' life, but certainly influence their quality of life. In fact, a particularly popular line of research is represented by the regeneration of bone and cartilage tissues to treat various orthopaedic disorders. Most of these pioneering research lines that aim to create new treatments for diseases that currently have limited therapies are still in the bench of the researchers. However, in recent years, several clinical trials have been started with satisfactory and encouraging results. This article aims to review the concept of stem cells and their characterization in terms of site of residence, differentiation potential and therapeutic prospective. In fact, while only the bone marrow was initially considered as a "reservoir" of this cell population, later, adipose tissue and muscle tissue have provided a considerable amount of cells available for multiple differentiation. In reality, recently, the so-called "stem cell niche" was identified as the perivascular space, recognizing these cells as almost ubiquitous. In the field of bone and joint diseases, their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lines makes their application ideally immediate through three main modalities: (1) cells selected by withdrawal from bone marrow, subsequent culture in the laboratory, and ultimately transplant at the site of injury; (2) bone marrow aspirate, concentrated and directly implanted into the injury site; (3) systemic mobilization of stem cells and other bone marrow precursors by the use of growth factors. The use of this cell population in joint and bone disease will be addressed and discussed, analysing both the clinical outcomes but also the basic research background, which has justified their use for the

  5. Basic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J W

    1990-01-01

    This article will describe the basic techniques required for successful cell culture. It will also act to introduce some of the other chapters in this volume. It is not intended, as this volume is not, to describe the establishment of a tissue culture laboratory, nor to provide a historical or theoretical survey of cell culture. There are several books that adequately cover these areas, including the now somewhat dated but still valuable volume by Paul (1), the multi-authored Methods in Enzymology volume edited by Jakoby and Pastan (2), and the new edition of Freshney (3). Instead, this chapter's focus will be on the techniques for establishing primary rodent cell cultures from embryos and adult skin, maintaining and subculturing these fibro-blasts and their transformed derivatives, and the isolation of genetically pure strains. The cells described are all derived from Chinese hamsters since, to date, these cells, have proved to be the most useful for somatic cell genetics (4,5). The techniques, however, are generally applicable to most fibroblastic cell types.

  6. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  7. In Vivo Bone Regeneration Using Tubular Perfusion System Bioreactor Cultured Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Andrew B.; Both, Sanne K.; Yang, Wanxun; Alghamdi, Hamdan S.; Yang, Fang; Jansen, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bioreactors for the in vitro culture of constructs for bone tissue engineering has become prevalent as these systems may improve the growth and differentiation of a cultured cell population. Here we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and implant the cultured constructs into rat femoral condyle defects. Using nanofibrous electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds, hMSCs were cultured for 10 days in vitro in the TPS bioreactor with cellular and acellular scaffolds cultured statically for 10 days as a control. After 3 and 6 weeks of in vivo culture, explants were removed and subjected to histomorphometric analysis. Results indicated more rapid bone regeneration in defects implanted with bioreactor cultured scaffolds with a new bone area of 1.23±0.35 mm2 at 21 days compared to 0.99±0.43 mm2 and 0.50±0.29 mm2 in defects implanted with statically cultured scaffolds and acellular scaffolds, respectively. At the 21 day timepoint, statistical differences (p<0.05) were only observed between defects implanted with cell containing scaffolds and the acellular control. After 42 days, however, defects implanted with TPS cultured scaffolds had the greatest new bone area with 1.72±0.40 mm2. Defects implanted with statically cultured and acellular scaffolds had a new bone area of 1.26±0.43 mm2 and 1.19±0.33 mm2, respectively. The increase in bone growth observed in defects implanted with TPS cultured scaffolds was statistically significant (p<0.05) when compared to both the static and acellular groups at this timepoint. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the TPS bioreactor to improve bone tissue regeneration and highlights the benefits of utilizing perfusion bioreactor systems to culture MSCs for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23865551

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  9. Cell therapy in bone healing disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; Hernigou, Philippe; Zilkens, Christoph; Herten, Monika; Li, Xinning; Fischer, Johannes; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    In addition to osteosynthetic stabilizing techniques and autologous bone transplantations, so-called orthobiologics play an increasing role in the treatment of bone healing disorders. Besides the use of various growth factors, more and more new data suggest that cell-based therapies promote local bone regeneration. For ethical and biological reasons, clinical application of progenitor cells on the musculoskeletal system is limited to autologous, postpartum stem cells. Intraoperative one-step treatment with autologous progenitor cells, in particular, delivered promising results in preliminary clinical studies. This article provides an overview of the rationale for, and characteristics of the clinical application of cell-based therapy to treat osseous defects based on a review of existing literature and our own experience with more than 100 patients. Most clinical trials report successful bone regeneration after the application of mixed cell populations from bone marrow. The autologous application of human bone marrow cells which are not expanded ex vivo has medico-legal advantages. However, there is a lack of prospective randomized studies including controls for cell therapy for bone defects. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy seems to be a promising treatment option which may reduce the amount of bone grafting in future. PMID:21808710

  10. Homing of cancer cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2011-12-01

    A variety of tumor cells preferentially home to the bone. The homing of cancer cells to the bone represents a multi-step process that involves malignant progression of the tumor, invasion of the tumor through the extracellular matrix and the blood vessels and settling of the tumor cells in the bone. Gaining a greater understanding as to the mechanisms used by cancer cells in these processes will facilitate the design of drugs which could specifically target the homing process. In this review we will discuss the properties of tumor cells and the bone microenvironment which promote homing of a cancer cell to the bone. We will highlight the different steps and the molecular pathways involved when a cancer cell metastasize to the bone. Since bone is the major home for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we will also highlight the similarities between the homing of cancer and HSC to the bone. Finally we will conclude with therapeutic and early detection strategies which can prevent homing of a cancer cell to the bone.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    -immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l β-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to α particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent

  12. Combined effects of low-level laser therapy and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium on viability of human dermal fibroblasts cultured in a high-glucose medium.

    PubMed

    Hendudari, Farzane; Piryaei, Abbas; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Darbandi, Hasan; Bayat, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) exhibited biostimulatory effects on fibroblasts viability. Secretomes can be administered to culture mediums by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (BM-MSCs CM). This study investigated the combined effects of LLLT and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (hBM-MSCs CM) on the cellular viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), which was cultured in a high-glucose (HG) concentration medium. The HDFs were cultured either in a concentration of physiologic (normal) glucose (NG; 5.5 mM/l) or in HG media (15 mM/l) for 4 days. LLLT was performed with a continuous-wave helium-neon laser (632.8 nm, power density of 0.00185 W/cm(2) and energy densities of 0.5, 1, and 2 J/cm(2)). About 10% of hBM-MSCs CM was added to the HG HDF culture medium. The viability of HDFs was evaluated using dimethylthiazol-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A significantly higher cell viability was observed when laser of either 0.5 or 1 J/cm(2) was used to treat HG HDFs, compared to the control groups. The cellular viability of HG-treated HDFs was significantly lower compared to the LLLT + HG HDFs, hBM-MSCs CM-treated HG HDFs, and LLLT + hBM-MSCs CM-treated HG HDFs. In conclusion, hBM-MSCs CM or LLLT alone increased the survival of HG HDFs cells. However, the combination of hBM-MSCs CM and LLLT improved these results in comparison to the conditioned medium.

  13. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  14. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  15. Double-layered cell transfer technology for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Keiko; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nagata, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Naoki; Ayame, Hirohito; Yamaki, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yuichi; Honda, Izumi; Morioka, Chikako; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Komaki, Motohiro; Kishida, Akio; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For cell-based medicine, to mimic in vivo cellular localization, various tissue engineering approaches have been studied to obtain a desirable arrangement of cells on scaffold materials. We have developed a novel method of cell manipulation called “cell transfer technology”, enabling the transfer of cultured cells onto scaffold materials, and controlling cell topology. Here we show that using this technique, two different cell types can be transferred onto a scaffold surface as stable double layers or in patterned arrangements. Various combinations of adherent cells were transferred to a scaffold, amniotic membrane, in overlapping bilayers (double-layered cell transfer), and transferred cells showed stability upon deformations of the material including folding and trimming. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligaments (PDLSC) and osteoblasts, using double-layered cell transfer significantly enhanced bone formation, when compared to single cell type transplantation. Our findings suggest that this double-layer cell transfer is useful to produce a cell transplantation material that can bear two cell layers. Moreover, the transplantation of an amniotic membrane with PDLSCs/osteoblasts by cell transfer technology has therapeutic potential for bone defects. We conclude that cell transfer technology provides a novel and unique cell transplantation method for bone regeneration. PMID:27624174

  16. Surface microtopography modulates sealing zone development in osteoclasts cultured on bone.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Michal; Addadi, Lia; Geiger, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Bone homeostasis is continuously regulated by the coordinated action of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Imbalance between these two cell populations leads to pathological bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis. Osteoclast functionality relies on the formation of sealing zone (SZ) rings that define the resorption lacuna. It is commonly assumed that the structure and dynamic properties of the SZ depend on the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Considering the unique complex structure of native bone, elucidation of the relevant parameters affecting SZ formation and stability is challenging. In this study, we examined in detail the dynamic response of the SZ to the microtopography of devitalized bone surfaces, taken from the same area in cattle femur. We show that there is a significant enrichment in large and stable SZs (diameter larger than 14 µm; lifespan of hours) in cells cultured on rough bone surfaces, compared with small and fast turning over SZ rings (diameter below 7 µm; lifespan approx. 7 min) formed on smooth bone surfaces. Based on these results, we propose that the surface roughness of the physiologically relevant substrate of osteoclasts, namely bone, affects primarily the local stability of growing SZs.

  17. Chemosensitizing AML cells by targeting bone marrow endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Raphael C; Wasserstrom, Briana; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Drusbosky, Leylah; Walter, Glenn A; Chaplin, David J; Siemann, Dietmar W; Purich, Daniel L; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Refractory disease is the greatest challenge in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Blood vessels may serve as sanctuary sites for AML. When AML cells were co-cultured with bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs), a greater proportion of leukemia cells were in G0/G1. This led us to a strategy of targeting BMECs with tubulin-binding combretastatins, causing BMECs to lose their flat phenotype, degrade their cytoskeleton, cease growth, and impair migration despite unchanged BMEC viability and metabolism. Combretastatins also caused downregulation of BMEC adhesion molecules known to tether AML cells, including vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. When AML-BMEC co-cultures were treated with combretastatins, a significantly greater proportion of AML cells dislodged from BMECs and entered the G2/M cell cycle, suggesting enhanced susceptibility to cell cycle agents. Indeed, the combination of combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy enhanced additive AML cell death. In vivo mice xenograft studies confirmed this finding by revealing complete AML regression after treatment with combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Beyond highlighting the pathologic role of BMECs in the leukemia microenvironment as a protective reservoir of disease, these results support a new strategy for using vascular-targeting combretastatins in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat AML.

  18. Bone Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastasis that are often osteolytic and cause substantial morbidity, such as pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The presence of bone metastasis in RCC is also associated with poor prognosis. Bone-targeted treatment using bisphosphonate and denosumab can reduce skeletal complications in RCC, but does not cure the disease or improve survival. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced changes in the bone microenvironment is needed to develop effective treatment. The “vicious cycle” hypothesis has been used to describe how tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment to drive bone destruction and tumor growth. Tumor cells secrete factors like parathyroid hormone-related peptide, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulate osteoblasts and increase the production of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). In turn, the overexpression of RANKL leads to increased osteoclast formation, activation and survival, thereby enhancing bone resorption. This review presents a general survey on bone metastasis in RCC by natural history, interaction among the immune system, bone and tumor, molecular mechanisms, bone turnover markers, therapies and healthcare burden. PMID:27338367

  19. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, M H; Whelton, B D; Stern, P H; Peterson, D P

    1988-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which 45Ca release from 45Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with 45Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption, from 27 +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM) 45Ca release in cultures with no added cadmium to 68 +/- 6% release in cultures containing cadmium (n = 4). These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke. Images PMID:3186759

  20. Leptin-receptor-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells represent the main source of bone formed by adult bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo O; Yue, Rui; Murphy, Malea M; Peyer, James G; Morrison, Sean J

    2014-08-07

    Studies of the identity and physiological function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been hampered by a lack of markers that permit both prospective identification and fate mapping in vivo. We found that Leptin Receptor (LepR) is a marker that highly enriches bone marrow MSCs. Approximately 0.3% of bone marrow cells were LepR(+), 10% of which were CFU-Fs, accounting for 94% of bone marrow CFU-Fs. LepR(+) cells formed bone, cartilage, and adipocytes in culture and upon transplantation in vivo. LepR(+) cells were Scf-GFP(+), Cxcl12-DsRed(high), and Nestin-GFP(low), markers which also highly enriched CFU-Fs, but negative for Nestin-CreER and NG2-CreER, markers which were unlikely to be found in CFU-Fs. Fate-mapping showed that LepR(+) cells arose postnatally and gave rise to most bone and adipocytes formed in adult bone marrow, including bone regenerated after irradiation or fracture. LepR(+) cells were quiescent, but they proliferated after injury. Therefore, LepR(+) cells are the major source of bone and adipocytes in adult bone marrow.

  1. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  2. Gender difference in the neuroprotective effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Jian-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can reduce retinal ganglion cell death and effectively prevent vision loss. Previously, we found that during differentiation, female rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquire a higher neurogenic potential compared with male rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests that female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have a stronger neuroprotective effect than male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we first isolated and cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from female and male rats by density gradient centrifugation. Retinal tissue from newborn rats was prepared by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary retinal ganglion cells. Using the transwell system, retinal ganglion cells were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. We found a marked increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells after 24 hours of hypoxia compared with normoxia. Moreover, apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells significantly decreased with both female and male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell co-culture under hypoxia compared with culture alone, with more significant effects from female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exert a neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and also that female cells have greater neuroprotective ability compared with male cells.

  3. [Bone and Stem Cells. Immune cell regulation by the bone marrow niche].

    PubMed

    Terashima, Asuka; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in the bone marrow and give rise to all blood cell types. The maintenance and the differentiation of blood cells including immune cells are essential for host defense and oxygen delivery. HSCs are maintained in microenvironments called stem cell niches, which consists of various cell types in bone marrow. Recently, new visualization technologies and assay systems brought advances in studies on the stem cell niche. In addition, several reports demonstrated that osteoblasts and osteocytes regulate not only HSC homeostasis but also immune cell differentiation, suggesting a close relationship between bone cells and HSCs.

  4. Impaired Function of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Systemic Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, K.; Wilson, T.M.; Ren, J.J.; Sabatino, M.; Stroncek, D.F.; Krepuska, M.; Bai, Y.; Robey, P.G.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Mezey, E.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have a wide variety of problems, including skeletal abnormalities. The disease results from a mutation of the stem cell receptor (c-kit) in mast cells and we wondered if the function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs; also known as MSCs or mesenchymal stem cells) might be affected by the invasion of bone marrow by mutant mast cells. As expected, BMSCs from SM patients do not have a mutation in c-kit, but they proliferate poorly. In addition, while osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs seems to be deficient, their adipogenic potential appears to be increased. Since the hematopoietic supportive abilities of BMSCs are also important, we also studied the engraftment in NSG mice of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, after being co-cultured with BMSCs of healthy volunteers vs. BMSCs derived from patients with SM. BMSCs derived from the bone marrow of patients with SM could not support hematopoiesis to the extent that healthy BMSCs do. Finally, we performed an expression analysis and found significant differences between healthy and SM derived BMSCs in the expression of genes with a variety of functions, including the WNT signaling, ossification, and bone remodeling. We suggest that some of the symptoms associated with SM might be driven by epigenetic changes in BMSCs caused by dysfunctional mast cells in the bone marrow of the patients. PMID:26001169

  5. Human progenitor cells for bone engineering applications.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, G M; Thomsen, P; Karlsson, C; Strehl, R; Lindahl, A; Hyllner, J

    2013-06-01

    In this report, the authors review the human skeleton and the increasing burden of bone deficiencies, the limitations encountered with the current treatments and the opportunities provided by the emerging field of cell-based bone engineering. Special emphasis is placed on different sources of human progenitor cells, as well as their pros and cons in relation to their utilization for the large-scale construction of functional bone-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. It is concluded that, human pluripotent stem cells represent a valuable source for the derivation of progenitor cells, which combine the advantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and indeed display high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies.

  6. In vitro growth and osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells supported by autologous plasma.

    PubMed

    Schecroun, N; Delloye, Ch

    2004-08-01

    Autologous bone marrow stromal cells have been proposed as an adjuvant in the treatment of bone nonunion. This cell therapy requires the establishment of culture conditions that permit the rapid expansion of these cells ex vivo while retaining their potential for further differentiation. Several culture models have been proposed, all of them using fetal calf serum (FCS) as a source of growth factors. This is problematic for subsequent autologous implantation because of possible disease transmission. Here we report the establishment and characterization of a cell culture system in which standard FCS has been replaced by autologous plasma recovered from bone marrow (APM). Short-term cultures of human bone marrow stromal (HBMS) cells grown in mineralizing conditions with APM exhibited a significantly higher number of ALP-positive colonies than those grown with FCS, indicating an enhanced ability of APM to recruit osteoprogenitor cells for culture. Analyses of long-term cultures showed that the use of APM did not affect cell proliferation as cell number at confluence and proliferation rate were similar whether primary cultures had been maintained with APM or FCS. In first-passage cultures, an osteoblastic differentiation was observed in both cases as the cells expressed ALP and formed mineralized bone-like nodules. We noted that the age of donor had a negative effect on the number of osteoprogenitor cells recruited for culture. This effect had an impact on proliferation rate in primary cultures performed with APM, although the cell number obtained after expansion remained independent of age. Our study shows that proliferative capacity and osteoblastic differentiation potential of HBMS cells are maintained when cultured with APM. Thus, this cell culture system could provide a new and safer tool to elaborate an autologous cell therapy designed to enhance osteogenesis.

  7. Reducing bone cancer cell functions using selenium nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Stolzoff, Michelle; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Cancer recurrence at the site of tumor resection remains a major threat to patient survival despite modern cancer therapeutic advances. Osteosarcoma, in particular, is a very aggressive primary bone cancer that commonly recurs after surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapeutic treatment. The objective of the present in vitro study was to develop a material that could decrease bone cancer cell recurrence while promoting healthy bone cell functions. Selenium is a natural part of our diet which has shown promise for reducing cancer cell functions, inhibiting bacteria, and promoting healthy cells functions, yet, it has not been widely explored for osteosarcoma applications. For this purpose, due to their increased surface area, selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) were precipitated on a very common orthopedic tissue engineering material, poly-l-lactic acid (or PLLA). Selenium-coated PLLA materials were shown to selectively decrease long-term osteosarcoma cell density while promoting healthy, noncancerous, osteoblast functions (for example, up to two times more alkaline phosphatase activity on selenium coated compared to osteoblasts grown on typical tissue culture plates), suggesting they should be further studied for replacing tumorous bone tissue with healthy bone tissue. Importantly, results of this study were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutics or pharmaceutical agents, which have negative side effects.

  8. Responds of Bone Cells to Microgravity: Ground-Based Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Yang, Pengfei; Xie, Li; Qian, Airong; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Severe loss of bone occurs due to long-duration spaceflight. Mechanical loading stimulates bone formation, while bone degradation happens under mechanical unloading. Bone remodeling is a dynamic process in which bone formation and bone resorption are tightly coupled. Increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation caused by reduced mechanical loading, generally result in disrupted bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is orchestrated by multiple bone cells including osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast and mesenchymal stem cell. It is yet not clear that how these bone cells sense altered gravity, translate physical stimulus into biochemical signals, and then regulate themselves structurally and functionally. In this paper, studies elucidating the bioeffects of microgravity on bone cells (osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast, mesenchymal stem cell) using various platforms including spaceflight and ground-based simulated microgravity were summarized. Promising gravity-sensitive signaling pathways and protein molecules were proposed.

  9. Evidence for multiple bone resorption-stimulating factors produced by normal human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Fried, R M; Voelkel, E F; Rice, R H; Levine, L; Tashjian, A H

    1988-06-01

    Conditioned medium from cultured normal human foreskin keratinocytes enhanced the release of calcium from neonatal mouse calvaria in organ culture. Unfractionated keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM) stimulated bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner, but it did not increase the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the bone culture medium until a maximal dose of KCM for resorption was used. Furthermore, inhibitors of PGE2 synthesis, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and piroxicam, did not inhibit KCM-induced calcium release. High concentrations of KCM increased cAMP production by calvaria in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, but the increase was small compared with that produced by a dose of bovine PTH that caused a similar level of bone resorption. The bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCM was not lost after incubation at 56 C for 60 min, but it was lost after heating at 100 C for 10 min. Fractionation of KCM by gel filtration chromatography revealed two distinct peaks of bone resorption-stimulating activity. One peak, KCMI, caused a significant increase in bone resorption at 2 micrograms protein/ml. KCMI did not increase medium PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in bone had no effect on KCMI-induced bone resorption. KCMI failed to increase cAMP production by human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells. Another peak, KCMII, caused a dose-dependent increase in bone resorption, and a significant increase in medium calcium was noted at a 20-fold lower concentration (0.1 microgram protein/ml) than with KCMI. In contrast to KCMI, the increase in bone resorption stimulated by KCMII was accompanied by a parallel increase in the production of PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis completely inhibited the bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCMII. KCMII also caused an increase in cAMP production by SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that KCM contains at least two distinct bone resorption-stimulating factors, one of which acts via a PG-mediated mechanism and the other by

  10. Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration promotes the adhesion and the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on a hydroxyapatite-coated surface: The direct role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bailing; Lin, Tao; Yang, Xiaoxi; Li, Yiqiang; Xie, Denghui; Zheng, Wenhui; Cui, Haowen; Deng, Weimin; Tan, Xin

    2016-11-01

    The positive effect of low-magnitude, high‑frequency (LMHF) vibration on implant osseointegration has been demonstrated; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of LMHF vibration on the adhesion and the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated surfaces in an in vitro model as well as to elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the effects of LMHF vibration on osteogenesis. LMHF vibration resulted in the increased expression of fibronectin, which was measured by immunostaining and RT-qPCR. Stimulation of BMSCs by LMHF vibration resulted in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton with more prominent F-actin. Moreover, the expression of β1 integrin, vinculin and paxillin was notably increased following LMHF stimulation. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that there were higher cell numbers and more extracellular matrix attached to the HA-coated surface in the LMHF group. Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the expression of osteogenic-specific genes, namely Runx2, osterix, collagen I and osteocalcin, were significantly elevated in the LMHF group. In addition, the protein expression of Wnt10B, β-catenin, Runx2 and osterix was increased following exposure to LMHF vibration. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that LMHF vibration promotes the adhesion and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on HA-coated surfaces in vitro, and LMHF vibration may directly induce osteogenesis by activating the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. These data suggest that LMHF vibration enhances the osseointegration of bone to a HA-coated implant, and provide a scientific foundation for improving bone-implant osseointegration through the application of LMHF vibration.

  11. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    PubMed

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk.

  12. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    PubMed

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  13. Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of Alstonia scholaris on the albino mice bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Md. Sultan; Ahmad, Sheeba; Ali, Afsar; Afzal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in modern medicine for the prevention and treatment of cancer is an important aspect. For this reason, it is important to identify antitumor promoting agents present in medicinal plants commonly used by the human population. Materials and Methods: We used in vivo and in vitro methods using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and replication index (RI) as markers, exposed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as well as alcoholic extract of Alstonia scholaris in five increasing concentrations (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg/kg body weight for in vivo and 150, 200, 250 and 300 μg/ml of culture) and of three different durations of 24, 48 and 72 h in the presence as well absence of S9 mix. Results: Extracts of Alstonia reduces the total aberrant cells ranges from 10.0% to 41.84% and frequencies of aberration in the aberrant cells ranges from 220 to 124 against 290 aberrations causes due to MMS in vivo. Similarly in the in vitro, it reduces CAs (39.62%, 32.83%, and 38.48%) and (45.31%, 44.46%, and 38.34%) at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure respectively; in the absence as well as presence of liver S9 fraction. It also reduces SCE from 7.70 to 4.20 per cell and enhances RI from 1.45 to 1.64. Conclusion: Extracts of Alstonia significantly reduces the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration per cell at each concentration and duration of exposure in vivo; and CAs and SCE in vitro and enhances RI. PMID:27308264

  14. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. )

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  15. Paracrine Factors Produced by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Induce Apoptosis and Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chu; Soori, Mehrnoosh; Miles, Fayth; Sikes, Robert A.; Carson, Daniel D.; Chung, Leland L.W.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preferential bony metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells contributes to disease mortality and morbidity. Local factors in bone stromal extracellular matrix microenvironment affect tumor growth through paracrine interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Methods Using co-culture and medium transfer, we used several methods to assess interactions between PCa and bone stromal cells using three PCa cell lines: PC3, LNCaP, and the LNCaP derivative, C4-2B. Results Co-culture of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with bone marrow stromal cell lines, HS27a and HS5, decreased cell number, as did culture with conditioned medium (CM) harvested from these two cell lines suggesting a soluble paracrine factor was responsible. PC3 cell growth was unaffected. CM harvested from bone stromal cell lines triggered apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not in PC3 cells. Surviving C4-2B cells grown in bone stromal cell CM over several days were growth arrested, suggesting presence of a growth inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by CM was dose-dependent. Flow cytometry demonstrated that over a five day culture period in stromal cell CM, LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not PC3 cells, underwent greater apoptosis than parallel cultures in SF medium. The LNCaP and C4-2B cells showed morphology and biomarker expression consistent with transdifferentiation towards a neuroendocrine phenotype after exposure to stromal cell CM. Conclusions The reactive bone stromal microenvironment initially is hostile to PCa cells producing widespread apoptosis. Activation of transdifferentiation in a subset of apoptotic resistant cells may support phenotypic adaptation during disease progression in bone, eventually favoring lethal disease. PMID:20665531

  16. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-05-21

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease.

  17. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing. PMID:27924854

  18. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  19. Sr-substituted bone cements direct mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts fate

    PubMed Central

    Panseri, Silvia; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Tampieri, Anna; Sprio, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Strontium-substituted apatitic bone cements enriched with sodium alginate were developed as a potential modulator of bone cells fate. The biological impact of the bone cement were investigated in vitro through the study of the effect of the nanostructured apatitic composition and the doping of strontium on mesenchymal stem cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoclasts behaviours. Up to 14 days of culture the bone cells viability, proliferation, morphology and gene expression profiles were evaluated. The results showed that different concentrations of strontium were able to evoke a cell-specific response, in fact an inductive effect on mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and pre-osteoblasts proliferation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclasts activity were observed. Moreover, the apatitic structure of the cements provided a biomimetic environment suitable for bone cells growth. Therefore, the combination of biological features of this bone cement makes it as promising biomaterials for tissue regeneration. PMID:28196118

  20. HOW DO BONE CELLS SENSE MECHANICAL LOADING?

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Carlos Vinícius Buarque de; Belangero, William Dias

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by gravidity, bone tissue experiences stronger or lighter deformation according to the strength of the activities of daily life. Activities resulting in impact are particularly known to stimulate osteogenesis, thus reducing bone mass loss. Knowing how bone cells recognize the mechanical deformation imposed to the bone and trigger a series of biochemical chain reactions is of crucial importance for the development of therapeutic and preventive practices in orthopaedic activity. There is still a long way to run until we can understand the whole process, but current knowledge has shown a strong progression, with researches being conducted focused on therapies. For a mechanical sign to be transformed into a biological one (mechanotransduction), it must be amplified at cell level by the histological structure of bone tissue, producing tensions in cell membrane proteins (integrins) and changing their spatial structure. Such change activates bindings between these and the cytoskeleton, producing focal adhesions, where cytoplasmatic proteins are recruited to enable easier biochemical reactions. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is the most important one being self-activated when its structure is changed by integrins. Activated FAK triggers a cascade of reactions, resulting in the activation of ERK-1/2 and Akt, which are proteins that, together with FAK, regulate the production of bone mass. Osteocytes are believed to be the mechanosensor cells of the bone and to transmit the mechanical deformation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Ionic channels and gap junctions are considered as intercellular communication means for biochemical transmission of a mechanical stimulus. These events occur continuously on bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. PMID:27022510

  1. An Enzymatic Method to Rescue Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Clotted Bone Marrow Samples

    PubMed Central

    Malonzo, Cherry; Poetzel, Tobias; Baur, Martin; Steffen, Frank; Stoyanov, Jivko

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) - usually obtained from bone marrow - often require expansion culture. Our protocol uses clinical grade urokinase to degrade clots in the bone marrow and release MSCs for further use. This protocol provides a rapid and inexpensive alternative to bone marrow resampling. Bone marrow is a major source of MSCs, which are interesting for tissue engineering and autologous stem cell therapies. Upon withdrawal bone marrow may clot, as it comprises all of the hematopoietic system. The resulting clots contain also MSCs that are lost for expansion culture or direct stem cell therapy. We experienced that 74% of canine bone marrow samples contained clots and yielded less than half of the stem cell number expected from unclotted samples. Thus, we developed a protocol for enzymatic digestion of those clots to avoid labor-intense and costly bone marrow resampling. Urokinase - a clinically approved and readily available thrombolytic drug – clears away the bone marrow clots almost completely. As a consequence, treated bone marrow aspirates yield similar numbers of MSCs as unclotted samples. Also, after urokinase treatment the cells kept their metabolic activity and the ability to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Our protocol salvages clotted blood and bone marrow samples without affecting the quality of the cells. This obsoletes resampling, considerably reduces sampling costs and enables the use of clotted samples for research or therapy. PMID:25938767

  2. Analysis of stromal cells in osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma of long bones.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Richard M; Kashima, Takeshi G; Ferguson, David J; Szuhai, Károly; Hogendoorn, Pancras C; Athanasou, Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Adamantinoma of long bones and osteofibrous dysplasia are rare, osteolytic primary bone tumours of uncertain origin containing areas of fibrous and fibro-osseous proliferation. We investigated the nature of the stromal cells in adamantinoma of long bones and osteofibrous dysplasia, and determined cellular and molecular mechanisms of osteolysis in these tumours. Cell culture, molecular (RT-PCR, western blot) and immunohistochemical studies on cases of adamantinoma of long bones and of osteofibrous dysplasia were undertaken to determine the expression of epithelial, osteoblast and osteoclast markers. Ultrastructural and immunophenotypic studies on cultured adamantinoma and osteofibrous dysplasia stromal cells showed that these cells were mainly fibroblast-like with few cells expressing epithelial markers. Osteofibrous dysplasia but not adamantinoma cells expressed alkaline phosphatase. Both osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma cells expressed the ostoclastogenic factors M-CSF and RANKL. Adamantinoma and osteofibrous dysplasia cells also expressed messenger RNA for osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, osterix and collagen type 1. Adamantinoma and osteofibrous dysplasia cells cultured alone on dentine slices were not capable of lacunar resorption, but in co-cultures with monocytes induced formation of osteoclast-like cells was observered. Cultured osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma stromal cells show similar ultrastructural and immunophenotypic characteristics, and differentially express osteoblast markers. Promotion of osteoclastogenesis by stromal cells may contribute to osteolysis in adamantinoma of long bones and osteofibrous dysplasia.

  3. Bone marrow cells and myocardial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Sheng; Trester, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years. Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the clinical application of HSC plasticity in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies in animals suggest that the use of this kind of treatment can reconstruct heart blood vessels, muscle, and function. Some clinical study results have been reported in the past 2 years. In 2003, reports of myocardial regeneration treatment increased significantly. Other studies include observations on the cell surface markers of transplanted cells and treatment efficacy. Some investigations, such as HSC testing, have focused on clinical applications using HSC plasticity and bone marrow transplantation to treat different types of disorders. In this review, we focus on the clinical application of bone marrow cells for myocardial regeneration.

  4. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  5. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  6. Comparison of autogenic and allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells for repair of segmental bone defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Udehiya, Rahul Kumar; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Pawde, A M; Singh, Rajendra; Taru Sharma, G

    2013-06-01

    Autogenic and allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were compared for repair of bone gap defect in rabbits. BM-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and cultured in vitro for allogenic and autogenic transplantation. A 5mm segmental defect was created in mid-diaphysis of the radius bone. The defect was filled with hydroxyapatite alone, hydroxyapatite with autogeneic BM-MSCs and hydroxyapatite with allogenic BM-MSCs in groups A, B and C, respectively. On an average 3.45×10(6) cells were implanted at each defect site. Complete bridging of bone gap with newly formed bone was faster in both treatment groups as compared to control group. Histologically, increased osteogenesis, early and better reorganization of cancellous bone and more bone marrow formation were discernible in treatment groups as compared to control group. It was concluded that in vitro culture expanded allogenic and autogenic BM-MSCs induce similar, but faster and better healing as compared to control.

  7. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  8. Isolation, characterization, and biologic features of bone marrow endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Porada, G; Ascensão, J L

    1996-10-01

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) are an integral part of the bone marrow microenvironment and are likely to play an important role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, either by producing growth factors or inhibitory cytokines or by displaying adhesion molecules that can interact with hematopoietic progenitors. In the present study we demonstrate the isolation, propagation, and characterization of BMECs with regard to morphology, growth characteristics, phenotype, and production of cytokines. Furthermore, we report the creation of a cell line with "BMEC-like" characteristics and compare the characteristics of primary BMEC cultures to those of the immortalized cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that BMECs are susceptible to infection by a laboratory strain of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting that CMV infection of endothelial cells in vivo could potentially play a role in the hematologic abnormalities observed during CMV infection.

  9. Identification of Senescent Cells in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N; Fraser, Daniel G; Wang, Haitao; Jaehn, Katharina; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Weivoda, Megan M; Drake, Matthew T; Tchkonia, Tamara; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Kirkland, James L; Bonewald, Lynda F; Pignolo, Robert J; Monroe, David G; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism by which cells remain metabolically active yet cease dividing and undergo distinct phenotypic alterations, including upregulation of p16Ink4a, profound secretome changes, telomere shortening, and decondensation of pericentromeric satellite DNA. Because senescent cells accumulate in multiple tissues with aging, these cells and the dysfunctional factors they secrete, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), are increasingly recognized as promising therapeutic targets to prevent age-related degenerative pathologies, including osteoporosis. However, the cell type(s) within the bone microenvironment that undergoes senescence with aging in vivo has remained poorly understood, largely because previous studies have focused on senescence in cultured cells. Thus in young (age 6 months) and old (age 24 months) mice, we measured senescence and SASP markers in vivo in highly enriched cell populations, all rapidly isolated from bone/marrow without in vitro culture. In both females and males, p16Ink4a expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR) was significantly higher with aging in B cells, T cells, myeloid cells, osteoblast progenitors, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Further, in vivo quantification of senescence-associated distension of satellites (SADS), ie, large-scale unraveling of pericentromeric satellite DNA, revealed significantly more senescent osteocytes in old compared with young bone cortices (11% versus 2%, p < 0.001). In addition, primary osteocytes from old mice had sixfold more (p < 0.001) telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs) than osteocytes from young mice. Corresponding with the age-associated accumulation of senescent osteocytes was significantly higher expression of multiple SASP markers in osteocytes from old versus young mice, several of which also showed dramatic age-associated upregulation in myeloid cells. These data show that with aging, a subset of cells

  10. Retroviral-mediated transfer of the human glucocerebrosidase gene into cultured Gaucher bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Nolta, J A; Yu, X J; Bahner, I; Kohn, D B

    1992-01-01

    Gaucher disease, a lysosomal glycolipid storage disorder, results from the genetic deficiency of an acidic glucosidase, glucocerebrosidase (GC). The beneficial effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for Gaucher disease suggest that GC gene transduction and the transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells (gene therapy) may similarly alleviate symptoms. We have constructed a retroviral vector, L-GC, produced by a clone of the amphotropic packaging cell line PA317, which transduces the normal human GC cDNA with high efficiency. Whole-marrow mononuclear cells and CD34-enriched cells from a 4-yr-old female with type 3 Gaucher disease were transduced by the L-GC vector and studied in long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). Prestimulation of marrow with IL-3 and IL-6, followed by co-cultivation with vector-producing fibroblasts, produced gene transfer into 40-45% of the hematopoietic progenitor cells. The levels of GC expression in progeny cells (primarily mature myelomonocytic) produced by the LTBMC were quantitatively analyzed by Northern blot, Western blot, and glucocerebrosidase enzyme assay. Normal levels of GC RNA, immunoreactive protein, and enzymatic activity were detected throughout the duration of culture. These studies demonstrate that retroviral vectors can efficiently transfer the GC gene into long-lived hematopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow of patients with Gaucher disease and express physiologically relevant levels of GC enzyme activity. Images PMID:1379609

  11. [Bone and Stem Cells. Bone marrow microenvironment niches for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    In bone marrow, the special microenvironments known as niches control proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) . However, the identity and functions of the niches has been a subject of longstanding debate. Although it has been reported previously that osteoblasts lining the bone surface act as HSC niches, their precise role in HSC maintenance remains unclear. On the other hand, the adipo-osteogenic progenitors with long processes, termed CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which preferentially express the chemokine CXCL12, stem cell factor (SCF) , leptin receptor and PDGF receptor-β were identified in the bone marrow. Recent studies revealed that endothelial cells of bone marrow vascular sinuses and CAR cells provided niches for HSCs. The identity and functions of various other candidate HSC niche cells, including nestin-expressing cells and Schwann cells would also be discussed in this review.

  12. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  13. eOSTEO: bone cell function in microgravity assessed in unmanned missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, L.; Johnson-Green, P.; Buckley, N.; Dufour, B.; Lefebvre, L.

    The Canadian OSTEO experiments on board the space shuttle in 1998 gave life scientists their first opportunity to examine bone cell cultures in space Results showed that isolated bone cells in space take longer to regenerate than on Earth This slower regeneration is aggravated by the hastened action of cells that cause bone deterioration The Canadian Space Agency CSA supported Millenium Biologix for the design of the OSTEO mini-lab which tested the growth of cells using a synthetic bone biomaterial Based on the success of the OSTEO mission an automated version of the OSTEO mini-lab eOSTEO has been designed by Millenium Biologix and will be used to perform experimental studies on board of a FOTON recoverable satellite on orbit for 12 days Several Canadian and European projects will allow to assess the influence of microgravity on bone cell survival differentiation metabolism intracellular organization and gene expression The function of various bone cell receptors in the space environment will be tested The automated mini-lab allows stimulating fixing and cooling of bone cells before satellite recovery and media samples can be stored for further analysis Two modules containing four eOSTEO trays will be integrated in the FOTON satellite along with other modules for scientific experiments in life and physical sciences This pioneering study using automated cell culture on board a satellite will provide new technological expertise for space life sciences and produce crucial information on bone cell behavior in the space environment

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Osteoarthritic Synovium Are a Distinct Population Compared to Their Bone-Marrow Counterparts regarding Surface Marker Distribution and Immunomodulation of Allogeneic CD4+ T-Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Sebastien; Rimmele, Claudia; Bucur, Florin; Dreher, Thomas; Zeifang, Felix; Moradi, Babak; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-α as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Osteoarthritic Synovium Are a Distinct Population Compared to Their Bone-Marrow Counterparts regarding Surface Marker Distribution and Immunomodulation of Allogeneic CD4+ T-Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Florin; Moradi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-α as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27516777

  16. Curcumin analog UBS109 prevents bone marrow osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis disordered by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Zhu, Shijun; Weitzmann, M Neale; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru

    2015-03-01

    UBS109 is a curcumin analog that possesses antitumor properties has been shown to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. This study was undertaken to determine whether UBS109 might alleviate the inhibitory activity of breast cancer cells on osteoblastic mineralization and stimulatory effects on osteoclastogenesis. Mouse bone marrow cells were cocultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro. UBS109 stimulated osteoblastic mineralization and suppressed adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture. Coculture with MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed osteoblastic mineralization and enhanced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture. Effects that were reserved by UBS109 (50-200 nM). Mineralization in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells was suppressed by coculture with MDA-MB-231 cells, while MDA-MB-231 cells did not have effects on osteoclastogenesis of RAW267.4 cells in vitro. UBS109 (500 nM) revealed toxic effects on MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells. This study demonstrates that UBS109, which is an antitumor agent, reveals restorative effects on bone marrow cell differentiation disordered by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells in vitro. This in vitro model may be a useful tool to evaluate the mechanism of breast cancer cell bone metastasis.

  17. Expression of vascular antigens by bone cells during bone regeneration in a membranous bone distraction system.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, D; Maor, G; Rozen, N; Rabinovich, I; Stahl, S; Rachmiel, A

    2001-11-01

    An in vivo system of membranous bone formation during distraction has been investigated in order to follow cells that express vascular markers with the objective of understanding the neovascularization process. Concomitantly, sustained proliferation of preskeletal cells was achieved through the application of mechanical force. New capillaries and leading edges that arose by angiogenesis from the periosteal and mucosal surfaces and invaded the central zone of the regenerating distraction tissue temporally preceded the growth of delicate woven bone trabeculae from both edges of the cut bone. Concentrically arranged 'onion-like' configurations were abundant in paracentral zones and in association with mesenchymal condensations, suggesting their de novo formation in situ. Vascular specific markers, the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 and factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIrAg), were localized immunohistochemically in order to follow cells of vascular origin. Endothelial cells of the new capillaries, centrally located cells of the concentric configurations, pericytes, and most of the adjacent polygonal mesenchymal cells stained positively with specific antibodies to both antigens. Moreover, preosteoblasts and osteoblasts that lie adjacent to or already embedded in the osteiod of the newly formed trabeculae were also FVIIIrAg and Tie-2 immunopositive. As the source of the bone-forming cells in regenerating tissue during distraction is not yet fully understood, this observation might support the possibility of their vascular origin.

  18. [CHARACTERISTICS OF OSTEOCYTE CELL LINES FROM BONES FORMED AS A RESULT OF MEMBRANOUS (SKULL BONES) AND CHONDRAL (LONG BONES) OSSIFICATION].

    PubMed

    Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.

  19. Counteracting bone fragility with human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ranzoni, Anna M.; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Hau, Kwan-Leong; Kerns, Jemma G.; Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra; Jones, Gemma N.; Moschidou, Dafni; Dala-Ali, Benan; Goodship, Allen E.; De Coppi, Paolo; Arnett, Timothy R.; Guillot, Pascale V.

    2016-01-01

    The impaired maturation of bone-forming osteoblasts results in reduced bone formation and subsequent bone weakening, which leads to a number of conditions such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Transplantation of human fetal mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed as skeletal anabolic therapy to enhance bone formation, but the mechanisms underlying the contribution of the donor cells to bone health are poorly understood and require further elucidation. Here, we show that intraperitoneal injection of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AFSCs) into a mouse model of OI (oim mice) reduced fracture susceptibility, increased bone strength, improved bone quality and micro-architecture, normalised bone remodelling and reduced TNFα and TGFβ sigalling. Donor cells engrafted into bones and differentiated into osteoblasts but importantly, also promoted endogenous osteogenesis and the maturation of resident osteoblasts. Together, these findings identify AFSC transplantation as a countermeasure to bone fragility. These data have wider implications for bone health and fracture reduction. PMID:27995994

  20. Skeletal cell fate decisions within periosteum and bone marrow during bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colnot, Céline

    2009-02-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results show that periosteal injuries heal by endochondral ossification, whereas bone marrow injuries heal by intramembranous ossification, indicating that distinct cellular responses occur within these tissues during repair. [corrected] Next, lineage analyses were used to track the fate of cells derived from periosteum, bone marrow, and endosteum, a subcompartment of the bone marrow. Skeletal progenitor cells were found to be recruited locally and concurrently from periosteum and/or bone marrow/endosteum during bone repair. Periosteum and bone marrow/endosteum both gave rise to osteoblasts, whereas the periosteum was the major source of chondrocytes. Finally, results show that intrinsic and environmental signals modulate cell fate decisions within these tissues. In conclusion, this study sheds light into the origins of skeletal stem cells/progenitors during bone regeneration and indicates that periosteum, endosteum, and bone marrow contain pools of stem cells/progenitors with distinct osteogenic and chondrogenic potentials that vary with the tissue environment.

  1. Administration of Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived, Cultured, Pooled, Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Critical Limb Ischemia Due to Buerger's Disease: Phase II Study Report Suggests Clinical Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan K; Krishna, Murali; Chullikana, Anoop; Desai, Sanjay; Murugesan, Rajkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Uday; Raju, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Anita; Parakh, Rajiv; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Viswanathan, Pachaiyappan; Vellotare, Prasanth Kulapurathu; Seetharam, Raviraja N; Thej, Charan; Rengasamy, Mathiyazhagan; Balasubramanian, Sudha; Majumdar, Anish S

    2017-03-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to Buerger's disease is a major unmet medical need with a high incidence of morbidity. This phase II, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label, multicentric, dose-ranging study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of i.m. injection of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) in CLI due to Buerger's disease. Patients were allocated to three groups: 1 and 2 million cells/kg body weight (36 patients each) and standard of care (SOC) (18 patients). BMMSCs were administered as 40-60 injections in the calf muscle and locally, around the ulcer. Most patients were young (age range, 38-42 years) and ex-smokers, and all patients had at least one ulcer. Both the primary endpoints-reduction in rest pain (0.3 units per month [SE, 0.13]) and healing of ulcers (11% decrease in size per month [SE, 0.05])-were significantly better in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg body weight than in the SOC arm. Improvement in secondary endpoints, such as ankle brachial pressure index (0.03 [SE, 0.01] unit increase per month) and total walking distance (1.03 [SE, 0.02] times higher per month), were also significant in the group receiving 2 million cells/kg as compared with the SOC arm. Adverse events reported were remotely related or unrelated to BMMSCs. In conclusion, i.m. administration of BMMSC at a dose of 2 million cells/kg showed clinical benefit and may be the best regimen in patients with CLI due to Buerger's disease. However, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the most appropriate dose. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:689-699.

  2. Bone regeneration using coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and angiogenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Ling; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.; Pan, Ju-Li; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chen, Su

    2014-03-01

    Cellular strategies remain a crucial component in bone tissue engineering (BTE). So far, the outcome of cell-based strategies from initial clinical trials is far behind compared to animal studies, which is suggested to be related to insufficient nutrient and oxygen supply inside the tissue-engineered constructs. Cocultures, by introducing angiogenic cells into osteogenic cell cultures, might provide a solution for improving vascularization and hence increasing bone formation for cell-based constructs. So far, pre-clinical studies demonstrated that cocultures enhance vascularization and bone formation compared to monocultures. However, there has been no report on the application of cocultures in clinics. Therefore, this mini-review aims to provide an overview regarding (i) critical parameters in cocultures and the outcomes of cocultures compared to monocultures in the currently available pre-clinical studies using human mesenchymal stem cells implanted in orthotopic animal models; and (ii) the usage of monocultures in clinical application in BTE.

  3. Investigation of In Vitro Bone Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Ti Using Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell-materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model.

  4. Effect of bone marrow-derived stem cells on chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangzhi; Chen, Yong; Wang, Qiang; Fang, Chaoyong; Sun, Yu; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Yuebei; Bao, Rongni; Zhao, Ningjian

    2016-02-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are suffering from osteoarthritis every year, and the directed intra-articular injection of bone marrow stem cells has provided a promising treatment strategy for osteoarthritis. Although a number of studies have demonstrated that intra-articular injection of bone marrow stem cells produced desirable results, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been elucidated. In the current study, the effect of bone marrow stem cells on chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis was observed in a co-culture system. Human chondrocytes were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis who underwent surgical procedures and bone marrow stem cells were obtained from bone marrow aspirates, and then the chondrocytes were then cultured alone or cocultured with bone marrow stem cells in 0.4-µm Transwell inserts. The differentiation and biological activity of chondrocytes in the culture system were measured, and the inflammatory factors and OA-associated markers were also measured. The results indicated that coculture with human bone marrow stem cells increases cell proliferation of chondrocytes and inhibits inflammatory activity in osteoarthritis.

  5. Murine stromal cells counteract the loss of long-term culture-initiating cell potential induced by cytokines in CD34(+)CD38(low/neg) human bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Tourino, C; Izac, B; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1999-07-15

    Evidence has been provided recently that shows that high concentrations of cytokines can fulfill functions previously attributed to stromal cells, such as promote the survival of, and led to a net increase in human primitive progenitors initiating long-term cultures in vitro (LTC-IC) or engrafting NOD-SCID (nonobese diabetic severe-combined immunodeficient) recipients in vivo. These data prompted us to re-evaluate whether stromal cells will further alter the properties of primitive progenitor cells exposed to cytokines. Single CD34(+)CD38(low) and CD38(neg) cells were incubated 10 days in serum-containing or serum-free medium in the presence or in the absence of murine marrow-derived stromal cells (MS-5). Recombinant human cytokines stem cell factor (SCF), pegylated-megakaryocyte growth and differentiation factor (PEG-MGDF), FLT3-L, Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were systematically added at various concentrations (10 to 300 ng/mL). Cell proliferation and LTC-IC potential were evaluated in each clone after 10 days. A striking and consistent observation was the retention of a high LTC-IC potential in clones exposed to cytokines in the presence of stromal feeders, whereas clones exposed to cytokines alone in the absence of stromal feeders rapidly lost their LTC-IC potential as they proliferated. This was reflected both by the higher proportion of wells containing LTC-IC and by the high numbers of CFC produced after 5 weeks in clones grown with MS-5 during the first 10 days. We further showed by analyzing multiple replicates of a single clone at day 10 that MS-5 cells promoted a net increase in the LTC-IC compartment through self-renewal divisions. Interestingly, these primitive LTC-IC were equally distributed among small and large clones, as counted at day 10, indicating that active proliferation and loss of LTC-IC potential could be dissociated. These observations show that, in primitive cells, stromal cells

  6. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  7. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  8. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxin; Zhang, Jinghan; Ben, Xiaoming

    2013-08-05

    Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from C57BL/6J mice were separated and cultured using the "pour-off" method. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supplementation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor expressed the neuron specific markers, neurofilament-200 and NeuN, in vitro. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from β-galactosidase transgenic mice were also transplanted into focal ischemic brain (right corpus striatum) of C57BL/6J mice. At 8 weeks, cells positive for LacZ and β-galactosidase staining were observed in the ischemic tissues, and cells co-labeled with both β-galactosidase and NeuN were seen by double immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into neuronal-like cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Rare Giant Cell Tumor of Olecranon Bone!!!!

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Pawan; Gautam, Vishal; Saini, Narender; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a bone tumor involving epiphyseal area of bone abutting the subchondral bone. Commonly found in long bones such as proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of GCT of olecranon bone in a 23-year-old male. Case Report: A 23-year-old patient presented to our outpatient department with pain and mild swelling at the elbow from last 2 to 3 months. On examination, it was seen that there was a moderate swelling at the tip of the olecranon. The magnetic resonance imaging reported a lytic lesion in the olecranon but sparing the coronoid process of the ulna, the biopsy report confirmed that histologically it was a GCT of the bone. Total excision of the tumor was done after lifting the aponeurosis of the triceps muscle. The area remaining after excision of the tumor was phenol cauterized and cleaned with hydrogen peroxide solution. Triceps was reinserted on the remaining ulna. At follow-up the radiographs showed adequate excision of the tumor. The patient gained a full range of movement at the elbow and was functionally restored. There were no signs of any systemic spread of the tumor. Conclusion: GCT though a very common bone tumor could be missed if present in atypical locations. Radiographically soap bubble appearance might not be present in every case, and there could be multiple diagnoses for lytic lesion in bone. Proper investigations and histopathological examination are necessary for accurate diagnosis and further treatment planning. Early treatment helps in complete excision of tumor along with return of adequate function of the patient. PMID:28164048

  10. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 stimulation on osteoblasts cultured on different biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Açil, Yahya; Springer, Ingo N G; Broek, Vanessa; Terheyden, Hendrik; Jepsen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an in vitro stimulation of human osteoblasts by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) on the collagen types and the quantity of the collagen cross-links synthesized in a three-dimensional culture on various biomaterials for bone replacement. Trabecular bone chips were harvested from human iliac crests, and cell cultures were established at standard conditions. One hundred and fifty nanograms per milliliter of rhBMP-7 was added. For the second passage a cell scraper was used to bring the cells into suspension, and 100 microl osteoblasts (at a density of 3.3 x 10(5)) were transferred onto nine blocks of either Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15. Blocks incubated with cells that were not treated with rhBMP-7 served as controls. Cell colonization of the biomaterials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after a period of 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Throughout the experiment medium, supernatants were collected and collagen was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Finally, the collagen cross-link residues hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) were quantified by HPLC. Within 4 weeks the cells became confluent on all of the studied biomaterials. All samples synthesized bone specific LP and collagen type I. However, in rhBMP-7-stimulated samples, the amount of HP and LP found was increased by 45% compared to non-stimulated samples. Cell proliferation and collagen synthesis was similar on the different biomaterials, but was consistently reduced in specimen not stimulated with rhBMP-7. In vitro stimulation of osteoblasts on Bio-Oss, Tutoplast, or PepGen p-15 with rhBMP-7 and subsequent transplantation of the constructs might lead to an enhanced osseointegration of the biomaterials in vivo.

  11. Principles of cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cree, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    The basics of cell culture are now relatively common, though it was not always so. The pioneers of cell culture would envy our simple access to manufactured plastics, media and equipment for such studies. The prerequisites for cell culture are a well lit and suitably ventilated laboratory with a laminar flow hood (Class II), CO(2) incubator, benchtop centrifuge, microscope, plasticware (flasks and plates) and a supply of media with or without serum supplements. Not only can all of this be ordered easily over the internet, but large numbers of well-characterised cell lines are available from libraries maintained to a very high standard allowing the researcher to commence experiments rapidly and economically. Attention to safety and disposal is important, and maintenance of equipment remains essential. This chapter should enable researchers with little prior knowledge to set up a suitable laboratory to do basic cell culture, but there is still no substitute for experience within an existing well-run laboratory.

  12. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, AK; Nath, R; Mishra, MP

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31), followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21), distal end of radius(n=14), upper end of fibula (n=9), proximal end of femur(n=5), upper end of the humerus(n=3), iliac bone(n=2), phalanx (n=2) and spine(n=1). The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4) and metatarsal(n=1). Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases. Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice. The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction. PMID:21139762

  13. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  14. Acetate inhibition of chick bone cell proliferation and bone growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saitta, J C; Lipkin, E W; Howard, G A

    1989-06-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that parenteral solutions as commonly formulated for use in clinical practice have a toxic effect on cell metabolism. A specific component of these solutions, sodium acetate, has been suggested to disrupt normal bone turnover and therefore to contribute to the osteopenia observed in patients receiving hemodialysis and parenteral nutrition (PN). We developed an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that sodium acetate at concentrations that are infused in PN solutions has a deleterious effect on bone metabolism. Osteoblasts and preosteoblasts from 16- to 17-day-old embryonic chick calvaria, and tibiae and femora from 10-day-old embryonic chicks were grown in BGJb medium (control) or in BGJb medium plus sodium acetate (5, 10, or 20 mM). Calvarial cell proliferation was quantified by direct cell counts as well as by incorporation of [3H]TdR into DNA as an index of cell proliferation. Calvarial cell alkaline phosphatase activity was quantified by the ability of extracts of the cultured cells to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol, and bone growth was determined by measuring final dry weight. Calvarial cell counts as well as DNA synthesis showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of sodium acetate (5-20 mM) compared with controls. [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased a mean 19% with 5 mM, 38% with 10 mM, and 63% with 20 mM acetate. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell increased 48% with 5 mM, 140% with 10 mM, and 355% with 20 mM acetate. Cell viability as assessed by trypan blue exclusion was identical for test and control media (greater than 95%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The cell biology of bone growth.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Russell, R G

    1994-02-01

    The field of bone cell biology is clearly of relevance to the problem of stunting in children, as in the final analysis the cells of the growing long bone are the ultimate 'regulators'. It is the alterations in the functions of these cells that manifests as a reduction in height. Normal longitudinal growth is achieved by the coordinated recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, maturation and eventual death of the cells of growth plate and bone. Cellular activity is closely regulated by endocrine factors acting directly or indirectly, with factors produced locally and stored within the bone and cartilage microenvironment having a critical role in intercellular communication. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to growth disturbances, since it only requires a defect in a single gene to have profound effects. Studies in recent years have shed light on the biochemical and molecular effects of cytokines and growth factors and have shown that these regulatory molecules may mediate the effects of certain hormones important in controlling growth. However, the complex interrelationship of these molecules is still not clear. Notwithstanding, understanding of the mechanisms involved in bone remodelling is increasing, as this area attracts much research because of the high incidence of metabolic bone disease in Western society. Although studies of adult bone remodelling are of relevance, there is a requirement for increased research directed specifically at the mechanisms of endochondral ossification and its regulation. Longitudinal bone growth is a challenge to the cell biologist, since it is an accelerated cycle of cellular division and differentiation, within which it is not easy to separate events temporally and spatially. In addition, different regulatory mechanisms are probably important at different stages of growth. Another difficulty impeding progress in this field is the lack of appropriate animal models for research. Much information has come from

  16. Cellular attachment and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on natural cuttlefish bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Sung, Hark-Mo; You, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information for the application of natural cuttlefish bone. Before applying cuttlefish bone as a bone defect filling material, we evaluated proliferation, adhesion, and cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on cuttlefish bone. Cuttlefish bone was separated into two parts (dorsal shield and lamellar region) and each part was used. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using the MTS assay and live/dead fluorescence staining method. The morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). hMSCs were stimulated with osteogenic medium and osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The fluorescence images showed that the seeded cells grew well and that cell distribution was in accordance with the surface morphology of the cuttlefish bone. Compared with the dorsal shield, cells penetrated deeper into the three-dimensional inner space of the lamellar part. Furthermore, under osteogenic differentiation conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity increased and the mRNA expression of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type I α1 was increased in hMSCs cultured on both the dorsal shield and lamellar block. These results indicate the potential of cuttlefish bone as an ideal scaffold for bone regenerative materials.

  17. Native multipotential stromal cell colonization and graft expander potential of a bovine natural bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kouroupis, Dimitrios; Baboolal, Thomas G; Jones, Elena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-12-01

    Graft expanders are bone scaffolds used, in combination with autografts, to fill large bone defects in trauma surgery. This study investigates the graft expander potential of a natural bone substitute Orthoss by studying its ability to support attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring multipotential stromal cells (MSCs). Material consisting of bone marrow (BM) aspirate and reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA)-harvested autograft bone was co-cultured with commercially available Orthoss granules. Native MSCs attached to Orthoss were expanded and phenotypically characterized. MSCs egress from neighboring cancelous bone was assessed in 3D Matrigel co-cultures. MSC differentiation was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity per cell. CD45(+) hematopoietic lineage cells and highly proliferative CD90(+) CD73(+) CD105(+) MSCs preferentially colonized Orthoss granules, over RIA bone chips. MSC colonization was followed by their intrinsic osteogenic differentiation, assessed as mineral deposition and gradual rise in ALP activity, even in the absence of osteogenic stimuli. When in contact with mixed cell populations and RIA chips, Orthoss granules support the attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring MSCs. Therefore, natural bone substitutes similar to Orthoss can be used as void fillers and graft expanders for repairing large bone defects in conjunction with autologous BM aspirates and autografts.

  18. Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishaug, S. L.; Crane, G. M.; Miller, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Bone formation was investigated in vitro by culturing stromal osteoblasts in three-dimensional (3-D), biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams. Three polymer foam pore sizes, ranging from 150-300, 300-500, and 500-710 microns, and two different cell seeding densities, 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 and 22.1 x 10(5) cells/cm2, were examined over a 56-day culture period. The polymer foams supported the proliferation of seeded osteoblasts as well as their differentiated function, as demonstrated by high alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix by the cells. Cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition increased significantly over time for all the polymer foams. Osteoblast foam constructs created by seeding 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 on foams with 300-500 microns pores resulted in a cell density of 4.63 x 10(5) cells/cm2 after 1 day in culture; they had alkaline phosphatase activities of 4.28 x 10(-7) and 2.91 x 10(-6) mumol/cell/min on Days 7 and 28, respectively; and they had a cell density that increased to 18.7 x 10(5) cells/cm2 by Day 56. For the same constructs, the mineralized matrix reached a maximum penetration depth of 240 microns from the top surface of the foam and a value of 0.083 mm for mineralized tissue volume per unit of cross sectional area. Seeding density was an important parameter for the constructs, but pore size over the range tested did not affect cell proliferation or function. This study suggests the feasibility of using poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams as scaffolding materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  19. Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ishaug, S L; Crane, G M; Miller, M J; Yasko, A W; Yaszemski, M J; Mikos, A G

    1997-07-01

    Bone formation was investigated in vitro by culturing stromal osteoblasts in three-dimensional (3-D), biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams. Three polymer foam pore sizes, ranging from 150-300, 300-500, and 500-710 microns, and two different cell seeding densities, 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 and 22.1 x 10(5) cells/cm2, were examined over a 56-day culture period. The polymer foams supported the proliferation of seeded osteoblasts as well as their differentiated function, as demonstrated by high alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix by the cells. Cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition increased significantly over time for all the polymer foams. Osteoblast foam constructs created by seeding 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 on foams with 300-500 microns pores resulted in a cell density of 4.63 x 10(5) cells/cm2 after 1 day in culture; they had alkaline phosphatase activities of 4.28 x 10(-7) and 2.91 x 10(-6) mumol/cell/min on Days 7 and 28, respectively; and they had a cell density that increased to 18.7 x 10(5) cells/cm2 by Day 56. For the same constructs, the mineralized matrix reached a maximum penetration depth of 240 microns from the top surface of the foam and a value of 0.083 mm for mineralized tissue volume per unit of cross sectional area. Seeding density was an important parameter for the constructs, but pore size over the range tested did not affect cell proliferation or function. This study suggests the feasibility of using poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams as scaffolding materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  20. Engineering tubular bone using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Ma, Dongyang; Yan, Xingrong; Liu, Liangqi; Cui, Jihong; Xie, Xin; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: • We developed a novel engineering strategy to solve the limitations of bone grafts. • We fabricated tubular constructs using cell sheets and coral particles. • The composite constructs showed high radiological density and compressive strength. • These characteristics were similar to those of native bone. -- Abstract: The development of bone tissue engineering has provided new solutions for bone defects. However, the cell-scaffold-based approaches currently in use have several limitations, including low cell seeding rates and poor bone formation capacity. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy to engineer bone grafts using mesenchymal stem cell sheets and coral particles. Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were continuously cultured to form a cell sheet with osteogenic potential and coral particles were integrated into the sheet. The composite sheet was then wrapped around a cylindrical mandrel to fabricate a tubular construct. The resultant tubular construct was cultured in a spinner-flask bioreactor and subsequently implanted into a subcutaneous pocket in a nude mouse for assessment of its histological characteristics, radiological density and mechanical property. A similar construct assembled from a cell sheet alone acted as a control. In vitro observations demonstrated that the composite construct maintained its tubular shape, and exhibited higher radiological density, compressive strength and greater extracellular matrix deposition than did the control construct. In vivo experiments further revealed that new bone formed ectopically on the composite constructs, so that the 8-week explants of the composite sheets displayed radiological density similar to that of native bone. These results indicate that the strategy of using a combination of a cell sheet and coral particles has great potential for bone tissue engineering and repairing bone defects.

  1. Bone fragility and decline in stem cells in prematurely aging DNA repair deficient trichothiodystrophy mice.

    PubMed

    Diderich, Karin E M; Nicolaije, Claudia; Priemel, Matthias; Waarsing, Jan H; Day, Judd S; Brandt, Renata M C; Schilling, Arndt F; Botter, Sander M; Weinans, Harrie; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2012-08-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder caused by mutations in components of the dual functional NER/basal transcription factor TFIIH. TTD mice, carrying a patient-based point mutation in the Xpd gene, strikingly resemble many features of the human syndrome and exhibit signs of premature aging. To examine to which extent TTD mice resemble the normal process of aging, we thoroughly investigated the bone phenotype. Here, we show that female TTD mice exhibit accelerated bone aging from 39 weeks onwards as well as lack of periosteal apposition leading to reduced bone strength. Before 39 weeks have passed, bones of wild-type and TTD mice are identical excluding a developmental defect. Albeit that bone formation is decreased, osteoblasts in TTD mice retain bone-forming capacity as in vivo PTH treatment leads to increased cortical thickness. In vitro bone marrow cell cultures showed that TTD osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts. However, after 13 weeks of age TTD females show decreased bone nodule formation. No increase in bone resorption or the number of osteoclasts was detected. In conclusion, TTD mice show premature bone aging, which is preceded by a decrease in mesenchymal stem cells/osteoprogenitors and a change in systemic factors, identifying DNA damage and repair as key determinants for bone fragility by influencing osteogenesis and bone metabolism.

  2. Fluid Flow Induced Calcium Response in Bone Cell Network

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L.; Hung, Clark T.; Costa, Kevin D.; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.; Guo, X. Edward

    2010-01-01

    In our previous work, bone cell networks with controlled spacing and functional intercellular gap junctions had been successfully established by using microcontact printing and self assembled monolayers technologies [Guo, X. E., E. Takai, X. Jiang, Q. Xu, G. M. Whitesides, J. T. Yardley, C. T. Hung, E. M. Chow, T. Hantschel, and K. D. Costa. Mol. Cell. Biomech. 3:95–107, 2006]. The present study investigated the calcium response and the underlying signaling pathways in patterned bone cell networks exposed to a steady fluid flow. The glass slides with cell networks were separated into eight groups for treatment with specific pharmacological agents that inhibit pathways significant in bone cell calcium signaling. The calcium transients of the network were recorded and quantitatively evaluated with a set of network parameters. The results showed that 18α-GA (gap junction blocker), suramin (ATP inhibitor), and thapsigargin (depleting intracellular calcium stores) significantly reduced the occurrence of multiple calcium peaks, which were visually obvious in the untreated group. The number of responsive peaks also decreased slightly yet significantly when either the COX-2/PGE2 or the NOS/nitric oxide pathway was disrupted. Different from all other groups, cells treated with 18α-GA maintained a high concentration of intracellular calcium following the first peak. In the absence of calcium in the culture medium, the intracellular calcium concentration decreased slowly with fluid flow without any calcium transients observed. These findings have identified important factors in the flow mediated calcium signaling of bone cells within a patterned network. PMID:20852730

  3. Platelet lysate favours in vitro expansion of human bone marrow stromal cells for bone and cartilage engineering.

    PubMed

    Zaky, S H; Ottonello, A; Strada, P; Cancedda, R; Mastrogiacomo, M

    2008-12-01

    The heterogeneous population of non-haematopoietic cells residing in the bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells, BMSCs) and the different fractions and components obtained from platelet-rich plasma provide an invaluable source of autologous cells and growth factors for bone and other connective tissue reconstruction. In this study, we investigated the effect of an allogenic platelet lysate on human BMSCs proliferation and differentiation. Cell proliferation and number of performed cell doublings were enhanced in cultures supplemented with the platelet-derived growth factors (platelet lysate, PL), either with or without the concomitant addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS), compared to cultures performed in the presence of FBS and FGF2. Both in vitro and in vivo osteogenic differentiation were unaltered in cells maintained in medium supplemented with PL and not FBS (Only PL) and in cells maintained in medium containing FBS and FGF2. Interestingly, the in vitro cartilage formation was more effective in the pellet of BMSCs expanded in the Only PL medium. In particular, a chondrogenic differentiation was observed in pellets of some in vitro-expanded BMSCs in the Only PL medium, whereas pellets from parallel cell cultures in medium containing FBS did not respond to the chondrogenic induction. We conclude that the platelet lysate from human source is an effective and even more beneficial substitute for fetal bovine serum to support the in vitro expansion of human BMSCs for subsequent tissue-engineering applications.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Knight, M. Noelle; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a key role in fracture repair by differentiating to become bone-forming osteoblasts and cartilage-forming chondrocytes. Cartilage then serves as a template for additional bone formation through the process of endochondral ossification. Recent Advances Endogenous MSCs that contribute to healing are primarily derived from the periosteum, endosteum, and marrow cavity, but also may be contributed from the overlying muscle or through systemic circulation, depending on the type of injury. A variety of growth factor signaling pathways, including BMP, Wnt, and Notch signaling, influence MSC proliferation and differentiation. These MSCs can be therapeutically manipulated to promote differentiation. Furthermore, MSCs can be harvested, cultivated, and delivered to promote bone healing. Critical Issues Pharmacologically manipulating the number and differentiation capacity of endogenous MSCs is one potential therapeutic approach to improve healing; however, ideal agents to influence signaling pathways need to be developed and additional therapeutics that activate endogenous MSCs are needed. Whether isolated and purified, MSCs participate directly in the healing process or serve a bystander effect and indirectly influence healing is not well defined. Future Directions Studies must focus on better understanding the regulation of endogenous MSCs durings fracture healing. This will reveal novel molecules and pathways to therapeutically target. Similarly, while animal models have demonstrated efficacy in the delivery of MSCs to promote healing, more research is needed to understand ideal donor cells, cultivation methods, and delivery before stem cell therapy approaches can be utilized to repair bone. PMID:24527352

  5. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  6. Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Dendritic Cells from Humans and Mice.

    PubMed

    Kar, Srabani; Mitra, Shinjini; Banerjee, Ena Ray

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are cells capable of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into specific phenotypes. They are an essential part of tissue engineering, which is used in regenerative medicine in case of degenerative diseases. In this chapter, we describe the methods of isolating and culturing various types of stem cells, like human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs), murine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBM-MSCs), murine adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (mAD-MSCs), and murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs). All these cell types can be used in tissue engineering techniques.

  7. Bone Cell Bioenergetics and Skeletal Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Ryan C; Clemens, Thomas L

    2017-04-01

    The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control. The recognition of this expanded role of the skeleton has in turn led to new lines of inquiry directed at defining the fuel requirements and bioenergetic properties of bone cells. This article provides a comprehensive review of historical and contemporary studies on the metabolic properties of bone cells and the mechanisms that control energy substrate utilization and bioenergetics. Special attention is devoted to identifying gaps in our current understanding of this new area of skeletal biology that will require additional research to better define the physiological significance of skeletal cell bioenergetics in human health and disease.

  8. Cell sheet-engineered bones used for the reconstruction of mandibular defects in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    DU, CHUNHUA; YAO, CHAO; LI, NINGYI; WANG, SHUANGYI; FENG, YUANYONG; YANG, XUECAI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the generation of cell sheet-engineered bones used for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured and induced to generate osteoblasts. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds were wrapped with or without cell sheets and then implanted into dogs with mandibular defects in the right side (experimental group) or the left side (control group), respectively. Subsequently, X-ray analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed at various time points (at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks post-implantation; n=4 at each time point). The osteogenesis in the experimental group was significantly improved compared with that in the control group. At 16 weeks after implantation, numerous Haversian systems and a few lamellar bones were observed at the periphery. In the control group, the engineered bone (without BMSC sheets) presented fewer Haversian systems and no lamellar bones. The optical density of the fresh bone in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, tissue-engineered bone with the structure of lamellar bones can be generated using BMSC sheets and implantation of these bones had an improved effects compared with the control group. Cell sheet transplantation was found to enhance bone formation at the reconstruction site of the mandibular defects. PMID:26668619

  9. The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Desales

    1989-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

  10. Paper-based bioactive scaffolds for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Ji; Yu, Seung Jung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Ann-Na; Kim, Jin; Lee, Bora; Yang, Hee Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive, functional scaffolds are required to improve the regenerative potential of stem cells for tissue reconstruction and functional recovery of damaged tissues. Here, we report a paper-based bioactive scaffold platform for stem cell culture and transplantation for bone reconstruction. The paper scaffolds are surface-engineered by an initiated chemical vapor deposition process for serial coating of a water-repellent and cell-adhesive polymer film, which ensures the long-term stability in cell culture medium and induces efficient cell attachment. The prepared paper scaffolds are compatible with general stem cell culture and manipulation techniques. An optimal paper type is found to provide structural, physical, and mechanical cues to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). A bioactive paper scaffold significantly enhances in vivo bone regeneration of hADSCs in a critical-sized calvarial bone defect. Stacking the paper scaffolds with osteogenically differentiated hADSCs and human endothelial cells resulted in vascularized bone formation in vivo. Our study suggests that paper possesses great potential as a bioactive, functional, and cost-effective scaffold platform for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the feasibility of a paper material for stem cell application to repair tissue defects.

  11. Dissecting the role of bone marrow stromal cells on bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Denise; Park, Serk In; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-induced bone disease is a dynamic process that involves interactions with many cell types. Once metastatic cancer cells reach the bone, they are in contact with many different cell types that are present in the cell-rich bone marrow. These cells include the immune cells, myeloid cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells. Each of these cell populations can influence the behavior or gene expression of both the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the tumor itself can alter the behavior of these bone marrow cells which further alters both the microenvironment and the tumor cells. While many groups focus on studying these interactions, much remains unknown. A better understanding of the interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment will improve our knowledge on how tumors establish in bone and may lead to improvements in diagnosing and treating bone metastases. This review details our current knowledge on the interactions between tumor cells that reside in bone and their microenvironment.

  12. Different effects on bone strength and cell differentiation in pre pubertal caloric restriction versus hypothalamic suppression.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R N; Safadi, F F; Barbe, M F; Del Carpio-Cano, Fe; Popoff, S N; Yingling, V R

    2011-10-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea and energy restriction during puberty affect peak bone mass accrual. One hypothesis suggests energy restriction alters hypothalamic function resulting in suppressed estradiol levels leading to bone loss. However, both positive and negative results have been reported regarding energy restriction and bone strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate energy restriction and hypothalamic suppression during pubertal onset on bone mechanical strength and the osteogenic capacity of bone marrow-derived cells in two models: female rats treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH-a) or 30% energy restriction. At 23 days of age, female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: control group (C, n=10), GnRH-a group (n=10), and Energy Restriction (ER, n=12) group. GnRH-a animals received daily injections for 27 days. The animals in the ER group received 70% of the control animals' intake. After sacrifice (50 days of age), body weight, uterine and muscle weights were measured. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells were cultured and assayed for proliferation and differentiation into osteoblasts. Outcome measures included bone strength, bone histomorphometry and architecture, serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin. GnRH-a suppressed uterine weight, decreased osteoblast proliferation, bone strength, trabecular bone volume and architecture compared to control. Elevated serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin levels and body weight were found. The ER model had an increase in osteoblast proliferation compared to the GnRH-a group, similar bone strength relative to body weight and increased trabecular bone volume in the lumbar spine compared to control. The ER animals were smaller but had developed bone strength sufficient for their size. In contrast, suppressed estradiol via hypothalamic suppression resulted in bone strength deficits and trabecular bone volume loss. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that during periods of

  13. Generation of Valpha14 NKT cells in vitro from hematopoietic precursors residing in bone marrow and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Kobayashi, Kumi; Watanabe, Hiroko; Huang, Yi-Ying; Okamoto, Naoki; Kanie, Osamu; Goji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masumi

    2004-03-01

    We previously reported the generation of Valpha14 invariant TCR+ (Valpha14i) NK1.1+ natural killer T (NKT) cells in the cytokine-activated suspension culture of murine fetal liver cells. In this study, we attempted to apply this finding to the induction of Valpha14i NKT cell differentiation in the culture of hematopoietic precursors residing in bone marrow or peripheral blood. Preferential generation of NKT cells was found in the culture of Thy-1(+)-depleted bone marrow cells in the presence of culture supernatant from Con A-stimulated spleen T cells and a combination of recombinant IL-3, IL-4, IL-7 and GM-CSF. NKT cell development from peripheral blood hematopoietic precursors was induced when they were cultured on stromal cell monolayers prepared from Thy-1(+)-depleted bone marrow or fetal liver cells, suggesting that certain environments derived from hematopoietic organs are required for the induction of NKT cells from precursors in vitro. A significant fraction of NKT cells generated in the culture were positive for staining with CD1-alpha-galactosylceramide tetramer, indicating that Valpha14i NKT cells were the major subset among the NKT cells. The present methods for obtaining NKT cells in the culture of bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are applicable to the treatment of patients suffering from diseases with numerical and functional disorders of NKT cells.

  14. Bone Formation by Sheep Stem Cells in an Ectopic Mouse Model: Comparison of Adipose and Bone Marrow Derived Cells and Identification of Donor-Derived Bone by Antibody Staining

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Chris H.; Ditzel, Nicholas; Andreasen, Christina M.; Chen, Li; Sheikh, Søren P.; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE) can be loaded with stem and progenitor cells (SPC) from different sources to improve osteogenesis. SPC can be found in bone marrow, adipose tissue, and other tissues. Little is known about osteogenic potential of adipose-derived culture expanded, adherent cells (A-CEAC). This study compares in vivo osteogenic capacity between A-CEAC and bone marrow derived culture expanded, adherent cells (BM-CEAC). Method. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were isolated from five female sheep and seeded on hydroxyapatite granules prior to subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice. The doses of cells in the implants were 0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106, or 1.5 × 106 A-CEAC and 0.5 × 106 BM-CEAC, respectively. After eight weeks, bone volume versus total tissue volume (BV/TV) was quantified using histomorphometry. Origin of new bone was assessed using human vimentin (HVIM) antibody staining. Results. BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group, and differences between A-CEAC groups were not statistically significant. HVIM antibody stain was successfully used to identify sheep cells in this model. Conclusion. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were capable of forming bone, and BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group. In vitro treatment to enhance osteogenic capacity of A-CEAC is suggested for further research in ovine bone tissue engineering. PMID:27994622

  15. Cell Cycle Related Differentiation of Bone Marrow Cells into Lung Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dooner, Mark; Aliotta, Jason M.; Pimental, Jeffrey; Dooner, Gerri J.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Colvin, Gerald; Liu, Qin; Weier, Heinz-Ulli; Dooner, Mark S.; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2007-12-31

    Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow cells transplanted into lethally irradiated mice can be detected in the lungs of transplanted mice and have been shown to express lung specific proteins while lacking the expression of hematopoietic markers. We have studied marrow cells induced to transit cell cycle by exposure to IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and steel factor at different times of culture corresponding to different phases of cell cycle. We have found that marrow cells at the G1/S interface have a 3-fold increase in cells which assume a lung phenotype and that this increase is no longer seen in late S/G2. These cells have been characterized as GFP{sup +} CD45{sup -} and GFP{sup +} cytokeratin{sup +}. Thus marrow cells with the capacity to convert into cells with a lung phenotype after transplantation show a reversible increase with cytokine induced cell cycle transit. Previous studies have shown the phenotype of bone marrow stem cells fluctuates reversibly as these cells traverse cell cycle, leading to a continuum model of stem cell regulation. The present studies indicate that marrow stem cell production of nonhematopoietic cells also fluctuates on a continuum.

  16. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sobti, Anshul; Agrawal, Pranshu; Agarwala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor. PMID:26894211

  17. Targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Lane, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of excess skeletal fragility that results from estrogen loss and aging. Age related bone loss has been attributed to both elevated bone resorption and insufficient bone formation. We developed a hybrid compound, LLP2A-Ale in which LLP2A has high affinity for the α4β1 integrin on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and alendronate has high affinity for bone. When LLP2A-Ale was injected into mice, the compound directed MSCs to both trabecular and cortical bone surfaces and increased bone mass and bone strength. Additional studies are underway to further characterize this hybrid compound, LLP2A-Ale, and how it can be utilized for the treatment of bone loss resulting from hormone deficiency, aging, and inflammation and to augment bone fracture healing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem Cells and Bone".

  18. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  19. Sarcoma derived from cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tolar, Jakub; Nauta, Alma J; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis Mortari, Angela; McElmurry, Ron T; Bell, Scott; Xia, Lily; Zhou, Ning; Riddle, Megan; Schroeder, Tania M; Westendorf, Jennifer J; McIvor, R Scott; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; Oseth, Leann; Hirsch, Betsy; Yant, Stephen R; Kay, Mark A; Peister, Alexandra; Prockop, Darwin J; Fibbe, Willem E; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    To study the biodistribution of MSCs, we labeled adult murine C57BL/6 MSCs with firefly luciferase and DsRed2 fluorescent protein using nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposons and coinfused labeled MSCs with bone marrow into irradiated allogeneic recipients. Using in vivo whole-body imaging, luciferase signals were shown to be increased between weeks 3 and 12. Unexpectedly, some mice with the highest luciferase signals died and all surviving mice developed foci of sarcoma in their lungs. Two mice also developed sarcomas in their extremities. Common cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in tumor cells isolated from different animals. Original MSC cultures not labeled with transposons, as well as independently isolated cultured MSCs, were found to be cytogenetically abnormal. Moreover, primary MSCs derived from the bone marrow of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed cytogenetic aberrations after several passages in vitro, showing that transformation was not a strain-specific nor rare event. Clonal evolution was observed in vivo, suggesting that the critical transformation event(s) occurred before infusion. Mapping of the transposition insertion sites did not identify an obvious transposon-related genetic abnormality, and p53 was not overexpressed. Infusion of MSC-derived sarcoma cells resulted in malignant lesions in secondary recipients. This new sarcoma cell line, S1, is unique in having a cytogenetic profile similar to human sarcoma and contains bioluminescent and fluorescent genes, making it useful for investigations of cellular biodistribution and tumor response to therapy in vivo. More importantly, our study indicates that sarcoma can evolve from MSC cultures.

  20. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eick, J. David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A.; Miller, Bradley D.; Kilway, Kathleen V.; Dallas, Mark R.; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8–2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

  1. 3D Bioprinting a Cell-Laden Bone Matrix for Breast Cancer Metastasis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Miao, Shida; Cui, Haitao; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-11-09

    Metastasis is one of the deadliest consequences of breast cancer, with bone being one of the primary sites of occurrence. Insufficient 3D biomimetic models currently exist to replicate this process in vitro. In this study, we developed a biomimetic bone matrix using 3D bioprinting technology to investigate the interaction between breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone stromal cells (fetal osteoblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)). A tabletop stereolithography 3D bioprinter was employed to fabricate a series of bone matrices consisting of osteoblasts or MSCs encapsulated in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). When BrCa cells were introduced into the stromal cell-laden bioprinted matrices, we found that the growth of BrCa cells was enhanced by the presence of osteoblasts or MSCs, whereas the proliferation of the osteoblasts or MSCs was inhibited by the BrCa cells. The BrCa cells co-cultured with MSCs or osteoblasts presented increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in comparison to that of monocultured BrCa cells. Additionally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs or osteoblasts was reduced after BrCa cell co-culture. These results demonstrate that the 3D bioprinted matrix, with BrCa cells and bone stromal cells, provides a suitable model with which to study the interactive effects of cells in the context of an artificial bone microenvironment and thus may serve as a valuable tool for the investigation of postmetastatic breast cancer progression in bone.

  2. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  3. Painful scoliosis due to superposed giant cell bone tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Togral, Guray; Arikan, Murat; Hasturk, Askin E; Gungor, Safak

    2014-07-01

    Giant cell bone tumors are the most common precursor lesions of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) developing secondarily. In giant cell bone tumors containing an explicit ABC component, the observation of the solid component of the giant cell bone tumor plays a critical role in the separation of the primary ABC. In general, ABC cases together with giant cell tumors in the bone are diagnosed histopathologically. The combination of giant cell bone tumor with superposed ABC and that of painful scoliosis with backache is rarely seen in children. In this case study, we discussed the diagnosis and the treatment of a giant cell tumor and superposed an ABC present in the fifth lumbar spine in a pediatric patient admitted to our clinic with a complaint of acute scoliotic back pain.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adhering to Adipocytes in Canine Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Yi; Fujita, Naoki; Endo, Kentaro; Morita, Maresuke; Takeda, Tae; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2017-03-15

    The ceiling culture method has been used to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissue that can be dedifferentiated into fibroblastic cells, also known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells that self-renew and are multipotent, with much higher homogeneity and colony-forming efficiency than those of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We cultured adipocytes from canine bone marrow using this technique, with the expectation of obtaining DFAT cells. However, contrary to our expectations, continuous monitoring of ceiling cultures by time-lapse microscopy revealed many small cells adhering to adipocytes that proliferated rapidly into cells with a fibroblastic morphology and without any dedifferentiation from adipocytes. We named these cells bone marrow peri-adipocyte cells (BM-PACs) and demonstrated the multipotent properties of BM-PACs compared to that of conventionally cultured canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). BM-PACs showed significantly greater clonogenicity and proliferation ability than BMMSCs. An in vitro trilineage differentiation assay revealed that BM-PACs possess adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic capacities superior to those of BMMSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD73, which plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation, was significantly higher in BM-PACs than in BMMSCs. These results indicate that canine BM-PACs have stem cell characteristics that are superior to those of BMMSCs, and that these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to be a feasible source for cell-based therapies in dogs.

  5. Aseptic technique for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Coté, R J

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes some of the ways that a laboratory can deal with the constant threat of microbial contamination in cell cultures. A protocol on aseptic technique is described first. This catch-all term universally appears in any set of instructions pertaining to procedures in which noncontaminating conditions must be maintained. In reality, aseptic technique encompasses all aspects of environmental control, personal hygiene, equipment and media sterilization, and associated quality control procedures needed to ensure that a procedure is, indeed, performed with aseptic, noncontaminating technique. Although cell culture can theoretically be carried out on an open bench in a low-traffic area, most cell culture work is carried out using a horizontal laminar-flow clean bench or a vertical laminar-flow biosafety cabinet. Both are described here.

  6. TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3 expressed in bone cells simultaneously regulate bone metabolic markers in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, K.; Iba, K.; Dohke, T.; Okazaki, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nociceptors are expressed at peripheral terminals of neurons. Recent studies have shown that TRPV1, a nociceptor, is expressed in bone tissue and regulates bone metabolism. We have demonstrated that a TRPV1 antagonist improved pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether nociceptors, including TRPV1, acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) and P2X2/3 are expressed in bone cells, and to examine the effects of nociceptor antagonists on bone metabolism. Methods: The expression of nociceptors in femoral bone tissue and cultured bone marrow cells in OVX and sham-operated mice were examined. The effects of nociceptor antagonists on the up-regulated expression of bone metabolic markers, Runx2, Osterix, osteocalcin and RANKL, were also examined. Results: TRPV1, ASIC 2 and 3, and P2X2 and 3, were expressed in bone tissue and bone marrow cells, and the expression levels of ASIC1 and 2, and P2X2 were significantly increased in OVX mice in comparison with those in sham mice. Treatment with nociceptor antagonists significantly inhibited the expression of bone metabolic markers in OVX mice. Conclusion: An array of nociceptors, TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3, could simultaneously regulate not only increases in skeletal pain but also bone turnover in OVX mice. PMID:27282458

  7. Isolation, differentiation, and characterisation of skeletal stem cells from human bone marrow in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tare, Rahul S; Mitchell, Peter D; Kanczler, Janos; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe techniques for the isolation and characterization of skeletal stem cells from human bone marrow. The methods for enrichment of STRO-1 positive cells using magnetic activated cell sorting are described and we also cover techniques for establishing and characterising osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cultures from these cells. Finally, we present methods for studying the ability of these cells to produce bone in vivo using diffusion chambers which have been implanted subcutaneously in mice.

  8. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  9. Connecting mechanics and bone cell activities in the bone remodeling process: an integrated finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain-damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.'s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  10. Connecting Mechanics and Bone Cell Activities in the Bone Remodeling Process: An Integrated Finite Element Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hambli, Ridha

    2014-01-01

    Bone adaptation occurs as a response to external loadings and involves bone resorption by osteoclasts followed by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. It is directly triggered by the transduction phase by osteocytes embedded within the bone matrix. The bone remodeling process is governed by the interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through the expression of several autocrine and paracrine factors that control bone cell populations and their relative rate of differentiation and proliferation. A review of the literature shows that despite the progress in bone remodeling simulation using the finite element (FE) method, there is still a lack of predictive models that explicitly consider the interaction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts combined with the mechanical response of bone. The current study attempts to develop an FE model to describe the bone remodeling process, taking into consideration the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The mechanical behavior of bone is described by taking into account the bone material fatigue damage accumulation and mineralization. A coupled strain–damage stimulus function is proposed, which controls the level of autocrine and paracrine factors. The cellular behavior is based on Komarova et al.’s (2003) dynamic law, which describes the autocrine and paracrine interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and computes cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. Therefore, when an external mechanical stress is applied, bone formation and resorption is governed by cells dynamic rather than adaptive elasticity approaches. The proposed FE model has been implemented in the FE code Abaqus (UMAT routine). An example of human proximal femur is investigated using the model developed. The model was able to predict final human proximal femur adaptation similar to the patterns observed in a human proximal femur. The results obtained reveal complex spatio-temporal bone

  11. Cell culture compositions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  12. Imaging Sensitivity of Quiescent Cancer Cells to Metabolic Perturbations in Bone Marrow Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Stephen P.; Xiao, Annie; Gibbons, Anne E.; Rickelmann, Andrew D.; Neely, Taylor; Luker, Kathryn E.; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant cells from breast cancer and other common cancers such as prostate and melanoma may persist in bone marrow as quiescent, non-dividing cells that remain viable for years or even decades before resuming proliferation to cause recurrent disease. This phenomenon, referred to clinically as tumor dormancy, poses tremendous challenges to curing patients with breast cancer. Quiescent tumor cells resist chemotherapy drugs that predominantly target proliferating cells, limiting success of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies. We recently developed a 3D spheroid model of quiescent breast cancer cells in bone marrow for mechanistic and drug testing studies. We combined this model with optical imaging methods for label-free detection of cells preferentially utilizing glycolysis versus oxidative metabolism to investigate the metabolic state of co-culture spheroids with different bone marrow stromal and breast cancer cells. Through imaging and biochemical assays, we identified different metabolic states of bone marrow stromal cells that control metabolic status and flexibilities of co-cultured breast cancer cells. We tested metabolic stresses and targeted inhibition of specific metabolic pathways to identify approaches to preferentially eliminate quiescent breast cancer cells from bone marrow environments. These studies establish an integrated imaging approach to analyze metabolism in complex tissue environments to identify new metabolically-targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27478871

  13. Increased Bone Mass in Female Mice Lacking Mast Cell Chymase

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Thomas; Gustafson, Ann-Marie; Calounova, Gabriela; Hu, Lijuan; Rasmusson, Annica; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Wernersson, Sara; Åbrink, Magnus; Andersson, Göran; Larsson, Sune; Melhus, Håkan; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Here we addressed the potential impact of chymase, a mast-cell restricted protease, on mouse bone phenotype. We show that female mice lacking the chymase Mcpt4 acquired a persistent expansion of diaphyseal bone in comparison with wild type controls, reaching a 15% larger diaphyseal cross sectional area at 12 months of age. Mcpt4-/- mice also showed increased levels of a bone anabolic serum marker and higher periosteal bone formation rate. However, they were not protected from experimental osteoporosis, suggesting that chymase regulates normal bone homeostasis rather than the course of osteoporosis. Further, the absence of Mcpt4 resulted in age-dependent upregulation of numerous genes important for bone formation but no effects on osteoclast activity. In spite of the latter, Mcpt4-/- bones had increased cortical porosity and reduced endocortical mineralization. Mast cells were found periosteally and, notably, bone-proximal mast cells in Mcpt4-/- mice were degranulated to a larger extent than in wild type mice. Hence, chymase regulates degranulation of bone mast cells, which could affect the release of mast cell-derived factors influencing bone remodelling. Together, these findings reveal a functional impact of mast cell chymase on bone. Further studies exploring the possibility of using chymase inhibitors as a strategy to increase bone volume may be warranted. PMID:27936149

  14. Neuropeptide y and neuropeptide y y5 receptor interaction restores impaired growth potential of aging bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Igura, Koichi; Haider, Husnain Kh; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2011-08-01

    Abstract improved growth characteristics of the aging bone marrow cells subsequent to neuropeptide Y (NPY)/neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor (NPY Y5R) ligand-receptor interaction. Bone marrow cells were isolated from neonatal (2-3 weeks), young (8-12 weeks), and old (24-28 months) rats on the basis of their preferential adherence to plastic surface. After culturing the cells at initial seeding density of 1×10(4) cells/cm(2), we found that the proliferation potential of bone marrow cells declined with age. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting showed that bone marrow cells in different age groups constitutively expressed NPY and NPY receptor subtypes (Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R). However, NPY and Y5R expression increased by more than 130-fold and decreased by 28-fold, respectively, in old bone marrow cells as compared to young bone marrow cells. NPY (10 nM) stimulated the proliferation of all bone marrow cells age groups, and their proliferation was blocked by Y5R antagonist. However, the pro-proliferative effect of NPY on old bone marrow cells was weaker than other cell groups due to lower Y5R expression. Y5R gene transfection of old bone marrow cells with subsequent NPY(3-36) (10 nM) treatment significantly increased proliferation of old bone marrow cells (>56%) as compared to green fluorescence protein-transfected control old bone marrow cells. Stimulation of old bone marrow cells by NPY treatment rejuvenated the growth characteristics of aging bone marrow cells as a result of Y5R overexpression.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Modulates the Oxidative Response in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Mercedes; Wan, Xinhai; Meiss, Roberto; Yang, Jun; De Siervi, Adriana; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs), we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment) abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem) with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1) cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24224047

  16. Intraoperative culture positive allograft bone and subsequent postoperative infections: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Laura; Kulyk, Paul; Woo, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Background Obtaining intraoperative cultures of allograft bone just before use in orthopedic procedures is standard practice in many centres; however, the association between positive cultures and subsequent surgical infections is unknown. Our study had 3 goals: to determine the prevalence of positive intraoperative allograft culture and subsequent infection; to determine if, in cases of subsequent infection, organisms isolated at reoperation were the same as those cultured from the allograft at the time of the index procedure; and to assess the costs associated with performing intraoperative allograft cultures. Methods In this retrospective case series, we obtained data on patients receiving allograft bone between 2009 and 2012. Patients receiving allograft with positive cultures were reviewed to identify cases of significant infection. Organisms isolated at reoperation were compared with the allograft culture taken at the time of implantation, and we performed a cost assessment. Results Of the 996 allograft bone grafts used, 43 (4.3%) had positive intraoperative cultures and significant postoperative infections developed in 2, requiring reoperation. Antibiotics based on culture results were prescribed in 24% of cases. Organisms cultured at the time of reoperation differed from those isolated initially. The cost of performing 996 allograft cultures was $169 320. Conclusion This series suggests that rates of positive intraoperative bone allograft culture are low, and subsequent infection is rare. In cases of postoperative infection, primary allograft culture and secondary tissue cultures isolated different organisms. Costs associated with performing cultures are high. Eliminating initial culture testing could save $42 500 per year in our health region. PMID:28234217

  17. Effect of Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Seeding and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Delivery on Ectopic Bone Formation in a Microsphere/Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Composite

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Diederik H.R.; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Lu, Lichun; Wilson, Clayton E.; Florschutz, Anthony V.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A biodegradable microsphere/scaffold composite based on the synthetic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) holds promise as a scaffold for cell growth and sustained delivery vehicle for growth factors for bone regeneration. The objective of the current work was to investigate the in vitro release and in vivo bone forming capacity of this microsphere/scaffold composite containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in combination with autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a goat ectopic implantation model. Three composites consisting of 0, 0.08, or 8 μg BMP-2 per mg of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, embedded in a porous PPF scaffold, were combined with either plasma (no cells) or culture-expanded BMSCs. PPF scaffolds impregnated with a BMP-2 solution and combined with BMSCs as well as empty PPF scaffolds were also tested. The eight different composites were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal thoracolumbar area of goats. Incorporation of BMP-2–loaded microspheres in the PPF scaffold resulted in a more sustained in vitro release with a lower burst phase, as compared to BMP-2–impregnated scaffolds. Histological analysis after 9 weeks of implantation showed bone formation in the pores of 11/16 composites containing 8 μg/mg BMP-2–loaded microspheres with no significant difference between composites with or without BMSCs (6/8 and 5/8, respectively). Bone formation was also observed in 1/8 of the BMP-2–impregnated scaffolds. No bone formation was observed in the other conditions. Overall, this study shows the feasibility of bone induction by BMP-2 release from microspheres/scaffold composites. PMID:18925831

  18. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Roforth, Matthew M. Khosla, Sundeep Monroe, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  19. Method for in vitro differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial progenitor cells and vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qihong; Zhang, Weifeng; He, Guifen; Sha, Huifang; Quan, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Vascular development is a regulated process and is dependent on the participation and differentiation of many cell types including the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells and differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to mesodermal precursor cells. Thus, reconstitution of this process in vitro necessitates providing ambient conditions for generating and culturing EPCs in vitro and differentiating them to vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we developed methods to differentiate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into EPCs and to vascular endothelial cells. Bone marrow MSC from canines and human sources were differentiated in vitro in to EPCs. These EPCs were able to express a variety of endothelial markers following 7 days in culture. Further culturing led to the appearance of an increased number and proportion of endothelial cells. These cells were stable even after 30 generations in culture. There was a gradual loss of CD31 and increased expression of factor VIII, VEGFR and CD133. VEGF being highly angiogenic, helps in the vascular development. These results provide the basis for the possible development of vasculature in vitro conditions for biomedical applications and in vivo for organ/tissue reconstruction therapies. PMID:27878275

  20. Spine fusion using cell matrix composites enriched in bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Muschler, George F; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal fusion model and cancellous bone matrix was used to compare an enriched cellular composite bone graft alone, bone matrix plus bone marrow clot, and an enriched bone matrix composite graft plus bone marrow clot. Union score, quantitative computed tomography, and mechanical testing were used to define outcome. The union score for the enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone and the bone matrix plus bone marrow clot. The enriched bone matrix plus bone marrow clot composite also was superior to the enriched bone matrix alone in fusion volume and in fusion area. These data confirm that the addition of a bone marrow clot to an enriched cell-matrix composite graft results in significant improvement in graft performance. Enriched composite grafts prepared using this strategy provide a rapid, simple, safe, and inexpensive method for intraoperative concentration and delivery of bone marrow-derived cells and connective tissue progenitors that may improve the outcome of bone grafting.

  1. Glycosaminoglycans enhance osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Mathew, Suja Ann; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Totey, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The biomimetic approach of cell-based tissue engineering is based on mirroring this in vivo micro environment for developing a functional tissue engineered construct. In this study, we treated normal tissue culture plates with selected extracellular matrix components consisting of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-4-sulphate, dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult human bone marrow were cultured on the glycosaminoglycan treated culture plates to evaluate their regulatory role in cell growth and osteoblast differentiation. Although no significant improvement on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation was observed on the glycosaminoglycan-treated tissue culture plates, there was selective osteoblast differentiation, indicating its potential role in differentiation rather than proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation studies showed high osteogenic potential for all tested glycosaminoglycans except chondroitin-4-sulphate. Osteoblast differentiation-associated genes such as osterix, osteocalcin, integrin binding sialoprotein, osteonectin and collagen, type 1, alpha 1 showed significant upregulation. We identified osterix as the key transcription factor responsible for the enhanced bone matrix deposition observed on hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin-6-sulphate. Hyaluronic acid provided the most favourable condition for osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Our results confirm and emphasise the significant role of extracellular matrix in regulating cell differentiation. To summarise, glycosaminoglycans of extracellular matrix played a significant role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and could be exploited in the biomimetic approach of fabricating or functionalizing scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering.

  2. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediates changes of bone marrow stem cells during the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyotaka; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Tamura, Yukinori; Kurashimo, Shinzi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Kojima, Kotarou; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and macrophages that participate in the bone repair process are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the roles of these stem cells during the repair of injured bone tissue are still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of bone defect on HSCs and MSCs in bone marrow and spleen in 75 mice and its mechanism. We analyzed the HSC and MSC populations in these tissues of a mouse with femoral bone damage by using flow cytometry. The number of HSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly lower than the number of these cells in the bone marrow of the contralateral intact femurs on day 2 after injury. Meanwhile, the number of MSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly higher than that of the contralateral femurs. Both intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100, a C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, and local treatment with an anti-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) antibody blunted the observed decrease in HSC and increase in MSC populations within the bone marrow of injured femurs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that there is a concurrent decrease and increase in the numbers of HSCs and MSCs, respectively, in the bone marrow during repair of mouse femoral bone damage. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was implicated as contributing to the changes in these stem cell populations upon bone injury.

  3. Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; De Las Rivas, Javier; Ocio, Enrique M; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C; Martín, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermín M; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesús F; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-09-30

    Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease.

  4. Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Las Rivas, Javier De; Ocio, Enrique M.; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C.; Martín, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermín M.; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease. PMID:25268740

  5. In vivo osteoinductive effect and in vitro isolation and cultivation bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Redzić, Amira; Smajilagić, Amer; Aljicević, Mufida; Berberović, Ljubomir

    2010-12-01

    Bone marrow contains cell type termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), first recognized in bone marrow by a German pathologist, Julius Cohnheim in 1867. That MSCs have potential to differentiate in vitro in to the various cells lines as osteoblast, chondroblast, myoblast and adipoblast cells lines. Aims of our study were to show in vivo capacity of bone marrow MSC to produce bone in surgically created non critical size mandible defects New Zeland Rabbits, and then in second part of study to isolate in vitro MSC from bone marrow, as potential cell transplantation model in bone regeneration. In vivo study showed new bone detected on 3D CT reconstruction day 30, on all 3 animals non critical size defects, treated with bone marrow MSC exposed to the human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (rhBMP-7). Average values of bone mineral density (BMD), was 530 mg/cm3, on MSC treated animals, and 553 mg/cm3 on control group of 3 animals where non critical size defects were treated with iliac crest autologue bone graft. Activity of the Alkaline Phosphatase enzyme were measurement on 0.5, 14, 21, 30 day and increased activity were detected day 14 on animals treated with bone marrow MSCs compared with day 30 on iliac crest treated animals. That results indicates strong osteoinduction activity of the experimental bone marrow MSCs models exposed to the rhBMP-7 factor Comparing ALP activity, that model showed superiorly results than control group. That result initiates us in opinion that MSCs alone should be alternative for the autolologue bone transplantation and in vitro study we isolated singles MSCs from the bone marrow of rat's tibia and femora and cultivated according to the method of Maniatopoulos et all. The small initial colonies of fibroblast like cells were photo-documented after 2 days of primary culture. Such isolated and cultivated MSCs in future studies will be exposed to the growth factors to differentiate in osteoblast and indicate their clinically potential as alternative

  6. Cytokines and growth factors which regulate bone cell function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Yoshiki

    Everybody knows that growth factors are most important in making bone. Hormones enhance bone formation from a long distance. Growth factors promote bone formation as an autocrine or paracrine factor in nearby bone. BMP-2 through BMP-8 are in the TGF-β family. BMP makes bone by enchondral ossification. In bone, IGF-II is most abundant, second, TGF-β, and third IGF-I. TGF-β enhances bone formation mainly by intramembranous ossification in vivo. TGF-β affects both cell proliferation and differentiation, however, TGF-β mainly enhances bone formation by intramembranous ossification. Interestingly, TGF-β is increased by estrogen(E 2), androgen, vitamin D, TGF-β and FGF. IGF-I and IGF-II also enhance bone formation. At present it remains unclear why IGF-I is more active in bone formation than IGF-II, although IGF-II is more abundant in bone compared to IGF-I. However, if only type I receptor signal transduction promotes bone formation, the strong activity of IGF-I in bone formation is understandable. GH, PTH and E 2 promotes IGF-I production. Recent data suggest that hormones containing vitamin D or E 2 enhance bone formation through growth factors. Therefore, growth factors are the key to clarifying the mechanism of bone formation.

  7. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  8. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-11-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Cultivation and identification of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Ke; Huang, Mengqi; Shi, Qi; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to form a variety of mesenchymal tissue types, which are a source of cells for bone tissue engineering applications. The present study attempted to establish an effective and convenient method for culturing BMSCs. Total bone marrow cells, which were harvested from rat femurs, were cultured and BMSCs were selected and expanded through passaging in vitro. Furthermore, the biological properties of BMSCs were investigated, specific surface antigen expression was assessed using flow cytometry and the multipotent differentiation potential characteristics were demonstrated using standard in vitro conditions. Monoptychial heterogeneous cells were obtained. A total of 98.4% of cells at passage 3 expressed cluster of differentiation (CD)29 and CD90, but not CD45. The cells were able to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic cells. In conclusion, BMSCs that are isolated from the rat bone marrow and exhibit the identified characteristics may be used as seed cells in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Specific bone cells produce DLL4 to generate thymus-seeding progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Saez, Borja; Cook, Colleen; Lotinun, Sutada; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Wang, Ying-Hua; Lymperi, Stefania; Ferraro, Francesca; Raaijmakers, Marc H.G.P.; Wu, Joy Y.; Zhou, Lan; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Production of the cells that ultimately populate the thymus to generate α/β T cells has been controversial, and their molecular drivers remain undefined. Here, we report that specific deletion of bone-producing osteocalcin (Ocn)-expressing cells in vivo markedly reduces T-competent progenitors and thymus-homing receptor expression among bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Decreased intrathymic T cell precursors and decreased generation of mature T cells occurred despite normal thymic function. The Notch ligand DLL4 is abundantly expressed on bone marrow Ocn+ cells, and selective depletion of DLL4 from these cells recapitulated the thymopoietic abnormality. These data indicate that specific mesenchymal cells in bone marrow provide key molecular drivers enforcing thymus-seeding progenitor generation and thereby directly link skeletal biology to the production of T cell–based adaptive immunity. PMID:25918341

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nano-Bioceramics for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kankilic, Berna; Köse, Sevil; Korkusuz, Petek; Timuçin, Muharrem; Korkusuz, Feza

    Orthopedic disorders and trauma usually result in bone loss. Bone grafts are widely used to replace this tissue. Bone grafts excluding autografts unfortunately have disadvantages like evoking immune response, contamination and rejection. Autografts are of limited sources and optimum biomaterials that can replace bone have been searched for several decades. Bioceramics, which have the similar inorganic structure of natural bone, are widely used to regenerate bone or coat metallic implants. As people continuously look for a higher life quality, there are developments in technology almost everyday to meet their expectations. Nanotechnology is one of such technologies and it attracts everyone's attention in biomaterial science. Nano scale biomaterials have many advantages like larger surface area and higher biocompatibility and these properties make them more preferable than micro scale. Also, stem cells are used for bone regeneration besides nano-bioceramics due to their differentiation characteristics. This review covers current research on nano-bioceramics and mesenchymal stem cells and their role in bone regeneration.

  12. 3D Porous Calcium-Alginate Scaffolds Cell Culture System Improved Human Osteoblast Cell Clusters for Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Yun; Ke, Cherng-Jyh; Yen, Ko-Chung; Hsieh, Hui-Chen; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Age-related orthopedic disorders and bone defects have become a critical public health issue, and cell-based therapy is potentially a novel solution for issues surrounding bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Long-term cultures of primary bone cells exhibit phenotypic and functional degeneration; therefore, culturing cells or tissues suitable for clinical use remain a challenge. A platform consisting of human osteoblasts (hOBs), calcium-alginate (Ca-Alginate) scaffolds, and a self-made bioreactor system was established for autologous transplantation of human osteoblast cell clusters. The Ca-Alginate scaffold facilitated the growth and differentiation of human bone cell clusters, and the functionally-closed process bioreactor system supplied the soluble nutrients and osteogenic signals required to maintain the cell viability. This system preserved the proliferative ability of cells and cell viability and up-regulated bone-related gene expression and biological apatite crystals formation. The bone-like tissue generated could be extracted by removal of calcium ions via ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation, and exhibited a size suitable for injection. The described strategy could be used in therapeutic application and opens new avenues for surgical interventions to correct skeletal defects. PMID:25825603

  13. Isolation, culture, and characterization of intestinal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Sellge, Gernot; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are bone-marrow-derived tissue cells typically located at barrier sites of the body, such as skin, mucosal barriers, or blood barriers, that is, around blood vessels. This location suggests that mast cells might have a function as immunological "gate-keepers" or "watch dogs" and, indeed, some recent functional data support this idea. Mast cells derive from myeloid progenitors, but in contrast to other myeloid cells, they leave the bone marrow in an immature state; therefore, mast cells are not found in the blood under normal conditions. For full maturation, the tissue environment is necessary. Thus, mature mast cells can be only isolated from tissue such as skin or mucosal sites, which makes mast cell isolation rather complicated. Alternatively, mast cell progenitors can be isolated from the bone marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood, which is easier but requires subsequent in vitro maturation of mast cells as far as possible using cytokines. This chapter describes a rather new technique of mast cell isolation from human intestinal mucosal tissue yielding approx 1-5 million pure and viable human mast cells suitable to perform functional and cell culture experiments.

  14. Cross-Talk between CLL Cells and Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells: Role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3

    PubMed Central

    Badoux, Xavier; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Harris, David; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Burger, Jan; O’Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bone marrow is characterized by increased angiogenesis. However, the molecular mediators of neovascularization and the biological significance of increased endothelial cell proliferation in CLL require further investigation. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL we studied the role of STAT3 in modulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the effect of vascular endothelial cells on CLL cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) we found that anti-STAT3 antibodies immunoprecipitated DNA of STAT3, VEGF and other STAT3-regulated genes. In addition, STAT3-short interfering RNA significantly reduced mRNA levels of VEGF in CLL cells suggesting that STAT3 induces VEGF expression in CLL. Remarkably, bone marrow CLL cells expressed high levels of VEGF and high VEGF levels were detected in the plasma of patients with untreated CLL and correlated with white blood cell count. CLL bone marrow biopsies revealed increased microvascular density and attachment of CLL cells to endothelial cells. Co-culture of CLL and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells showed a similar attachment. Furthermore, co-culture studies with HUVEC showed that HUVEC protected CLL cells from spontaneous apoptosis by direct cell-to-cell contact as assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V. Our data suggest that constitutively activated STAT3 induces VEGF production by CLL cells and CLL cells derive a survival advantage from endothelial cells via cell-to cell contact. PMID:21733558

  15. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche1

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zach S.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Tamaresis, John S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. PMID:26696367

  16. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Materials and Methods: Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Results: Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Conclusion: Low frequency (25–50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury. PMID:28133520

  17. β-Caryophyllene promotes osteoblastic mineralization, and suppresses osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Levy, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is induced by the reduction in bone mass through decreased osteoblastic osteogenesis and increased osteoclastic bone resorption, and it is associated with obesity and diabetes. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health concern in aging populations. β-caryophyllene, a component of various essential oils, is a selective agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and exerts cannabimimetic anti-inflammatory effects in animals. The present study aimed to identify the effect of β-caryophyllene on adipogenesis, osteoblastic mineralization and osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cell cultures in vitro. Bone marrow cells obtained from mouse femoral tissues were cultured in the presence of β-caryophyllene (0.1–100 µM) in vitro. The results revealed that β-caryophyllene stimulated osteoblastic mineralization, and suppressed adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Thus, β-caryophyllene may be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:28105093

  18. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  19. The Alliance of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Paladini, Angela; Briganti, Silvia I.; Pozzilli, Paolo; Epstein, Sol

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility has emerged as a new complication of diabetes. Several mechanisms in diabetes may influence bone homeostasis by impairing the action between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes and/or changing the structural properties of the bone tissue. Some of these mechanisms can potentially alter the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the initial precursor of the osteoblast. In this review, we describe the main factors that impair bone health in diabetic patients and their clinical impact. PMID:25140176

  20. Communication of bone cells with hematopoiesis, immunity and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Noboru; Sato, Mari; Katayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The bone contains the bone marrow. The functional communication between bone cells and hematopoiesis has been extensively studied in the past decade or so. Osteolineage cells and their modulators, such as the sympathetic nervous system, macrophages and osteoclasts, form a complex unit to maintain the homeostasis of hematopoiesis, called the ‘microenvironment'. Recently, bone-embedded osteocytes, the sensors of gravity and mechanical stress, have joined the microenvironment, and they are demonstrated to contribute to whole body homeostasis through the control of immunity and energy metabolism. The inter-organ communication orchestrated by the bone is summarized in this article. PMID:26512322

  1. Generation of clinical grade human bone marrow stromal cells for use in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Robey, Pamela G; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Ren, Jiaqiang; Klein, Harvey G; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F

    2015-01-01

    In current orthopaedic practice, there is a need to increase the ability to reconstruct large segments of bone lost due to trauma, resection of tumors and skeletal deformities, or when normal regenerative processes have failed such as in non-unions and avascular necrosis. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), when used in conjunction with appropriate carriers, represent a means by which to achieve bone regeneration in such cases. While much has been done at the bench and in pre-clinical studies, moving towards clinical application requires the generation of clinical grade cells. What is described herein is an FDA-approved cell manufacturing procedure for the ex vivo expansion of high quality, biologically active human BMSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem Cells and Bone.

  2. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis. PMID:28386538

  3. Biofabrication and Bone Tissue Regeneration: Cell Source, Approaches, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Orciani, Monia; Fini, Milena; Di Primio, Roberto; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The growing occurrence of bone disorders and the increase in aging population have resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this request. Bone tissue engineering strategies, by combining biomaterials, cells, and signaling factors, are seen as alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or rebuilding bone defects. Indeed, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice because of several challenges. Bone biofabrication by additive manufacturing techniques may represent a possible solution, with its intrinsic capability for accuracy, reproducibility, and customization of scaffolds as well as cell and signaling molecule delivery. This review examines the existing research in bone biofabrication and the appropriate cells and factors selection for successful bone regeneration as well as limitations affecting these approaches. Challenges that need to be tackled with the highest priority are the obtainment of appropriate vascularized scaffolds with an accurate spatiotemporal biochemical and mechanical stimuli release, in order to improve osseointegration as well as osteogenesis.

  4. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  5. Periarticular osteopenia in adjuvant induced arthritis: role of interleukin-1 in decreased osteogenic and increased resorptive potential of bone marrow cells.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Y; Tanihara, M; Ichikawa, Y; Osanai, A; Nakagawa, M; Ide, M; Mizushima, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To clarify the local osteogenic and bone resorptive potential of periarticular bone in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS--Formation of fibroblast colony forming units (FCFU; osteogenic precursor cells) and osteoclast-like cells in bone marrow culture was studied in AIA rats. Osteoclast-inducing activity in the AIA rat bone marrow was assayed by the addition of the marrow supernatant from rats with AIA to control cultures. Bone mineral density was determined by dual x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Marrow from AIA rats and that from animals receiving recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta for seven days grew significantly fewer FCFU than control marrow. Formation of osteoclast-like cells was increased in bone marrow cultures from rats with AIA, especially when bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of marrow supernatant. Formation of resorption lacunae on ivory slices was increased in the marrow cultures from rats with AIA, especially from the right (adjuvant inoculated) tibia. AIA rat marrow supernatant promoted osteoclast-like cell formation in control culture, and this was significantly suppressed by an anti-IL-1 antibody. Rats with AIA showed a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of the periarticular regions of the tibia and femur. CONCLUSION--An uncoupled state in bone resorption-formation linkage, possibly mediated through an increase of IL-1 in the bone marrow, may contribute to the development of periarticular osteopenia in inflammatory arthritis. Images PMID:7632091

  6. Cell sourcing for bone tissue engineering: amniotic fluid stem cells have a delayed, robust differentiation compared to mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Peister, Alexandra; Woodruff, Maria A; Prince, Jarod J; Gray, Derwin P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Guldberg, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    Cell based therapies for bone regeneration are an exciting emerging technology, but the availability of osteogenic cells is limited and an ideal cell source has not been identified. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were compared to determine their osteogenic differentiation capacity in both 2D and 3D environments. In 2D culture, the AFS cells produced more mineralized matrix but delayed peaks in osteogenic markers. Cells were also cultured on 3D scaffolds constructed of poly-ε-caprolactone for 15 weeks. MSCs differentiated more quickly than AFS cells on 3D scaffolds, but mineralized matrix production slowed considerably after 5 weeks. In contrast, the rate of AFS cell mineralization continued to increase out to 15 weeks, at which time AFS constructs contained 5-fold more mineralized matrix than MSC constructs. Therefore, cell source should be taken into consideration when used for cell therapy, as the MSCs would be a good choice for immediate matrix production, but the AFS cells would continue robust mineralization for an extended period of time. This study demonstrates that stem cell source can dramatically influence the magnitude and rate of osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

  7. Marrow stromal fibroblastic cell cultivation in vitro on decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Timothy F; French, Samuel W

    2010-02-01

    The in vitro biocompatibility of decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix was evaluated. Following a freeze-thaw cycle, sectioned discs of fresh frozen rat metaphyseal bone were sequentially incubated in solutions of hypertonic, then hypotonic Ringer's solution, followed by deoxycholic acid, then DNAase I. The adequacy of decellularization of marrow stroma was examined by light microscopy. Marrow stromal fibroblastic cells were harvested by dispersion of rat long bone marrow, followed by concentration by discontinuous Ficoll-Paque gradient centrifugation. The fibroblastic cells were expanded by in vitro cultivation, and second passage cells were cryopreserved until needed. Cryopreserved marrow stromal cells were applied dropwise to sections of decellularized bone marrow extracellular matrix, and cultured in BJGb medium with 20% fetal bovine serum for ten days. Mature cultures were formalin fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections showed individual spindle cells invading the upper portion of the decellularized extracellular matrix, and also a monolayer of spindle cells on the upper surfaces of exposed trabecular and cortical bone. This experiment showed that decellularized marrow extracellular matrix is a biocompatible three dimensional in vitro substrate for marrow stromal fibroblastic cells.

  8. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W; Phan, Sem H

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP(+) cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP(+) cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP(+) cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP(+) cells that also express type I collagen. GFP(+) lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP(+) fibroblasts with TGF-beta failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells.

  9. Osteoblast-conditioned media influence the expression of E-selectin on bone-derived vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Makuch, Lauren A; Sosnoski, Donna M; Gay, Carol V

    2006-08-01

    Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to the ends of long bones, ribs and vertebrae, structures which contain a rich microvasculature that is closely juxtaposed to metabolically active trabecular bone surfaces. This study focuses on the effects of osteoblast secretions on the surface presentation of adhesive proteins on skeletal vascular endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells were isolated from trabecular bone regions of the long bones of 7-week-old Swiss Webster mice and also from the central marrow cavity where trabecular bone is absent. Both types of endothelial cells were placed in culture for 7 days, then exposed 24 h to conditioned media from MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Conditioned medium (CM) from two different stages of osteoblast development were tested: (1) from immature MC3T3-E1 cells cultured for 5-7 days and (2) from mature MC3T3-E1 cells cultured for 28-30 days. The immature osteoblasts were in a stage of rapid proliferation; the mature osteoblasts formed a matrix that mineralized. Following exposure to the conditioned media, the vascular cells were exposed to anti-P-selectin, anti-E-selectin, anti-ICAM-1, and anti-VCAM-1 to detect the corresponding adhesive proteins on their surfaces. Breast cancer cells are known to bind to these adhesive proteins. Of the four proteins evaluated, E-selectin was consistently found on more cell surfaces (approximately 30%) of bone-derived vascular endothelial cells (BVECs) when exposed to the immature CM whereas vascular endothelial cells from marrow (MVECs) did not show this response to either immature CM or mature CM. These studies suggest that the BVEC blood vessels near immature bone cells express more surface adhesive protein that could enhance entrapment and extravasation of breast cancer cells. Once cancer cells have undergone extravasation into marrow adjacent to bone, they could be readily attracted to nearby bone surfaces.

  10. Investigation of In Vitro Bone Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Ti Using Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 µA, were used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell–materials interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 µA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 µA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell-materials interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. PMID:23144532

  11. Osteogenic Effects of Dedifferentiated Fat Cell Transplantation in Rabbit Models of Bone Defect and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kazama, Minako; Kano, Koichiro; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have a high proliferative activity and the potential to differentiate into lineages of mesenchymal tissue similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we examined the effects of autologous DFAT cell transplantation on bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. The formation of tissue-engineered bone (TEB) was observed when rabbit DFAT cells were loaded onto a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen sponge and cultured in an osteogenic differentiation medium for 3 weeks. Autologous implantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs promoted bone regeneration in a rabbit tibial defect model. Regenerated bone tissue induced by transplantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs was histologically well differentiated and exhibited higher bone strength in a three-point bending test compared to that induced by the β-TCP/collagen sponge alone. In OVX-induced osteoporosis model rabbits, DFAT cells were obtained with the osteogenic activity similar to cells from healthy rabbits. Intrabone marrow injection of autologous DFAT cells significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) at the injected site in the OVX rabbits. Transplanted DFAT cells remained mainly on the injection side of the bone marrow by at least 28 days after intrabone marrow injection and a part of them expressed osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that autologous implantation of DFAT cells contributed to bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. DFAT cells may be an attractive cell source for cell-based bone tissue engineering to treat nonunion fractures in all patients, including those with osteoporosis. PMID:23566022

  12. Osteogenic effects of dedifferentiated fat cell transplantation in rabbit models of bone defect and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kazama, Minako; Kano, Koichiro; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Matsumoto, Taro

    2013-08-01

    We have previously reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have a high proliferative activity and the potential to differentiate into lineages of mesenchymal tissue similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we examined the effects of autologous DFAT cell transplantation on bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. The formation of tissue-engineered bone (TEB) was observed when rabbit DFAT cells were loaded onto a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen sponge and cultured in an osteogenic differentiation medium for 3 weeks. Autologous implantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs promoted bone regeneration in a rabbit tibial defect model. Regenerated bone tissue induced by transplantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs was histologically well differentiated and exhibited higher bone strength in a three-point bending test compared to that induced by the β-TCP/collagen sponge alone. In OVX-induced osteoporosis model rabbits, DFAT cells were obtained with the osteogenic activity similar to cells from healthy rabbits. Intrabone marrow injection of autologous DFAT cells significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) at the injected site in the OVX rabbits. Transplanted DFAT cells remained mainly on the injection side of the bone marrow by at least 28 days after intrabone marrow injection and a part of them expressed osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that autologous implantation of DFAT cells contributed to bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. DFAT cells may be an attractive cell source for cell-based bone tissue engineering to treat nonunion fractures in all patients, including those with osteoporosis.

  13. Osteoinductive effect of bone bank allografts on human osteoblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    de la Piedra, Concepción; Vicario, Carlos; de Acuña, Lucrecia Rodríguez; García-Moreno, Carmen; Traba, Maria Luisa; Arlandis, Santiago; Marco, Fernando; López-Durán, Luis

    2008-02-01

    Incorporation of a human bone allograft requires osteoclast activity and growth of recipient osteoblasts. The aim of this work was to study the effects produced by autoclavated and -80 degrees C frozen bone allografts on osteoblast proliferation and synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL6), activator of bone resorption, aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen I (PINP), marker of bone matrix formation, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), inhibitor of osteoclast activity and differentiation. Allografts were obtained from human femoral heads. Human osteoblasts were cultured in the presence (problem group) or in the absence (control group) of allografts during 15 days. Allografts produced a decrease in osteoblast proliferation in the first week of the experiment, and an increase in IL6 mRNA, both at 3 h and 2 days, and an increase in the IL6 released to the culture medium the second day of the experiment. We found a decrease in OPG released to the culture on the 2nd and fourth days. These results suggest an increase in bone resorption and a decrease in bone formation in the first week of the experiment. In the second week, allografts produced an increase in osteoblast proliferation and PINP release to the culture medium, indicating an increase in bone formation; an increase in OPG released to the culture medium, which would indicate a decrease in bone resorption; and a decrease in IL6, indicating a decrease in bone resorption stimulation. These results demonstrate that autoclavated and -80 degrees C frozen bone allografts produce in bone environment changes that regulate their own incorporation to the recipient bone.

  14. Characterization of Bone Resorption in Novel In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chelsea K.; Dirksen, Wessel P.; Shu, Sherry T.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Thudi, Nanda K.; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Wolfe, Tobie D.; Heller, Kristin N.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy in humans and cats and frequently invades bone. The objective of this study was to determine if feline OSCC serves as a relevant model of human OSCC in terms of osteolytic behavior and expression of bone resorption agonists. Materials and Methods Novel feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF2 and SCCF3) were derived from spontaneous carcinomas. Gene expression and osteolytic behavior were compared to an established feline OSCC cell line (SCCF1) and three human OSCC cell lines (UMSCC-12, A253 and SCC25). Interaction of OSCC with bone and murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) was investigated using in vitro co-culture techniques. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, faxitron radiography and microscopy were used to measure xenograft growth and bone invasion in nude mice. Results Human and feline OSCC expressing the highest levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) were associated with in vitro and in vivo bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. MC3T3 cells had increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) expression and reduced osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in conditioned medium from bone-invasive SCCF2 cells compared to minimally bone invasive SCCF3 cells, which was partially reversed with a neutralizing anti-PTHrP antibody. Human and feline OSCC cells cultured in bone-conditioned medium had increased PTHrP secretion and proliferation. Conclusion Feline OSCC-induced bone resorption was associated with tumor cell secretion of PTHrP and with increased RANKL : OPG expression ratio in mouse preosteoblasts. Bone-CM increased OSCC proliferation and secretion of PTHrP. The preclinical models of feline OSCC recapitulated the bone-invasive phenotype characteristic of spontaneous OSCC and will be useful to future preclinical and mechanistic studies of bone invasive behavior. PMID:22265717

  15. The Challenge and the Promise of Bone Marrow Cells for Human Cartilage Repair.

    PubMed

    Chu, Constance R

    2015-04-01

    The cartilage repair potential of bone marrow-derived stem cells has been well described. Harnessing this potential for human articular cartilage repair remains challenging. Accessing bone marrow repair cells through marrow stimulation techniques such as microfracture is readily achieved with generally good but inconsistent results. Animal and human studies show feasibility for ex vivo processing of bone marrow to isolate, concentrate, and culture mesenchymal stem cells. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to show consistent and clinically meaningful improvement using bone marrow cell preparations above what has been achieved with microfracture. Consequently, microfracture continues to be the simplest and most commonly used method to enhance repair of focal articular cartilage defects. Emerging preclinical work in the equine model suggests a role for enhancing marrow-stimulation techniques through the use of natural scaffolds such as autologous platelet enriched fibrin as well as optimization of joint biology through localized gene therapy to support cartilage repair. In contrast to joint replacement where inert materials of known mechanical properties are used, host biology determines the relative success, failure, and durability of cartilage repair. As such, development of personalized strategies to improve the quality and durability of bone marrow cell-based articular cartilage repair represent exciting new areas of inquiry. Continued advances in stem cell biology, scaffold technologies, and methods to delineate and enhance host biology, both systemically and within the joint, hold promise for harnessing the full power of bone marrow cells to facilitate cartilage repair and regeneration.

  16. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  17. Bone marrow–derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W.; Phan, Sem H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP+ cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP+ cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP+ cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP+ cells that also express type I collagen. GFP+ lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not α-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP+ fibroblasts with TGF-β failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell–derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells. PMID:14722616

  18. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: A Reliable, Challenging Tool for In Vitro Osteogenesis and Bone Tissue Engineering Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Ute; Müller, Katrin; Preissler, Carolin; Noack, Carolin; Boxberger, Sabine; Dieter, Peter; Bornhäuser, Martin; Wobus, Manja

    2016-01-01

    Adult human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) are important for many scientific purposes because of their multipotency, availability, and relatively easy handling. They are frequently used to study osteogenesis in vitro. Most commonly, hBMSC are isolated from bone marrow aspirates collected in clinical routine and cultured under the “aspect plastic adherence” without any further selection. Owing to the random donor population, they show a broad heterogeneity. Here, the osteogenic differentiation potential of 531 hBMSC was analyzed. The data were supplied to correlation analysis involving donor age, gender, and body mass index. hBMSC preparations were characterized as follows: (a) how many passages the osteogenic characteristics are stable in and (b) the influence of supplements and culture duration on osteogenic parameters (tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), octamer binding transcription factor 4, core-binding factor alpha-1, parathyroid hormone receptor, bone gla protein, and peroxisome proliferator-activated protein γ). The results show that no strong prediction could be made from donor data to the osteogenic differentiation potential; only the ratio of induced TNAP to endogenous TNAP could be a reliable criterion. The results give evidence that hBMSC cultures are stable until passage 7 without substantial loss of differentiation potential and that established differentiation protocols lead to osteoblast-like cells but not to fully authentic osteoblasts. PMID:27293446

  19. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Geisler, Carsten; Karlsson, Lars; Söderström, Kalle

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte-derived osteoclasts from healthy donors in vitro. We show that osteoclasts express numerous ligands for receptors present on activated NK cells. Co-culture experiments revealed that interleukin-15-activated, but not resting, NK cells trigger osteoclast apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in drastically decreased bone erosion. Suppression of bone erosion requires contact between NK cells and osteoclasts, but soluble factors also play a minor role. Antibodies masking leucocyte function-associated antigen-1, DNAX accessory molecule-1 or tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhance osteoclast survival when co-cultured with activated NK cells and restore the capacity of osteoclasts to erode bone. These results suggest that interleukin-15-activated NK cells may directly affect bone erosion under physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. Osterix enhances proliferation and osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma . E-mail: paloma.valverde@tufts.edu; Chen, Jake

    2006-03-24

    Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in osteoblasts of all endochondral and membranous bones. In Osx null mice osteoblast differentiation is impaired and bone formation is absent. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of Osx in murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) would be able to enhance their osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC cultured in non-differentiating medium did not affect expression of Runx2/Cbfa1, another key transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, but induced an increase in the expression of other markers associated with the osteoblastic lineage including alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC also increased their proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ability to form bone nodules. These events occurred without significant changes in the expression of {alpha}1(II) procollagen or lipoprotein lipase, which are markers of chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively.

  1. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells altered the immunoregulatory activities of hepatic natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Qingqing, Ma; Xin, Zu; Meizhong, Sun

    2014-12-01

    We explored the biological characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and their immunological effects in vivo. To establish the characteristics of BMSCs, we first examined their morphology, differentiation ability, phenotype, and growth patterns. We further explored the effects of intravenous infusion of BMSCs on the immunological activities in vivo and the possible mechanism involved in it. The results showed that BMSCs displayed a fibroblast-like morphology and could differentiate into bone, fat and cartilage cells. Phenotypic analysis indicated the cells were negative for CD34 and CD31 but positive for Flk1, CD29, CD44 and CD105. In addition, BMSC culture supernatants could not improve the resistance against H2O2-induced apoptosis in L02 cells. We also found that infusion of BMSCs suppressed the activity of intrahepatic natural killer T cells. In summary, BMSCs are an ideal candidate for therapeutic application because they are relatively easy to harvest, easily expandable in vitro, and can be isolated from adult bone marrow while retaining their differentiation potential. BMSCs have stem cell properties, and BMSC therapy is an alternative treatment for acute liver disease.

  2. Osteogenic, stem cell and molecular characterisation of the human induced membrane from extremity bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Ode, G.; Hoelscher, G.; Ingram, J.; Bethea, S.; Bosse, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The biomembrane (induced membrane) formed around polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers has value in clinical applications for bone defect reconstruction. Few studies have evaluated its cellular, molecular or stem cell features. Our objective was to characterise induced membrane morphology, molecular features and osteogenic stem cell characteristics. Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, biomembrane specimens were obtained from 12 patient surgeries for management of segmental bony defects (mean patient age 40.7 years, standard deviation 14.4). Biomembranes from nine tibias and three femurs were processed for morphologic, molecular or stem cell analyses. Gene expression was determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS). Molecular analyses compared biomembrane gene expression patterns with a mineralising osteoblast culture, and gene expression in specimens with longer spacer duration (> 12 weeks) with specimens with shorter durations. Statistical analyses used the unpaired student t-test (two tailed; p < 0.05 was considered significant). Results Average PMMA spacer in vivo time was 11.9 weeks (six to 18). Trabecular bone was present in 33.3% of the biomembrane specimens; bone presence did not correlate with spacer duration. Biomembrane morphology showed high vascularity and collagen content and positive staining for the key bone forming regulators, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Positive differentiation of cultured biomembrane cells for osteogenesis was found in cells from patients with PMMA present for six to 17 weeks. Stem cell differentiation showed greater variability in pluripotency for osteogenic potential (70.0%) compared with chondrogenic or adipogenic potentials (100% and 90.0%, respectively). Significant upregulation of BMP2 and 6, numerous collagens, and bone gla protein was present in biomembrane compared with the cultured cell line. Biomembranes with

  3. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  4. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  5. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  6. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  7. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  8. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Results Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Conclusion Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent. PMID:25281406

  9. Preclinical models for in vitro mechanical loading of bone-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Michael Delaine-Smith, Robin; Javaheri, Behzad; Helen Edwards, Jennifer; Vazquez, Marisol; Rumney, Robin Mark Howard

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that bone responds to mechanical stimuli whereby physical forces are translated into chemical signals between cells, via mechanotransduction. It is difficult however to study the precise cellular and molecular responses using in vivo systems. In vitro loading models, which aim to replicate forces found within the bone microenvironment, make the underlying processes of mechanotransduction accessible to the researcher. Direct measurements in vivo and predictive modeling have been used to define these forces in normal physiological and pathological states. The types of mechanical stimuli present in the bone include vibration, fluid shear, substrate deformation and compressive loading, which can all be applied in vitro to monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. In monolayer, vibration can be readily applied to cultures via a low-magnitude, high-frequency loading rig. Fluid shear can be applied to cultures in multiwell plates via a simple rocking platform to engender gravitational fluid movement or via a pump to cells attached to a slide within a parallel-plate flow chamber, which may be micropatterned for use with osteocytes. Substrate strain can be applied via the vacuum-driven FlexCell system or via a four-point loading jig. 3D cultures better replicate the bone microenvironment and can also be subjected to the same forms of mechanical stimuli as monolayer, including vibration, fluid shear via perfusion flow, strain or compression. 3D cocultures that more closely replicate the bone microenvironment can be used to study the collective response of several cell types to loading. This technical review summarizes the methods for applying mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vitro.

  10. Preclinical models for in vitro mechanical loading of bone-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Michael Delaine-Smith, Robin; Javaheri, Behzad; Helen Edwards, Jennifer; Vazquez, Marisol; Rumney, Robin Mark Howard

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that bone responds to mechanical stimuli whereby physical forces are translated into chemical signals between cells, via mechanotransduction. It is difficult however to study the precise cellular and molecular responses using in vivo systems. In vitro loading models, which aim to replicate forces found within the bone microenvironment, make the underlying processes of mechanotransduction accessible to the researcher. Direct measurements in vivo and predictive modeling have been used to define these forces in normal physiological and pathological states. The types of mechanical stimuli present in the bone include vibration, fluid shear, substrate deformation and compressive loading, which can all be applied in vitro to monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. In monolayer, vibration can be readily applied to cultures via a low-magnitude, high-frequency loading rig. Fluid shear can be applied to cultures in multiwell plates via a simple rocking platform to engender gravitational fluid movement or via a pump to cells attached to a slide within a parallel-plate flow chamber, which may be micropatterned for use with osteocytes. Substrate strain can be applied via the vacuum-driven FlexCell system or via a four-point loading jig. 3D cultures better replicate the bone microenvironment and can also be subjected to the same forms of mechanical stimuli as monolayer, including vibration, fluid shear via perfusion flow, strain or compression. 3D cocultures that more closely replicate the bone microenvironment can be used to study the collective response of several cell types to loading. This technical review summarizes the methods for applying mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vitro. PMID:26331007

  11. Bone morphogenetic proteins induce the expression of noggin, which limits their activity in cultured rat osteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Gazzerro, E; Gangji, V; Canalis, E

    1998-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce the differentiation of cells of the osteoblastic lineage and enhance the function of the osteoblast. Growth factors are regulated by binding proteins, but there is no information about binding proteins for BMPs in skeletal cells. Noggin specifically binds BMPs, but its expression by cells of the osteoblastic lineage has not been reported. We tested for the expression of noggin and its induction by BMP-2 in cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells from 22-d-old fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). BMP-2 caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in noggin mRNA and polypeptide levels, as determined by Northern and Western blot analyses. The effects of BMP-2 on noggin transcripts were dependent on protein, but independent of DNA synthesis. BMP-2 increased the rates of noggin transcription as determined by nuclear run-on assays. BMP-4, BMP-6, and TGF-beta1 increased noggin mRNA in Ob cells, but basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet- derived growth factor BB, and IGF-I did not. Noggin decreased the stimulatory effects of BMPs on DNA and collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity in Ob cells. In conclusion, BMPs induce noggin transcription in Ob cells, a probable mechanism to limit BMP action in osteoblasts. PMID:9854046

  12. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions. PMID:25422634

  13. Basic techniques in mammalian cell tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Katy; May, Kristin M

    2015-03-02

    Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in cell biology studies. It requires a number of special skills in order to be able to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of the cells in culture. This unit describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells.

  14. Heterogeneous proliferative potential of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of patients with solid epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Solakoglu, Oender; Maierhofer, Christine; Lahr, Georgia; Breit, Elisabeth; Scheunemann, Peter; Heumos, Isabella; Pichlmeier, Uwe; Schlimok, Günter; Oberneder, Ralph; Köllermann, Manfred W.; Köllermann, Jens; Speicher, Michael R.; Pantel, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Bone marrow is a major homing site for circulating epithelial tumor cells. The present study was aimed to assess the proliferative capacity of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of patients with operable solid tumors especially with regard to their clinical outcome. We obtained bone marrow aspirates from 153 patients with carcinomas of the prostate (n = 46), breast (n = 45), colon (n = 33), and kidney (n = 29). Most of the patients (87%) had primary disease with no clinical signs of overt metastases [tumor-node-metastasis (TNM)-stage UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) I-III]. After bone marrow was cultured for 21–102 days under special cell culture conditions, viable epithelial cells were detected by cytokeratin staining in 124 patients (81%). The cultured epithelial cells harbored Ki-ras2 mutations and numerical chromosomal aberrations. The highest median number of expanded tumor cells was observed in prostate cancer (2,619 per flask). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of expanded tumor cells and the UICC-stage of the patients (P = 0.03) or the presence of overt metastases (P = 0.04). Moreover, a strong expansion of tumor cells was correlated to an increased rate of cancer-related deaths (P = 0.007) and a reduced survival of the patients (P = 0.006). In conclusion, the majority of cancer patients have viable tumor cells in their bone marrow at primary tumor diagnosis, and the proliferative potential of these cells determines the clinical outcome. PMID:11854519

  15. [The application progress of human urine derived stem cells in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Jiang, Dapeng; Li, Zhaozhu

    2016-04-01

    The research of bone tissue engineering bases on three basic directions of seed cells, scaffold materials and growth information. Stem cells have been widely studied as seed cells. Human urine-derived stem cell (hUSC) is extracted from urine and described to be adhesion growth, cloning, expression of the majority of mesenchymal stem cell markers and peripheral cell markers, multi-potential and no tumor but stable karyotype with passaging many times. Some researches proposed that hUSC might be a new source of seed cells in tissue engineering because of their invasive and convenient obtention, stable culture and multiple differentiation potential.

  16. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Bargouti, Maggie; Liu, Hui; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms driving bone marrow stem cell mobilization are poorly understood. A recent murine study found that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (MOPCs) were recruited to the site of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone formation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its cellular receptor CXCR4 have been shown to mediate the homing of stem cells to injured tissues. We hypothesized that chemokines, such as SDF-1, are also involved with mobilization of bone marrow cells. The CD45(-) fraction is a major source of MOPCs. In this report we determined that the addition of BMP-2 or SDF-1 to collagen implants increased the number of MOPCs in the peripheral blood. BMP-2-induced mobilization was blocked by CXCR4 antibody, confirming the role of SDF-1 in mobilization. We determined for the first time that addition of SDF-1 to implants containing BMP-2 enhances mobilization, homing of MOPCs to the implant, and ectopic bone formation induced by suboptimal BMP-2 doses. These results suggest that SDF-1 increases the number of osteoprogenitor cells that are mobilized from the bone marrow and then home to the implant. Thus, addition of SDF-1 to BMP-2 may improve the efficiency of BMPs in vivo, making their routine use for orthopaedic applications more affordable and available to more patients.

  17. Osteoprogenitor cells from bone marrow and cortical bone: understanding how the environment affects their fate.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, Bruna; Taraballi, Francesca; Powell, Sebastian; Sung, David; Minardi, Silvia; Ferrari, Mauro; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a dynamic organ where skeletal progenitors and hematopoietic cells share and compete for space. Presumptive mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified and harvested from the bone marrow (BM-MSC) and cortical bone fragments (CBF-MSC). In this study, we demonstrate that despite the cells sharing a common ancestor, the differences in the structural properties of the resident tissues affect cell behavior and prime them to react differently to stimuli. Similarly to the bone marrow, the cortical portion of the bone contains a unique subset of cells that stains positively for the common MSC-associated markers. These cells display different multipotent differentiation capability, clonogenic expansion, and immunosuppressive potential. In particular, when compared with BM-MSC, CBF-MSC are bigger in size, show a lower proliferation rate at early passages, have a greater commitment toward the osteogenic lineage, constitutively produce nitric oxide as a mediator for bone remodeling, and more readily respond to proinflammatory cytokines. Our data suggest that the effect of the tissue's microenvironment makes the CBF-MSC a superior candidate in the development of new strategies for bone repair.

  18. Cultivation of human bone-like tissue from pluripotent stem cell-derived osteogenic progenitors in perfusion bioreactors.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent an unlimited source of skeletal tissue progenitors for studies of bone biology, pathogenesis, and the development of new approaches for bone reconstruction and therapies. In order to construct in vitro models of bone tissue development and to grow functional, clinical-size bone substitutes for transplantation, cell cultivation in three-dimensional environments composed of porous osteoconductive scaffolds and dynamic culture systems-bioreactors-has been studied. Here, we describe a stepwise procedure for the induction of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (collectively termed PSCs) into mesenchymal-like progenitors, and their subsequent cultivation on decellularized bovine bone scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, to support the development of viable, stable bone-like tissue in defined geometries.

  19. Rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3L exhibit distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    N'diaye, Marie; Warnecke, Andreas; Flytzani, Sevasti; Abdelmagid, Nada; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja; Harris, Robert A; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells are professional APCs that play a central role in the initiation of immune responses. The limited ex vivo availability of dendritic cells inspires the widespread use of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as an alternative in research. However, the functional characteristics of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared functional and phenotypic characteristics of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3 ligand bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. A comparison of surface markers revealed that FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD103, and CD4 and baseline levels of MHC class II, CD40, and CD86, which were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Conversely, GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells constitutively expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD11c, and CD11b but only mildly up-regulated MHC class II, CD40, or CD86 following stimulation. Expression of dendritic cell-associated core transcripts was restricted to FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells . GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were superior at phagocytosis but were outperformed by FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at antigen presentation and T cell stimulation in vitro. Stimulated GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more TNF, CCL5, CCL20, and NO, whereas FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more IL-6 and IL-12. Finally, whereas GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants added to resting T cell cultures promoted forkhead box p3(+) regulatory T cell populations, FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants drove Th17 differentiation. We conclude that rat GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functionally distinct. Our data support the current rationale that FLT3

  20. Natural Polymer-Cell Bioconstructs for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Titorencu, Irina; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Nemecz, Miruna; Jinga, Victor V

    2017-01-01

    The major goal of bone tissue engineering is to develop bioconstructs which substitute the functionality of damaged natural bone structures as much as possible if critical-sized defects occur. Scaffolds that mimic the structure and composition of bone tissue and cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering applications. First, composition, properties and in vivo synthesis of bone tissue are presented for the understanding of bone formation. Second, potential sources of osteoprogenitor cells have been investigated for their capacity to induce bone repair and regeneration. Third, taking into account that the main property to qualify one scaffold as a future bioconstruct for bone tissue engineering is the biocompatibility, the assessments which prove it are reviewed in this paper. Forth, various types of natural polymer- based scaffolds consisting in proteins, polysaccharides, minerals, growth factors etc, are discussed, and interaction between scaffolds and cells which proved bone tissue engineering concept are highlighted. Finally, the future perspectives of natural polymer-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are considered.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization, Osteoblastic Differentiation, and Bone Regeneration Capacity of Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Brown, Shelley E.; Wang, Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    To enhance the understanding of differentiation patterns and bone formation capacity of hESCs, we determined (1) the temporal pattern of osteoblastic differentiation of human embryonic stem cell–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs), (2) the influence of a three-dimensional matrix on the osteogenic differentiation of hESC-MSCs in long-term culture, and (3) the bone-forming capacity of osteoblast-like cells derived from hESC-MSCs in calvarial defects. Incubation of hESC-MSCs in osteogenic medium induced osteoblastic differentiation of hESC-MSCs into mature osteoblasts in a similar chronological pattern to human bone marrow stromal cells and primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by culturing the cells on three-dimensional collagen scaffolds. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting of alkaline phosphatase expressing cells was used to obtain an enriched osteogenic cell population for in vivo transplantation. The identification of green fluorescence protein and expression of human-specific nuclear antigen in osteocytes in newly formed bone verified the role of transplanted human cells in the bone regeneration process. The current cell culture model and osteogenic cell enrichment method could provide large numbers of osteoprogenitor cells for analysis of differentiation patterns and cell transplantation to regenerate skeletal defects. PMID:19327009

  2. Silicate bioceramics enhanced vascularization and osteogenesis through stimulating interactions between endothelia cells and bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Xue, Ke; Kong, Ni; Liu, Kai; Chang, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    The facts that biomaterials affect the behavior of single type of cells have been widely accepted. However, the effects of biomaterials on cell-cell interactions have rarely been reported. Bone tissue engineering involves osteoblastic cells (OCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and the interactions between OCs and ECs. It has been reported that silicate biomaterials can stimulate osteogenic differentiation of OCs and vascularization of ECs. However, the effects of silicate biomaterials on the interactions between ECs and OCs during vascularization and osteogenesis have not been reported, which are critical for bone tissue regeneration in vivo. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (CS) bioceramics on interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and on stimulation of vascularization and osteogenesis in vivo through combining co-cultures with CS containing scaffolds. Specifically, the effects of CS on the angiogenic growth factor VEGF, osteogenic growth factor BMP-2 and the cross-talks between VEGF and BMP-2 in the co-culture system were elucidated. Results showed that CS stimulated co-cultured HBMSCs (co-HBMSCs) to express VEGF and the VEGF activated its receptor KDR on co-cultured HUVECs (co-HUVECs), which was also up-regulated by CS. Then, BMP-2 and nitric oxide expression from the co-HUVECs were stimulated by CS and the former stimulated osteogenic differentiation of co-HBMSCs while the latter stimulated vascularization of co-HVUECs. Finally, the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/CS composite scaffolds with the co-cultured HBMSCs and HUVECs significantly enhanced vascularization and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that it is a promising way to enhance bone regeneration by combining scaffolds containing silicate bioceramics and co-cultures of ECs and OCs.

  3. In vitro correlates of low dose ara-C efficacy: clinical, cytogenetic, and bone marrow culture analysis.

    PubMed

    Weisdorf, D J; Perri, R T; Arthur, D C; Machnicki, J L; Oken, M M; Miller, W J

    1987-05-01

    Low-dose Ara-C (10 mg/m2 subcutaneously bid) has been used as an alternative therapy for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and myelodysplastic syndromes. We sought to define its therapeutic mechanism by assessing clinical and cytogenetic responses to treatment in conjunction with careful in vitro study of both morphologic and functional characteristics of bone marrow cells cultured with Ara-C. Sixteen patients (12 ANLL, four myelodysplastic syndrome) were treated. All developed pancytopenia and 11 of 12 had bone marrow hypoplasia during treatment. Four had a meaningful clinical response while five more showed in vivo leukemic cell sensitivity to low-dose Ara-C. Seven showed no response. Cells with cytogenetic abnormalities were either decreased in number or eradicated during clinical improvement. Liquid culture of marrow mononuclear cells with Ara-C (.033-.333 micrograms/ml X 7 days) produced little evidence of morphologic or functional differentiation (ten of 11 studied). No functional maturation was observed in cells from clinically responding patients. We conclude that low-dose Ara-C is modestly effective for some patients with ANLL or myelodysplasia. However, no evidence for in vivo leukemic differentiation is suggested by either in vitro culture studies or cytogenetic correlates of clinical response. In vitro marrow culture studies failed to predict clinical response to Ara-C.

  4. Model system for studies on bone matrix formation by osteogenic cells in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Todd M.; Fattaey, Heideh K.; Motaffaf, Farzaneh; Johnson, Terry C.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has been focused on the physiological factors that are responsible for the reduction of bone mineralization and mass during prolonged periods in the microgravity environment. Although bone mineralization can be reduced by one percent per month as shown to result from shuttle flights and Mir habitation, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. Changes in specific markers of bone cells upon differentiation indicate that the induction of bone matrix formation is dependent upon these cells reaching confluency. In our laboratory, we have isolated a reversible inhibitor of cellular growth (CeReS-18) that could be important in cell contact inhibition and thus may mimic the signals involved in growth confluency. Preliminary experiments with osteogenic cells have revealed the potential capability of CeReS-18 to inhibit these cells in a reversible manner. We are developing a series of studies, designed at the cellular level, to quantitatively measure the production of bone matrix by osteogenic cells propagated in culture. The use of CeReS-18 would facilitate the study of several factors being assessed regarding matrix formation including the rate of cell population density, hormone induction events, calcium availability, and cell cycle arest. The studies are being conducted in a manner that will allow comparable measurements in the microgravity environment with flight hardware designed and deployed by BioServe Space Technologies.

  5. Bone regeneration in calvarial defects in a rat model by implantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell spheroids.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Suzuki, Yukako; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ushida, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) condensation contributes to membrane ossification by enhancing their osteodifferentiation. We investigated bone regeneration in rats using the human bone marrow-derived MSC-spheroids prepared by rotation culture, without synthetic or exogenous biomaterials. Bilateral calvarial defects (8 mm) were created in nude male rats; the left-sided defects were implanted with MSC-spheroids, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, or β-TCP granules + MSC-spheroids, while the right-sided defects served as internal controls. Micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin/osteopontin indicated formation of new, full-thickness bones at the implantation sites, but not at the control sites in the MSC-spheroid group. Raman spectroscopy revealed similarity in the spectral properties of the repaired bone and native calvarial bone. Mechanical performance of the bones in the MSC-implanted group was good (50 and 60% those of native bones, respectively). All tests showed poor bone regeneration in the β-TCP and β-TCP + MSC-spheroid groups. Thus, significant bone regeneration was achieved with MSC-spheroid implantation into bone defects, justifying further investigation.

  6. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Picavet, Daisy I.; Davison, Noel L.; de Vries, Teun J.; Everts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body multinucleated giant cells (FBGCs) and osteoclasts share several characteristics, like a common myeloid precursor cell, multinuclearity, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). However, there is an important difference: osteoclasts form and reside in the vicinity of bone, while FBGCs form only under pathological conditions or at the surface of foreign materials, like medical implants. Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown whether FBGCs are capable of such an activity. To investigate this, we differentiated FBGCs and osteoclasts in vitro from their common CD14+ monocyte precursor cells, using different sets of cytokines. Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, presence of actin rings, formation of a ruffled border, and characteristic gene expression over time. Additionally, both cell types were cultured on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating to discriminate between bone resorption and mineral dissolution independent of organic matrix proteolysis. Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei compared to osteoclasts. FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, FBGCs also expressed actin rings, podosome belts and sealing zones—cytoskeletal organization that is considered to be osteoclast-specific. However, they did not form a ruffled border. At the gene expression level, FBGCs and osteoclasts expressed similar levels of mRNAs that are associated with the dissolution of mineral (e.g., anion exchange protein 2 (AE2), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII), chloride channel 7 (CIC7), and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase)), in contrast the matrix degrading enzyme

  7. Osteoblastic Wnts differentially regulate bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Cao, Jingjing; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Yiyun; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Haixia; Li, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianzhi; Zhu, Xuming; He, Lin; Liu, Yongzhong; Yao, Zhengju; Yang, Xiao; Guo, Xizhi

    2013-07-01

    Wnt signaling has important roles in embryonic bone development and postnatal bone remodeling, but inconsistent impact on bone property is observed in different genetic alterations of Lrp5 and β-catenin. More importantly, it is still controversial whether Lrp5 regulate bone formation locally or globally through gut-derived serotonin. Here we explored the function of Wnt proteins in osteoblastic niche through inactivation of the Wntless (Wls) gene, which abrogates the secretion of Wnts. The depletion of Wls in osteoblast progenitor cells resulted in severe osteopenia with more profound defects in osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and maintenance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) compared to that observed in Lrp5 and β-catenin mutants. These findings support the point of view that Wnt/Lrp5 signaling locally regulates bone mass accrual through multiple effects of osteoblastic Wnts on osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Moreover, osteoblastic Wnts confer a niche role for maintenance of BMSCs, providing novel cues for the definition of BMSCs niche in bone marrow.

  8. Sclerostin Antibody Administration Converts Bone Lining Cells Into Active Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wan; Lu, Yanhui; Williams, Elizabeth A; Lai, Forest; Lee, Ji Yeon; Enishi, Tetsuya; Balani, Deepak H; Ominsky, Michael S; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kronenberg, Henry M; Wein, Marc N

    2016-11-14

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) increases osteoblast activity, in part through increasing modeling-based bone formation on previously quiescent surfaces. Histomorphometric studies have suggested that this might occur through conversion of bone lining cells into active osteoblasts. However, direct data demonstrating Scl-Ab-induced conversion of lining cells into active osteoblasts are lacking. Here, we used in vivo lineage tracing to determine if Scl-Ab promotes the conversion of lining cells into osteoblasts on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces in mice. Two independent, tamoxifen-inducible lineage-tracing strategies were used to label mature osteoblasts and their progeny using the DMP1 and osteocalcin promoters. After a prolonged "chase" period, the majority of labeled cells on bone surfaces assumed a thin, quiescent morphology. Then, mice were treated with either vehicle or Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg) twice over the course of the subsequent week. After euthanization, marked cells were enumerated, their thickness quantified, and proliferation and apoptosis examined. Scl-Ab led to a significant increase in the average thickness of labeled cells on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces, consistent with osteoblast activation. Scl-Ab did not induce proliferation of labeled cells, and Scl-Ab did not regulate apoptosis of labeled cells. Therefore, direct reactivation of quiescent bone lining cells contributes to the acute increase in osteoblast numbers after Scl-Ab treatment in mice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, X Z; Rathe, F; Gilissen, C; van der Zande, M; Veltman, J; Junker, R; Yang, F; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

    2014-06-01

    Emdogain® is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain® on expression profiles of human-derived bone cells with the help of the micro-array, and subsequent validation. Bone was harvested from non-smoking patients during dental implant surgery. After outgrowth, cells were cultured until subconfluence, treated for 24 h with either Emdogain® (100 µg/ml) or control medium, and subsequently RNA was isolated and micro-array was performed. The most important genes demonstrated by micro-array data were confirmed by qPCR and ELISA tests. Emdogain tipped the balance between genes expressed for bone formation and bone resorption towards a more anabolic effect, by interaction of the PGE2 pathway and inhibition of IL-7 production. In addition the results of the present study indicate that Emdogain possibly has an effect on gene expression for extracellular matrix formation of human bone cells, in particular on bone matrix formation and on proliferation and differentiation. With the micro-array and the subsequent validation, the genes possibly involved in Emdogain action on bone cells were identified. These results can contribute to establishing new products and pathways promoting bone formation.

  10. Novel bioactivity of phosvitin in connective tissue and bone organogenesis revealed by live calvarial bone organ culture models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jess; Czernick, Drew; Lin, Shih-Chun; Alasmari, Abeer; Serge, Dibart; Salih, Erdjan

    2013-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most highly phosphorylated extracellular matrix proteins known in nature with unique physico-chemical properties deemed to be critical during ex-vivo egg embryo development. We have utilized our unique live mouse calvarial bone organ culture models under conditions which dissociates the two bone remodeling stages, viz., resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts, to highlight important and to date unknown critical biological functions of egg phosvitin. In our resorption model live bone cultures were grown in the absence of ascorbate and were stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) to undergo rapid osteoclast formation/differentiation with bone resorption. In this resorption model native phosvitin potently inhibited PTH-induced osteoclastic bone resorption with simultaneous new osteoid/bone formation in the absence of ascorbate (vitamin C). These surprising and critical observations were extended using the bone formation model in the absence of ascorbate and in the presence of phosvitin which supported the above results. The results were corroborated by analyses for calcium release or uptake, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (marker for osteoclasts), alkaline phosphatase activity (marker for osteoblasts), collagen and hydroxyproline composition, and histological and quantitative histomorphometric evaluations. The data revealed that the discovered bioactivity of phosvitin mirrors that of ascorbate during collagen synthesis and the formation of new osteoid/bone. Complementing those studies use of the synthetic collagen peptide analog and cultured calvarial osteoblasts in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis provided results that augmented the bone organ culture work and confirmed the capacity of phosvitin to stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts, collagen synthesis, hydroxyproline formation, and biomineralization. There are striking implications and interrelationships of this affect that relates to

  11. Connexin 43 hemichannels and intracellular signaling in bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2014-01-01

    Cell function and survival are controlled by intracellular signals, and modulated by surrounding cells and the extracellular environment. Connexin channels participate in these processes by mediating cell-to-cell communication. In bone cells, gap junction channels were detected in the early 1970s, and are present among bone resorbing osteoclasts, bone forming osteoblasts, and osteocytes - mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized matrix. These channels are composed mainly by Cx43, although the expression of other connexins (45, 46, and 37) has also been reported. It is now believed that undocked Cx43 hemichannels (connexons) formed in unopposed cell membranes facing the extracellular environment participate in the interaction of bone cells with the extracellular environment, and in their communication with neighboring cells. Thus, we and others demonstrated the presence of active hemichannels in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells. These hemichannels open in response to pharmacological and mechanical stimulation. In particular, preservation of the viability of osteoblasts and osteocytes by the anti-osteoporotic drugs bisphosphonates depends on Cx43 expression in vitro and in vivo, and is mediated by undocked hemichannels. Cx43 hemichannels are also required for the release of prostaglandins and ATP by osteocytes, and for cell survival induced by mechanical stimulation in vitro. Moreover, they are required for the anti-apoptotic effect of parathyroid hormone in osteoblastic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the presence and function of undocked connexons, and the role of hemichannel regulation for the maintenance of bone cell viability and, potentially, bone health. PMID:24772090

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell division in neuroblastoma cells and bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sans-Fons, M Gloria; Sole, Sonia; Sanfeliu, Coral; Planas, Anna M

    2010-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix and carry out key functions in cell development, cancer, injury, and regeneration. In addition to its well recognized extracellular action, functional intracellular MMP activity under certain conditions is supported by increasing evidence. In this study, we observed higher gelatinase activity by in situ zymography and increased MMP-9 immunoreactivity in human neuroblastoma cells and in bone marrow macrophages undergoing mitosis compared with resting cells. We studied the pattern of immunoreactivity at the different stages of cell division by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining with different monoclonal antibodies against MMP-9 revealed a precise, dynamic, and well orchestrated localization of MMP-9 at the different stages of cell division. The cellular distribution of MMP-9 staining was studied in relation to that of microtubules. The spatial pattern of MMP-9 immunoreactivity suggested some participation in both the reorganization of the nuclear content and the process of chromatid segmentation. We then used several MMP-9 inhibitors to find out whether MMP-9 might be involved in the cell cycle. These drugs impaired the entry of cells into mitosis, as revealed by flow cytometry, and reduced cell culture growth. In addition, the silencing of MMP-9 expression with small interfering RNA also reduced cell growth. Taken together, these results suggest that intracellular MMP-9 is involved in the process of cell division in neuroblastoma cells and in primary cultures of macrophages.

  13. "Humanized" stem cell culture techniques: the animal serum controversy.

    PubMed

    Tekkatte, Chandana; Gunasingh, Gency Ponrose; Cherian, K M; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Cellular therapy is reaching a pinnacle with an understanding of the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to regenerate damaged tissue in the body. The limited numbers of these hMSCs in currently identified sources, like bone marrow, adipose tissue, and so forth, bring forth the need for their in vitro culture/expansion. However, the extensive usage of supplements containing xenogeneic components in the expansion-media might pose a risk to the post-transplantation safety of patients. This warrants the necessity to identify and develop chemically defined or "humanized" supplements which would make in vitro cultured/processed cells relatively safer for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this paper, we outline the various caveats associated with conventionally used supplements of xenogenic origin and also portray the possible alternatives/additives which could one day herald the dawn of a new era in the translation of in vitro cultured cells to therapeutic interventions.

  14. Resveratrol Increases the Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Lofek-Czubek, Sébastien; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that has shown protective effects against many disorders including, several types of cancers and other age-associated diseases as well as blood disorders in cultured cells and/or animal models. However, whether resveratrol has any impact specifically on normal blood stem cells remains unknown. Here we show that a three-week treatment of resveratrol increases the frequency and total numbers of normal bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) without any impact on their competitive repopulation capacity. In addition, we show that resveratrol enhances the bone marrow multipotent progenitor capacity in vivo. These results have therapeutic value for disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) as well as for bone marrow transplantation settings. PMID:25163926

  15. Human bone marrow-derived IgA is produced by IgA-committed B cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alley, C D

    1987-03-01

    Although human bone marrow has been implicated in the production of serum immunoglobulins, little information is available concerning the kinetics of antibody production (primary- or secondary-type humoral response) or the cells that are responsible for antibody production in human bone marrow. In this study, the kinetics of and cells responsible for antibody production in the bone marrow were investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated that human bone marrow mononuclear cells secrete a significant amount of IgA in vitro. This finding led to the focus of the present investigation on bone marrow IgA production. The results reported here demonstrate that IgA was synthesized de novo in cultures of bone marrow mononuclear cells; its peak concentration in the culture supernatants preceded that of IgM; its production was totally inhibited by the addition of microgram quantities of anti-alpha-chain antiserum, while milligram quantities of anti-mu-chain antiserum were required for even partial inhibition of IgA production; and the culture of isolated IgA-bearing cells resulted in a greater than 13-fold increase in IgA concentration in the culture supernatants as compared with those from unseparated bone marrow mononuclear cells. From this study, it was concluded that bone marrow produces IgA as a secondary or anamnestic response to some undetermined stimulus and that IgA-committed B cells residing in, although probably not stimulated in, the bone marrow compartment were responsible for the IgA synthesis and secretion in vitro.

  16. Tamoxifen induces permanent growth arrest through selective induction of apoptosis in growth plate chondrocytes in cultured rat metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Chagin, Andrei S; Karimian, Elham; Zaman, Farasat; Takigawa, Masaharu; Chrysis, Dionisios; Sävendahl, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Estrogen affects skeletal growth and promotes growth plate fusion in humans. High doses of estrogen have been used to limit growth in girls with predicted extreme tall stature; a treatment which has been associated with severe side effects. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could potentially be used as an alternative treatment. We chose to study the effects of Tamoxifen (Tam), a first generation SERM that has been used in the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia or McCune-Albright syndrome. Cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones were used to study the effects of Tam on longitudinal bone growth. In sectioned bones, chondrocyte apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed by TUNEL assay and BrdU incorporation, respectively. We also used a human chondrocytic cell line, HSC-2/8, to study the effects of Tam on apoptosis (FACS analysis and Cell Death detection ELISA) and caspase activation (caspase substrate cleavage and Western immunoblotting). Tam caused a dose-dependent growth retardation of cultured metatarsal bones. No catch-up growth was observed after Tam was removed from the culture medium. Detailed analysis of sectioned growth plate cartilage revealed increased apoptosis of chondrocytes within the resting and hypertrophic zones. HCS-2/8 cells also underwent apoptosis upon Tam treatment. Tam-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and completely abrogated by either caspase-8 or -9 inhibitors. A substrate assay revealed that caspase-8 is first activated followed by caspase-9 and -3. Finally, FasL secretion was stimulated by Tam and blocking of either FasL or Fas decreased Tam-induced apoptosis in chondrocytes. We here describe a novel mechanism of tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in chondrocytes, involving the activation of caspases and the FasL/Fas pathway, which diminishes the potential for bone growth.

  17. Artificial niche combining elastomeric substrate and platelets guides vascular differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Allen, Robert; Gao, Jin; Wang, Yadong

    2011-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are promising cell sources for vascular tissue engineering. However, conventional bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell expansion and induction strategies require plating on tissue culture plastic, a stiff substrate that may itself influence cell differentiation. Direct scaffold seeding avoids plating on plastic; to the best of our knowledge, there is no report of any scaffold that induces the differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) to vascular cells in vitro. In this study, we hypothesize that an elastomeric scaffold with adsorbed plasma proteins and platelets will induce differentiation of BMNCs to vascular cells and promote vascular tissue formation by combining soft tissue mechanical properties with platelet-mediated tissue repairing signals. To test our hypothesis, we directly seeded rat primary BMNCs in four types of scaffolds: poly(lactide-co-glycolide), elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), platelet-poor plasma-coated PGS, and PGS coated by plasma supplemented with platelets. After 21 days of culture, osteochondral differentiation of cells in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) was detected, but most of the adhered cells on the surface of all PGS scaffolds expressed calponin-I and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting smooth muscle differentiation. Cells in PGS scaffolds also produced significant amount of collagen and elastin. Further, plasma coating improves seeding efficiency, and platelet increases proliferation, the number of differentiated cells, and extracellular matrix content. Thus, the artificial niche composed of platelets, plasma, and PGS is promising for artery tissue engineering using BMNCs.

  18. Bone Cells Dynamics during Peri-Implantitis: a Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Pedro de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The present manuscript aims a detailed characterization of the bone cells dynamics during physiological bone remodelling and, subsequently, to address the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the immune-inflammatory-induced uncoupled bone remodelling observed in peri-implantitis. Results An intimate relationship between the immune system and bone is acknowledged to be determinant for bone tissue remodelling and integrity. Due to the close interaction of immune and bone cells, the two systems share a number of surface receptors, cytokines, signalling pathways and transcription factors that are involved in mutual regulatory mechanisms. This physiological equilibrium is disturbed in pathological conditions, as verified in peri-implantitis establishment and development. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune response, challenged by the local bacterial infection, induces the synthesis of high levels of a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that disturb the normal functioning of the bone cells, by uncoupling bone resorption and formation, ending up with a net alveolar bone loss and subsequent implant failure. Most data points to an immune-inflammatory induced osteoclast differentiation and function, as the major underlying mechanism to the uncoupled bone resorption to bone formation. Further, the disturbed functioning of osteoblasts, reflected by the possible expression of a fibro-osteoblastic phenotype, may also play a role. Conclusions Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of peri-implantitis. A great deal of data is still needed on the cellular and humoral crosstalk in the context of an integrated view of the osteoimmunologic interplay occurring in the peri-implantitis environment subjacent to the bone loss outcome. PMID:27833731

  19. Bone pulsating metastasis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Murat; Derincek, Alihan; Karan, Belgin; Akpınar, Sercan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2010-11-01

    Pulsation on the bone cortex surface is a rare condition. Pulsative palpation of the superficial-located bone tumors can be misperceived as an aneurysm. Fifty-eight-year-old man is presented with pulsating bone mass in his proximal tibia. During angiographic examination, hypervascular masses were diagnosed both at right kidney and at right proximal tibia. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed after abdominal CT scan. Proximal tibia biopsy was complicated with projectile bleeding.

  20. [The cultivation of bone marrow cells and cell lines on polymeric films].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, M S; Livak, D N; Krasheninnikov, M E; Onishchenko, N A

    2011-01-01

    The cultivation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal bone marrow cells and cells of A-431, MDCK, Vero, 3T3 and Hep-G2 was performed on polymeric films (PVA) with different hydrophobic fatty acid residues. The cells of different types grew on these films with different intensity, but in the most cases comparable with the cultivation control on usual plastic. The examined films were nontoxic to cells and sufficiently adhesive. They did not changed pH of cultural media, were optically transparent under microscope and comfortable in the experimental work. These films can be used as a model for the artificial organ construction. The covalent binding of different fatty acids to PVA shows possibility of the adaptable changes of films properties (hydrophobity and adhesiveness), and therefore possibility of the creation of optimal conditions for different cell types attachement and growth.

  1. Cell-based resorption assays for bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyang; Egaña, José T; Reckhenrich, Ann K; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Lohmeyer, Jörn A; Schantz, Jan Thorsten; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F

    2012-01-01

    The clinical utilization of resorbable bone substitutes has been growing rapidly during the last decade, creating a rising demand for new resorbable biomaterials. An ideal resorbable bone substitute should not only function as a load-bearing material but also integrate into the local bone remodeling process. This means that these bone substitutes need to undergo controlled resorption and then be replaced by newly formed bone structures. Thus the assessment of resorbability is an important first step in predicting the in vivo clinical function of bone substitute biomaterials. Compared with in vivo assays, cell-based assays are relatively easy, reproducible, inexpensive and do not involve the suffering of animals. Moreover, the discovery of RANKL and M-CSF for osteoclastic differentiation has made the differentiation and cultivation of human osteoclasts possible and, as a result, human cell-based bone substitute resorption assays have been developed. In addition, the evolution of microscopy technology allows advanced analyses of the resorption pits on biomaterials. The aim of the current review is to give a concise update on in vitro cell-based resorption assays for analyzing bone substitute resorption. For this purpose models using different cells from different species are compared. Several popular two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical methods used for resorption assays are described. The limitations and advantages of the current ISO degradation assay in comparison with cell-based assays are discussed.

  2. Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentration on the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Choi, B-H; Zhu, S-J; Kim, B-Y; Huh, J-Y; Lee, S-H; Jung, J-H

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that a combination of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autogenous bone graft can increase the rate of osteogenesis and enhance bone formation qualitatively. However, contradictory results were reported in a recent animal study. In order to clarify this inconsistency, this study examined the influence of the PRP concentrations on the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells in vitro. Bone cells obtained from the alveolar bone chips were exposed to various PRP concentrations. After a culture period of 7 days, cellular viability and proliferation were evaluated by counting the number of cells and a MTT assay. The results showed that the viability and proliferation of alveolar bone cells were suppressed by high PRP concentrations, but were stimulated by low PRP concentrations (1-5%). These in vitro results support the view that variations in the PRP concentrations might influence the bone formation within the PRP-treated bone grafts.

  3. Differentiation of osteoblast‑like cells and ectopic bone formation induced by bone marrow stem cells transfected with chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid‑BMP2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhang Qing; Tao, Liu Meng; Bin, Zhang Xiao

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the efficiency of the use of chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid‑bone morphogenetic protein 2 (pBMP2) sequences (CNPBs) to induce the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblast‑like cells that may be able to promote ectopic bone formation. pBMP2s were constructed, and chitosan nanoparticles were incubated with 50, 100 or 200 µg/ml pBMP2. BMSCs were collected from the tibiae and femurs of 6‑week old rats, cultured and treated with the CNPBs or 200 µg/ml pBMP2 as a positive control. Transfection efficiency was confirmed using the green fluorescent protein assay. Histological staining methods, including alkaline phosphatase, Wright's and von Kasso staining, were used to identify features of osteoblast‑like cells differentiated from BMSCs. Expression levels of the markers of osteoblasts, such as alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and osteopontin, were determined to verify the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast‑like cells. Ectopic bone formation was observed following the integration of polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds with CNPBs and BMSCs, which were implanted into the dorsal muscles of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Exposure to CNPBs led to the transfection of BMSCs with BMP2. The transfected BMSCs possessed the characteristic phenotypes of osteoblasts. The expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly higher in the transfected cells compared with the control group, particularly the CBP200 group. PGA scaffolds integrated with BMSCs and CNPBs induced ectopic bone formation, as changes in the morphology of cells were observed using histological staining. Therefore, CNPBs may be a promising method of promoting the formation of novel bone tissue.

  4. A novel single pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and bone repair.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Chih-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been successfully applied to accelerate fracture repair since 1979. Recent studies suggest that PEMF might be used as a nonoperative treatment for the early stages of osteonecrosis. However, PEMF treatment requires a minimum of ten hours per day for the duration of the treatment. In this study, we modified the protocol of the single-pulsed electromagnetic field (SPEMF) that only requires a 3-minute daily treatment. In the in vitro study, cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in the hBMSCs. In the in vivo study, new bone formation and revascularization were evaluated in the necrotic bone graft. Results from the in vitro study showed no significant cytotoxic effects on the hBMSCs after 5 days of SPEMF treatment (1 Tesla, 30 pulses per day). hBMSC proliferation was enhanced in the SPEMF-treated groups after 2 and 4 days of treatment. The osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs was significantly increased in the SPEMF-treated groups after 3-7 days of treatment. Mineralization also increased after 10, 15, 20, and 25 days of treatment in SPEMF-treated groups compared to the control group. The 7-day short-course treatment achieved similar effects on proliferation and osteogenesis as the 25-day treatment. Results from the in vivo study also demonstrated that both the 7-day and 25-day treatments of SPEMF increased callus formation around the necrotic bone and also increased new vessel formation and osteocyte numbers in the grafted necrotic bone at the 2nd and 4th weeks after surgery. In conclusion, the newly developed SPEMF accelerates osteogenic differentiation of cultured hBMSCs and enhances bone repair, neo-vascularization, and cell growth in necrotic bone in mice. The potential clinical advantage of the SPEMF is the short daily application and the shorter treatment course. We suggest that SPEMF may be used to treat fractures and the early stages of osteonecrosis.

  5. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  6. Three-dimensional polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffolds combined with bone marrow cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yao, Qingqiang; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Yan; Wang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic potential of three-dimensional polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) scaffolds loaded with bone marrow cells in vitro and the effect of PCL-HA scaffolds on osteochondral repair in vivo. Here, bone marrow was added to the prepared PCL-HA scaffolds and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 10 weeks. Osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 29 knees in 17 New Zealand white rabbits, which were then divided into four groups that underwent: implantation of PCL-HA scaffolds (left knee, n = 17; Group 1), microfracture (right knee, n = 6; Group 2), autologous osteochondral transplantation (right knee, n = 6; Group 3), and no treatment (right knee, n = 5; Control). Extracellular matrix produced by bone marrow cells covered the surface and filled the pores of PCL-HA scaffolds after 10 weeks in culture. Moreover, many cell-laden cartilage lacunae were observed, and cartilage matrix was concentrated in the PCL-HA scaffolds. After a 12-week repair period, Group 1 showed excellent vertical and lateral integration with host bone, but incomplete cartilage regeneration and matrix accumulation. An uneven surface of regenerated cartilage and reduced distribution of cartilage matrix were observed in Group 2. In addition, abnormal bone growth and unstable integration between repaired and host tissues were detected. For Group 3, the integration between transplanted and host cartilage was interrupted. Our findings indicate that the PCL-HA scaffolds loaded with bone marrow cells improved chondrogenesis in vitro and implantation of PCL-HA scaffolds for osteochondral repairenhanced integration with host bone. However, cartilage regeneration remained unsatisfactory. The addition of trophic factors or the use of precultured cell-PCL-HA constructs for accelerated osteochondral repair requires further investigation.

  7. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  8. Advances in bone marrow stem cell therapy for retinal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Park, Susanna S; Moisseiev, Elad; Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Johnathon D; Grant, Maria B; Zam, Azhar; Zawadzki, Robert J; Werner, John S; Nolta, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34(+) cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34(+) cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy.

  9. Autologous bone marrow Th cells can support multiple myeloma cell proliferation in vitro and in xenografted mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Fløisand, Y; Myklebust, C V; Bürgler, S; Parente-Ribes, A; Hofgaard, P O; Bogen, B; Tasken, K; Tjønnfjord, G E; Schjesvold, F; Dalgaard, J; Tveita, A; Munthe, L A

    2017-02-24

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy where MM cell growth is supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment with poorly defined cellular and molecular mechanisms. MM cells express CD40, a receptor known to activate autocrine secretion of cytokines and elicit proliferation. Activated T helper (Th) cells express CD40 ligand (CD40L) and BM Th cells are significantly increased in MM patients. We hypothesized that activated BM Th cells could support MM cell growth. We here found that activated autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in a contact- and CD40L-dependent manner in vitro. MM cells had retained the ability to activate Th cells that reciprocated and stimulated MM cell proliferation. Autologous BM Th cells supported MM cell growth in xenografted mice and were found in close contact with MM cells. MM cells secreted chemokines that attracted Th cells, secretion was augmented by CD40-stimulation. Within 14 days of culture of whole bone marrow aspirates in autologous serum, MM cells and Th cells mutually stimulated each other, and MM cells required Th cells for further expansion in vitro and in mice. The results suggest that Th cells may support the expansion of MM cells in patients.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 24 February 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.69.

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

    2014-09-15

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury via retro-orbital injection. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with subsequent quantification revealed that the expression of the axonal regeneration marker, growth associated protein-43, and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein 2, significantly increased in rats with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, the expression of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B, and Beclin 1, was significantly reduced in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament-H increased but light chain 3B and Beclin 1 decreased in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Our results therefore suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes neurite growth and regeneration and prevents autophagy. These responses may likely be mechanisms underlying the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  11. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  12. Osteopontin expression in co-cultures of human squamous cell carcinoma-derived cells and osteoblastic cells and its effects on the neoplastic cell phenotype and osteoclastic activation.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; de Castro Raucci, Larissa Moreira Spinola; Alonso, Gabriela Caroline; Coletta, Ricardo Della; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the temporal expression of osteopontin (OPN) in co-cultures of human osteoblastic cells (SAOS-2) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived cells (SCC9) and examined the effects of osteoblast-derived OPN on the neoplastic cell phenotype. Additionally, the effects of these co-cultures on subsequent osteoclastic activity were explored. SCC9 cells were plated on Transwell® membranes that were either coated or not coated with Matrigel and were then co-cultured with SAOS-2 cells during the peak of OPN expression. SCC9 cells exposed to OPN-silenced SAOS-2 cultures and SCC9 cells cultured alone served as controls. SCC9 cells were quantitatively evaluated for cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and invasion into Matrigel. The impact of co-culturing SAOS-2 and SCC9 cells on the resorptive capacity of U-937-derived osteoclastic cells was also investigated. Furthermore, a reciprocal induction of SAOS-2 and SCC9 cells in terms of OPN expression over the co-culture interval was identified. SAOS-2-secreted OPN altered the SCC9 cell phenotype, leading to enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation and higher Matrigel invasion. This invasion was also enhanced, albeit to a lesser degree, by co-culture with OPN-silenced SAOS-2 cells. Cell migration was not affected. Co-culture with SAOS-2 cells-mainly during the period of peak OPN expression-promoted over-expression of IL-6 and IL-8 by SCC9 cells and enhanced the resorptive capacity of osteoclastic cells. Taken together, these results suggest that osteoblast-derived OPN affects the interactions among OSCC-derived epithelial cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, which could contribute to the process of bone destruction during bone invasion by OSCC.

  13. A thixotropic nanocomposite gel for three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Pek, Y Shona; Wan, Andrew C A; Shekaran, Asha; Zhuo, Lang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2008-11-01

    Thixotropic materials, which become less viscous under stress and return to their original state when stress is removed, have been used to deliver gel-cell constructs and therapeutic agents. Here we show that a polymer-silica nanocomposite thixotropic gel can be used as a three-dimensional cell culture material. The gel liquefies when vortexed--allowing cells and biological components to be added--and resolidifies to trap the components when the shear force from spinning is removed. Good permeability of nutrients and gases through the gel allows various cell types to proliferate and be viable for up to three weeks. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in stiffer gels developed bone-like behaviour, showing that the rheological properties of the gel can control cell differentiation. No enzymatic, chemical, or photo-crosslinking, changes in ionic strength or temperature are required to form or liquefy the gel, offering a way to sub-culture cells without using trypsin-a protease commonly used in traditional cell culture techniques.

  14. Presentation of a novel model of chitosan- polyethylene oxide-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers together with bone marrow stromal cells to repair and improve minor bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholi, Asgar; Rahimi, Mohsen; Kaka, Gholamreza; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Najafi, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Various methods for repairing bone defects are presented. Cell therapy is one of these methods. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seem to be suitable for this purpose. On the other hand, lots of biomaterials are used to improve and repair the defect in the body, so in this study we tried to produce a similar structure to the bone by the chitosan and hydroxyapatite. Materials and Methods: In this study, the solution of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite-polyethylene oxide (PEO) Nanofibers was produced by electrospinning method, and then the BMSCs were cultured on this solution. A piece of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite Nanofibers with BMSCs was placed in a hole with the diameter of 1 mm at the distal epiphysis of the rat femur. Then the biomechanical and radiographic studies were performed. Results: Biomechanical testing results showed that bone strength was significantly higher in the Nanofiber/BMSCs group in comparison with control group. Also the bone strength in nanofiber/BMSCs group was significant, but in nanofiber group was nearly significant. Radiographic studies also showed that the average amount of callus formation (radio opacity) in nanofiber and control group was not significantly different. The callus formation in nanofiber/BMSCs group was increased compared to the control group, and it was not significant in the nanofiber group. Conclusion: Since chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers with BMSCs increases the rate of bone repair, the obtained cell-nanoscaffold shell can be used in tissue engineering and cell therapy, especially for bone defects. PMID:26523221

  15. Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, Edita; Whiting, Karen; Gordon Smith, Edward; Pettengell, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    In aplastic anaemia (AA), haemopoietic activity is significantly reduced and generally attributed to failure of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the bone marrow (BM). The regulation of haemopoiesis depends on the interaction between HSC and various cells of the BM microenvironment, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). MSC involvement in the functional restriction of HSC in AA is largely unknown and therefore, the physical and functional properties of AA MSC were studied in vitro. MSC were characterized by their phenotype and ability to form adherent stromal layers. The functional properties of AA MSC were assessed through proliferative, clonogenic and cross-over culture assays. Results indicate that although AA MSC presented typical morphology and distinctive mesenchymal markers, stromal formation was reduced, with 50% of BM samples failing to produce adherent layers. Furthermore, their proliferative and clonogenic capacity was markedly decreased (P = 0·03 and P = 0·04 respectively) and the ability to sustain haemopoiesis was significantly reduced, as assessed by total cell proliferation (P = 0·032 and P = 0·019 at Week 5 and 6, respectively) and clonogenic potential of HSC (P = 0·02 at Week 6). It was concluded that the biological characteristics of AA MSC are different from those of control MSC and their in vitro haemopoiesis-supporting ability is significantly reduced.

  16. Alterations in bone forming cells due to reduced weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduction in new bone formation occurred as a result of space flight (Cosmos 1129) and in the suspended animal model of Morey-Holton (1979, 1980). The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity of the bone-forming cells is also reduced under these conditions, and the cells in the diaphysis are more affected than those in the metaphyseal region. In addition, these cells show (1) reduced proline incorporation into bone matrix, and (2) increased intracellular lysosomal activity. A change in the cytoskeleton could be the common factor in explaining these results. This suggestion is futher supported by the previous observations that colchicine injections result in decreased osteoblastic function.

  17. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  18. Modulation of gene expression in bone cells during strain-adapted bone remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Vatsa, A.; Tan, S. D.; Smit, Th. H.; van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2005-08-01

    Bone tissue can adapt to changing mechanical demands. The osteocytes are believed to play a role as the "professional" mechanosensory cells of bone, and the lacuno-canalicular network as the structure that mediates mechanosensing. Loading on bone produces flow of interstitial fluid in the lacunar-canalicular network along the surface of osteocytes, which is likely the physiological signal for bone cell adaptive responses in vivo. The alignment of secondary osteons along the dominant loading direction suggests that bone remodeling is guided by mechanical strain. We propose that alignment during remodeling occurs as a result of different canalicular flow patterns around cutting cone and reversal zone during loading.The response of osteocytes to fluid flow includes prostaglandin synthesis and expression of inducible cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that mediates mechanical loading-induced bone formation in vivo. The response of osteocytes to fluid flow also includes nitric oxide production, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide has been shown to mediate the mechanical effects in bone, leading to enhanced prostaglandin E2 release. These studies have increased our understanding of the cell biology underlying Wolff's Law. This may lead to new strategies for combating disuse-related osteoporosis, such as occurs during long- mission spaceflights.

  19. Immunogenicity is preferentially induced in sparse dendritic cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Nasi, Aikaterini; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Sun, Meng; Chen, Yang; Amu, Sylvie; Nylén, Susanne; Eidsmo, Liv; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Réthi, Bence

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) acquired different characteristics in dense or sparse cell cultures. Sparsity promoted the development of IL-12 producing migratory DCs, whereas dense cultures increased IL-10 production. Here we analysed whether the density-dependent endogenous breaks could modulate DC-based vaccines. Using murine bone marrow-derived DC models we show that sparse cultures were essential to achieve several key functions required for immunogenic DC vaccines, including mobility to draining lymph nodes, recruitment and massive proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, in addition to their TH1 polarization. Transcription analyses confirmed higher commitment in sparse cultures towards T cell activation, whereas DCs obtained from dense cultures up-regulated immunosuppressive pathway components and genes suggesting higher differentiation plasticity towards osteoclasts. Interestingly, we detected a striking up-regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in sparse cultures, suggesting an important link between DC immunogenicity and lipid homeostasis regulation. PMID:28276533

  20. Potency Biomarker Signature Genes from Multiparametric Osteogenesis Assays: Will cGMP Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Make Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Murgia, Alba; Veronesi, Elena; Candini, Olivia; Caselli, Anna; D’souza, Naomi; Rasini, Valeria; Giorgini, Andrea; Catani, Fabio; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In skeletal regeneration approaches using human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSC), functional evaluation before implantation has traditionally used biomarkers identified using fetal bovine serum-based osteogenic induction media and time courses of at least two weeks. However, emerging pre-clinical evidence indicates donor-dependent discrepancies between these ex vivo measurements and the ability to form bone, calling for improved tests. Therefore, we adopted a multiparametric approach aiming to generate an osteogenic potency assay with improved correlation. hBM-MSC populations from six donors, each expanded under clinical-grade (cGMP) conditions, showed heterogeneity for ex vivo growth response, mineralization and bone-forming ability in a murine xenograft assay. A subset of literature-based biomarker genes was reproducibly upregulated to a significant extent across all populations as cells responded to two different osteogenic induction media. These 12 biomarkers were also measurable in a one-week assay, befitting clinical cell expansion time frames and cGMP growth conditions. They were selected for further challenge using a combinatorial approach aimed at determining ex vivo and in vivo consistency. We identified five globally relevant osteogenic signature genes, notably TGF-ß1 pathway interactors; ALPL, COL1A2, DCN, ELN and RUNX2. Used in agglomerative cluster analysis, they correctly grouped the bone-forming cell populations as distinct. Although donor #6 cells were correlation slope outliers, they contrastingly formed bone without showing ex vivo mineralization. Mathematical expression level normalization of the most discrepantly upregulated signature gene COL1A2, sufficed to cluster donor #6 with the bone-forming classification. Moreover, attenuating factors causing genuine COL1A2 gene down-regulation, restored ex vivo mineralization. This suggested that the signature gene had an osteogenically influential role; nonetheless no single

  1. Pure red-cell aplasia of long duration after major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Volin, L; Ruutu, T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a patient with an exceptionally long-lasting red-cell aplasia of 330 days following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Before BMT, the anti-B titre was high, 1:1,024, and it was only temporarily reduced by extensive plasma exchange. The anti-B titre remained above the level of 1:64 for 270 days, and host-derived isoagglutinin could still be detected 3 years after BMT. In vitro bone marrow cultures during the red-cell aplasia showed greatly reduced numbers or total absence of CFU-E, while the number of BFU-E colonies was only moderately subnormal. Six years after BMT, bone marrow and peripheral-blood cell counts are normal.

  2. Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Produce M-CSF, Causing Massive Bone Loss in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wensheng; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Xichao; Li, Xing; Sun, Wen; Dellinger, Michael; Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping

    2017-01-04

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare bone disorder characterized by aggressive osteolysis associated with lymphatic vessel invasion within bone marrow cavities. The etiology of GSD is not known, and there is no effective therapy or animal model for the disease. Here, we investigated if lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) affect osteoclasts (OCs) to cause a GSD osteolytic phenotype in mice. We examined the effect of a mouse LEC line on osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. LECs significantly increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated OC formation and bone resorption. LECs expressed high levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), but not RANKL, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). LEC-mediated OC formation and bone resorption were blocked by an M-CSF neutralizing antibody or Ki20227, an inhibitor of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms. We injected LECs into the tibias of wild-type (WT) mice and observed massive osteolysis on X-ray and micro-CT scans. Histology showed that LEC-injected tibias had significant trabecular and cortical bone loss and increased OC numbers. M-CSF protein levels were significantly higher in serum and bone marrow plasma of mice given intra-tibial LEC injections. Immunofluorescence staining showed extensive replacement of bone and marrow by podoplanin+ LECs. Treatment of LEC-injected mice with Ki20227 significantly decreased tibial bone destruction. In addition, lymphatic vessels in a GSD bone sample were stained positively for M-CSF. Thus, LECs cause bone destruction in vivo in mice by secreting M-CSF, which promotes OC formation and activation. Blocking M-CSF signaling may represent a new therapeutic approach for treatment of patients with GSD. Furthermore, tibial injection of LECs is a useful mouse model to study GSD. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Cell-secreted matrices perpetuate the bone-forming phenotype of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Allison I.; Mittal, Vaishali; Mitra, Debika; Vollmer, Nina; Zikry, Christopher A.; Leach, J. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Prior to transplantation, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced toward the osteoblastic phenotype using a cocktail of soluble supplements. However, there is little evidence of differentiated MSCs directly participating in bone formation, suggesting that MSCs may either die or revert in phenotype upon transplantation. Cell-secreted decellularized extracellular matrices (DMs) are a promising platform to confer bioactivity and direct cell fate through the presentation of a complex and physiologically relevant milieu. Therefore, we examined the capacity of biomimetic DMs to preserve the mineral-producing phenotype upon withdrawal of the induction stimulus. Regardless of induction duration, ranging up to 6 weeks, MSCs exhibited up to a 5-fold reduction in osteogenic markers within 24 hours following stimulus withdrawal. We show that seeding osteogenically induced MSCs on DMs yields up to 2-fold more calcium deposition than tissue culture plastic, and this improvement is at least partially mediated by increasing actin cytoskeletal tension via the ROCK II pathway. MSCs on DMs also secreted 25% more vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a crucial endogenous proangiogenic factor that is abrogated during MSC osteogenic differentiation. The deployment of DMs into a subcutaneous ectopic site enhanced the persistence of MSCs 5-fold, vessel density 3-fold, and bone formation 2-fold more than MSCs delivered without DMs. These results underscore the need for deploying MSCs using biomaterial platforms such as DMs to preserve the in vitro-acquired mineral-producing phenotype and accelerate the process of bone repair. PMID:26457835

  4. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  5. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  6. Effects of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction on immune cells of the spleen and bone marrow in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemin; Gui, Yuyan; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2016-11-15

    Osteoimmunology is a new discipline that focuses on the interaction between the bones and the immune system. Immune cells play an important role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD) on lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow to explore the potential role on the bone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+BSNXD, and OVX+ estrogen. The sham and OVX groups were treated with saline, the OVX+BSNXD group was treated with BSNXD, and the OVX+ estrogen group was treated with estrogen. After mice were sacrificed, the spleens and bones were collected, and the lymphocytes in the spleen and bone marrow were analyzed. We found that BSNXD lessened the extent of the increase of CD4(+) and bone marrow. In contrast, these numbers were both increased in the OVX group. BSNXD had no influence on the percentage of γδ T cells. However, it increased the proportion of NK cells in the spleen and bone marrow. BSNXD lessened the extent of the increase of monocytes by ovariectomy. In vitro experiment, we found Tregs can decrease osteoclastogenesis when co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells. This study suggests that BSNXD changes the immune environment and immune cells have a role in bone metabolism in OVX mice.

  7. High abundance of CD271+ multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) in intramedullary cavities of long bones

    PubMed Central

    Cox, George; Boxall, Sally A.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Buckley, Conor T.; Roshdy, Tarek; Churchman, Sarah M.; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Aspiration of iliac crest bone marrow (ICBM) remains the most frequent technique used in harvesting multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration. Although this tissue type is easily accessed by a surgeon, it has a low frequency of MSCs, which is significant given the high cell numbers required for bone regeneration strategies. Lipoaspirates possess higher MSC frequencies, albeit cells with a differentiation profile less suited to orthopaedic interventions. Intra-medullary cavities of long bones have previously been shown to harbour MSCs in animals, however evaluation of their frequency, differentiation capacity and phenotype in humans had not previously been performed. Long bone fatty bone marrow (LBFBM) was collected prior to harvesting bone graft. Basic cellular compositions of donor-matched LBFBM and ICBM aspirates, including the numbers of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and CD31+ endothelial cells, were similar. MSCs were enumerated using colony-forming-unit-fibroblast assays and flow cytometry for the presence of a resident LBFBM CD45−/low CD271+ MSC population and revealed a trend for higher MSC numbers (average 5 fold, n = 6) per millilitre of LBFBM compared to donor-matched ICBM. Functional characteristics of resident MSCs, including their growth rates, differentiation potentials and surface phenotypes (CD73+CD105+CD90+) before and after culture-amplification, were similar. Enhanced numbers of MSCs could be recovered following brief enzymatic treatment of solid fragments of LBFBM. Our findings therefore reveal that the intramedullary cavity of the human femur is a depot of MSCs, which, although closely associated with fat, have a differentiation profile equivalent to ICBM. This anatomical site is frequently accessed by the orthopaedic/trauma surgeon and aspiration of the intramedullary cavity represents a ‘low-tech’ method of harvesting potentially large numbers of MSCs for regenerative therapies and research. This article is part of a

  8. Phenotypic characteristics of hybrid cells generated by transferring neuronal nuclei into bone marrow stromal cell cytoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhujuan; Xu, Yan; Zhong, Qi; Zheng, Jian

    2012-02-10

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are promising donor cells for transplantation therapies for a variety of diseases. However, there still lack efficient ways to induce directional differentiation of BMSCs to promote their practical use in transplantation therapy. In this study, we constructed hybrid cells by transferring neuronal nuclei into BMSC cytoplasts and investigated the proliferative capacity and phenotypic characteristics of the hybrid cells. The neuronal nuclei were labeled with Hoechst 33342 before the transfer process, and the cell membrane antigen CD71 was used as a marker of BMSC cytoplasts. The BMSC cytoplasts and neuronal karyoplasts were separated by Ficoll density gradient ultracentrifugation. The hybrid cells were generated by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of BMSC cytoplasts with neuronal karyoplasts. The hybrid cells exhibited Hoechst 33342 staining in their nuclei and CD71 staining on their cytomembranes, which confirmed the success of cell fusion. The hybrid cells were positive for BrdU immunostaining. Viability analysis of the cultured hybrid cells by the MTT assay demonstrated their proliferative ability. Immunocytochemical staining revealed the expression of the neuron-specific markers NeuN and MAP2 in the third passage hybrid cells, which indicated their neuronal phenotypic characteristics. The results demonstrated that the hybrid cells produced by fusing neuronal karyoplasts with BMSC cytoplasts had proliferative capability and expressed the neuron-specific markers. Further study is required to investigate the phenotype of the hybrid cells both structurally and functionally.

  9. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell.

  10. Effects of Polymer Surfaces on Proliferation and Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sisi; Liao, Wenbin; Ma, Yupo; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Stony Brook Medical Center Collaboration; Stony Brook Dental Schoo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Currently, proliferation and differentiation of stem cell is usually accomplished either in vivo, or on chemical coated tissue culture petri dish with the presence of feeder cells. Here we investigated whether they can be directly cultured on polymeric substrates, in the absence of additional factors. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells did not require gelatin and could remain in the undifferentiated state without feeder cells at least for four passages on partially sulfonated polystyrene. The modulii of cells was measured and found to be higher for cells plated directly on the polymer surface than for those on the same surface covered with gelatin and feeder cells. When plated with feeder cells, the modulii was not sensitive to gelatin. Whereas the differentiation properties of human bone marrow stem cells, which are not adherent, are less dependent on either chemical or mechanical properties of the substrate. However, they behave differently on different toughness hydrogels as oppose to on polymer coated thin films.

  11. Osterix-cre labeled progenitor cells contribute to the formation and maintenance of the bone marrow stroma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaling; Strecker, Sara; Wang, Liping; Kronenberg, Mark S; Wang, Wen; Rowe, David W; Maye, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out fate mapping studies using Osterix-EGFPCre and Osterix-CreERt animal models and found Cre reporter expression in many different cell types that make up the bone marrow stroma. Constitutive fate mapping resulted in the labeling of different cellular components located throughout the bone marrow, whereas temporal fate mapping at E14.5 resulted in the labeling of cells within a region of the bone marrow. The identity of cell types marked by constitutive and temporal fate mapping included osteoblasts, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle, perineural, and stromal cells. Prolonged tracing of embryonic precursors labeled at E14.5dpc revealed the continued existence of their progeny up to 10 months of age, suggesting that fate mapped, labeled embryonic precursors gave rise to long lived bone marrow progenitor cells. To provide further evidence for the marking of bone marrow progenitors, bone marrow cultures derived from Osterix-EGFPCre/Ai9 mice showed that stromal cells retained Cre reporter expression and yielded a FACS sorted population that was able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro and into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and perivascular stromal cells after transplantation. Collectively, our studies reveal the developmental process by which Osterix-Cre labeled embryonic progenitors give rise to adult bone marrow progenitors which establish and maintain the bone marrow stroma.

  12. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Improves Angiogenic Activity of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in the Tissue-Engineered Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Chen, Song; Song, Wen-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    One of the big challenges in tissue engineering for treating large bone defects is to promote the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration, and can activate a broad array of angiogenic factors. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) can activate HIF-1α expression in cells at normal oxygen tension. In this study, we explored the effect of DMOG on the angiogenic activity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the tissue-engineered bone. The effect of different concentrations of DMOG on HIF-1a expression in BMSCs was detected with western blotting, and the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in DMOG-treated BMSCs were respectively analyzed using qRT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The tissue-engineered bone constructed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and DMOG-treated BMSCs were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects to test the effectiveness of DMOG in improving the angiogenic activity of BMSCs in the tissue-engineered bone. The results showed DMOG significantly enhanced the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α. More newly formed blood vessels were observed in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs than in other groups. And there were also more bone regeneration in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs. Therefore, we believed DMOG could enhance the angiogenic activity of BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α, thereby improve the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone and its bone healing capacity. PMID:25013382

  13. Effect of coating Straumann Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Mrozik, Krzysztof Marek; Gronthos, Stan; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2012-06-01

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann Emdogain, a clinical preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). MSCs were isolated and ex vivo-expanded from human bone marrow and periodontal ligament and, in culture, allowed to attach to Bone Ceramic in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Gene expression of bone-related proteins was investigated by real time RT-PCR for 72 h, and ectopic bone formation was assessed histologically in subcutaneous implants of Bone Ceramic containing MSCs with or without Emdogain in NOD/SCID mice. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed in vitro, in the presence or absence of Emdogain. Collagen-I mRNA was up-regulated in both MSC populations over the 72-h time course with Emdogain. Expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 showed early stimulation in both MSC types after 24 h. In contrast, expression of BMP-4 was consistently down-regulated in both MSC types with Emdogain. Up-regulation of osteopontin and periostin mRNA was restricted to BMSCs, while higher levels of bone sialoprotein-II were observed in PDLFs with Emdogain. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity levels were reduced in both BMSCs and PDLFs in the presence of Emdogain. Very little evidence was found for ectopic bone formation following subcutaneous implantation of MSCs with Emdogain-coated or -uncoated Bone Ceramic in NOD/SCID mice. The early up-regulation of several important bone-related genes suggests that Emdogain may have a significant stimulatory effect in the commitment of mesenchymal cells to osteogenic differentiation in vitro. While Emdogain inhibited AP activity and appeared

  14. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    PubMed Central

    Mindaye, Samuel T.; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R.; Alterman, Michail A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5], [6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results. PMID:26702413

  15. Bone Regeneration of Blood-derived Stem Cells within Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, R C; Park, Y K; Kim, S K; Cho, J; Heo, S J; Koak, J Y; Lee, S J; Park, J M; Lee, J H; Kim, J H

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral blood (PB) is known as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as is bone marrow (BM), and is acquired easily. However, it is difficult to have enough MSCs, and their osteogenic capacity with dental implantations is scarce. Therefore, we characterized peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) cultured on a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and demonstrated the osteogenic capability in an experimental chamber implant surgery model in rabbits. We isolated PBMSCs from rabbits by culturing on a natural ECM-coated plate during primary culture. We characterized the PBMSCs using a fluorescence-activated cell scanner, cell proliferation assay, and multiple differentiation assay and compared them with BMMSCs. We also analyzed the osteogenic potential of PBMSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) by transplanting them into immunocompromised mice. Then, the mixture was applied to the canals. After 3 and 6 wk, we analyzed new bone (NB) formation inside the chambers using histological and histomorphometric analyses. The PBMSCs had a similar rate of BrdU-positive cells to BMMSCs, positively expressing CD90 but negative for CD14. The PBMSCs also showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic ability in vitro and osteogenic ability in vivo. Histological and histomorphometric results illustrated that the PBMSC and BMMSC groups showed higher NB than the HA/TCP and defect groups in the upper and lower chambers at 6 wk and in the upper canal at 3 wk; however, there was no difference in NB among all groups in the lower canal at 3 wk. The PBMSCs have characteristics and bone regeneration ability similar to BMMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. ECM was effective for obtaining PBMSCs. Therefore, PBMSCs are a promising source for bone regeneration for clinical use.

  16. The impact of simulated and real microgravity on bone cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Grimm, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering.

  17. The Impact of Simulated and Real Microgravity on Bone Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Wise, Petra; van Loon, Jack; Magnusson, Nils; Infanger, Manfred; Grosse, Jirka; Eilles, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    How microgravity affects the biology of human cells and the formation of 3D cell cultures in real and simulated microgravity (r- and s-µg) is currently a hot topic in biomedicine. In r- and s-µg, various cell types were found to form 3D structures. This review will focus on the current knowledge of tissue engineering in space and on Earth using systems such as the random positioning machine (RPM), the 2D-clinostat, or the NASA-developed rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) to create tissue from bone, tumor, and mesenchymal stem cells. To understand the development of 3D structures, in vitro experiments using s-µg devices can provide valuable information about modulations in signal-transduction, cell adhesion, or extracellular matrix induced by altered gravity conditions. These systems also facilitate the analysis of the impact of growth factors, hormones, or drugs on these tissue-like constructs. Progress has been made in bone tissue engineering using the RWV, and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), formed in both r- and s-µg, have been reported and were analyzed in depth. Currently, these MCTS are available for drug testing and proteomic investigations. This review provides an overview of the influence of µg on the aforementioned cells and an outlook for future perspectives in tissue engineering. PMID:25110709

  18. Differentiation of lymphatic endothelial cells from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with VEGFs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Luwan; Liu, Yanli; Chen, Guoling; Fang, Yunhai; Song, Xianrang; Dong, Ping; Gao, Jie; Liu, Rong; Ding, Zhaoxi; Bi, Yushun; Liu, Zhiyu

    2012-12-01

    Although there have been many experimental studies demonstrating that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues such as osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vivo and in vitro, little information is available regarding their potential to differentiate into lymphatic endothelial cells. Therefore, we chose to investigate differentiation of MSCs into lymphatic endothelial cells using stimulation with members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFs) family. Rat MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate of Sprague-Dawley rats as previously described and characterized with flow cytometry for surface markers CD14, CD34, CD29, and CD90. Purified MSCs were plated and cultured in the presence of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, or the combination of both for 10 days. We examined the cells for Prox-1 and LYVE-1 by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Results demonstrated that compared to controls, cell differentiated with VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-A+VEGF-C expressed Prox-1 and LYVE-1. Our results indicate that MSCs induced by VEGFs are capable of differentiating into lymphatic endothelial-like cells in vitro, and this response has the potential to make them attractive candidates for the development of autologous tissue grafts for future therapy.

  19. Comparison of osteogenic ability of rat mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, periosteum, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ousuke; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime; Ito, Hiromoto

    2008-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in many types of tissue and are able to differentiate into various functional cells including osteoblasts. Recently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into many lineages, and they are considered a source for tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenic differentiation capability of MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs), MSCs from periosteum (PMSCs), and AMSCs using in vitro culture and in vivo implantation experiments. We harvested these MSCs from 7-week-old rats. The cells were seeded and cultured for 7 days in primary culture to assay a colony-forming unit. The frequency of the unit was the smallest in the BMSCs (P < 0.001). After primary culture, subculture was performed under osteogenic differentiation conditions for 1 and 2 weeks to detect mineralization as well as the bone-specific proteins of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as osteogenic markers. BMSCs and PMSCs showed distinct osteogenic differentiation capability in comparison with other MSCs (P < 0.001). For the in vivo assay, composites of these cells and hydroxyapatite ceramics were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats and harvested after 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomographic (CT) and histological analyses demonstrated that new bone formation was detected in the composites using BMSCs and PMSCs, although it was hard to detect in other composites. The CT analyses also demonstrated that the bone volume of BMSC composites was more than that of AMSC composites (P < 0.001). These results indicate that BMSCs and PMSCs could be ideal candidates for utilization in practical bone tissue regeneration.

  20. The stiffness of bone marrow cell-knit composites is increased during mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, A; Siragusano, D; Ettel, G; Brandsberg, T; Brandsberg, F; Petitmermet, M; Müller, B; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

    2001-12-01

    A novel device for mechanical stimulation of primary adult rat bone marrow cells cultured on three-dimensional knitted textiles has been prototyped. A method has been developed ensuring a well-defined, high-density, and reproducible cell seeding on the knitted fabric. After culturing for 18-52 days the cell-knit composites were subjected to uniaxial 2% stretching and relaxation. The frequency was altered between 0.1 Hz (196 min, loading phase) and 0.01 Hz (360 min, resting phase). Identically treated knits without cells exhibited a slight stiffness reduction, whereas the stiffness of knits with cells increased from cycle to cycle. The stiffness increase was found to depend on the duration of the culture period before mechanical loading. Our data suggest that the extracellular matrix deposited by the cells on the knit and intact microtubuli of living cells cause the observed stiffness increase. In comparison to the unstrained static cell-knit composites cell proliferation and bone cell differentiation were reduced by the mechanical load.