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Sample records for bone density comparison

  1. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    PubMed

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D

    1997-11-01

    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p < 0.002; DXA, p < 0.005), and the densities from the two techniques were highly correlated (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Actual density values were higher for Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  2. Bone Density Test

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Bone density test By Mayo Clinic Staff A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disease that causes bones to ... your bones could be quite weak. A bone density test enhances the accuracy of calculating your risk ...

  3. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  4. Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Derived Alveolar Bone Density Between Subjects with and without Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S.; Elfirt, Eman Y.; Al-Ahmari, Manea M.; Yamany, Ibrahim A.; Alabdulkarim, Maher A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the changes in bone density of patients affected by aggressive periodontitis could be useful in early disease detection and proper treatment planning. Aim The aim of this study was to compare alveolar bone density in patients affected with aggressive periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. Twenty periodontally healthy patients attending the dental clinics for implant placement or extraction of impacted third molars served as controls. Alveolar bone density was measured using CBCT scanning. Comparisons between aggressive periodontitis group and controls for age and alveolar bone density of the anterior and posterior regions were performed using an independent sample t-test. Multivariable linear regression models were also performed. Results The differences between groups in regard to age, anterior and posterior alveolar bone density was not statistically significant (p<0.05). In the posterior region, the multivariable regression model showed that bone density was not associated with age, gender or the study groups. Whereas, in the anterior region, patient’s age was found to be significantly associated with bone density, p=0.014. Conclusion Alveolar bone density as measured by CBCT in aggressive periodontitis patients was not different from periodontally healthy individuals. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28274060

  5. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and display the bone density measurements on a computer monitor. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... passed over the area, generating images on a computer monitor. You must hold very still and may be ...

  6. Comparison of bone mineral density in the jaws of patients with and without chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk Tonguç, M; Ş Büyükkaplan, U; Fentoğlu, Ö; A Gümüş, B; S Çerçi, S; Y Kırzıoğlu, F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although several studies have addressed the relationship between systemic bone mineral status and the severity of periodontitis, there is little knowledge of the relationship between periodontal disease and locally detected bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular bone mineral density of patients with chronic periodontitis with that of periodontally healthy subjects. Methods 48 systemically healthy subjects were included in the study and underwent a periodontal examination to determine their status. 24 subjects were periodontally healthy and the other 24 had moderate or severe chronic periodontitis. The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The region of interest on the body of the mandible was independently determined on the dual energy absorptiometry radiographs, and a computer calculated the bone mineral density of these regions. Results The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects with periodontitis was significantly lower than that of the periodontally healthy subjects (p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the mandibular bone mineral density values and parameters related to the amount of periodontal destruction. Conclusions Low bone mineral density in the jaw may be associated with chronic periodontitis. PMID:22241867

  7. Local variations in bone mineral density: a comparison of OCT versus x-ray micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Stevens-Smith, Jenna; Scutt, Andrew; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2008-02-01

    We describe variations in the degree of mineralisation within the subchondral bone plate of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. A comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography, Micro CT, and SEM techniques was performed. These data are compared between sites on a healthy sample and at points on an osteoarthritically degenerated sample. No significant correlation was found between the optical scattering coefficient and the micro-CT derived BMD for comparisons between different sites on the bone surface. Also OCT demonstrated a larger regional variation in scattering coefficient than did micro CT for bone mineral density. This suggests that the optical scattering coefficient of bone is not related solely to the volume-density of calcium-phosphate. Patches of lower optical scattering coefficient were found in the bone structure that was related to the osteoarthritic lesion area on the overlying cartilage. Areas of microcracking, as revealed by both SEM and micro CT produced distinctive granularity in the OCT images. In further experiments, OCT was compared with micro CT and mechanical strength testing (3-point bending) in a small animal model of cardiovascular disease (cholesterol overload in mice). In the cardiovascular diseased mice, micro-CT of the trabecular bone did not demonstrate a significant change in trabecular bone mineral density before and after administration of the high cholesterol diet. However mechanical testing demonstrated a decrease in mechanical strength and OCT demonstrated a corresponding statistically significant decrease in optical scattering of the bone.

  8. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  9. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  10. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  11. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

  12. Comparison of peripheral quantitative computed tomography forearm bone density versus DXA in rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Juhász, B; Gulyás, K; Horváth, Á; Pethő, Z; Bhattoa, H P; Váncsa, A; Szekanecz, É; Horváth, C; Kocsis, J; Horváth, Z; Hodosi, K; Szántó, S; Szűcs, G; Szekanecz, Z

    2017-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with osteoporosis. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is capable of assessing bone density and composition. We found lower bone density in RA compared to controls. Age and RA duration influenced bone density. QCT may be useful to assess bone metabolism in RA.

  13. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Kit NOF Events Blog Advocacy NOF Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Diagnosis Information › Bone Density Exam/ ... Media Kit NOF Events Blog Advocacy NOF Store Shopping Cart Contact Us Privacy Policy Legal Disclaimer Medical ...

  14. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs.

  15. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  16. Bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Gilboe, I.; Kvien, T.; Haugeberg, G.; Husby, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine bone mineral density (BMD) frequency of osteoporosis and reduced bone mass in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and compare the data of the SLE patients with matched rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. Secondly, to study possible correlations between BMD, demographic and disease variables in the SLE patients.
METHODS—Measures of BMD assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry were obtained from 75 SLE patients aged ⩽ 70 years, 75 RA patients matched for age, sex and disease duration, and from 75 healthy controls matched for age, sex and geographical area. Disease activity and accumulated organ damage were assessed in the SLE patients.
RESULTS—The SLE patients had significantly lower BMD values at lumbar spine L2-L4 and hip, and higher frequency of osteoporosis at all sites of measurement compared with matched healthy controls. The matched SLE and RA patients had similar BMD, prevalence of osteoporosis and reduced bone mass. In the SLE patients BMD was more strongly correlated with accumulated organ damage than with markers of disease activity or duration. In multivariate analyses BMD was at all sites predicted by age and body mass, at lumbar spine also by the current corticosteroid dose.
CONCLUSION—The study showed reduced BMD in patients with SLE compared with matched healthy controls. Premenopausal women taking corticosteroids were especially affected. Furthermore, the BMD of matched SLE and RA patients was reduced to a similar extent.

 PMID:10666165

  17. Comparison of Site-Specific Bone Mineral Densities between Endurance Runners and Sprinters in Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Ikedo, Aoi; Ishibashi, Aya; Matsumiya, Saori; Kaizaki, Aya; Ebi, Kumiko; Fujita, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs) between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM) and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years) were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH) BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.06 g/cm2; spine, 0.99 ± 0.06 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06 g/cm2; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in other sites. The rate of menstrual abnormality was higher in endurance runners compared with sprinters (56.3% vs. 23.8%; p < 0.05). FFM was a significant covariate for BMD on all sites except the spine (p < 0.05). Dietary intake of vitamin D was identified as a significant covariate only for pelvic BMD (p < 0.05). The BMDs of different sites among endurance runners and sprinters were strongly related to FFM. However, the association of FFM with spine BMD cannot be explained by FFM alone. Other factors, including nutrition and/or mechanical loading, may affect the spine BMD. PMID:27916891

  18. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  19. Osteocyte density in woven bone.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, C J; Majeska, R J; Schaffler, M B

    2004-11-01

    Woven bone forms rapidly during tissue growth, following injury and in response to certain anabolic stimuli. Functional differences between woven and lamellar bone may be due, in part, to differences in osteocyte density (cells per unit tissue). Woven bone has been estimated to contain four to eight times more osteocytes than lamellar bone, although primary data to support this assertion are limited. Given recent findings implicating osteocytes as regulators of bone remodeling, bone formation and bone volume, such large differences in osteocyte density between woven and lamellar bone may have important consequences. In this study, we compared the density of osteocyte lacunae (lacunae/mm(2) tissue) in rat lamellar bone with that in woven bone formed under several different circumstances. We found that the lacunar density of lamellar cortical bone in the rat (834+/-83 cells/mm2, mean+/-SD) did not differ significantly from that of periosteal woven bone formed via intramembranous osteogenesis, either in response to mechanical loading (921+/-204 cells/mm2) or in the periosteal buttressing region of the fracture callus (1138+/-168 cells/mm2). In contrast, lacunar density of endochondrally derived woven bone in the center (gap) region of fracture callus was nearly 100% greater (1875+/-270 cells/mm2) than in lamellar cortical bone while lacunar density of primary spongiosa of the growth plate was 40% greater (1674+/-228 cells/mm2) than that in lamellar cancellous bone (1189+/-164). These findings demonstrate that lacunar density in woven bone varies depending on skeletal site and developmental history and appears to be elevated in endochondrally derived woven bone adjacent to marrow space. Given the considerable evidence supporting osteocytes as local initiators of bone remodeling, we suggest that woven bone with increased lacunar density may undergo remodeling at an accelerated rate.

  20. Dietary restrictions, bone density, and bone quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-hai; Ables, Gene P

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), protein restriction (PR), and specific amino acid restriction (e.g., methionine restriction (MR)) are different dietary interventions that have been confirmed with regard to their comprehensive benefits to metabolism and health. Based on bone densitometric measurements, weight loss induced by dietary restriction is known to be accompanied by reduced areal bone mineral density, bone mass, and/or bone size, and it is considered harmful to bone health. However, because of technological advancements in bone densitometric instruments (e.g., high-resolution X-ray tomography), dietary restrictions have been found to cause a reduction in bone mass/size rather than volumetric bone mineral density. Furthermore, when considering bone quality, bone health consists of diverse indices that cannot be fully represented by densitometric measurements alone. Indeed, there is evidence that moderate dietary restrictions do not impair intrinsic bone material properties, despite the reduction in whole-bone strength because of a smaller bone size. In the present review, we integrate research evidence from traditional densitometric measurements, metabolic status assays (e.g., energy metabolism, oxidative stresses, and inflammatory responses), and biomaterial analyses to provide revised conclusions regarding the effects of CR, PR, and MR on the skeleton.

  1. Comparison of calcium and phosphorus excretion with bone density changes during restraint in immature Macaca nemestrina primates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Hood, W. N.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus balance data on Macaca nemestrina monkeys during immobilization are presented and correlated with X-ray bone densitometry findings. A positive mineral balance was maintained during the immobilized period. A reduced bone density was observed in most skeletal sites examined with increased density observed in epiphyseal regions. Migration of mineral from one site to another is suggested as a possible explanation for the findings.

  2. Comparison of bone tissue trace-element concentrations and mineral density in osteoporotic femoral neck fractures and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mutlu, Mahmut; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Saçmaci, Şerife; Kartal, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the role of trace elements in osteoporosis by comparing the trace-element concentrations in bone and the radiographic bone density and bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with osteoporotic femur fractures and osteoarthritis. Patients and methods The study enrolled 30 patients operated on for proximal femoral fractures after falls, and another 30 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at the same center for hip osteoarthritis. Bone samples were obtained during the surgical procedures. The density of the bone samples was assessed using computed tomography and the Hounsfield scale. The levels of Ca(II), Mg(II), and other trace elements in the bone samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, BMD, Z-scores, and T-scores were measured in the unaffected hips of all patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Magnesium (1,908±507 versus 2,540±435, P<0.05), calcium (10.4±3.5 versus 13.9±3.7, P<0.05), and zinc (2,342±1,252 versus 3,145±1,604, P<0.05) μg g−1, levels were significantly lower in the bone samples in the fracture group. The groups did not differ in the other biochemical parameters. All dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings were significantly worse in the fracture group than in the osteoarthritis group. However, the groups did not differ in femoral neck density assessed radiologically using the Hounsfield scale. The following parameters were negatively correlated with age: magnesium, r=−0.436, P<0.001; calcium, r=−0.331, P=0.01; T-score, r=−0.381, P=0.003; Z-score, r=−0.267, P=0.043; and BMD, r=−0.365, P=0.004. Conclusion Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II) appear to play important roles in bone breakdown/synthesis. Further studies of the roles of trace elements in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis are warranted. We found decreased bone levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn in patients with osteoporotic fractures compared to

  3. Comparison of serum Dkk1 (Dickkopf-1) and bone mineral density in patients on bisphosphonate treatment vs no treatment.

    PubMed

    Memon, Adeel R; Butler, Joseph S; O'Riordan, Michael V; Guerin, Elizabeth; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Harty, James A

    2013-01-01

    Complex pathways affect bone metabolism at the cellular level, and a balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity is critical to bone remodeling. One of the major pathways affecting bone metabolism is Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and its disturbances lead to a wide range of bone abnormalities. An important antagonist of this pathway is Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1). Higher Dkk1 levels have been associated with increased bone loss due to inhibition of Wnt pathway. Currently, bisphosphonates are the most commonly used agents to treat primary osteoporotic patients. This study demonstrates the effect of bisphosphonates on Dkk1 levels and its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD). Eighty patients with low BMD were recruited and divided into 2 groups of 40 each (bisphosphonate treatment group and control group). The mean Dkk1 level in the treatment group was significantly reduced to 2358.18 vs 3749.80 pg/mL in the control group (p<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficient showed negative correlation between Dkk1 and BMD at lumbar spine (r=-0.55) and femoral neck in the control group; however, no such correlation was found in the treatment group (r=-0.05). Hence, bisphosphonate therapy leads to reduction in Dkk1 levels, but it does not correlate with BMD in such patients.

  4. Comparison of bone density on the dominant and nondominant sides between healthy elderly individuals and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Min, Dong Gi; Lee, Jae Hong; Choe, Han Seong; Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, So Hong; Lee, Jin Hwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated differences between healthy elderly individuals and stroke patients by comparing their dominant and nondominant sides. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five elderly individuals participated in this study and divided into a stroke group and a control group. The outcome measures were general characteristics and bone mineral density. Bone mineral density was evaluated by using the osteoporosis index. OsteoPro, T score, and Z score were used for the calcaneus region of the dominant side, and OsteoPro was used for that of the nondominant side. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS 12.0 software, paired-samples t-test, and independent-samples t-test. [Results] The T and Z scores showed no significant differences between the dominant and recessive sides in the control group. However, the stroke group showed significant differences in osteoporosis index, T score, and Z score between the paretic and nonparetic sides. Changes in the scores between the recessive and dominant sides showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] A positive relationship was found between physical activity and bone mineral density in the stroke patients. Therefore, improved physical activity can be beneficial by reducing osteoporosis in stroke patients. PMID:27799687

  5. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  6. A comparison of bone mineral densities and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Jingjing; Lu, Haili; Guan, Liping; Teng, Zhihai; Gao, Shangzhi; Li, Mingyi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students, in order to provide a certain reference enhancing college students' physical fitness.A total of 1694 Chinese college students (294 men and 1400 women, aged 18-22 years) and 250 Southeast Asia college students (148 men and 102 women, aged 19-22 years) were included in the study. Weight, height, and body mass index were measured anthropometrically. BMD values were determined by ultrasound bone densitometer and body composition was determined by body composition analyzer.Southeast Asia college students were overweight than Chinese college students (250 vs 1694) (P < 0.05). Chinese college students had a significantly lower body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, lean body weight, estimation of bone mass, protein, and metabolic rate but higher BMD at the calcaneus compared with Southeast Asia college students (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, body water, intracellular fluid, and extracellular fluid were not significantly different between Chinese college students and Southeast Asia college students (P > 0.01 for all parameters).The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that Chinese college students had a higher BMD but lower body composition than Southeast Asia college students, which may be associated with genes, diet, exercise, and other factors.

  7. Low bone mineral density and decreased bone turnover in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, Ann-Charlott; Magnusson, Per; Ahlander, Anne-Christine; Karlsson, Jón; Kroksmark, Anna-Karin; Tulinius, Már; Swolin-Eide, Diana

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined bone mineral density, bone turnover, body composition and calciotropic hormones in 24 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (2.3-19.7 years), most of whom were being treated with prednisolone, and 24 age-matched healthy boys. Our study demonstrated lower bone mineral density in the DMD group for total body, spine, hip, heel and forearm measurements. These differences between DMD patients and controls increased with increasing age. Biochemical markers of both bone formation and resorption revealed reduced bone turnover in DMD patients. The fracture rate was not higher in DMD patients. The DMD group had low vitamin D levels but high leptin levels in comparison with the control group. Muscle strength correlated with bone mineral density assessed at the hip and heel in the DMD group. Interventions that increase bone formation should be considered, as DMD patients have reduced bone turnover in addition to their low bone mineral density.

  8. Genetic regulation of bone mass: from bone density to bone strength.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized in adults by diminished bone density. Bone is an organ that evolves and grows throughout life, and establishing optimal bone density in childhood and adolescence serves to buffer bone loss later in life. Bone density, a measurable entity, is the clinical substitute for bone strength, or the ability to defend against fracture. Chronic diseases may adversely affect optimal peak bone density. Bone density is under genetic control, as revealed by three lines of investigations. These include (1) the finding of quantitative trait loci for bone density, (2) the finding that specific mutations in genes that are important in the development of osteoblast or osteoclast lineages alter bone density, and (3) the linkeage of known polymorphisms for genes involved in mineral homeostasis to bone density and/or fracture. Future therapeutics for improving peak bone density or delaying bone loss later in life may take advantage of the genetic nature of bone density development.

  9. Effect of osteoporosis medication on changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover markers after 24-month administration of daily teriparatide: comparison among minodronate, raloxifene, and eldecalcitol.

    PubMed

    Nakatoh, Shinichi

    2017-03-14

    This study reveals the changes in bone mineral density (BMD), the turnover rate, and the balance [multiple of median formation/multiple of median resorption (MoMf/MoMr)] affected by the selection of different bone resorption inhibitors after 24-month daily teriparatide (20 µg/day) administration. The turnover rate was calculated as √(MoMf(2) + MoMr(2)), where MoMf = bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) value/18.6 and MoMr = tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) value/463. One hundred and twenty-one osteoporotic women (mean age 82.4 years) were randomly administered minodronate (50 mg/28 days), raloxifene (60 mg/day), or eldecalcitol (0.75 µg/day) after teriparatide discontinuation. BMD was measured at 0, 24, and 48 weeks; BAP values and TRACP-5b were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after administration of bone resorption inhibitors. In the minodronate group, BMD increased significantly from week 0 to weeks 24 and 48. The turnover rate was significantly reduced at week 12, and remained so over the entire course in all three groups. The speed of change of turnover rate was greatest in the minodronate group. The balance in the minodronate group shifted significantly toward formation dominance at week 12 (to 0.97 from 0.87) and then again toward resorption dominance (to 0.84) at week 24. However, no further advancement in resorption dominance was observed until week 48. Conversely, the balance in the raloxifene and eldecalcitol groups shifted toward resorption dominance gradually over the entire course. In conclusion, the BMD-increasing effect was greatest with minodronate administration and depends not only on the decrease in turnover rate but also on changes in balance after teriparatide discontinuation.

  10. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated.

  11. Relationship between Bone Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone among Two Groups Taking Carbamazepine and Sodium Valproate for Epilepsy in Comparison with Healthy Individuals in Yazd

    PubMed Central

    Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Dehghan, Ali; Moghadam, Mahboubeh Abolhassani; Ardekani, Ali Mellat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic antiepileptic therapy has been associated with metabolic bone diseases including osteomalacia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of changes in biochemical and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults receiving valproaic acid (VPA) & carbamazepine (CBZ). Methods In a cross sectional study evaluating adults (age 20–50 y) epileptic patients receiving valproic acid or carbamazepine for at least 2 years. This study was conducted from May 2014 to May 2015 in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd University of Medical Science, Yazd, Iran. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measurement of serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathormone hormone (PTH), BMD at lumbar and femoral measured by dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). SPSS software (version 18) was used for data analysis. The t-test was used for quantitative data, and the chi-squared test was used for the qualitative variables. Results Eighty two epileptic patients (mean age: 31.67±10.69 year) treated with either carbamazepine (n=41) or valproate sodium (n=41) were studied. Normal serum Ca and P levels were observed in 98.8% and 97.6% of patients respectively. Serum ALP and PTH were normal in 97.6% and 97.6% of patients. Means of Ca and P in CBZ group were significantly lower than VPA group (Ca: 9.02 vs. 9.1, p-value: 0.03 and P: 3.54 vs. 3.76 p-value: 0.004). BMD values at lumbar spine were not significant in either group (T. score CBZ: −0.43± 0.744 vs. T. score VPA: −0.615± 0.904 and p-value: 0.333) and were significantly higher than Iranian normal population BMD value at femoral neck in CBZ group was lower than VPA group (T. score CBZ: −0.707± 0.896 vs. T. score VPA: − 0.297± 0.850 p-value: 0.04). Dosage of CBZ and VPA did not correlate with BMD and biochemical parameters. Duration of CBZ use had correlation with increased ALP and duration of VPA use had correlation with decreased BMD in adult patients. Conclusion long term

  12. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    20040116 025 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Exercise , bone, meta-analysis, osteoporosis, bone density, physical 37 activity , physical fitness, men...drugs were taken that could enhance BMD, cigarette 18 Caplan GA, Ward JA. The benefits of exercise in smoking, diet, previous physical activity ...weight-bearing exercise in older women in re- calcium nutrition and physical activity on bone lation to bone density and falls. BMI. 1997;314:569. mass in

  13. Bone density and its importance in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Tina; Jain, Abhay Kumar; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Mehrotra, Praveen; Mehrotra, Rachita

    2013-01-01

    Background Researchers have generally focused on tissue reactions occurring within the periodontal ligament and bone to find possible explanation for various clinical phenomena, with less attention being paid to the inherent bone density. Recently, regional differences in jaw anatomy and bone structure including bone density have become important issue to explain some of the variation in clinical practice with respect to tooth movement, implant success rate, anchorage loss etc. Materials and methods The intent of this review is to discuss various methods and classification proposed to determine bone density in particular area and its importance in field of orthodontia. Various clinical studies and research done in relation to bone density were searched using PubMed. Results and conclusion This review endeavours to compile the research of bone density in maxilla and mandible. Many clinical studies have demonstrated relation between bone density and various clinical phenomena in dentistry. Knowledge of bone density in particular area of oral cavity may help the clinician to plan proper site for implant placement and various anchorage augmentation techniques in order to increase success rate of the treatment. PMID:25737892

  14. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    analytic work. 15. SUBJECT TERMS exercise , bone, meta-analysis, osteoporosis, bone density, physical activity , physical fitness, men, women 16...appropriate for studies dealing with the effects of exercise on BMD in adults. 4. Adherence to the recent recommendations for physical activity and bone...nonathletic, physically active women. Bone 1996;19:233-44. 78. Sinaki M, Wahner HW, Offord KP, Hodgson SF. Efficacy of nonloading exercises in

  15. Bone density in eumenorrheic female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Lee, E J; LeBlanc, A; Poindexter, H B; Risser, J M; Schneider, V

    1990-10-01

    Information is limited on the effect of exercise on bone density in young eumenorrheic athletes. We studied 12 Caucasian intercollegiate volleyball players (V), nine basketball players (B), ten swimmers (S), and 13 non-athletes (N) with bone density measurements by photon absorptiometry of their calcaneus and lumbar spine (L2-L4). The effect of athletic status on bone density was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance, with height and weight as covariates. The bone densities reported below are mean +/- SE, adjusted for the covariates; units = g.cm-2, P less than 0.005. The swimmers had a significantly lower mean density in the lumbar spine than all other groups; the non-athletes' mean density was also lower than that of volleyball players (V = 1.31 +/- 0.03, B = 1.26 +/- 0.04, N = 1.18 +/- 0.03, S = 1.05 +/- 0.03). The volleyball and basketball players' mean calcaneal densities were greater than those of the swimmers and non-athletes (V = 0.530 +/- 0.017, B = 0.564 +/- 0.023, N = 0.438 +/- 0.018, S = 0.375 +/- 0.019). The higher bone densities for athletes in vertical weight-bearing activities are consistent with some but not all published data. The swimmers' low bone density in the lumbar spine, less than published values for amenorrheic runners, was unexpected.

  16. Physical Activity and Bone Density in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowley, Susan M.; Whalen, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of bone density regulation as a function of the daily tissue "effective" stress has been derived. Using the model, the influence of daily activity in the form of a daily loading history has been related to bone density of the calcaneus. The theory incorporates a stress exponent m to account for differences in the importance of magnitude and number of load cycles experienced during daily activity. We have derived a parameter from the model, the "Bone Density Index" (BDI). We have developed a method of collecting daily habitual loading histories using an insole force sensor interfaced to a portable digital data logger carried in a fanny pack. Our goal for this study was to determine a stress exponent, m, relating GRFz history to Calcaneal Bone Mineral Density (CBMD).

  17. Weight Loss and Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Plaisance, Eric P.; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low BMD, fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects weight loss has on bone health. Recent Findings Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid/large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower/smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. While dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Summary Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss. PMID:25105997

  18. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  19. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    PubMed

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  20. Exercise and Bone Density: Meta-Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS exercise , bone, meta-analysis, osteoporosis, bone density, physical activity , physical fitness, men, women 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...this investigation was the result of the exercise protocols employed. However, while higher impact activities such as jumping and high impact aerobic...have any effect on femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women, such activities should almost always be recommended. For example, while exercise may

  1. Bone density in patients with chondromalacia patella.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Iraj; Khazaeli, Shabnam; Hatami, Parta; Malekpour, Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Chondromalacia of the patella is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in young women. The etiology of the disease is not well-understood but the initial lesion is a disorganization of collagenous structures. Since the disease is proposed to be due to generalized constitutional disturbance, we postulated that bony structures could also be involved. To investigate this hypothesis we measured the bone density of 286 patients with the diagnosis of chondromalacia of the patella during a 4-year period using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. We found a significant number of patients having low bone densities. This problem was more pronounced in men and in younger age groups. We suggest base-line bone density evaluation in all patients, treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis in select patients and regular follow-ups using DXA.

  2. Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A G; Sanchez, T V; Michelsen, O; Chaffee, F L; Fagal, S M

    1988-09-01

    The amount and type of dietary protein affect bone mineral loss after the menopause. This observation was substantiated in 10 y of studies by direct photon absorptiometry, four results of which follow. 1) Studies of 1600 women in southwestern Michigan revealed that those who had followed the lactoovovegetarian diet for at least 20 y had only 18% less bone mineral by age 80 whereas closely paired omnivores had 35% less bone mineral. 2) A study of self-selected weighed food intake showed no statistical difference in nutrient intakes but a difference in Ca:P ratio and acid-base formation of diet, each significant to p less than 0.001. 3) When sulfur intake of a fixed diet was increased, the titratable acidity of the urine increased proportionately. 4) Bone mineral densities of 304 older women from the continental United States closely paralleled those from earlier Michigan studies.

  3. Endochondral bone growth, bone calcium accretion, and bone mineral density: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-07-01

    Endochondral bone growth in young growing mammals or adult mammals with persistent growth plates progresses from proliferation, maturation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes to mineralization of cartilaginous matrix to form an osseous tissue. This complex process is tightly regulated by a number of factors with different impacts, such as genetics, endocrine/paracrine factors [e.g., PTHrP, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), IGF-1, FGFs, and prolactin], and nutritional status (e.g., dietary calcium and vitamin D). Despite a strong link between growth plate function and elongation of the long bone, little is known whether endochondral bone growth indeed determines bone calcium accretion, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or peak bone mass. Since the process ends with cartilaginous matrix calcification, an increase in endochondral bone growth typically leads to more calcium accretion in the primary spongiosa and thus higher BMD. However, in lactating rats with enhanced trabecular bone resorption, bone elongation is inversely correlated with BMD. Although BMD can be increased by factors that enhance endochondral bone growth, the endochondral bone growth itself is unlikely to be an important determinant of peak bone mass since it is strongly determined by genetics. Therefore, endochondral bone growth and bone elongation are associated with calcium accretion only in a particular subregion of the long bone, but do not necessarily predict BMD and peak bone mass.

  4. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  5. Comparison of Correlates of Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Adhering to Lacto-Ovo, Vegan, or Omnivore Diets: A Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knurick, Jessica R.; Johnston, Carol S.; Wherry, Sarah J.; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  6. Comparison of correlates of bone mineral density in individuals adhering to lacto-ovo, vegan, or omnivore diets: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Knurick, Jessica R; Johnston, Carol S; Wherry, Sarah J; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-05-11

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan.

  7. Tensile properties of rat femoral bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and volumetric bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Araiza Arroyo, Francisco J; Rosso, Claudio; Aran, Shima; Snyder, Brian D

    2011-09-02

    Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. Tensile properties of cancellous and cortical bone have been reported previously; however, no relationships describing these properties for rat bone as a function of volumetric bone mineral density (ρ(MIN)), apparent density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) have been reported in the literature. We have shown that at macro level, compression and torsion properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone can be well described as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) using non-destructive micro-computed tomographic imaging and mechanical testing to failure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and osteomalacic animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial tension to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 74-77% of the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity to provide a non-invasive method to assess the tensile behavior of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options.

  8. Bone turnover predicts change in volumetric bone density and bone geometry at the radius in men.

    PubMed

    Pye, S R; Ward, K A; Cook, M J; Laurent, M R; Gielen, E; Borghs, H; Adams, J E; Boonen, S; Vanderschueren, D; Wu, F C; O'Neill, T W

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the distal and midshaft radius were performed in 514 European men aged 40-79 years at baseline and a median of 4.3 years later. Age-related changes in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone geometry were greater in men with higher biochemical markers of bone turnover at baseline.

  9. [Comparison of FRAX Score without bone mineral density determination and the criteria proposed by the Argentine Osteoporosis Society for the use of antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Camporro, Fernando; Redondo, Laura; Bulacio, Exequiel; Gutiérrez Magaldi, Ignacio; Chamale, Elías; Sáenz, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    To identify patients at high risk of fracture using clinical risk factors could reduce health costs arising from the realization of a bone densitometry. The aim of this study was to compare the FRAX score without bone mineral density (BMD) with the criteria proposed by the Argentine Society of Osteoporosis (SAO) to consider starting antiresorptive treatment. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study where 330 postmenopausal women between 40 and 90 years of age were included. The number of treatments given if the FRAX tool without BMD had been followed was compared with the number of treatments indicated using the SAO criteria. Using the SAO criteria, 85 (25.8%) patients would initiate antiresorptive treatment compared with 15 (4.5%) using the FRAX without BMD (p = 0.0019). Among the 67 patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis by BMD determination, all of them (100%) would have received treatment by using the SAO criteria compared with 10 (15%) using the FRAX score (p = 0.011). The use of FRAX without BMD significantly underestimates the number of patients who should receive antiresorptive treatment. In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by BMD, the FRAX score underestimates the number of patients to be treated.

  10. Influence of heredity and environment on peak bone density: a review of studies in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Colić Barić, Irena; Keser, Irena; Rumbak, Ivana; Šatalić, Zvonimir

    2012-01-01

    One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.

  11. Space: The Final Frontier of Bone Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    It is a medical requirement at NASA to evaluate the skeletal integrity of "long-duration" astronauts by measuring bone mineral density [BMD] with DXA technology. A long-duration mission is a spaceflight that is greater than 30 days but is typically the continuous 120-180 day missions aboard the International Space Station [ISS]. Not only does NASA use the BMD index to monitor fracture risk in this astronaut population, but these measures are also used to describe the effects of spaceflight, to certify skeletal health readiness for flight, to monitor the recovery of lost bone mass after return to earth, and to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures to bone loss. However, despite the fact that DXA-based BMD is a widely-applied surrogate for bone strength that is grounded in an abundance of population-based fracture data, its applicability to the long-duration astronaut is limited. The cohort of long-duration astronauts is not the typical group for evaluating osteoporosis or determining age-related fracture risk. The cohort is young (< 55 years), predominantly male and exposed to novel risk factors for bone loss besides the weightlessness of space. NASA is concerned about early onset osteoporosis in the astronaut exposed to long-duration spaceflight, especially since any detectable symptoms are likely to manifest after return to earth and perhaps years after space travel. This risk raises the question: is NASA doing enough now to mitigate a fracture event that may manifest later? This presentation will discuss the limitations and constraints to understanding skeletal changes due to prolonged spaceflight and the recommendations, by clinical experts in osteoporosis and BMD, to transition research technologies for clinical decision-making by NASA.

  12. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  13. Accurate Measurement of Bone Density with QCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Matsubara, Miki; Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of bone density measurement with a new OCT technology. A phantom was fabricated using two materials, a water-equivalent compound and hydroxyapatite (HA), combined in precise proportions (QRM GrnbH, Germany). The phantom was designed to have the approximate physical size and range in bone density as a human calcaneus, with regions of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/cc HA. The phantom was scanned at 80, 120 and 140 KVp with a GE CT/i HiSpeed Advantage scanner. A ring of highly attenuating material (polyvinyl chloride or teflon) was slipped over the phantom to alter the image by introducing non-axi-symmetric beam hardening. Images were corrected with a new OCT technology using an estimate of the effective X-ray beam spectrum to eliminate beam hardening artifacts. The algorithm computes the volume fraction of HA and water-equivalent matrix in each voxel. We found excellent agreement between expected and computed HA volume fractions. Results were insensitive to beam hardening ring material, HA concentration, and scan voltage settings. Data from all 3 voltages with a best fit linear regression are displays.

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  15. A Randomised Comparison Evaluating Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Luteinising Hormone-releasing Hormone Agonists Versus Transdermal Oestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Langley, Ruth E.; Kynaston, Howard G.; Alhasso, Abdulla A.; Duong, Trinh; Paez, Edgar M.; Jovic, Gordana; Scrase, Christopher D.; Robertson, Andrew; Cafferty, Fay; Welland, Andrew; Carpenter, Robin; Honeyfield, Lesley; Abel, Richard L.; Stone, Michael; Parmar, Mahesh K.B.; Abel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa), used as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) management, reduce serum oestradiol as well as testosterone, causing bone mineral density (BMD) loss. Transdermal oestradiol is a potential alternative to LHRHa. Objective To compare BMD change in men receiving either LHRHa or oestradiol patches (OP). Design, setting, and participants Men with locally advanced or metastatic PCa participating in the randomised UK Prostate Adenocarcinoma TransCutaneous Hormones (PATCH) trial (allocation ratio of 1:2 for LHRHa:OP, 2006–2011; 1:1, thereafter) were recruited into a BMD study (2006–2012). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline, 1 yr, and 2 yr. Interventions LHRHa as per local practice, OP (FemSeven 100 μg/24 h patches). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome was 1-yr change in lumbar spine (LS) BMD from baseline compared between randomised arms using analysis of covariance. Results and limitations A total of 74 eligible men (LHRHa 28, OP 46) participated from seven centres. Baseline clinical characteristics and 3-mo castration rates (testosterone ≤1.7 nmol/l, LHRHa 96% [26 of 27], OP 96% [43 of 45]) were similar between arms. Mean 1-yr change in LS BMD was −0.021 g/cm3 for patients randomised to the LHRHa arm (mean percentage change −1.4%) and +0.069 g/cm3 for the OP arm (+6.0%; p < 0.001). Similar patterns were seen in hip and total body measurements. The largest difference between arms was at 2 yr for those remaining on allocated treatment only: LS BMD mean percentage change LHRHa −3.0% and OP +7.9% (p < 0.001). Conclusions Transdermal oestradiol as a single agent produces castration levels of testosterone while mitigating BMD loss. These early data provide further supporting evidence for the ongoing phase 3 trial. Patient summary This study found that prostate cancer patients treated with transdermal oestradiol

  16. A Comparison of Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (1–36) and Parathyroid Hormone (1–34) on Markers of Bone Turnover and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women: The PrOP Study

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Mara J; Augustine, Marilyn; Kahn, Leila; Martin, Emily; Oakley, Christine C; Carneiro, Raquel M; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Laslavic, Angela; Sereika, Susan M; Bisello, Alessandro; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Gundberg, Caren M; Cauley, Jane A; Stewart, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)(1–36) increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), acting as an anabolic agent when injected intermittently, but has not been directly compared to parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1–34). We performed a three month, randomized, prospective study in 105 postmenopausal women with low bone density or osteoporosis comparing daily subcutaneous injections of PTHrP(1–36) to PTH(1–34). Thirty-five women were randomized to each of three groups: PTHrP(1–36) 400 μg/d; PTHrP(1–36) 600 μg/d; and PTH(1–34) 20 μg/d. The primary outcomes measures were changes in amino-terminal telopeptides of procollagen 1 (PINP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptides of collagen 1 (CTX). Secondary measures included safety parameters, 1,25(OH)2vitamin D and BMD. The increase in bone resorption (CTX) by PTH(1–34) (92%) (p<0.005) was greater than for PTHrP(1–36) (30%) (p<0.05). PTH(1–34) also increased bone formation (PINP) (171%) (p<0.0005) more than either dose of PTHrP(1–36) (46 & 87%). The increase in PINP was earlier (day 15) and greater than the increase in CTX for all three groups. LS BMD increased equivalently in each group (p<0.05 for all). Total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increased equivalently in each group but were only significant for the two doses of PTHrP(1–36) (p<0.05) at the TH, and for PTHrP(1–36) 400 (p<0.05) at the FN. PTHrP(1–36) 400 induced mild, transient (day 15) hypercalcemia. PTHrP(1–36) 600 required a dose reduction for hypercalcemia in three subjects. PTH(1–34) was not associated with hypercalcemia. Each peptide induced a marked biphasic increase in 1,25(OH)2D. Adverse events (AE) were similar among the three groups. This study demonstrates that PTHrP(1–36) and PTH(1–34) cause similar increases in LS BMD. PTHrP(1–36) also increased hip BMD. PTH(1–34) induced greater changes in bone turnover than PTHrP(1–36). PTHrP(1–36) was associated with mild transient hypercalcemia. Longer

  17. Comparison of Sex Steroid Measurements in Men by Immunoassay versus Mass Spectroscopy and Relationships with Cortical and Trabecular Volumetric Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Singh, Ravinder J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Riggs, B. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Introduction While immunoassays have been used extensively for measurement of serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, there is concern about their specificity, particularly at low E2 levels as present in men. Methods We compared T and E2 measured by mass spectroscopy to levels measured by immunoassay in men (n = 313, age 22 to 91 years) and related these to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at various skeletal sites. Results Serum T and non-SHBG bound (or bioavailable) T levels by immunoassay correlated well with the corresponding mass spectroscopy measurements (R = 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, P < 0.001); the correlations for serum E2 measured using the two techniques were less robust (R = 0.63 for total E2 and 0.84 for bioavailable E2, P < 0.001). Overall relationships between serum bioavailable T and E2 levels with vBMD at various skeletal sites were similar for the immunoassay and mass spectroscopic measures. Conclusions Although E2 levels with immunoassay correlate less well with the mass spectroscopic measurements than do the T measurements in men, our findings indicate that the fundamental relationships observed previously between vBMD and the sex steroids by immunoassay are also present with the mass spectroscopic measurements. PMID:18338096

  18. Long-term effects on bone mineral density and bone metabolism of 6 months' treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in Japanese women: comparison of buserelin acetate with leuprolide acetate.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kazuya; Ishitani, Ken; Ohta, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of 6 months' treatment with two types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. We studied 27 women who had been given a diagnosis of endometriosis or uterine myoma. The subjects received drug therapy for 6 months and were subsequently followed up for 1 year. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L2, L3, L4) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry four times: at baseline, after 6 months, after 12 months, and after 18 months. The serum concentrations of sex steroids and bone metabolic markers were measured at the same times as BMD. Compared with the baseline value, the mean decrease in the buserelin group L2-4 BMD was 3.7% at 6 months, 1.7% at 12 months, and 0.4% at 18 months. In the leuprolide group, L2-4 BMD decreased respectively by 5.1%, 6.2%, and 4.3%. Serum concentrations of calcium increased significantly after 6 months of treatment (P < 0.05) and returned to the baseline level at 12 months in both groups. In the leuprolide group, the intact osteocalcin concentration after 6 months was significantly higher than the baseline value, and after 12 months, it decreased to the baseline level. Our results indicate that the effect on BMD of 6 months' treatment with GnRH analogues virtually resolves by 1 year after treatment, provided that drugs affecting bone metabolism are not given during this period.

  19. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    PubMed

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  20. Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Oberfield, S.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.; Zemel, B. S.; Hangartner, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. Introduction Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. Methods We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined. Results At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. Conclusions If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106

  1. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  2. Bone Density: MedinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Bones? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Osteopetrosis Overview (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ... and Calcium (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish Women Breast Cancer and Bone ...

  3. Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R

    2010-07-22

    The skeletons of birds are universally described as lightweight as a result of selection for minimizing the energy required for flight. From a functional perspective, the weight (mass) of an animal relative to its lift-generating surfaces is a key determinant of the metabolic cost of flight. The evolution of birds has been characterized by many weight-saving adaptations that are reflected in bone shape, many of which strengthen and stiffen the skeleton. Although largely unstudied in birds, the material properties of bone tissue can also contribute to bone strength and stiffness. In this study, I calculated the density of the cranium, humerus and femur in passerine birds, rodents and bats by measuring bone mass and volume using helium displacement. I found that, on average, these bones are densest in birds, followed closely by bats. As bone density increases, so do bone stiffness and strength. Both of these optimization criteria are used in the design of strong and stiff, but lightweight, manmade airframes. By analogy, increased bone density in birds and bats may reflect adaptations for maximizing bone strength and stiffness while minimizing bone mass and volume. These data suggest that both bone shape and the material properties of bone tissue have played important roles in the evolution of flight. They also reconcile the conundrum of how bird skeletons can appear to be thin and delicate, yet contribute just as much to total body mass as do the skeletons of terrestrial mammals.

  4. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  5. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  6. Correlation of different bone markers with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Loddenkemper, Konstanze; Bohl, Nicole; Perka, Carsten; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common concomitant disease in patients with rheumatic diseases on glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Bone status is usually evaluated by determination of bone density in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests. However, the strength of individual biochemical bone makers in GC-induced osteoporosis has yet to be fully clarified. For this reason, different bone markers were investigated in correlation with bone density in patients with rheumatic diseases. Approximately 238 patients (212 women, 26 men) with a rheumatic disease and under GC therapy were examined consecutively for the first time with regard to bone density (BMD) and bone markers [osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (precipitation method/tandem-MP ostase), crosslinks [pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPX), N-terminal telopeptide (NTX)

  7. Bone density, bone quality, and FRAX: changing concepts in osteoporosis management.

    PubMed

    Licata, Angelo A

    2013-02-01

    Bone densitometry was originally developed to diagnose a high risk for fragility fractures in older postmenopausal women who may have primary osteoporosis. Its widespread availability, however, has led to its use in healthy peri- and premenopausal patients and the unexpected findings of low bone density in this group of patients. Their low bone density caused much uncertainty about the likelihood of fracture risk and what treatment might be needed. Conceptually, bone density reflected bone strength, and so a low density reflected increased fracture risk. Clinical experience and the results of pivotal studies of therapy for osteoporosis suggested that bone density was only partly responsible for skeletal strength. Many structural and material properties of bone, not measured by bone density, made it resist fracturing. Clinical risk factors helped determine these characteristics, albeit imperfectly, and aided clinicians decide whether and what treatment was needed. But now, new fracture risk assessment protocols (namely, FRAX, the WHO risk assessment tool) are available to help resolve this dilemma. This paper reviews some of the clinical observations that led to rethinking the concept bone density and bone strength and how it changes the clinical approach to therapy for the healthy young patient.

  8. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  9. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20–22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans. From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant. During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the

  10. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  11. Effects of genistein on vertebral trabecular bone microstructure, bone mineral density, microcracks, osteocyte density, and bone strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruchun; Ma, Yulin; Sheng, Zhifeng; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Yuhai; Fang, Lingna; Fan, Huijie; Liao, Eryuan

    2008-01-01

    Until now, the effects of phytoestrogen on bone in both women and ovarian hormone-deficient animal models of osteoporosis have remained uncertain. We have aimed here to investigate the effect of genistein (GEN) on trabecular bone quality in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty 7-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: OVX, sham-operated (SHAM), treated with 17beta-estradiol (EST, 10 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), and GEN (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). At 15 weeks postoperation, the compressive test was performed on the L5 vertebral body; additionally, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment was performed to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure parameters of the L6 vertebral body. After fatigue damage testing, the L6 vertebral body was bulk-stained in 1% basic fuchsin and embedded in methylmethacrylate. The L4 vertebral body was embedded in methylmethacrylate for dynamic histomorphometry analysis without staining. Mounted bone slices were used to measure microcrack parameters, empty osteocyte lacuna density (e.Lc.Dn), and osteocyte density (Ot.N/T.Ar). Maximum loading (ML) and Ot.N/T.Ar were significantly lower in the OVX group than in the other groups. E.Lc.Dn was significantly decreased in GEN and EST groups compared to the OVX group. ML was significantly decreased in the GEN group compared to the SHAM group. Microcrack density, microcrack surface density, and microcrack length were significantly increased in the OVX group compared to the other groups. Mineral apposition rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the SHAM and GEN groups. Bone formation rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to other groups. There were no significant differences with regard to mineralizing surface among the four groups. Volumetric BMD at organ was significantly lower in OVX, EST, and GEN groups than in the SHAM group. Bone mineral content was significantly lower in the OVX

  12. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  14. Are individuals with severe haemophilia A prone to reduced bone density?

    PubMed

    Mansouritorghabeh, Hassan; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Badiei, Zahra

    2008-09-01

    Individuals with severe haemophilia A may be at risk for reduced bone mineral density because of reduced weight-bearing exercise and hepatitis C infection. For confirming the reduced bone density, in the current cross-sectional study, we tried to address bone mineral density in individuals with severe haemophilia A and surveyed the relation of reduced bone density with hepatitis C viruses. To fulfil these aims, bone density and biochemical indexes in 18 individuals with severe haemophilia A and also in 18 individuals matched for age, sex, weight and height, as the control group, were examined. The obtained results showed that individuals with severe haemophilia A had reduced bone density (1.136 +/- 0.118, 0.801 +/- 0.238) in lumbar and femur regions, respectively, in comparison with the age- and sex-matched group (1.299 +/- 0.237, 1.458 +/- 0.505). The major complications of coagulation disorders are various types of excessive bleeding. The current study describes an association between severe haemophilia A and osteopenia, specifically at both the femur and the lumbar spine.

  15. [Secondary anticoagulant prophylaxis with low molecular heparins or oral anticoagulants and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Przedlacki, J; Hajduk, B; Tomkowski, W; Fijałkowska, A; Ostrowski, K; Torbicki, A

    2000-11-01

    A broad spectrum of indications for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) requires an assessment of side effects especially during prolonged administration. There are common risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and osteoporosis; heparin is "the drug of choice" for VTE treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of treatment and prophylaxis with LMWH (enoxaparine sodium) and oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol) for bone structure. Material consists of in- and outpatients. 49 densitometries were performed in 31 patients (in 15 cases double examination). We observed a decrease of bone mineral density in comparison to the initial examination in most cases: mean change of bone mass for examined areas was 3.05%.

  16. Diagnosing osteoporosis: A new perspective on estimating bone density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassia-Moura, R.; Ramos, A. D.; Sousa, C. S.; Nascimento, T. A. S.; Valença, M. M.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Melo, S. B.

    2007-07-01

    Osteoporosis may be characterized by low bone density and its significance is expected to grow as the population of the world both increases and ages. Our purpose here is to model human bone mineral density estimated through dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using local volumetric distance spline interpolants. Interpolating the values means the construction of a function F(x,y,z) that mimics the relationship implied by the data (xi,yi,zi;fi), in such a way that F(xi,yi,zi)=fi, i=1,2,…,n, where x,y and z represent, respectively, age, weight and height. This strategy greatly enhances the ability to accurately express the patient's bone density measurements, with the potential to become a framework for bone densitometry in clinical practice. The usefulness of our model is demonstrated in 424 patients and the relevance of our results for diagnosing osteoporosis is discussed.

  17. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Szymczak, W.; Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R.

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  18. Limited Trabecular Bone Density Heterogeneity in the Human Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for variation in trabecular bone density and volume within an individual skeleton, albeit in a few anatomical sites, which is partly dependent on mechanical loading. However, little is known regarding the basic variation in trabecular bone density throughout the skeleton in healthy human adults. This is because research on bone density has been confined to a few skeletal elements, which can be readily measured using available imaging technology particularly in clinical settings. This study comprehensively investigates the distribution of trabecular bone density within the human skeleton in nine skeletal sites (femur, proximal and distal tibia, third metatarsal, humerus, ulna, radius, third metacarpal, and axis) in a sample of N = 20 individuals (11 males and 9 females). pQCT results showed that the proximal ulna (mean = 231.3 mg/cm3) and axis vertebra (mean = 234.3 mg/cm3) displayed significantly greater (p < 0.01) trabecular bone density than other elements, whereas there was no significant variation among the rest of the elements (p > 0.01). The homogeneity of the majority of elements suggests that these sites are potentially responsive to site-specific genetic factors. Secondly, the lack of correlation between elements (p > 0.05) suggests that density measurements of one anatomical region are not necessarily accurate measures of other anatomical regions. PMID:27148458

  19. Adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and total volumetric bone density in postmenopausal South Asian women with small bone size.

    PubMed

    Darling, Andrea L; Hakim, Ohood A; Horton, Khim; Gibbs, Michelle A; Cui, Liang; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2013-07-01

    There is some evidence that South Asian women may have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women, although whether South Asians are at increased risk of fracture is not clear. It is unknown whether older South Asian women differ from Caucasian women in bone geometry. This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to use peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) to measure radial and tibial bone geometry in postmenopausal South Asian women. In comparison to Caucasian women, Asian women had smaller bone size at the 4% (-18% p<0.001) and 66% radius (-15% p=0.04) as well as increased total density at the 4% (+13% p=0.01) radius. For the tibia, they had a smaller bone size at the 4% (-16% p=0.005) and 14% (-38% p=0.002) sites. Also, Asians had increased cortical thickness (-17% p=0.04) at the 38% tibia, (in proportion to bone size (-30% p=0.003)). Furthermore, at the 4% and 14% tibia there were increased total densities (+12% to +29% p<0.01) and at the 14% tibia there was increased cortical density (+5% p=0.005) in Asians. These differences at the 14% and 38% (but not 4%) remained statistically significant after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI). These adaptations are similar to those seen previously in Chinese women. Asian women had reduced strength at the radius and tibia, evidenced by the 20-40% reduction in both polar Strength Strain Index (SSIp) and fracture load (under bending). Overall, the smaller bone size in South Asians is likely to be detrimental to bone strength, despite some adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and tibial and radial density which may partially compensate for this.

  20. Bone-Density Tests: When You Need Them - and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Lists Search Patient Resources Bone-Density Tests Bone-Density Tests When you need a test and ... FROM CONSUMER REPORTS How can you keep your bones strong? The following steps can help you build ...

  1. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years.

  2. Osteoprotective effect of hormone therapy on bone microarchitecture before impaired bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Hasan; Çırpan, Teksin; Terzi, Rabia; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Aktuğ, Hüseyin; Bilgin, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Material and Methods: In the Animal Ethics Committee approved-study, the effect of treatment with 17 β-estradiol 50 μg/kg and medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg/kg on bone architecture and bone mineral density in rats versus ovariectomized control rats over the course of 20 days were evaluated. Femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels and morphometric measurements were performed. Results: There were no significant differences in the femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels between the groups. In the intact control group, the trabecular structures were significantly superior to those in the other groups. Additionally, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in all other groups. Two parameters reflecting trabecular bone microarchitecture, which include the trabecular count and the trabecular area, demonstrated significant improvement in the hormone replacement group when compared to the ovariectomized control group. In the hormone replacement groups, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in the ovariectomized control group. Conclusion: We suggest that offering estrogen alone or in combination with progestogen can be a beneficial approach in preventing early postmenopausal bone loss regardless of bone mineral density. PMID:24592053

  3. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes: selective measurement of bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Hauffa, B; Möhlmann, C; Jeken, C; Reiners, C

    1995-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in 21 children and adolescents with type I diabetes and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. BMD was selectively measured in trabecular and total bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Cortical bone density was calculated. There was a decrease of trabecular bone density (-18.9%, p < 0.01), total bone density (-9.0%, NS) and cortical bone density (-5.1%, NS) in diabetes. Trabecular bone density was inversely correlated with the duration of diabetes and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) (r = -0.48, p = 0.027 and r = -0.63, p = 0.002, respectively). Total BMD correlated inversely with HbA1 (r = -0.52, p = 0.017). pQCT allows the selective measurement of metabolically active trabecular bone where changes of mineralization first occur. We conclude that pQCT is a useful method for investigating BMD in diabetes.

  4. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hou-Feng; Tobias, Jon H; Duncan, Emma; Evans, David M; Eriksson, Joel; Paternoster, Lavinia; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Bergström, Ulrica; Kähönen, Mika; Leo, Paul J; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Viikari, Jorma; Ladouceur, Martin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Prince, Richard L; Sievanen, Harri; Leslie, William D; Mellström, Dan; Eisman, John A; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David A; Jones, Graeme; St Pourcain, Beate; Xiao, Yongjun; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Reid, Ian R; Ring, Susan M; Sambrook, Philip N; Karlsson, Magnus; Dennison, Elaine M; Kemp, John P; Danoy, Patrick; Sayers, Adrian; Wilson, Scott G; Nethander, Maria; McCloskey, Eugene; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Eastell, Richard; Liu, Jeff; Spector, Tim; Mitchell, Braxton D; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Brommage, Robert; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Brown, Matthew A; Ohlsson, Claes; Richards, J Brent; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466) located in the WNT16 gene (7q31), associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9)). This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg), also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12), and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15), respectively). Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9)), with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6) and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6)). We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/-) mice had 27% (P<0.001) thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13)bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  5. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  6. [Effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density; bone strength and fracture prevention].

    PubMed

    Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Atsushi

    2006-07-01

    Although vitamin D improves bone mineral density 0.66% per year at spine site and 1.23% per year at femoral neck site, respectively, vitamin D is useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures, especially hip fractures in the elderly. Vitamin D affects microstructure and bone turnover for osteoporotic bone to become strong bone. And vitamin D improves muscle function to prevent falls in the elderly. Moreover the appropriate amount and treatment target of vitamin D must be considered for the elderly with many different diseases.

  7. Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, T; Sambrook, P; Kelly, P; Jones, G; Lord, S; Freund, J; Eisman, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the utility of risk factors such as bone mineral density, lifestyle, and postural stability in the prediction of osteoporotic fractures. DESIGN--Longitudinal, epidemiological, and population based survey. SETTING--City of Dubbo, New South Wales. SUBJECTS--All residents of Dubbo aged > or = 60 on 1 January 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of fracture for individual subjects. RESULTS--The overall incidence of atraumatic fractures in men and women was 1.9% and 3.1% per annum respectively. The predominant sites of fracture were hip (18.9%), distal radius (18.5%), ribs and humerus (11.9% in each case), and ankle and foot (9.1% and 6.6% respectively). Major predictors of fractures in men and women were femoral neck bone mineral density, body sway, and quadriceps strength. Age, years since menopause, height, weight, and lifestyle factors were also correlated with bone mineral density and body sway and hence were indirect risk factors for fracture. Discriminant function analysis correctly identified 96% and 93% (sensitivities 88% and 81%) of men and women, respectively, who subsequently developed atraumatic fractures. Predictions based on this model indicated that a woman with a bone mineral density in the lowest quartile in the hip together with high body sway had a 8.4% probability of fracture per annum. This represented an almost 14-fold increase in risk of fracture compared with a woman in the highest bone mineral density quartile with low postural sway. An individual with all three predictors in the "highest risk" quartile had a 13.1% risk of fracture per annum. CONCLUSIONS--Bone mineral density, body sway, and muscle strength are independent and powerful synergistic predictors of fracture incidence. PMID:8251809

  8. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  9. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  10. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD.

  11. Key comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Christian; Zelenka, Zoltan; Kajastie, Heikki; Madec, Tanguy; Wolf, Henning; Vámossy, Csilla; Lorefice, Salvatore; Garberg, Torgunn; Lenard, Elżbieta; Spohr, Isabel; Mares, Gabriela; Spurný, Robert; Lumbreras, Angel; Medina, Nieves; Y Akçadağ, Ümit; Perkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determination for liquids is mainly performed by laboratories to provide means for calibrating liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. From 2002 to 2005 the CIPM key comparison CCM.D-K2 'comparison of liquid density standards' was carried out piloted by the PTB. The aim was to compare the results of the density determination by the participating laboratories to support entries to the CMC tables in this sub-field. To provide further laboratories the possibility to support their entries to the CMC tables at the meeting of the EUROMET Working Group on Density in 2007 this comparison was agreed on. BEV (Austria) organized the comparison supported by the PTB (Germany). For the comparison samples of pentadecane, water, tetrachloroethylene and of an oil of high viscosity were measured in the temperature range from 5 °C to 60 °C at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing. The measurements were completed in 2008. The reference values of the first reports based on the draft of the CCM.D-K2. After the official publication of the CCM.D-K2 the reference values were recalculated and the report was finalised in 2015. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Bone density, strength, and formation in adult cathepsin K (-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, B; Shea, M; Liu, Q; Masarachia, P; Saftig, P; Rodan, S; Rodan, G; Kimmel, D

    2009-02-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is a cysteine protease expressed predominantly in osteoclasts, that plays a prominent role in degrading Type I collagen. Growing CatK null mice have osteopetrosis associated with a reduced ability to degrade bone matrix. Bone strength and histomorphometric endpoints in young adult CatK null mice aged more than 10 weeks have not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to describe bone mass, strength, resorption, and formation in young adult CatK null mice. In male and female wild-type (WT), heterozygous, and homozygous CatK null mice (total N=50) aged 19 weeks, in-life double fluorochrome labeling was performed. Right femurs and lumbar vertebral bodies 1-3 (LV) were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The trabecular region of the femur and the cortical region of the tibia were evaluated by histomorphometry. The left femur and sixth lumbar vertebral body were tested biomechanically. CatK (-/-) mice show higher BMD at the central and distal femur. Central femur ultimate load was positively influenced by genotype, and was positively correlated with both cortical area and BMC. Lumbar vertebral body ultimate load was also positively correlated to BMC. Genotype did not influence the relationship of ultimate load to BMC in either the central femur or vertebral body. CatK (-/-) mice had less lamellar cortical bone than WT mice. Higher bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were observed at the distal femur in CatK (-/-) mice. Smaller marrow cavities were also present at the central femur of CatK (-/-) mice. CatK (-/-) mice exhibited greater trabecular mineralizing surface, associated with normal volume-based formation of trabecular bone. Adult CatK (-/-) mice have higher bone mass in both cortical and cancellous regions than WT mice. Though no direct measures of bone resorption rate were made, the higher cortical bone quantity is associated with a smaller

  13. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  14. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  15. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  16. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  18. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  19. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees With Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in B6 female mice. This increase in BMD in the C56BL/6J mice is the result of an increased periosteal ...C3H/HeJ mice showed a similar changes in resorption at the endosteal circumference, while the magnitude of periosteal response in the C3H/HeJ mice was...parameters. TA, Total area; MC, bone mineral content; PC, periosteal circumference; EC, endosteal circumference; Cth, ortical thickness and BMD, bone

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  1. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  2. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2006-04-15

    Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm{sup 3}. Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact

  3. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  4. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  5. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    PubMed

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  6. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  7. Genetic and Dynamic Analyses of Murine Peak Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    4 vBMD loci shared with femurs (1, 4, 14, & 18) and 2 unique loci (Chr 7 & 9). Lastly, a new DEXA instrument for mice, the PIXhnus, has been...late 1999. The summarized results for the femoral total BMD analyses were: a) Genome wide scans for co-segregation of genetic marker data with high or...possible tools for drug discovery aimed at exogenous manipulation of bone density. New Instrumentation - PIXImus DEXA . We have been testing a dual energy

  8. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  9. Positive identification by X-rays bone trabeculae comparison.

    PubMed

    Quatrehomme, Gérald; Biglia, Elodie; Padovani, Bernard; du Jardin, Philippe; Alunni, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    Positive (certain, absolute) identification of human remains needs a scientific comparison between ante mortem and post-mortem biologic features, as fingerprint, odontological, radiological or DNA comparisons. X-rays comparison has been extensively used, usually comparing some peculiarities such as outlines of the bones, degenerative evolution or pathological conditions. Trabeculae comparisons are sparsely underlined in the forensic literature. We report on a case of decomposed body where fingerprint, DNA and odontological comparisons were not possible. After dissecting the leg and preparing the bones, comparison of ante mortem and postmortem trabeculae led to a positive identification. It was observed that tens of radiolucencies and radiodensities drawn by the trabeculae were useful for comparison, within a very small part of bone. In the case reported here the positive identity could have been assessed only by the comparison of the first metatarsal. The statement of positive identification needs scientific criteria that will be discussed in this article.

  10. Axial and appendicular bone density predict fractures in older women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. M.; Cummings, S. R.; Genant, H. K.; Nevitt, M. C.; Palermo, L.; Browner, W.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether measurement of hip and spine bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) predicts fractures in women and to compare the predictive value of DEXA with that of single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of appendicular sites, we prospectively studied 8134 nonblack women age 65 years and older who had both DEXA and SPA measurements of bone mass. A total of 208 nonspine fractures, including 37 wrist fractures, occurred during the follow-up period, which averaged 0.7 years. The risk of fracture was inversely related to bone density at all measurement sites. After adjusting for age, the relative risks per decrease of 1 standard deviation in bone density for the occurrence of any fracture was 1.40 for measurement at the proximal femur (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.63) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58) for measurement at the spine. Results were similar for all regions of the proximal femur as well as SPA measurements at the calcaneus, distal radius, and proximal radius. None of these measurements was a significantly better predictor of fractures than the others. Furthermore, measurement of the distal radius was not a better predictor of wrist fracture (relative risk 1.64: 95% CI 1.13-2.37) than other sites, such as the lumbar spine (RR 1.56; CI 1.07-2.26), the femoral neck (RR 1.65; CI 1.12-2.41), or the calcaneus (RR 1.83; CI 1.26-2.64). We conclude that the inverse relationship between bone mass and risk of fracture in older women is similar for absorptiometric measurements made at the hip, spine, and appendicular sites.

  11. Bone Density After Teriparatide Discontinuation in Premenopausal Idiopathic Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; Recker, Robert. R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Dempster, David W.; Zhou, Hua; Cremers, Serge; Bucovsky, Mariana; Stubby, Julie; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Without antiresorptive therapy, postmenopausal women lose bone mass after teriparatide (TPTD) discontinuation; estrogen treatment prevents bone loss in this setting. It is not known whether premenopausal women with regular menses lose bone mass after teriparatide discontinuation. Objective: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that normally menstruating premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) will maintain teriparatide-associated bone mineral density (BMD) gains after medication cessation. Design: Twenty-one premenopausal IOP women previously enrolled in an open-label pilot study of teriparatide (20 mcg for 18–24 mo), had substantial BMD increases at the lumbar spine (LS; 10.8 ± 8.3%), total hip (TH; 6.2 ± 5.6%), and femoral neck (7.6 ± 3.4%). For this study, BMD was remeasured 2.0 ± 0.6 years after teriparatide cessation. Participants: Fifteen women, who had gained 11.1 ± 7.2% at LS and 6.1 ± 6.5% at TH and were premenopausal at teriparatide completion, were followed without antiresorptive treatment. Results: Two years after completing teriparatide, BMD declined by 4.8 ± 4.3% (P = .0007) at the LS. In contrast, BMD remained stable at the femoral neck (−1.5 ± 4.2%) and TH (−1.1 ± 3.7%). Those who sustained LS bone loss >3% (−7.3 ± 2.9%; n = 10), did not differ from those with stable LS BMD (0.1 ± 1.1%; n=5) with regard to baseline body mass index, BMD at any site, or duration of followup, but were significantly older at re-evaluation (46 ± 3 vs 38 ± 7; P = .046), had larger increases in LS BMD during teriparatide treatment and higher cancellous bone remodeling on transiliac biopsy at baseline and completion of teriparatide treatment. Serum bone turnover markers did not differ at baseline or teriparatide completion, but tended to be higher at the re-evaluation timepoint in those with post-teriparatide bone loss. Conclusions: These findings lead us to conclude that premenopausal women with IOP, particularly those over

  12. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  13. Fitting of bone mineral density with consideration of anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Short, D. F.; Zemel, B. S.; Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Mahboubi, S.; Oberfield, S. E.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A new model describing normal values of bone mineral density in children has been evaluated, which includes not only the traditional parameters of age, gender, and race, but also weight, height, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. This model may constitute a better comparative norm for a specific child with given anthropometric values. Introduction Previous descriptions of children's bone mineral density (BMD) by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and gender without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of anthropometric variables over a relatively homogeneous population. Methods Multivariate semi-metric smoothing (MS2) provides a way to describe a diverse population using a model that includes multiple effects and their interactions while producing a result that can be smoothed with respect to age in order to provide connected percentiles. We applied MS2 to spine BMD data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of gender, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population's BMD values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values and low mean square errors with clinical needs, a model using age, gender, race, weight, and percent body fat is proposed and examined. Results This model provides narrower distributions and slight shifts of BMD values compared to the traditional model, which includes only age, gender, and race. Thus, the proposed model might constitute a better comparative standard for a specific child with given anthropometric values and should be less dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the cohort used to devise the model. Conclusions The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the model, while creating smooth output curves, makes the MS2 method attractive in modeling practically sized data sets. The clinical use of this model by the bone research community has yet to be fully established. PMID

  14. On the Use of Bone Remodelling Models to Estimate the Density Distribution of Bones. Uniqueness of the Solution.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reina, Javier; Ojeda, Joaquín; Mayo, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodelling models are widely used in a phenomenological manner to estimate numerically the distribution of apparent density in bones from the loads they are daily subjected to. These simulations start from an arbitrary initial distribution, usually homogeneous, and the density changes locally until a bone remodelling equilibrium is achieved. The bone response to mechanical stimulus is traditionally formulated with a mathematical relation that considers the existence of a range of stimulus, called dead or lazy zone, for which no net bone mass change occurs. Implementing a relation like that leads to different solutions depending on the starting density. The non-uniqueness of the solution has been shown in this paper using two different bone remodelling models: one isotropic and another anisotropic. It has also been shown that the problem of non-uniqueness is only mitigated by removing the dead zone, but it is not completely solved unless the bone formation and bone resorption rates are limited to certain maximum values.

  15. Bone mineral density and metabolism in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Maayan, C; Bar-On, E; Foldes, A J; Gesundheit, B; Pollak, R Dresner

    2002-05-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients suffer from multiple fractures and have reduced bone pain, which defers the diagnosis. The pathogenesis of bone fragility in FD is unknown. This study aimed to characterize bone mineral metabolism and density in FD. Seventy-nine FD patients aged 8 months to 48 years (mean age 13.9 +/- 10.4 years, median 12.3) were studied. Clinical data included weight, height, bone age, weekly physical activity and history of fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (n = 43), femoral neck (n = 26), total hip (n = 22) and whole body (n = 15) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), parathyroid hormone and urinary N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen (NTx) were determined in 68 patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-two of 79 patients (53%) sustained 75 fractures. Twenty-four of 43 patients had a spine Z-score < -2.0, and 13 of 26 had a femoral neck Z-score < -2.0. Mean femoral neck BMD Z-score was lower in patients with fractures compared with those without (-2.5 +/- 0.9 vs -1.5 +/- 1.0, p = 0.01). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 16 kg/m2 in prepubertal patients and 18.4 kg/m2 in postpubertal patients. Bone age was significantly lower than chronological age (75.5 vs 99.3 months in prepubertal patients, p < 0.001; 151 vs 174 in postpubertal patients, p < 0.05). NTx and osteocalcin levels were higher in FD patients compared with controls (400 +/- 338 vs 303 +/- 308, BCE/mM creatinine p < 0.02; 90 +/- 59.5 vs 61.8 +/- 36.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). B-ALP was lower in FD patients compared with controls (44.66 +/- 21.8 vs 55.36 +/- 36.6 ng/ml, p < 0.04). Mean spine Z-score was significantly lower in physically inactive compared with active patients (-3.00 +/- 1.70 vs -1.77 +/- 1.3, respectively, p = 0.05). We conclude that fractures in FD patients are associated with reduced BMD. FD patients have increased NTx and osteocalcin

  16. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, V; Lupoli, G; Esposito Del Puente, A; Rampone, E; Carpinelli, A; Del Puente, A E; Oriente, P

    1998-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known complication of thyrotoxicosis. Prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment has been associated with reduced bone mass and thus with the potential risk of premature development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a chronic L-thyroxine suppressive treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of premenopausal women. Forty consecutive patients (mean age +/- SE = 40.95 +/- 1.56 years) affected by non-toxic goiter underwent bone mineral densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DEXA) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right femoral neck. At the time of the study the patients had been under thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy for 74.95 +/- 10.34 months (range 17-168 months). Baseline levels of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), TSH, calcium and phosphorus were measured and correlated with BMD. The age of starting, duration of treatment, main daily dose, cumulative dose of treatment and body mass index (BMI) were also correlated with BMD. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple linear regression. BMD among female patients was not significantly different from that of the general population matched for age and sex. With the use of the regression model, no significant correlation was found between BMD and the variables considered. In conclusion, our data suggest that L-thyroxine suppressive therapy, if carefully carried out and monitored, has no significant effect on bone mass.

  17. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  18. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-07

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied.

  19. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  20. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  1. Effect of intravenous pamidronate on bone markers and local bone mineral density in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Muriel S; Oliveri, Beatriz; Mautalen, Carlos A

    2003-10-01

    Bisphosphonates have proven to be effective in patients with fibrous dysplasia of the bone (FD) as shown by their effect on bone pain, markers of bone turnover, or radiological changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of affected bones to assess the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Seven patients (mean age 26 years) received courses of 180 mg intravenous infusion of pamidronate every 6 months (60 mg/day during 3 days). Clinical symptoms, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen were assessed every 3 months. BMD of total skeleton and X-rays of FD areas (FDa) were performed at baseline and at 12 months. BMD of FDa was compared with the contralateral side (CL) using the region of interest program on the total skeleton scan. BMD of total skeleton was normal at baseline. Average BMD of FDa was -11.4% compared with CL, a significantly greater difference than that observed between the left and right sides in healthy controls, -0.7% (P < 0.02). At 12 months bone pain diminished in all patients. Bone turnover markers decreased. Mean total skeleton BMD increased 3.3% (P < 0.02). Subregions of the total skeleton scan presenting FD lesions augmented: arms +9.6% (P < 0.02), legs +4.2%, and pelvis +3.5% (P < 0.05). The increase in mean BMD of FDa was +6.8% compared with +2.6% in CL. No changes were observed on the X-ray. These results indicate that simultaneous determination of markers of bone turnover and BMD of FDa is useful in short-term follow-up to determine the efficacy of intravenous pamidronate.

  2. Bone Density Following Long Duration Space Flight and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Khosla, Sundeep; Sibonga, Jean

    2010-01-01

    At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.

  3. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  4. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  5. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  6. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  7. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases.

  8. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  9. Bone mineral density-affecting genes in Africans.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Haynatzka, Vera; Howell, Ryan; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Fu, Yun-Xin; Yu, Fei; Gallagher, John C.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently reported the role of environmental exposure in the ethnic diversity of bone mineral density (BMD). Potential genetic difference has not been adequately assessed. PURPOSE: To determine allele frequencies of BMD-affecting genes and their association with BMD in Africans. METHODS: Allele frequencies at 18 polymorphic sites in 13 genes that affect BMD in Asians and/or Caucasians were determined in 143 recent immigrants (55 men and 88 women, 18-51 years of age) from sub-Saharan Sudan to the United States. Genetic association studies were performed. RESULTS: Among the 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 were significantly different in allele frequency between Sudanese and Asians, and 10 between Sudanese and Caucasians. Only the osteocalcin gene was not significantly different in allele frequency among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. Allele frequencies in the TGFB, COL1A1 and CSR genes were extremely low (<0.04) in the Sudanese. Frequencies of microsatellite alleles in four genes were significantly different among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. SNPs in the VDR and ERalpha genes were associated with BMD and/or BMC (bone mineral content) at several bone sites. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic difference may play a role in the ethnic diversity in BMD and/or BMC. PMID:16895279

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods: Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. Results: The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Conclusions: Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined. PMID:19461899

  11. Sink or swim? Bone density as a mechanism for buoyancy control in early cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Gray, Noel-Marie; Kainec, Kimberly; Madar, Sandra; Tomko, Lucas; Wolfe, Scott

    2007-06-01

    Previous analyses have shown that secondarily aquatic tetrapods, including whales, exhibit osteological adaptations to life in water as part of their complex buoyancy control systems. These structural specializations of bone span hyperostosis through osteoporosis. The past 15 years of paleontological effort has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the osteological transformation of whales as they make their transition to an obligate aquatic lifestyle over a 10-million-year period. It is hypothesized that whales manifest their osteological specialization in the same manner as extant semiaquatic and fully aquatic mammals. This study presents and analysis of the microstructural features of bone in early and late archaic cetaceans, and in a comparative sample of modern terrestrial, semiaquatic, and aquatic mammals. Bone histology was examined from the ribs of 10 fossilized individuals representing five early cetacean families, including Pakicetidae, Ambulocetidae, Protocetidae, Remintonocetidae, and Basilosauridae. Comparisons were then made with rib histology from nine genera of extant mammals including: Odocoileus (deer), Bos (cow), Equus (horse), Canis (dog), Lutra (river otter), Enhydra (sea otter), Choeropsis (pygmy hippo), Trichechus (sea cow), and Delphinus (dolphin). Results show that the transition from terrestrial, to semiaquatic, to obligate aquatic locomotion in archaeocetes involved a radical shift in bone function achieved by means of profound changes at the microstructural level. A surprising finding was that microstructural change predates gross anatomical shift in archaeocetes associated with swimming. Histological analysis shows that high bone density is an aquatic specialization that provides static buoyancy control (ballast) for animals living in shallow water, while low bone density is associated with dynamic buoyancy control for animals living in deep water. Thus, there was a shift from the typical terrestrial form, to osteopetrosis

  12. Maternal beef and postweaning herring diets increase bone mineral density and strength in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Olausson, Hanna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nookaew, Intawat; Khoomrung, Sakda; Andersson, Louise; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Holmäng, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    The maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the long-term health of the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal and postweaning crossover isocaloric diets based on fish or meat affect the geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties of bone in mouse offspring in adulthood. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. After weaning, half of the pups in each group were fed the same diet as their dams, and half were fed the other diet. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body and lumbar spine were measured in the offspring by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 21 weeks of age. At 22-26 weeks, tibia bone geometry (length, cortical volumetric (v) BMD, BMC, area and thickness) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and the biomechanical properties of the tibia were analyzed by the three-point bending test. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 was analyzed at 12 weeks. In comparison to the maternal herring diet, the maternal beef diet increased aBMD and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine of adult offspring, as well as cortical vBMD, BMC, bone area, and thickness at the mid-diaphyseal region of the tibia and the biomechanical properties of tibia strength. In contrast, a postweaning beef diet decreased aBMD in the lumbar spine and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine compared with a postweaning herring diet, which instead increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. The change from a maternal beef diet before weaning to a herring diet after weaning decreased body weight and increased the cortical area, vBMD, BMC, thickness, and strength of the tibia. These significant crossover effects indicate that a preweaning maternal beef diet and a postweaning herring diet are optimal for increasing BMC and bone strength in offspring in adulthood.

  13. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  14. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  15. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  16. CINACALCET IMPROVES BONE DENSITY IN POST KIDNEY TRANSPLANT HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cho, ME; Duan, Z; Chamberlain, CE; Reynolds, JC; Ring, MS; Wright, EC; Mannon, RB

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of cinacalcet has provided a possible alternative to parathyroidectomy in kidney transplant patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism, but its effect on bone mass density (BMD) is unknown. From our database containing 163 kidney transplants performed at our center from 1999-2007, we compared recipients who received cinacalcet for persistent hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism following renal tx (n=8; CIN) with up to 2 other post tx patients matched for age, sex, race, and graft function (n=15; CON). The outcome of the study was BMD changes from baseline to 12, 24, and 36 months post renal tx. Repeated Measures Mixed model was used to assess the difference of BMD change between two groups. Cinacalcet therapy was started at a median of 9 months (range; 1, 24 months) post tx with a mean dose 56±29 mg/d (mean duration; 1.6 years, range; 1, 2.1). Cinacalcet therapy was associated with significant reduction of serum calcium compared to control. Cinacalcet therapy was associated with greater BMD increase at the hip over the 36-month post transplant period. Cinacalcet was well tolerated. Our results suggest that cinacalcet may have a small but favorable effect on bone density following kidney transplantation. PMID:21094814

  17. Bone Density and Cortical Structure after Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, Anniek M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Foster, Bethany J.; Strife, C. Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of renal transplantation on trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure is unknown. We obtained quantitative computed tomography scans of the tibia in pediatric renal transplant recipients at transplantation and 3, 6, and 12 months; 58 recipients completed at least two visits. We used more than 700 reference participants to generate Z-scores for trabecular BMD, cortical BMD, section modulus (a summary measure of cortical dimensions and strength), and muscle and fat area. At baseline, compared with reference participants, renal transplant recipients had significantly lower mean section modulus and muscle area; trabecular BMD was significantly greater than reference participants only in transplant recipients younger than 13 years. After transplantation, trabecular BMD decreased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure. Cortical BMD increased significantly in association with greater glucocorticoid exposure and greater decreases in parathyroid hormone levels. Muscle and fat area both increased significantly, but section modulus did not improve. At 12 months, transplantation associated with significantly lower section modulus and greater fat area compared with reference participants. Muscle area and cortical BMD did not differ significantly between transplant recipients and reference participants. Trabecular BMD was no longer significantly elevated in younger recipients and was low in older recipients. Pediatric renal transplant associated with persistent deficits in section modulus, despite recovery of muscle, and low trabecular BMD in older recipients. Future studies should determine the implications of these data on fracture risk and identify strategies to improve bone density and structure. PMID:22282589

  18. Placental Size Is Associated Differentially With Postnatal Bone Size and Density

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Christopher R; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David JP; Ring, Sue M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tobias, Jon H; Smith, George Davey; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated relationships between placental size and offspring adolescent bone indices using a population‐based, mother–offspring cohort. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited pregnant women from the southwest of England between 1991 and 1993. There were 12,942 singleton babies born at term who survived at least the first 12 months. From these, 8933 placentas were preserved in formaldehyde, with maternal permission for their use in research studies. At the approximate age of 15.5 years, the children underwent a dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (measurements taken of the whole body minus head bone area [BA], bone mineral content [BMC], and areal bone mineral density [aBMD]). A peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scan (Stratec XCT2000L; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) at the 50% tibial site was performed at this visit and at approximately age 17.7 years. In 2010 a sample of 1680 placentas were measured and photographed. To enable comparison of effect size across different variables, predictor and outcome variables were standardized to Z‐scores and therefore results may be interpreted as partial correlation coefficients. Complete placental, DXA, and pQCT data were available for 518 children at age 15.5 years. After adjustment for gender, gestational age at birth, and age at time of pQCT, the placental area was positively associated with endosteal circumference (β [95% CI]: 0.21 [0.13, 0.30], p < 0.001), periosteal circumference (β [95% CI]: 0.19 [0.10, 0.27], p < 0.001), and cortical area (β [95% CI]: 0.10 [0.01, 0.18], p = 0.03), and was negatively associated with cortical density (β [95% CI]: –0.11 [–0.20, –0.03], p = 0.01) at age 15.5 years. Similar relationships were observed for placental volume, and after adjustment for additional maternal and offspring covariates. These results suggest that previously observed associations between placental size and

  19. Detection of Traumatic Bone Marrow Lesions after Knee Trauma: Comparison of ADC Maps Derived from Diffusion-weighted Imaging with Standard Fat-saturated Proton Density-weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences.

    PubMed

    Klengel, Alexis; Stumpp, Patrick; Klengel, Steffen; Böttger, Ina; Rönisch, Nadja; Kahn, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    Purpose To compare single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with fat-saturated (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the detection of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) after knee trauma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained from Leipzig University. Written informed consent was waived. Three radiologists retrospectively re-examined 97 consecutive patients with reported knee trauma who underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 90 days of knee trauma. The following sequences were used: (a) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and FS PD-weighted TSE and (b) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived ADC mapping. BMLs on the lateral and medial femoral condyle, lateral and medial aspect of the tibial plateau, and patella were documented. Volumetry was performed on BMLs with a thickness of at least 15 mm (major BMLs). ADC values were measured in intact bone marrow and major BMLs. A McNemar test and t tests were used as appropriate to test for significant differences between BML number and volume at an α level of .05. Results Significantly more patients showed at least one BML on ADC maps (98%, 95 of 97 patients) than on FS PD-weighted TSE images (86%, 84 of 97 patients) (P < .001). Of the affected regions detected on FS PD-weighted TSE images, 97% (170 of 175 regions) were identified consistently on ADC maps. Only 58% of the affected regions detected on ADC maps (170 of 293 regions) were identified on FS PD-weighted TSE images (P < .001). Median volume of concordant major BML was approximately two times larger on ADC maps (81 cm(3)) than on FS PD-weighted TSE images (39 cm(3)) (P < .001). The ADC values of intact bone marrow and BMLs did not overlap. Conclusion ADC maps are more sensitive than corresponding FS PD-weighted TSE images for detection of BML after knee trauma and allow detection of significantly more

  20. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  1. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels.

  2. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life

  3. Bone Mineral Density as a Marker of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure in Psychotic Disorder: A 3 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037

  4. Correlations of linear and nonlinear ultrasound parameters with density and microarchitectural parameters in trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Il

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, correlations of linear and nonlinear ultrasound parameters (speed of sound, normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation, and nonlinear parameter B/A) with bone mineral density and microarchitectural parameters were investigated in 28 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples in vitro. All three ultrasound parameters exhibited relatively high correlation coefficients with the indexes of bone quantity (bone mineral density and bone volume fraction) and lower correlation coefficients with the remaining microarchitectural parameters. These results suggest that B/A, in addition to speed of sound and attenuation, may have potential as an index for the assessment of bone status and osteoporosis.

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Influence on Bone Metabolism and Density in a Brazilian Population of Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marlianne Leite; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Madeira, Miguel; Lopes, Renata Francioni; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2017-02-20

    Vitamin D supplementation is universal for postmenopausal women, but not for elderly men, in whom osteoporosis is also commonly neglected. This study aimed to evaluate vitamin D deficiency and its association with secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone resorption, and bone density in Brazilian men. A total of 120 men, 20-93 years, were evaluated for serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone, biochemical markers of bone resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, carboxy-terminal peptide of type I collagen), and bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), chronic diseases, and medications affecting bone were the exclusion criteria. No participant reported previous low-impact fractures. In the overall population, 25(OH)D levels were below 30 ng/mL in 46.7%, and below 20 ng/mL in 27.6%. Among the 93 patients 50 years and older, 28 had osteoporosis. In those 70 years and older, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (42.1%), secondary hyperparathyroidism (46.4%), high bone resorption (39.6%), decreased GFR (39.2%), and osteoporosis (41.4%) was significantly higher than in the younger subjects (p < 0.005 for all comparisons). Serum parathyroid hormone increased with aging and declining GFR, but was not significantly associated with 25(OH)D or bone mineral density. There was a clear contribution of vitamin D deficiency to increased bone resorption and osteoporosis. Binary logistic regression model considering age, 25(OH)D, and bone resorption identified age ≥70 years as the main determinant of osteoporosis. Our data demonstrate a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a male population living in Rio de Janeiro, and emphasize its participation on the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss. (Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis are common in elderly Brazilian men.).

  6. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  7. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition Estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: Comparison between Groups Aged 20-39 and 40-59 Years.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Keiichi; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Yatake, Hidetoshi; Yamaguchi, Motoi; Yamamoto, Kenyu; Kuwano, Tadao; Katsuda, Toshizo

    2015-12-18

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is affected by lean body mass and body weight to various degrees in the course of aging. The attempt of this study is to determine the optimal time to begin prevention of osteoporosis. In this study, female hospital employees aged 20-59 years were divided into 2 age groups, 20-39 years and 40-59 years based on age at peak BMD, and the relations of total BMD, subtotal BMD and lumbar spine BMD to lean body mass and body weight were examined in both groups. Subtotal BMD was calculated by subtracting head BMD from total BMD along with whole body measurement. While persistent positive correlations were found among all factors in the 20-39-year-old group, subtotal BMD and lumbar spine BMD were positively correlated to lean body mass in the 40-59-year-old group. Thus, lean body mass and body weight appeared to exert a profound influence on subtotal BMD in those aged 20-39 years, but lean body mass in those aged 40-59 years. Lean body mass appears to provide the best prediction of subsequent development of osteoporosis.

  8. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  9. Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Moser, Debra K; Clasey, Jody L; Chung, Misook L; Pressler, Susan J; Dunbar, Sandra B; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A

    2016-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in patients with heart failure (HF). A total of 119 patients (age = 61 ± 12 years, 65% male) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine bone mineral density and body composition. In multivariable linear regressions, BMI, relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI), and mineral-free lean mass were positively associated with total body bone mineral density. Mineral-free lean mass was most strongly associated with bone mineral density (β = .398). In multivariable logistic regressions, higher BMI, RSMI, and mineral-free lean mass were associated with lower odds for osteopenia/osteoporosis. Fat mass was not associated with total body bone mineral density or osteopenia/osteoporosis. These results suggest that muscle mass may be the important component of body mass associated with bone mineral density in patients with HF.

  10. Determinants of bone mineral density in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Cheung, E Y N; Ho, A Y Y; Lam, K F; Tam, S; Kung, A W C

    2005-12-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are increasing among Asian populations in both genders, but the risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in Asian men is unclear. To determine the hormonal and lifestyle risk factors for low BMD in Asian men, we studied 407 community-dwelling southern Chinese men aged 50 years and above. Medical history and lifestyle habits were obtained with a structured questionnaire. Dietary calcium and phytoestrogen intake were assessed by a semi-quantitative questionnaire. BMD at the spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting blood was analyzed for 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total and bioavailable estradiol (bio-E) and testosterone (bio-T). The mean age of the cohort was 68.42+/-10.4 (50-96) years. In the linear regression model, weight, age, body mass index (BMI), bio-E, PTH, cigarette smoking and weight-bearing exercise were significant determinants of total hip BMD. Together they explained 55% of the total variance of hip BMD, with body weight being the most important determining factor. With age and weight adjustment, height, bio-T and flavonoid intake were identified as additional determinants of total hip BMD. Strategies to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis in Asian men should include lifestyle modification and maintenance of hormonal sufficiency.

  11. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcio José da Silva; de Souza, Thainara Salgueiro; Mota Júnior, Sergio Luiz; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures because these images show inconsistencies and arbitrariness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCT devices, changes in the volume of the field of view (FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the examination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, particularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the regions of interest are the same. PMID:25170398

  12. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P < 0.01). As expected, linear increases in tibia and femur bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P < 0.01). Right and left hip angle increased with duck age (P < 0.01). Additionally, ducks with a GS2 had wider hip angles opposed to ducks with a GS0 (P < 0.01). Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P < 0.05). Femur ash content was lowest in 32-day-old ducks and ducks with GS1 and GS2 (P < 0.0001). Tibia ash content increased with age, but decreased as gait score increased (P < 0.001). The observation that right hip angle changed with gait scores merits further investigation into the relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth.

  13. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  14. Assessing Bone Quality in Terms of Bone Mineral Density, Buckling Ratio and Critical Fracture Load

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a sole parameter in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Due to the ease of acquirement of BMD, clinical diagnosis still involves its usage although the limitations of BMD are quite well-established. Therefore, this preliminary study hoped to reduce the errors introduced by BMD alone by incorporating geometric and structural predictors simultaneously to observe if strength was implicitly dependent on the geometry and BMD. Hence, we illustrated the triadic relationship between BMD, buckling ratio (BR) and critical fracture load (Fcr). Methods The geometric predictor was the BR as it involves both the changes in the periosteum and the cortical thickness. Also, structural changes were monitored by finite element (FE) analysis-predicted Fcr. These BR and Fcr measurements were plotted with their respective femoral neck BMD values in elderly female patients (n=6) in a 3-year follow-up study, treated with ibandronate. Results In all the three-dimensional plots (baseline, mid and final year), high Fcr values were found at regions containing high BMD and low BR values. Quantitatively, this was also proven where an averaged highest Fcr across the three years had a relatively higher BMD (46%) and lower BR (19%) than that of the averaged lowest Fcr. The dependence of FE predicted strength on both the geometry and bone density was illustrated. Conclusions We conclude that use of triadic relationships for the evaluation of osteoporosis and hip fractures with the combination of strength, radiology-derived BR and bone density will lay the foundation for more accurate predictions in the future. PMID:25489572

  15. Differences by sex and handedness in right and left femur bone mineral densities.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ali; Dane, Senol; Seven, Bedri; Akar, Sedat; Yildirim, Serap

    2009-12-01

    Left-handedness was reported to be a risk factor for accident-related injuries, head injuries, traumatic brain injuries, sport-related injuries, and bone breaks and fractures. As decreased bone mineral density is a good marker of bone fractures, the femoral bone mineral densities of normal left-handed university students were compared with those of right-handed students. Hand preference of 66 men and 47 women was assessed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of bone mineral density with a Hologic QDR-4500W (S/N 48403) densitometer showed bone mineral densities of both right and left proximal femur regions were higher in right-handed than in left-handed students. These results are consistent with the claim that left-handed participants had higher trauma and injury risk. Also, these results may explain the sex-related differences by handedness for susceptibility in accident-related injuries such as bone fractures.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was −0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was −0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age. PMID:24734045

  17. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  18. Heterogeneity of yield strain in low-density versus high-density human trabecular bone

    PubMed Central

    Bevill, Grant; Farhamand, Farhad; Keaveny, Tony M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the off-axis behavior of trabecular yield strains may lend unique insight into the etiology of fractures since yield strains provide measures of failure independent of elastic behavior. We sought to address anisotropy of trabecular yield strains while accounting for variations in both density and anatomic site and to determine the mechanisms governing this behavior. Cylindrical specimens were cored from vertebral bodies (n=22, BV/TV=0.11±0.02) and femoral necks (n=28, BV/TV=0.22±0.06) with the principal trabecular orientation either aligned along the cylinder axis (on-axis, n=22) or at an oblique angle of 15° or 45° (off-axis, n=28). Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT, mechanically compressed to failure, and analyzed with nonlinear micro-CT-based finite element analysis. Yield strains depended on anatomic site (p=0.03, ANOVA), and the effect of off-axis loading was different for the two sites (p=0.04) – yield strains increased for off-axis loading of the vertebral bone (p=0.04), but were isotropic for the femoral bone (p=0.66). With sites pooled together, yield strains were positively correlated with BV/TV for on-axis loading (R2=58%, p<0.0001), but no such correlation existed for off-axis loading (p=0.79). Analysis of the modulus-BV/TV and strength-BV/TV relationships indicated that, for the femoral bone, the reduction in strength associated with off-axis loading was greater than that for modulus, while the opposite trend occurred for the vertebral bone. The micro-FE analyses indicated that these trends were due to different failure mechanisms for the two types of bone and the different loading modes. Taken together, these results provide unique insight into the failure behavior of human trabecular bone and highlight the need for a multiaxial failure criterion that accounts for anatomic site and bone volume fraction. PMID:19700162

  19. Comparison of structural, architectural and mechanical aspects of cellular and acellular bone in two teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Liat; Dean, Mason; Shipov, Anna; Atkins, Ayelet; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron

    2012-06-01

    The histological diversity of the skeletal tissues of fishes is impressive compared with that of other vertebrate groups, yet our understanding of the functional consequences of this diversity is limited. In particular, although it has been known since the mid-1800s that a large number of fish species possess acellular bones, the mechanical advantages and consequences of this structural characteristic - and therefore the nature of the evolution of this feature - remain unclear. Although several studies have examined the material properties of fish bone, these have used a variety of techniques and there have been no direct contrasts of acellular and cellular bone. We report on a comparison of the structural and mechanical properties of the ribs and opercula between two freshwater fish - the common carp Cyprinus carpio (a fish with cellular bone) and the tilapia Oreochromis aureus (a fish with acellular bone). We used light microscopy to show that the bones in both fish species exhibit poor blood supply and possess discrete tissue zones, with visible layering suggesting differences in the underlying collagen architecture. We performed identical micromechanical testing protocols on samples of the two bone types to determine the mechanical properties of the bone material of opercula and ribs. Our data support the consensus of literature values, indicating that Young's moduli of cellular and acellular bones are in the same range, and lower than Young's moduli of the bones of mammals and birds. Despite these similarities in mechanical properties between the bone tissues of the fish species tested here, cellular bone had significantly lower mineral content than acellular bone; furthermore, the percentage ash content and bone mineral density values (derived from micro-CT scans) show that the bone of these fishes is less mineralized than amniote bone. Although we cannot generalize from our data to the numerous remaining teleost species, the results presented here suggest

  20. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD.

  1. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  2. Compressive axial mechanical properties of rat bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and micro-ct based mineral density.

    PubMed

    Cory, Esther; Nazarian, Ara; Entezari, Vahid; Vartanians, Vartan; Müller, Ralph; Snyder, Brian D

    2010-03-22

    Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. With recent advances in computing power of personal computers, virtual alternatives to mechanical testing are gaining acceptance and use. We have previously introduced such a technique called structural rigidity analysis to assess mechanical strength of skeletal tissue with defects. The application of this technique is predicated upon the use of relationships defining the strength of bone as a function of its density for a given loading mode. We are to apply this technique in rat models to assess their compressive skeletal response subjected to a host of biological and pharmaceutical stimulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing axial compressive mechanical properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone as a function of equivalent bone mineral density, bone volume fraction or apparent density over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and partially nephrectomized animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial compression to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 71-78% of the mechanical properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone based on equivalent mineral density, bone volume fraction or apparent density over a wide range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity analysis introduced by the authors to provide a non-invasive method to assess the compressive strength of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options.

  3. No change detected by DEXA in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Kold, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess acetabular bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy and to examine whether bone mineral density correlates with postoperative migration of the osteotomised acetabular fragment. Twenty-five female and three male patients scheduled for periacetabular osteotomy were consecutively included. The patients were scanned by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week, 1 year, and 2 1/2 years after surgery. Radiostereometric analyses (RSA) were done at 1, 4, 8, and 24 weeks after surgery. Two and a half years after periacetabular osteotomy, no significant changes in bone mineral density or any biological effect on bone remodelling due a changed loading pattern in the acetabulum could be detected. There was no significant correlation between bone mineral density and migration of the acetabulum. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is not an appropriate method to demonstrate the changes in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy or to predict postoperative acetabular migration.

  4. Alveolar bone level is not associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone density in mandible.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Francisco; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Souki, Nizar; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Olmo, Asunción; O'Valle, Francisco; Bravo, Manuel

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, using digital panoramic radiographs, whether the bone level at the alveolar crest is related to the mandibular bone density and/or to vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms. We analyzed 319 digital panoramic radiographs from the same number of patients. Alveolar bone level was expressed as percentage of root length. The mandibular cortical width index was calculated as a measure of mandibular bone density, and, in 72 randomly selected cases, the haplotype of the VDR gene (BsmL) was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Alveolar bone level was not related to the mandibular cortical width index (p = 0.568) or VDR gene expression (p = 0.575). Bone loss was greater in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.036), and the mandibular cortical width index was higher in males (p = 0.04), the older age group (p = 0.032), and in those with more teeth (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between these variables and alveolar bone loss. Alveolar bone loss showed no significant relationship with the mandibular bone density evaluated on digital panoramic radiographs or with VDR genotype (BsmL) in Caucasian females and males aged under 47 years.

  5. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  6. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  7. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, George; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Alexander, Mathew; Thomas, Maya; Aaron, Sanjith; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months) and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI), and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007) and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05). BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm2) when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm2). Majority of the patients (61%) had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) between cases (n = 32) and controls (n = 37) (P = 0.234). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients. PMID:25221394

  8. Quantifying Leisure Physical Activity and Its Relation to Bone Density and Strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Compare three published methods of quantifying physical activity (total activity, peak strain, and bone loading exposure [BLE] scores) and identify their associations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and bone strength. Methods: Postmenopausal women (N = 239; me...

  9. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  10. A detailed assessment of alterations in bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and bone density in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, A J; Topping, J; Durham, B; Farquharson, R G; Fraser, W D

    2000-03-01

    The effects of pregnancy on bone turnover and the potential risk of developing an osteoporotic fracture in pregnancy are controversial. Utilizing biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bone turnover before, during, and after pregnancy was studied in detail. Ten women (mean age 30 years; range 23-40) were recruited. Prepregnancy data were obtained and then a review was performed at 2-week intervals , once pregnancy was confirmed, until 14 weeks of gestation and thereafter monthly until term. Bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated by DEXA scanning of hip, spine, and forearm preconception and postpartum. In addition, BMD of the forearm at 14 weeks and 28 weeks gestation was obtained. All pregnancies had a successful outcome. Urinary free pyridinium cross-links, free pyridinoline (fPyr) and free deoxypyridinoline (fDPyr), were normal prepregnancy (mean [+/-SD]) 14.6 nmol/mmol (1.8) and 5.0 nmol/mmol (1.0) creat, respectively. By 14 weeks, they had increased to 20.8 nmol/mmol (4.3) and 6.1 nmol mmol (1.4) (both p < 0.02) and by 28 weeks to 26.3 nmol/mmol (5.6) and 7.4 nmol/mmol (1.6) (both p < 0.01). The ratio of fPyr to fDPyr remained constant. A similar significant increase was observed in N-telopeptide (NTx). Bone formation was assessed by measurement of carboxyterminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1CP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP). Neither were altered significantly before 28 weeks, but subsequently mean P1CP increased from 110 microg/liter (23) to 235 microg/liter (84) at 38 weeks and mean BSAP increased from 11.1 U/liter (5.0) to 28.6 U/liter (11.1) (p < 0.01 for both variables). Lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD decreased from a prepregnancy mean of 1.075 g/cm (0.115) to 1.054 g/cm2 (0.150) postpartum (p < 0.05). Total hip BMD decreased from a prepregnancy mean of 0.976 g/cm2 (0.089) to 0.941 g/cm2 (0.097) (p < 0.05). Forearm BMD at midradius, one-third distal and ultradistal decreased but

  11. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vámossy, C.; Davidson, S.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This project was a European regional bilateral comparison of volume determination of stainless steel standards of 10 g, 20 g, and 200 g and 1 kg carried out under the auspices of EURAMET (project 1356, EURAMET.M.D-S3). The objectives of the present comparison were to check the measurement capabilities of the participants in the field of volume measurements of weights and provide a basis for the calibration measurement capabilities (CMC). BEV (Austria) was the pilot laboratory and the provider of the transfer standards. MKEH was the other participant in the bilateral comparison and NPL collected the measurement data ensuring the impartiality. The objectives of the comparison were achieved. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Assessing Bone Mineral Density Following Acute Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Molly; Hemmati, Pouya; Switzer, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In older patients, bone mineral density (BMD) diminishes with age, increasing susceptibility to femoral neck fractures. Evidence has emerged that patients who should have dual x-ray absorptiometry scans to evaluate their bone health are not doing so. Because computed tomography (CT) attenuation has now been correlated with BMD thresholds relating to osteoporosis, virtually any existing CT scan that includes the L1 vertebra can be used to assess BMD. This study evaluates the utility of CT attenuation in characterizing BMD in patients after femoral neck fractures. Methods: The electronic medical records of adults who presented to a level I trauma center with hip fractures were evaluated for eligibility. Those with a CT scan of the abdomen or other CT scan with a complete view of the L1 vertebra were included. To measure attenuation, a region of interest was selected to include the body of the L1 vertebra in the axial plane and exclude the cortices and posterior venous complex. Results: Of the 589 patients reviewed, 217 met inclusion criteria; 112 were aged 18 to 64, while 105 were ≥65. Eight (7.1%) patients in the younger cohort had a mean CT attenuation below the 110-HU threshold set for 90% specificity, whereas 31 (29.5%) patients in the older cohort had a mean CT attenuation below this threshold. Using the 160-HU threshold set for 90% sensitivity, 39 (34.8%) patients of the younger cohort and 74 (70%) patients of the older cohort were osteoporotic; all differences in CT attenuation by age were strongly significant (P < .0001). Conclusions: A significantly larger proportion of older patients with hip fractures had osteoporosis, helping validate the utility of CT attenuation in this context. In addition, a large proportion of these patients already had these images available, thus potentially helping limit cost and unnecessary medical investigations. PMID:26246948

  13. Bone mineral density predicts fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah L; Lok, Charmaine E; Langsetmo, Lisa; Cheung, Angela M; Szabo, Eva; Pearce, Dawn; Fusaro, Maria; Wald, Ron; Weinstein, Jordan; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-05-01

    Fractures are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The optimal methods by which to assess fracture risk are unknown, in part, due to a lack of prospective studies. We determined if bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and/or high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) could predict fractures in men and women ≥18 years old with stages 3 to 5 CKD. BMD was measured by DXA (at the total hip, lumbar spine, ultradistal, and 1/3 radius) and by HRpQCT (at the radius), and subjects were followed for 2 years for incident morphometric spine fractures and low-trauma clinical fractures. The mean age of the subjects was 62 years with equal numbers having stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD. Over 2 years there were 51 fractures in 35 subjects. BMD by DXA at baseline was significantly lower at all sites among those with incident fractures versus those without. For example, the mean BMD at the total hip in those with incident fractures was 0.77 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.80) and in those without fracture was 0.95 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.92 to 0.98). Almost all baseline HRpQCT measures were lower in those with incident fracture versus those without. For example, volumetric BMD in those with incident fractures was 232 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 213 to 251) and in those without fracture was 317.6 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 306 to 329.1). Bone loss occurred in all subjects, but was significantly greater among those with incident fractures. Our data demonstrate that low BMD (by DXA and HRpQCT) and a greater annualized percent decrease in BMD are risk factors for subsequent fracture in men and women with predialysis CKD.

  14. Bone Density Changes After Radiation for Extremity Sarcomas: Exploring the Etiology of Pathologic Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Chen, Jeffrey; McCance, Sean; Rosier, Randy; O'Keefe, Regis; Constine, Louis S.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The incidental irradiation (RT) of adjacent bone that takes place during treatment of soft tissue extremity sarcomas is generally presumed to 'weaken' the bone by decreasing its density, which subsequently increases the risk for pathologic fracture. This investigation intended to assess the relative effects on bone density of both RT and diminished mechanical loading secondary to tumor-induced and therapy-induced functional extremity impairment. Methods and Materials: 19 patients treated with surgical excision and RT for soft tissue extremity sarcomas had bone density measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at four sites: the irradiated (A) and contralateral (B) bone, and an uninvolved bone (C) in the treated extremity and its contralateral counterpart (D). Analysis included (1) [A-B], (2) [C-D], (3) [(A-B), - (C-D)], and (4) [(A-B)/B - (C-D)/D]. Results: The mean bone density for all irradiated sites was increased 0.08 {+-} 0.22 g/cm{sup 2} (variance) compared to the contralateral unirradiated side when corrected for weight-bearing effects (3). An average increase in bone density of 9 {+-} 22% (p = 0.08) was also seen when the differences were divided by individual control densities to normalize variation in density of different anatomic sites (4). Conclusions: RT does not routinely decrease bone density when corrected for weight bearing or mechanical effects. The pathogenesis for the known increased risk of pathologic fracture in irradiated bones is likely multifactorial, including possible alterations in bone remodeling that can result in stable, or even increased, bone density. Further clinical and basic studies are needed to confirm our unexpected findings.

  15. Bone mineral density deficits and fractures in survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Although substantial increases in survival rates among children diagnosed with cancer have been observed in recent decades, survivors are at risk of developing therapy-related chronic health conditions. Among children and adolescents treated for cancer, acquisition of peak bone mass may be compromised by cancer therapies, nutritional deficiencies, and reduced physical activity. Accordingly, failure to accrue optimal bone mass during childhood may place survivors at increased risk for deficits in bone density and fracture in later life. Current recommendations for the treatment of bone density decrements among cancer survivors include dietary counseling and supplementation to ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Few strategies exist to prevent or treat bone loss. Moving forward, studies characterizing the trajectory of changes in bone density over time will facilitate the development of interventions and novel therapies aimed at minimizing bone loss among survivors of childhood cancer.

  16. Increases in bone density during treatment of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Doppelt, S.H.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Segre, G.V.; Crowley, W.F. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    To assess the effects of gonadal steroid replacement on bone density in men with osteoporosis due to severe hypogonadism, we measured cortical bone density in the distal radius by 125I photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone density in the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography in 21 men with isolated GnRH deficiency while serum testosterone levels were maintained in the normal adult male range for 12-31 months (mean +/- SE, 23.7 +/- 1.1). In men who initially had fused epiphyses (n = 15), cortical bone density increased from 0.71 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density did not change (116 +/- 9 compared with 119 +/- 7 mg/cm3). In men who initially had open epiphyses (n = 6), cortical bone density increased from 0.62 +/- 0.01 to 0.70 +/- 0.03 g/cm2 (P less than 0.01), while trabecular bone density increased from 96 +/- 13 to 109 +/- 12 mg/cm3 (P less than 0.01). Cortical bone density increased 0.03 +/- 0.01 g/cm2 in men with fused epiphyses and 0.08 +/- 0.02 g/cm2 in men with open epiphyses (P less than 0.05). Despite these increases, neither cortical nor trabecular bone density returned to normal levels. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies demonstrated that most of the men had low turnover osteoporosis, although some men had normal to high turnover osteoporosis. We conclude that bone density increases during gonadal steroid replacement of GnRH-deficient men, particularly in men who are skeletally immature.

  17. On the Use of Bone Remodelling Models to Estimate the Density Distribution of Bones. Uniqueness of the Solution

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Reina, Javier; Ojeda, Joaquín; Mayo, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodelling models are widely used in a phenomenological manner to estimate numerically the distribution of apparent density in bones from the loads they are daily subjected to. These simulations start from an arbitrary initial distribution, usually homogeneous, and the density changes locally until a bone remodelling equilibrium is achieved. The bone response to mechanical stimulus is traditionally formulated with a mathematical relation that considers the existence of a range of stimulus, called dead or lazy zone, for which no net bone mass change occurs. Implementing a relation like that leads to different solutions depending on the starting density. The non-uniqueness of the solution has been shown in this paper using two different bone remodelling models: one isotropic and another anisotropic. It has also been shown that the problem of non-uniqueness is only mitigated by removing the dead zone, but it is not completely solved unless the bone formation and bone resorption rates are limited to certain maximum values. PMID:26859888

  18. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  19. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Perrie E.; Dunn, Winston; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether NAFLD influences bone health is unknown. AIM To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. METHODS Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and total percent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analyzed in children with NAFLD. RESULTS Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (p<0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (−1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five percent of children with NAFLD had low bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (p < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (p< 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (−2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (−1.58). CONCLUSIONS NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralization in children with NAFLD. PMID:22111971

  20. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. FRAX and fracture prediction without bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H; Odén, A; Leslie, W D; McCloskey, E V

    2015-01-01

    The major application of FRAX in osteoporosis is to direct pharmacological interventions to those at high risk of fracture. Whereas the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment, with the possible exception of alendronate, is largely independent of baseline bone mineral density (BMD), it remains a widely held perception that osteoporosis therapies are only effective in the presence of low BMD. Thus, the use of FRAX in the absence of BMD to identify individuals requiring therapy remains the subject of some debate and is the focus of this review. The clinical risk factors used in FRAX have high evidence-based validity to identify a risk responsive to intervention. The selection of high-risk individuals with FRAX, without knowledge of BMD, preferentially selects for low BMD and thus identifies a risk that is responsive to pharmacological intervention. The prediction of fractures with the use of clinical risk factors alone in FRAX is comparable to the use of BMD alone to predict fractures and is suitable, therefore, in the many countries where facilities for BMD testing are sparse. In countries where access to BMD is greater, FRAX can be used without BMD in the majority of cases and BMD tests reserved for those close to a probability-based intervention threshold. Thus concerns surrounding the use of FRAX in clinical practice without information on BMD are largely misplaced.

  2. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  3. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  4. Investigation of the relationship between low environmental exposure to metals and bone mineral density, bone resorption and renal function.

    PubMed

    Callan, A C; Devine, A; Qi, L; Ng, J C; Hinwood, A L

    2015-07-01

    Environmental exposure to metals has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Exposure to cadmium has been associated with decreased bone density, an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture and possible renal dysfunction. Older women are a group at risk of renal and bone density impacts and exposure to metals may be an important risk factor for these health outcomes. This study was a cross sectional study of 77 women aged 50 years and above examining the relationship between metals exposure and renal and bone health. Urinary and blood metals concentrations, plasma creatinine, iron, ferritin and transferrin were measured in these subjects. Bone biomarkers assessed included the pyridinium crosslinks, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline measured by ELISA. Renal function was assessed using eGFR and KIM-1. Whole body, hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density was assessed using DEXA. Blood and urinary metals concentrations were generally low in the subjects, with a median urinary cadmium concentration of 0.26 μg/g creatinine (range <0.065-1.03 μg/g). Urinary cadmium was found to be a significant predictor of bone mineral density at whole body, lumber spine, total hip and femoral neck, with increasing urinary Cd concentrations associated with decreased bone density. Urinary cadmium and aluminium concentrations were positively correlated with bone resorption whilst blood zinc and mercury concentrations were negatively correlated. Urinary aluminium was positively correlated with KIM-1 concentrations, a marker of early kidney damage, however blood zinc concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with this biomarker. This study provides additional support for low cadmium exposure being of concern for the health of older women. Further investigation into the role of exposure to other metals on bone and renal health is warranted.

  5. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  6. Accurate quantification of width and density of bone structures by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hangartner, Thomas N.; Short, David F.

    2007-10-15

    In computed tomography (CT), the representation of edges between objects of different densities is influenced by the limited spatial resolution of the scanner. This results in the misrepresentation of density of narrow objects, leading to errors of up to 70% and more. Our interest is in the imaging and measurement of narrow bone structures, and the issues are the same for imaging with clinical CT scanners, peripheral quantitative CT scanners or micro CT scanners. Mathematical models, phantoms and tests with patient data led to the following procedures: (i) extract density profiles at one-degree increments from the CT images at right angles to the bone boundary; (ii) consider the outer and inner edge of each profile separately due to different adjacent soft tissues; (iii) measure the width of each profile based on a threshold at fixed percentage of the difference between the soft-tissue value and a first approximated bone value; (iv) correct the underlying material density of bone for each profile based on the measured width with the help of the density-versus-width curve obtained from computer simulations and phantom measurements. This latter curve is specific to a certain scanner and is not dependent on the densities of the tissues within the range seen in patients. This procedure allows the calculation of the material density of bone. Based on phantom measurements, we estimate the density error to be below 2% relative to the density of normal bone and the bone-width error about one tenth of a pixel size.

  7. [Development of a Novel Body Phantom with Bone Equivalent Density for Evaluation of Bone SPECT].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hajime; Miwa, Kenta; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Watanabe, Yoichi; Kato, Toyohiro; Shimada, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    We developed a custom-designed phantom for bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-specific radioactivity distribution and linear attenuation coefficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the phantom. The lumbar phantom consisted of the trunk of a body phantom (background) containing a cylinder (vertebral body), a sphere (tumor), and a T-shaped container (processus). The vertebral body, tumor, and processus phantoms contained a K(2)HPO(4) solution of bone equivalent density and 50, 300 and 50 kBq/mL of (99m)Tc, respectively. The body phantom contained 8 kBq/mL of (99m)Tc solution. SPECT images were acquired using low-energy high-resolution collimation, a 128 × 128 matrix and 120 projections over 360° with a dwell time of 15 sec/view × 4 times. Thereafter, CT images were acquired at 130 kV and 70 ref mAs using adaptive dose modulation. The SPECT data were reconstructed with ordered subset expectation maximization with three-dimensional, scatter, and CT-based attenuation correction. Count ratio, linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) were measured. Count ratios between the background, the vertebral body, and the tumor in SPECT images were 463.8: 2888.0: 15150.3 (1: 6.23: 32.7). The LAC of the background and vertebral body in the CT-derived attenuation map were 0.155 cm⁻¹ and 0.284 cm⁻¹, respectively, and the FWHM measured from the processus was 15.27 mm. The precise counts and LAC indicated that the phantom was accurate and could serve as a tool for evaluating acquisition, reconstruction parameters, and quantitation in bone SPECT images.

  8. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Balakrishnan, Anju; Clark, Richard M; Owen, Kevin Q; Koo, Sung I; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2008-08-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss is a major public health concern. Although drug therapies are available, women are interested in alternative/adjunct therapies to slow down the bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation of l-carnitine can influence bone density and slow the rate of bone turnover in an aging ovariectomized rat model. Eighteen-month-old Fisher-344 female rats were ovariectomized and assigned to two groups: (1) a control group in which rats were fed ad libitum a carnitine-free (-CN) diet (AIN-93M) and (2) another fed the same diet but supplemented with l-carnitine (+CN). At the end of 8 weeks of feeding, animals were sacrificed and bone specimens were collected for measuring bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Femoral microarchitectural properties were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Femoral mRNA levels of selected bone matrix proteins were determined by northern blot analysis. Data showed that tibial BMD was significantly higher in the rat fed the +CN diet than those fed the -CN (control) diet. Dietary carnitine significantly decreased the mRNA level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an indicator of bone resorption by 72.8%, and decreased the mRNA abundance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type-1 (COL), measures of bone formation by 63.6% and 61.2%, respectively. The findings suggest that carnitine supplementation slows bone loss and improves bone microstructural properties by decreasing bone turnover.

  9. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  10. Milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone mineral density and bone strength in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Takada, Yukihiro; Matsuyama, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Yano, Hideo; Toba, Yasuhiro

    2002-11-01

    We investigated the calcium bioavailability of milk calcium, taken with or without cheese. Twenty-four 6-week-old male rats for a meal-feeding experiment were trained to consume an AIN-76 diet within 2 h (2 times per day) for 2 weeks. The rats were then divided into three experimental groups, each fed 2 types of experimental diets: Control group, Cheese group, and Ca-Cheese group. The rats were each alternately given 2 types of experimental diets at 2-h meal-feeding for 31 days. The breaking force and energy of the femur in the Ca-Cheese group were significantly higher than in the control group. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the femur in the Ca-Cheese group was also significantly higher than in the other two groups. These results indicate that milk calcium taken with cheese increases bone strength and BMD efficiently, results that may be useful for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  11. Alteration of femoral bone morphology and density in COX-2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Galen; Xie, Chao; Chen, Di; Awad, Hani; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J; Guldberg, Robert E; Zhang, Xinping

    2006-10-01

    A role of COX-2 in pathological bone destruction and fracture repair has been established; however, few studies have been conducted to examine the involvement of COX-2 in maintaining bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture. In this study, we examined bone morphology in multiple trabecular and cortical regions within the distal and diaphyseal femur of 4-month-old wild-type and COX-2-/- mice using micro-computed tomography. Our results demonstrated that while COX-2-/- female mice had normal bone geometry and trabecular microarchitecture at 4 months of age, the male knockout mice displayed reduced bone volume fraction within the distal femoral metaphysis. Furthermore, male COX-2-/- mice had a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density within the central cortical diaphysis and distal epiphysis and metaphysis. Consistent with the observed reduction in cortical mineral density, biomechanical testing via 4-point-bending showed that male COX-2-/- mice had a significant increase in postyield deformation, indicating a ductile bone phenotype in male COX-2-/- mice. In conclusion, our study suggests that genetic ablation of COX-2 may have a sex-related effect on cortical bone homeostasis and COX-2 plays a role in maintaining normal bone micro-architecture and density in mice.

  12. Alteration of femoral bone morphology and density in COX-2−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Galen; Xie, Chao; Chen, Di; Awad, Hani; Schwarz, Edward M.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Zhang, Xinping

    2009-01-01

    A role of COX-2 in pathological bone destruction and fracture repair has been established; however, few studies have been conducted to examine the involvement of COX-2 in maintaining bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture. In this study, we examined bone morphology in multiple trabecular and cortical regions within the distal and diaphyseal femur of 4-month-old wild-type and COX-2−/− mice using micro-computed tomography. Our results demonstrated that while COX-2−/− female mice had normal bone geometry and trabecular microarchitecture at 4 months of age, the male knockout mice displayed reduced bone volume fraction within the distal femoral metaphysis. Furthermore, male COX-2−/− mice had a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density within the central cortical diaphysis and distal epiphysis and metaphysis. Consistent with the observed reduction in cortical mineral density, biomechanical testing via 4-point-bending showed that male COX-2−/− mice had a significant increase in postyield deformation, indicating a ductile bone phenotype in male COX-2−/− mice. In conclusion, our study suggests that genetic ablation of COX-2 may have a sex-related effect on cortical bone homeostasis and COX-2 plays a role in maintaining normal bone micro-architecture and density in mice. PMID:16731065

  13. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  14. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  15. Aggravated bone density decline following symptomatic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    den Hoed, Marissa A H; Pluijm, Saskia M F; te Winkel, Mariël L; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Fiocco, Martha; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Leeuw, Jan A; Bruin, Marrie C A; van der Sluis, Inge M; Bresters, Dorien; Lequin, Maarten H; Roos, Jan C; Veerman, Anjo J P; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2015-12-01

    Osteonecrosis and decline of bone density are serious side effects during and after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is unknown whether osteonecrosis and low bone density occur together in the same patients, or whether these two osteogenic side-effects can mutually influence each other's development. Bone density and the incidence of symptomatic osteonecrosis were prospectively assessed in a national cohort of 466 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4-18 years of age) who were treated according to the dexamethasone-based Dutch Child Oncology Group-ALL9 protocol. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMDLS) (n=466) and of the total body (BMDTB) (n=106) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone density was expressed as age- and gender-matched standard deviation scores. Thirty patients (6.4%) suffered from symptomatic osteonecrosis. At baseline, BMDLS and BMDTB did not differ between patients who did or did not develop osteonecrosis. At cessation of treatment, patients with osteonecrosis had lower mean BMDLS and BMDTB than patients without osteonecrosis (respectively, with osteonecrosis: -2.16 versus without osteonecrosis: -1.21, P<0.01 and with osteonecrosis: -1.73 versus without osteonecrosis: -0.57, P<0.01). Multivariate linear models showed that patients with osteonecrosis had steeper BMDLS and BMDTB declines during follow-up than patients without osteonecrosis (interaction group time, P<0.01 and P<0.01). We conclude that bone density status at the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia does not seem to influence the occurrence of symptomatic osteonecrosis. Bone density declines from the time that osteonecrosis is diagnosed; this suggests that the already existing decrease in bone density during acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy is further aggravated by factors such as restriction of weight-bearing activities and destruction of bone architecture due to osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis can, therefore, be considered a risk

  16. CT imaging of bone and bone marrow infiltration in malignant melanoma--Challenges and limitations for clinical staging in comparison to 18FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bier, Georg; Hoffmann, Vera; Kloth, Christopher; Othman, Ahmed E; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus; La Fougère, Christian; Pfannenberg, Christina; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Klumpp, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Rationale of this study was the evaluation of the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in comparison to PET/CT. Fifty patients (age 61 ± 15.12 years) with metastatic malignant melanoma underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT, including contrast-enhanced CT. 2 readers evaluated the CT images in consensus for bone and bone marrow lesions focusing on lesion location, type and size. PET/CT was used as reference standard to estimate sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value. Moreover, the bone marrow density was estimated in the long bones and the sacral bone. Serum hamoglobin, thrombocyte level and S100 protein were correlated with the presence or absence of bone and bone marrow lesions. According to PET/CT as standard of reference, of 594 bone and medullary lesions 495 were considered malignant. Of these 77.8% were medullary, 20.4% lytic, 1% sclerotic and 0.8% mixed lytic/sclerotic. Contrast-enhanced CT yielded a lesion-based sensitivity of 36.8% and a specificity of 87.9% (PPV 93.8%; NPV 21.8%). Patient-based sensitivity and specificity were 78.8% and 82.4%, respectively. Of the missed lesions, most were medullary (95.8%). A disseminated bone marrow involvement (defined as >10 bone marrow lesions or diffuse infiltration of a whole body segment) was described in 11 cases, in 6 cases the disseminated involvement was underestimated or missed on CT. In cases with disseminated bone marrow involvement the bone marrow density was significantly higher in the humerus (p=0.04), but not in the femur or sacral bone (p=0.06). Multivariate analysis revealed no isolated effect of bone metastases on S100 serum and hemoglobin level, but both were significantly altered in patients with disseminated bone marrow involvement (p<0.05). In conclusion, the diagnostic value of computed tomography for the detection of bone marrow metastases in patients with melanoma, is limited. Especially in cases with disseminated bone marrow

  17. Analogy of strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm and structural topology optimization.

    PubMed

    Jang, In Gwun; Kim, Il Yong; Kwak, Byung Ban

    2009-01-01

    In bone-remodeling studies, it is believed that the morphology of bone is affected by its internal mechanical loads. From the 1970s, high computing power enabled quantitative studies in the simulation of bone remodeling or bone adaptation. Among them, Huiskes et al. (1987, "Adaptive Bone Remodeling Theory Applied to Prosthetic Design Analysis," J. Biomech. Eng., 20, pp. 1135-1150) proposed a strain energy density based approach to bone remodeling and used the apparent density for the characterization of internal bone morphology. The fundamental idea was that bone density would increase when strain (or strain energy density) is higher than a certain value and bone resorption would occur when the strain (or strain energy density) quantities are lower than the threshold. Several advanced algorithms were developed based on these studies in an attempt to more accurately simulate physiological bone-remodeling processes. As another approach, topology optimization originally devised in structural optimization has been also used in the computational simulation of the bone-remodeling process. The topology optimization method systematically and iteratively distributes material in a design domain, determining an optimal structure that minimizes an objective function. In this paper, we compared two seemingly different approaches in different fields-the strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm (biomechanical approach) and the compliance based structural topology optimization method (mechanical approach)-in terms of mathematical formulations, numerical difficulties, and behavior of their numerical solutions. Two numerical case studies were conducted to demonstrate their similarity and difference, and then the solution convergences were discussed quantitatively.

  18. Comparison of bone histomorphometry and μCT for evaluating bone quality in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; Luan, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Astronauts often suffer from microgravity-induced osteoporosis due to their time in space. Bone histomorphometry, the 'gold standard' technique for detecting bone quality, is widely used in the evaluation of osteoporosis. This study investigates whether μCT has the same application value as histomorphometry in the evaluation of weightlessness-induced bone loss. A total of 24 SD rats were distributed into three groups (n = 8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus active exercise (TSA), and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and μCT, and microstructure was measured by μCT and histomorphometry. BMD was found to have decreased significantly in TS and TSA compared with the CON group. The results of the μCT measurements showed that a change in BMD mainly occurred in the trabecular bone, and the trabecular BMD increased significantly in the TSA compared with the TS group. The comparison of μCT and histomorphometry showed that TS led to a significant decrease in bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N), and it led to an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). However, active exercise can prevent these changes. Significant differences in most parameters between TSA and CON were found by μCT but not by histomorphometry. Additionally, the parameters of these two methods are highly correlated. Therefore, the application value of μCT is as good as histomorphometry and DXA in the diagnosis of weightlessness-induced osteoporosis and is even better in evaluating the efficacy of exercise.

  19. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  20. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, p<0.01). The strongest exercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, p<0.01; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.59, p<0.01). There was a closer association between exercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, p<0.001) followed by petCO(2) and body mass index (R(2)=0.7 and 0.5, respectively, p<0.01). Exercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  1. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  2. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  3. The effects of trunk stabilization exercise on bone density after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of low intensity exercise on bone density by conducting trunk stabilization exercise on females after menopause for 24 weeks. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty three female subjects over 47 years old and under the age of 53 were selected and 16 for experimental group and 17 for control group were randomly selected. Experimental group had performed spinal and pelvic stabilization exercise 30 minutes a day, 5times a week, for 24 weeks. Except for the daily life, control group did not participate in any characteristic movement. Bone density of every member in experimental group was measured using average value of bone density of 1st–4th lumbar through quantitative computer tomography. [Results] There was a meaningful difference in only control group about measured value of bone density within each group, experimental and control group, but there was no meaningful difference in measured value of bone density between two groups, experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Through this research, we could see the fact that although trunk stability exercise could not change bone density meaningfully, it could maintain bone density. In the future, it is randomly necessary to study things related this because results of researches can show different results according to exercise intensity, exercise period, age, weight, hormone status and mediation period. It is considered that it will help to prevent and treat patients with osteoporosis a lot. PMID:26834370

  4. Bone Density in Chronic Schizophrenia with Long-Term Antipsychotic Treatment: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Young; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Choi, Jin-Hee; Kim, Tae-Yong; So, Hyung-Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective Decreased bone mineral density has been found in the chronic schizophrenic patients who have been given a long-term administration of antipsychotics. Hyperprolactinemia from the antipsychotics and the negative symptom of schizophrenia were considered as the causes for this finding. In this study, the effect of hyperprolactinemia and the negative symptom of schizophrenia on bone mineral density was investigated on male schizophrenic patients. Methods The cross-sectional study was carried out with the subjects of 45 male schizophrenic patients who have undertaken the monotherapy with risperidone, olanzapine and clozapine for at least one year. The demographic factors, clinical symtoms, bone mineral density and hematological test were examined for all the subjects. Results No significant relationship was found between hyperprolactinemia and the decreased bone mineral density in the subjects. The negative schizophrenia symptom of the subjects showed a significant effect on the decreased bone mineral density. Conclusion The decreased bone mineral density finding in the male schizophrenic patients may be caused by the negative schizophrenia symptom rather than the hyperprolactinemia due to the antipsychotics. Additional studies are further required regarding other factors that may affect the decreased bone mineral density such as activity, calcium intake and exposure to sunlight. PMID:21253412

  5. The effects of trunk stabilization exercise on bone density after menopause.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of low intensity exercise on bone density by conducting trunk stabilization exercise on females after menopause for 24 weeks. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty three female subjects over 47 years old and under the age of 53 were selected and 16 for experimental group and 17 for control group were randomly selected. Experimental group had performed spinal and pelvic stabilization exercise 30 minutes a day, 5times a week, for 24 weeks. Except for the daily life, control group did not participate in any characteristic movement. Bone density of every member in experimental group was measured using average value of bone density of 1st-4th lumbar through quantitative computer tomography. [Results] There was a meaningful difference in only control group about measured value of bone density within each group, experimental and control group, but there was no meaningful difference in measured value of bone density between two groups, experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Through this research, we could see the fact that although trunk stability exercise could not change bone density meaningfully, it could maintain bone density. In the future, it is randomly necessary to study things related this because results of researches can show different results according to exercise intensity, exercise period, age, weight, hormone status and mediation period. It is considered that it will help to prevent and treat patients with osteoporosis a lot.

  6. Jumping exercise preserves bone mineral density and mechanical properties in osteopenic ovariectomized rats even following established osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Okubo, R; Sanada, L S; Castania, V A; Louzada, M J Q; de Paula, F J A; Maffulli, N; Shimano, A C

    2017-04-01

    The effects of jump training on bone structure before and after ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats were investigated. Jumping exercise induced favorable changes in bone mineral density, bone mechanical properties, and bone formation/resorption markers. This exercise is effective to prevent bone loss after ovariectomy even when osteopenia is already established.

  7. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Brixen, Kim

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess peripheral bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone remodeling in adult type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with and without diabetic microvascular disease (MVD+ and MVD-, respectively) and to compare them with age-, gender-, and height-matched healthy control subjects (CoMVD+ and CoMVD-, respectively). The secondary goal was to assess differences in MVD- and MVD+ patients. Fifty-five patients with T1DM (MVD+ group: n = 29) were recruited from the Funen Diabetes Database. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the ultradistal radius and tibia, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were performed in all participants. There were no significant differences in HR-pQCT parameters between MVD- and CoMVD- subjects. In contrast, MVD+ patients had larger total and trabecular bone areas (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively), lower total, trabecular, and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (p < 0.01, p < 0.04, and p < 0.02, respectively), and thinner cortex (p = 0.03) at the radius, and lower total and trabecular vBMD (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) at the tibia in comparison to CoMVD+. MVD+ patients also exhibited lower total and trabecular vBMD (radius p = 0.01, tibia p < 0.01), trabecular thickness (radius p = 0.01), estimated bone strength, and greater trabecular separation (radius p = 0.01, tibia p < 0.01) and network inhomogeneity (radius p = 0.01, tibia p < 0.01) in comparison to MVD- patients. These differences remained significant after adjustment for age, body mass index, gender, disease duration, and glycemic control (average glycated hemoglobin over the previous 3 years). Although biochemical markers of bone turnover were significantly lower in MVD+ and MVD- groups in comparison to controls, they were similar between the MVD+ and MVD

  8. Anthropometric and fitness variables associated with bone mineral density and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Ke, Jyh-yuh; Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Chao-jan; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-yu

    2011-05-01

    We investigated anthropometric and fitness variables associated with areal bone mineral densities and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Thirty-four children with cerebral palsy, aged 4-12 years, and 33 normal development children were collected. There were significant differences in femoral bone densities and calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation, but not in lumbar bone densities, between cerebral palsy and normal groups. Regression analysis revealed that different anthropometric and fitness variables were linked to bone densities of different skeletal regions in children with cerebral palsy (adjusted r(2) = .41-.67). Growth variables were mainly related to femoral and lumbar bone densities, while muscular endurance was mainly related to femoral and calcaneus bone densities. These findings suggest multiple complex variables can contribute to bone density variations among different skeleton areas in these children. These data can allow clinicians to identifying early these children at risk for low bone density.

  9. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Lee, Myung-Han; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Sangyeob; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Han Sung; Bae, Kiho

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT) and Per2 knockout (KO) mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001). To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001). Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression. PMID:26580614

  10. Bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.

    PubMed

    Minarich, Laurie A; Kirpich, Alexander; Fiske, Laurie M; Weinstein, David A

    2012-04-05

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of low bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.Methods:A retrospective chart review performed at the University of Florida Glycogen Storage Disease Program included patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib for whom dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis was performed. A Z-score less than -2 SD was considered low. Analysis for association of bone mineral density with age, gender, presence of complications, mean triglyceride and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy, and history of corticosteroid use was performed.Results:In glycogen storage disease Ia, 23/42 patients (55%) had low bone mineral density. Low bone mineral density was associated with other disease complications (P = 0.02) and lower mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (P = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower mean triglyceride concentration in the normal bone mineral density group (P = 0.1).In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib, 8/12 (66.7%) had low bone mineral density. We did not detect an association with duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy (P = 0.68), mean triglyceride level (P = 0.267), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.3), or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P = 0.63) concentration, and there was no evidence that corticosteroid therapy was associated with lower bone mineral density (P = 1).Conclusion:In glycogen storage disease type Ia, bone mineral density is associated with other complications and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. In glycogen storage disease type Ib, bone mineral density was not associated with any covariates analyzed, suggesting multifactorial etiology or reflecting a small sample.Genet Med advance online publication 5 April 2012.

  11. Some basic relationships between density values in cancellous and cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, Peter; Cook, Richard B; Hutchinson, John R

    2008-01-01

    Density is a salient property of bone and plays a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of both its cancellous and cortical structural forms. Density is defined in a number of ways at either the bone tissue (D(app), apparent) or the bone material level (D(mat), material). The concept of density is relatively simple, but measuring it in the context of bone is a complex issue. The third dimension of the problem is the concept of porosity, or BV/TV (ratio of bone material volume over tissue volume). Recent investigations from our laboratory have revealed an interdependence of D(app) and D(mat) in the cancellous bone of at least four different cohorts of human patients. To clarify the underlying causes of this behaviour, we produced here equivalent relationships from specimens originating from cortical and cancellous areas of the same bone. Plots of D(app) vs. D(mat) showed that D(mat) was not a monotonic function of increasing D(app), but instead showed a 'boomerang'-like pattern. By empirically dissecting the data in two regions for D(app) above and below a value equal to 1.3gcm(-3), we were able to objectively isolate the bone in trabecular and compact forms. Our findings may have implications not only for the segregation of bone in these two structural forms, but also for the mechanobiological and physiological processes that govern the regulation of compact and trabecular bone areas.

  12. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio.

  13. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  14. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  15. Value of bone scintigraphy for detection and ageing of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis and correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density.

    PubMed

    Kucukalic-Selimovic, Elma; Begic, Amela

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common of the metabolic bone diseases, and is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly. Bone scintigraphy is used to detect skeletal lesions at the earliest possible time, to monitor the course of the skeletal discase and to evaluate the metabolic activity of skeletal lesions. The aim of this study was to determine, by using the bone scan age of vertebral fractures in patients with severe osteoporosis, and make correlation between bone scintigraphy and mineral bone density. Material and methods 30 female patients were studied with bone scintigraphy after BMD.BMD was measurred with DEXA Hologic QDR 4500 Elite System. Correlation between T-score and uptake of radiofarmaceutical (Tc-99mMDP) was 0.849, and it was high. Intensity of uptake of Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy is an accurate method for the detection and ageing of fractures in osteoporotic patients.

  16. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  17. The effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness on micromotion and peri-implant bone strain distribution in an immediately loaded implant: a nonlinear finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of bone density and crestal cortical bone thickness at the implant-placement site on micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) and the peri-implant bone strain distribution under immediate-loading conditions. Methods A three-dimensional finite element model of the posterior mandible with an implant was constructed. Various bone parameters were simulated, including low or high cancellous bone density, low or high crestal cortical bone density, and crestal cortical bone thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mm. Delayed- and immediate-loading conditions were simulated. A buccolingual oblique load of 200 N was applied to the top of the abutment. Results The maximum extent of micromotion was approximately 100 μm in the low-density cancellous bone models, whereas it was under 30 μm in the high-density cancellous bone models. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum micromotion in the low-density cancellous bone models. The minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone was affected by the density of the crestal cortical bone and cancellous bone to the same degree for both delayed and immediate loading. In the low-density cancellous bone models under immediate loading, the minimum principal strain in the peri-implant cortical bone decreased with an increase in crestal cortical bone thickness. Conclusions Cancellous bone density may be a critical factor for avoiding excessive micromotion in immediately loaded implants. Crestal cortical bone thickness significantly affected the maximum extent of micromotion and peri-implant bone strain in simulations of low-density cancellous bone under immediate loading. PMID:27382504

  18. More-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with low bone density: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L; Bliuc, D; Stanford, P; Eisman, J A; Center, J R

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between more-than-minimal-trauma fractures and bone density. This study demonstrated that more-than-minimal-trauma fractures are associated with lower bone density similar to that seen in minimal trauma fractures. Men and women over 50 years with a more-than-minimal-trauma fracture should be investigated to exclude low bone density.

  19. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  20. The role of Dkk1 in bone mass regulation: correlating serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Butler, Joseph S; Murray, David W; Hurson, Conor J; O'Brien, Julie; Doran, Peter P; O'Byrne, John M

    2011-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a major signaling cascade in bone biology, playing a key role in regulating bone development and remodeling, with aberrations in signaling resulting in disturbances in bone mass. The objectives of our study were to correlate serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density (BMD) and assess the potential role of Dkk1 as a serological marker of bone mass. Serum was collected from a cohort of patients (n = 36), 18 patients with a reduced BMD and 18 control patients. Serum Dkk1 expression as quantified by ELISA was correlated with lumbar and femoral t- and z-scores. Serum Dkk1 concentration in the osteoporosis group was significantly higher than control group (941 ± 116 vs. 558 ± 47 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Serum Dkk1 expression was highly correlated with bone mass variables with inverse associations found between serum Dkk1 expression and lumbar t-score (r = -0.34, p = 0.00433), lumbar z-score (r = -0.22, p = 0.1907), femur t-score (r = -0.42, p = 0.0101), and femur z-score (r = -0.43, p = 0.0089). Our data further emphasizes the pivotal role played by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone mass regulation. Dkk1, a powerful antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, may have a role to play as a serological marker for disorders of bone mass, warranting further evaluation.

  1. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P < 0.001; osteopenia = 0.07 mm [95% CI, 0.01-0.13], P = 0.02). Only studies with lower risk of bias were available for the analysis of CAL severity. Women with low BMD presented more severe attachment loss, represented as mean percentage of sites with CAL ≥4 mm (osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P < 0.001). This systematic review

  2. Bone mineral density and osteoporosis after preterm birth: the role of early life factors and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Wood, Alexander M; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  3. Effects of Condensation on Peri-implant Bone Density and Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wu, Y; Perez, K C; Hyman, S; Brunski, J B; Tulu, U; Bao, C; Salmon, B; Helms, J A

    2017-04-01

    Bone condensation is thought to densify interfacial bone and thus improve implant primary stability, but scant data substantiate either claim. We developed a murine oral implant model to test these hypotheses. Osteotomies were created in healed maxillary extraction sites 1) by drilling or 2) by drilling followed by stepwise condensation with tapered osteotomes. Condensation increased interfacial bone density, as measured by a significant change in bone volume/total volume and trabecular spacing, but it simultaneously damaged the bone. On postimplant day 1, the condensed bone interface exhibited microfractures and osteoclast activity. Finite element modeling, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemical analyses at multiple time points throughout the osseointegration period demonstrated that condensation caused very high interfacial strains, marginal bone resorption, and no improvement in implant stability. Collectively, these multiscale analyses demonstrate that condensation does not positively contribute to implant stability.

  4. Effect of long-term unilateral activity on bone mineral density of female junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, H; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Pasanen, M; Uusi-Rasi, K; Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Vuori, I

    1998-02-01

    High peak bone mass in early adulthood is an important protective factor against osteoporotic fractures in later life, but little is known about the effects of exercise on growing bone. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine at which state of maturity (Tanner stage), the areal bone mineral density (BMD) differences between the playing and nonplaying arms of junior tennis players become obvious, and to clarify in each developmental stage which training and background variables, if any, could explain the interindividual differences in bones' response to mechanical loading. Ninety-one 7- to 17-year-old female tennis players and 58 healthy female controls were measured. In each Tanner stage, differences in BMD in playing and nonplaying (dominant and nondominant) arms (proximal humerus, humeral shaft, and distal radius) and BMD of the lumbar spine and nondominant distal radius were compared between the controls and players. Within each Tanner stage of players, the associations between training and background variables and BMD differences were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. In players, BMD differences between the playing and nonplaying arms were significant (P < 0.05- < 0.001) in all Tanner stages, with the mean difference ranging from 1.6 to 15.7%. In controls, these dominant-to-nondominant arm differences were clearly smaller (ranging from -0.2 to 4.6%), but significant at some measured sites. In comparison with the relative side-to-side arm differences between the players and controls (i.e., examination of the training effect), the mean difference was not obvious and significant until the adolescent growth spurt (i.e., the girls in Tanner stage III with a mean age of 12.6 years). In the lumbar spine, significant BMD differences between players and controls were not found until Tanner stage IV (mean age 13.5 years; 8.7%, P < 0.05) and V (mean age 15.5 years; 12.4%, P < 0.05). In a nonloaded site of the skeleton (nondominant

  5. Strong familial association of bone mineral density between parents and offspring: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Park, J H; Kim, S H; Shin, S; Park, M J

    2017-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of offspring was significantly associated with their parents' BMD. Parental BMD Z-score ≤-1 was a significant predictor for BMD Z-score ≤-1 in their offspring. Peak bone mass acquisition during early adulthood is more substantially influenced by genetic factors rather than lifestyle or environmental factors.

  6. Bone marker and bone density responses to dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemic males.

    PubMed

    Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Di Sarno, A; Klain, M; Landi, M L; Facciolli, G; Pivonello, R; Panza, N; Salvatore, M; Lombardi, G

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine and femoral neck levels and biochemical parameters of bone turnover in 20 consecutive hyperprolactinemic males before and after an 18-month treatment with different dopamine agonists. Six patients received bromocriptine at a dose of 2.5-10 mg/day; 7 patients received quinagolide at a dose of 0.075-0.3 mg/day; 7 patients received cabergoline at a dose of 0.5-1.5 mg/week. BMD, serum PRL, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and osteocalcin (OC), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (Ntx) levels were measured before and every 6 months during treatment. At study entry, BMD values were lower in patients than controls at both lumbar spine (0.82 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.01 g/cm2; P < 0.001) and femoral neck (0.85 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.02 g/cm2; P < 0.05) levels. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was diagnosed in 16 patients at the lumbar spine and in 6 of them at the femoral neck level. A significant inverse correlation was found between lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD values and both PRL levels and disease duration (P < 0.01). In the 20 patients, serum OC levels were significantly lower (2.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 9.3 +/- 2.4 microg/L; P < 0.01), whereas Ntx levels were significantly higher (157.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 96.4 +/- 7.4 nmol bone collagen equivalent/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) than control values. A significant inverse correlation was found between serum PRL and OC (P < 0.01), but not Ntx, levels. After 18 months of treatment, serum PRL levels were suppressed, and gonadal function was restored in all 20 patients, as shown by the normalization of serum T (from 2.2 +/- 0.2 to 5.0 +/- 0.2 microg/L) and dihydrotestosterone (0.3 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.01 nmol/L) levels, without any significant difference among groups. A progressive significant increase in serum OC levels together with a significant decrease in Ntx levels were observed after 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment

  7. Correlations between acoustic properties and bone density in bovine cancellous bone from 0.5 to 2 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Roh, Heui-Seol; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2003-05-01

    Correlations between acoustic properties and bone density were investigated in the 12 defatted bovine cancellous bone specimens in vitro. Speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were measured in three different frequency bandwidths from 0.5 to 2 MHz using three matched pairs of transducers with the center frequencies of 1, 2.25, and 3.5 MHz. The relative orientation between ultrasonic beam and bone specimen was the mediolateral (ML) direction of the bovine tibia. SOS shows significant linear positive correlation with apparent density for all three pairs of transducers. However, BUA shows relatively weak correlation with apparent density. SOS and BUA are only weakly correlated with each other. The linear combination of SOS and BUA in a multiple regression model leads to a significant improvement in predicting apparent density. The correlations among SOS, BUA, and bone density can be effectively and clearly represented in the three-dimensional space by the multiple regression model. These results suggest that the frequency range up to 1.5 MHz and the multiple regression model in the three-dimensional space can be useful in the osteoporosis diagnosis.

  8. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship

    PubMed Central

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-01-01

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  9. Comparison of manual and automated cultures of bone marrow stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Asako; Ichimura, Masaki; Tone, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masaru; Inoue, Minoru; Tojo, Arinobu; Kagami, Hideaki

    2015-11-01

    The development of an automated cell culture system would allow stable and economical cell processing for wider clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine. However, it is crucial to determine whether the cells obtained by automated culture are comparable to those generated by manual culture. In the present study, we focused on the primary culture process of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue engineering and investigated the feasibility of its automation using a commercially available automated cell culture system in a clinical setting. A comparison of the harvested BMSCs from manual and automated cultures using clinically acceptable protocols showed no differences in cell yields, viabilities, surface marker expression profiles, and in vivo osteogenic abilities. Cells cultured with this system also did not show malignant transformation and the automated process was revealed to be safe in terms of microbial contamination. Taken together, the automated procedure described in this report provides an approach to clinical bone tissue engineering.

  10. The influence of bone-density on in vivo K x-ray fluorescence bone-lead measurements.

    PubMed

    Lodwick, Camille J; Lodwick, Jeffrey C; Spitz, Henry B

    2011-05-01

    Mathematical simulations and benchmark measurements were performed to assess the impact that normal variations in human calcium content have on in vivo K x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone. Four sets of cortical bone tissue simulants were fabricated containing from 20.8% to 23.8% calcium (by weight) for measurement in a surrogate (phantom) of the human leg. The net counts detected in the coherent backscatter peak at 88.034 keV using a Cd source indicate a positive trend, with a variability of up to 17% over the range of assessed calcium content. Mathematical simulations confirm this trend and also demonstrate that the contribution of 87.3 keV Pb Kβ2 counts, which are unresolved in measurements, do not contribute significantly to the coherent peak at low levels of bone-lead content. Both measurements and simulations confirm that calcium is a statistically significant parameter in predicting the K-XRF response and suggest that lead levels may be over-predicted for individuals having low bone density compared to the calibration matrix. Simulations identify a 4.5% negative bias in measured lead values for each 1% increase in calcium weight percent in the bone matrix as compared to the calibration matrix. It is therefore important to accommodate this uncertainty when performing epidemiological studies of populations having a wide range of bone densities.

  11. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  12. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.E.; Bloch, D.A.; Jones, H.H.; Marshall, W.H. Jr.; Wood, P.D.; Fries, J.F.

    1986-03-07

    Forty-one long-distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact (running) with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status. A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. Runners, both male and female, have approximately 40% more bone mineral than matched controls. Female runners, but not male runners, appear to have somewhat more sclerosis and spur formation in spine and weight-bearing knee x-ray films, but not in hand x-ray films. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

  13. Comparison between the properties of "accelerated-aged" bones and archaeological bones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Maksoud, Gomaa

    This study focuses on the changes in the properties of bones that resulted from 'heatageing' at different temperatures and long term of exposure compared to archaeological samples. It also aims to prepare aged samples similar to archaeological samples for the experimental studies in the conservation of bone artifacts. FTIR, XRD, UV spectrophotometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, polarizing and SEM microscopes were used as analytical techniques. The results revealed that 'heat ageing' technique used at different temperatures (200oC and 300OC) and times (from 1 hour to 13 hours) affected the properties of change in colour, loss of bone density, destruction of the surface morphology, increasing the crystallinity index which, was similar with the archaeological sample after 8 and 12 hours of exposure. The study concluded that 'heat ageing' at 300°C after 8 hours can give properties close or similar to archaeological samples.

  14. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    osteoblast derived IGF caused by varying bone size ( periosteal circumference). As shown in KO mouse produces mechanical strain equivalent to 9N load in...It is known that ap pressure on the periosteal on the periosteal surface o response to loading by fou Figure 3: Cros externally load pQCT after 12...strain on the bone or due to the four-point bending technique produces a considerable amount of new bone formation 8 Dr. Subburaman Mohan 9 periosteal

  15. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    that an identical amount of mechanical strain applied to both mouse models produces a greater increase in the bone formation [ periosteal and endosteal...studies using this model on rats and mice have shown greater increase in the periosteal bone formation; 2) In the four-point bending method, the...area, total mineral content, periosteal circumference, and endosteal circumference in the loaded vs. unloaded bones. A 730- 730-mg/cm 3 threshold was

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2016-12-09

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R(2)=0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  17. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  18. Automated, foot-bone registration using subdivision-embedded atlases for spatial mapping of bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Commean, Paul K; Hildebolt, Charles; Sinacore, Dave; Prior, Fred; Carson, James P; Kakadiaris, Ioannis; Ju, Tao

    2013-06-01

    We present an atlas-based registration method for bones segmented from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans, with the goal of mapping their interior bone mineral densities (BMDs) volumetrically. We introduce a new type of deformable atlas, called subdivision-embedded atlas, which consists of a control grid represented as a tetrahedral subdivision mesh and a template bone surface embedded within the grid. Compared to a typical lattice-based deformation grid, the subdivision control grid possesses a relatively small degree of freedom tailored to the shape of the bone, which allows efficient fitting onto subjects. Compared with previous subdivision atlases, the novelty of our atlas lies in the addition of the embedded template surface, which further increases the accuracy of the fitting. Using this new atlas representation, we developed an efficient and fully automated pipeline for registering atlases of 12 tarsal and metatarsal bones to a segmented QCT scan of a human foot. Our evaluation shows that the mapping of BMD enabled by the registration is consistent for bones in repeated scans, and the regional BMD automatically computed from the mapping is not significantly different from expert annotations. The results suggest that our improved subdivision-based registration method is a reliable, efficient way to replace manual labor for measuring regional BMD in foot bones in QCT scans.

  19. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  20. Can acetazolamide be used to treat diseases involving increased bone mineral density?

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Juan David; Luis-Yanes, María Isabel; Inglés-Torres, Esther; Arango-Sancho, Pedro; Cabrera-Sevilla, José Eugenio; Duque-Fernández, María Rosario; Gil-Sánchez, Salvador; García-Nieto, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases. PMID:27904825

  1. Genetic and Dynamic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    parameters of tibia in C3H and B6 mice. Conversely, calcium deficient animals develop secondary hyperparathyroidism , which is a potent stimulus of...depletion causes hypocalcemia, which leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism , subsequently resulting in increased bone resorption. Conversely, dietary

  2. Minodronic acid (ONO-5920/YM529) prevents decrease in bone mineral density and bone strength, and improves bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Makoto; Kayasuga, Ryoji; Masuda, Taisei; Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kishikawa, Katsuya; Ito, Masako; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of the highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, minodronic acid (ONO-5920/YM529), on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover, bone microarchitecture and bone strength in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Skeletally mature female cynomolgus monkeys, aged 9-17 years, were ovariectomized or sham-operated. Minodronic acid was administered orally once a day in doses of 0, 0.015, and 0.15 mg/kg from the day after surgery for 17 months. Bone resorption markers (urinary N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen and deoxypyridinoline), bone formation markers (serum osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and lumbar vertebral BMD were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, 12 and 16 months after surgery. Treatment with minodronic acid dose-dependently inhibited OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar vertebral BMD, and minodronic acid at 0.15 mg/kg completely prevented these changes. At 17 months after surgery, minodronic acid also suppressed bone resorption (Oc.S/BS and N.Oc/BS) and bone formation (OS/BS, MS/BS, MAR, BFR/BS, and BFR/BV) in the lumbar vertebral bodies and tibia. In the mechanical tests, ultimate load on lumbar vertebral bodies and femoral neck of the OVX-control animals were significantly reduced compared to the sham animals. Minodronic acid prevented these reductions in bone strength at 0.15 mg/kg. There was significant correlation between BMD and bone strength, suggesting that the increase in bone strength was associated with the increase in BMD produced by minodronic acid. In micro-CT analysis of the lumbar vertebral bodies, minodronic acid improved trabecular architecture, converting rod structures into plate structures, and preventing the increase in trabecular disconnectivity at 0.15 mg/kg. In conclusion, similar to patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, reduction in bone strength of lumbar vertebral bodies and femoral neck was clearly demonstrated in OVX

  3. Do metabolic syndrome and its components have an impact on bone mineral density in adolescents?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Valéria Nóbrega; Fiorelli, Luciana Nunes Mosca; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing concern about the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at an early age and its effects on bone mass in adolescents. Adolescence is considered a critical period for bone mass gain. Impaired bone acquisition during this phase can lead to "suboptimal" peak bone mass and increase the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures in old age. The objective of this review was to perform a critical analysis of articles that specifically focus on this age group, evaluating the influence of MetS and its components on bone mineral density in adolescents. A possible relationship between this syndrome and bone mass has been demonstrated, but the number of studies addressing this topic in adolescents is small. Despite the scarcity of evidence, the results of those studies show that Metabolic Syndrome is negatively correlated with bone mass and also that some components of MetS are negatively correlated with bone mineral density in adolescents. However, the associations between MetS and bone mass development need to be further explored in the age group corresponding to adolescence. Further good-quality studies are necessary to complement the understanding of this relationship.

  4. Immediate changes of bone density caused by the implantation of a femoral stem--a DEXA study. Ulf.Leichtle@med.uni-tuebingen.de.

    PubMed

    Leichtle, Ulf G; Leasure, Jeremi; Martini, Franz; Leichtle, Carmen I

    2011-01-01

    Considerable immediate periprosthetic bone density changes after implantation of femoral stems have been observed comparing DEXA measurements taken pre- and post-operatively. This is important in relation to the interpretation of DEXA studies. We analysed these density changes under standardised experimental conditions. Five human femora were implanted with a custom made femoral stem and ten femora with a standard cementless prosthesis. Densitometry was performed at various stages of implantation. Following rasping only slight density changes were noted (-2.7% to +0.7%). Comparing post-implantation and pre-operative measurements, all custom made stems with a proximal press-fit demonstrated clear increases in proximal periprosthetic bone density of +11% and +14%. In contrast, the standard prosthesis with a distal press-fit showed a loss of -5% and -2% in the proximal zones. Measurements following removal of the implants demonstrated hardly any density changes (0% to -4%) compared to the pre-operative measurements. We concluded that compacting of trabecular bone or bone loss due to rasping are not the main causes of density changes. Substantial measuring errors exist. For examination of periprosthetic bone density changes, pre-operative initial measurements should not be used as a baseline for comparison. Studies should commence with an immediate postoperative measurement.

  5. The Impairment of Osteogenesis in Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) Knockout Calvaria Cell Cultures Is Cell Density Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Guenaelle; Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Thomas, Mireille; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Aubin, Jane E.; Vico, Laurence; Marchat, David; Malaval, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) belongs to the "small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein" (SIBLING) family, whose members interact with bone cells and bone mineral. BSP is strongly expressed in bone and we previously showed that BSP knockout (BSP-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than wild type (BSP+/+) littermates, with lower bone remodelling. Because baseline bone formation activity is constitutively lower in BSP-/- mice, we studied the impact of the absence of BSP on in vitro osteogenesis in mouse calvaria cell (MCC) cultures. MCC BSP-/- cultures exhibit fewer fibroblast (CFU-F), preosteoblast (CFU-ALP) and osteoblast colonies (bone nodules) than wild type, indicative of a lower number of osteoprogenitors. No mineralized colonies were observed in BSP-/- cultures, along with little/no expression of either osteogenic markers or SIBLING proteins MEPE or DMP1. Osteopontin (OPN) is the only SIBLING expressed in standard density BSP-/- culture, at higher levels than in wild type in early culture times. At higher plating density, the effects of the absence of BSP were partly rescued, with resumed expression of osteoblast markers and cognate SIBLING proteins, and mineralization of the mutant cultures. OPN expression and amount are further increased in high density BSP-/- cultures, while PHEX and CatB expression are differentiatlly regulated in a manner that may favor mineralization. Altogether, we found that BSP regulates mouse calvaria osteoblast cell clonogenicity, differentiation and activity in vitro in a cell density dependent manner, consistent with the effective skeletogenesis but the low levels of bone formation observed in vivo. The BSP knockout bone microenvironment may alter the proliferation/cell fate of early osteoprogenitors. PMID:25710686

  6. Is Coronary Artery Calcification Associated with Vertebral Bone Density in Nondialyzed Chronic Kidney Disease Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Filgueira, Agostinho; Carvalho, Aluizio Barbosa; Tomiyama, Cristiane; Higa, Andrea; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Santos, Raul D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Low bone mineral density and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and both conditions are strongly associated with higher mortality. The study presented here aimed to investigate whether reduced vertebral bone density (VBD) was associated with the presence of CAC in the earlier stages of CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventy-two nondialyzed CKD patients (age 52 ± 11.7 years, 70% male, 42% diabetics, creatinine clearance 40.4 ± 18.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2) were studied. VBD and CAC were quantified by computed tomography. Results CAC > 10 Agatston units (AU) was observed in 50% of the patients (median 120 AU [interquartile range 32 to 584 AU]), and a calcification score ≥ 400 AU was found in 19% (736 [527 to 1012] AU). VBD (190 ± 52 Hounsfield units) correlated inversely with age (r = −0.41, P < 0.001) and calcium score (r = −0.31, P = 0.01), and no correlation was found with gender, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, lipid profile, mineral parameters, body mass index, and diabetes. Patients in the lowest tertile of VBD had expressively increased calcium score in comparison to the middle and highest tertile groups. In the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables, low VBD was independently associated with the presence of CAC. Conclusions Low VBD was associated with CAC in nondialyzed CKD patients. The authors suggest that low VBD might constitute another nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in CKD. PMID:21617086

  7. Age and gender effects on bone mass density variation: finite elements simulation.

    PubMed

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution. A series of computational simulations have been performed on a 2D and 3D human proximal femur. An age- and gender-related impacts on bulk density alteration of trabecular bone have been noticed, and the major actors responsible of this phenomenon have been then discussed.

  8. Smokers with emphysema and small airway disease on computed tomography have lower bone density.

    PubMed

    Pompe, Esther; de Jong, Pim A; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Gallardo Estrella, Leticia; de Jong, Werner U; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; van Ginneken, Bram; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus Aa

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is more common in patients with COPD and in smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether measures of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT) were associated with lower bone density or vertebral fractures in smokers with and without COPD. For this purpose, we included participants from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Bone density was measured as Hounsfield Units in the first lumbar vertebra, and vertebral fractures were assessed semiquantitatively. The 15th percentile method (Perc15) was used to assess emphysema, and the airway lumen perimeter (Pi10) was used for airway wall thickness. Expiratory/inspiratory-ratiomean lung density (E/I-ratioMLD) was used as a measure for air trapping and tracheal index to assess tracheal deformity. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between CT biomarkers, bone density, and presence of fractures. Exactly 1,093 male participants were eligible for analysis. Lower Perc15 and higher E/I-ratioMLD were significantly associated with lower bone density (b=-1.27, P=0.02 and b=-0.37, P=0.02, respectively). Pi10 and tracheal index were not associated with bone density changes. CT-derived biomarkers were not associated with fracture prevalence. Bone density is lower with increasing extent of emphysema and small airway disease but is not associated with large airway disease and tracheal deformity. This may indicate the necessity to measure bone density early in smokers with emphysema and air trapping to prevent vertebral fractures.

  9. Bone density assessment for evaluation of gender differences in cervical vertebral maturation: A computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Usha, K.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Nagarajan, D.; Selvarani, R.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is a vital tool for assessing the biological maturation of the orthodontic patient to evaluate the amount of mandibular bone growth left. Aim: To assess and visualize the cervical vertebral morphology (bone density) of orthodontic patients of the age group 9,16,27 years. Material and Methods: Twenty four subjects with age group of 9,16,27 who were randomly selected and subjected to 3d tomographic study to estimate the biological age of the orthodontic patients by analyzing c1 c2 and c3 vertebrae. Result: The results showed that bone density of males is lesser than females in 9 and 16 years, whereas they have more bone density than females in 27 years. Conclusion: The study provides qualitative method of assessing the biological age of the patient by using images of cervical vertebrae by three dimensional approach. Hence it can be useful for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. PMID:27829750

  10. Effect of Methionine Restriction on Bone Density and NK Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jingming

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) is proven to increase the lifespan; and it also affects the bone density and the innate immune system. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of methionine restriction on bone density and natural killer (NK) cells. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to either basal diet (BD, containing 0.80% methionine) or methionine-restricted diet (containing 0.14% methionine). Mice with MR diet displayed reduced bone mass and decrease in the cytotoxicity of NK from the spleen, compared to BD animals. Also, mice with MR diet had an inferior body weight (P < 0.05) and higher plasma levels of adiponectin and FGF21 (P < 0.05) but lower concentrations of leptin and IGF-1 (P < 0.05). Overall, the investigation shows that methionine affects bone density and NK cell cytotoxicity. PMID:27882323

  11. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  12. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, p<0.001). Nevertheless, SED gradients in the marrow were shown to be the best predictor of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity (R(2)=0.83 and 0.60, respectively, p<0.001). These data suggest that the mechanical environment of the bone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  13. Bone density changes in premature ovarian insufficiency patients who have had term pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Mariana; Holloway, Debra; Rymer, Janice

    2014-12-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency affects 1% of women under the age of 40 and is associated with a hypoestrogenic state, potentially leading to multiple comorbidities including reduced bone density and fertility. An unpredictable ovarian function is observed in 50% of patients with 5-10% being able to achieve a pregnancy. Longitudinal studies have shown a temporary decline in bone mineral density of up to 5% during pregnancy and lactation in healthy women, with the loss of bone density post-partum being proportional to the period of breastfeeding. Effects of pregnancy in women with premature ovarian insufficiency have not been widely documented. Nevertheless, a lower bone mineral density baseline has been observed pre-conceptually, associated with both the hypoestrogenic state of the condition and the possibility that premature ovarian insufficiency was developed prior to achieving peak bone mass. This may suggest that breastfeeding could cause further deterioration in bone mineral density that may not be easy to recover from due to the reduced baseline levels.

  14. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H

    2014-11-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with KS. Thirty-one patients with KS confirmed by lymphocyte chromosome karyotyping aged 35.8 ± 8.2 years were recruited consecutively from a KS outpatient clinic and matched with respect to age and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy. In weight-adjusted models, HR-pQCT revealed a significantly lower cortical area (p < 0.01), total and trabecular vBMD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04), trabecular bone volume fraction (p = 0.04), trabecular number (p = 0.05), and estimates of bone strength, whereas trabecular spacing was higher (p = 0.03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of bone structure, estimated bone strength, or bone biomarkers in KS patients with and without testosterone therapy. This study showed that KS patients had lower total vBMD and a compromised trabecular compartment with a reduced trabecular density and bone volume fraction at the tibia. The compromised trabecular network integrity attributable to a lower trabecular number with relative preservation of trabecular thickness is similar to the picture found in women with aging. KS patients also displayed a reduced cortical area and thickness at the tibia, which in

  15. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  16. Genetic and Dyanmic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Animal Care and Use, Human Subjects, civil Rights, Handicapped Individuals, Sex Discrimination, Scientific Fraud (Misconduct) Assurance, Delinquent ...B6CASTF2 cross served its purposes fully and will not be pursued further at this time. Biological stimulus tests show that genetic differences ...and endosteal surfaces of tibias. These data primarily reflect changes in cortical bone compartment. Genetic differences discriminating C57BL/6J from

  17. Clodronate stimulates bone formation as well as inhibits bone resorption and increases bone mineral density in rats fed a low-calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Horie, Daisuke; Takahashi, Mariko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi

    2003-03-01

    The pharmacological actions of bisphosphonates are due to the inhibitory effects on bone resorption, but little is known about the bisphosphonate action on bone formation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the actions of bisphosphonates, clodronate, on bone formation in the experimental in vivo and in vitro rat models. The bone mineral density (BMD) was decreased in the rats fed a low-calcium diet (0.05% Ca) for 6 days compared with the rats fed a normal-calcium diet (0.5% Ca). The decrease in BMD was suppressed in the 2 mgP/day and the 4 mgP/day clodronate administrations. Bone formation rate (BFR) in rats fed a low-calcium diet was significantly increased compared with the rats fed a normal-calcium diet, and the 2 mgP clodronate administration further increased the BFR. In the cultured rat bone marrow cells, the area of mineralized nodules was significantly increased at 10(-7) and 10(-6) M clodronate, but high concentration of clodronate decreased the area. From these results, it is concluded that clodronate stimulates bone formation when the drug was given to a rat with a relatively lower dose that is sufficient to prevent bone resorption and that this effect may be due to the stimulatory effect on the differentiation process of osteoblasts.

  18. Variations in bone density across the body of the immature human mandible.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Farella, Mauro; Hoffman, Jakobus; Kramer, Beverley

    2017-03-03

    During growth the mandible accommodates increases in biomechanical loading resulting from changes in the function of structures of the oral cavity. Biomechanical loads are thought to play an intricate and vital role in the modelling and remodelling of bone, with site-specific effects on bone mineral density. It is anticipated that the effects of this loading on bone mineral density are intensified during the functional transition from prenatal to postnatal stages. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate changes in bone mineral density across the body of the immature human mandible during the early stages of dental development. The study sample included 45 human mandibles, subdivided into three age groups: prenatal (30 gestational weeks to birth; n = 15); early postnatal (birth to 12 months; n = 18); and late postnatal (1-5 years; n = 12). Mandibles were scanned using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Eight landmarks were selected along the buccal/labial and lingual surfaces of each dental crypt for evaluation of the bone mineral density. Bone mineral density values were calculated using a reference standard and analysed using multivariate statistics. The bone mineral density of the lingual surface was found to be significantly higher (P ≤ 0.000) than that of the buccal/labial surface. Furthermore, bone mineral density in the alveolar region of the buccal/labial surface of the deciduous central incisor (P ≤ 0.001), the deciduous first molar (P ≤ 0.013) and lingual alveolar area of the deciduous second molar (P ≤ 0.032) were significantly greater in the early postnatal period than in the prenatal period. While changes in bone mineral density across the lingual surface were consistent with the progression of development and the biomechanical demand of the tongue as previously demonstrated, changes observed across the buccal/labial surface of the mandible appeared to accompany the advancing dental development. Thus, changes in bone mineral density across the

  19. Local Variation in Femoral Neck Cortical Bone: In Vitro Measured Bone Mineral Density, Geometry and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Louise V; Jenkins, Thomas; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dunlop, Doug G; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Philipp J

    2015-12-17

    Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally around the circumference of the femoral neck, allowing examination of spatial variability within the cortical bone. Fractured tissue was less resistant to indentation in the thinner superolateral segment compared to other segments and other groups. BMD around the fractured femoral necks appeared more consistent than that of nonfractured tissue, where BMD was reduced in the superolateral segment for the other groups. Cortical bone was thin in the superolateral segment for all groups except for the osteoarthritic group, and was thicker in the inferomedial segment for both osteoarthritic and fractured groups, resulting in the largest variation in buckling ratio (ratio of cortical bone diameter to cortical bone thickness) around the femoral neck for the fractured group. With age, healthy controls appeared to have lower inferomedial cortical thickness, whereas no significant differences in Reference Point Indentation measurements and density were observed. The study has

  20. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  1. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone--relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, J; Töyräs, J; Hakulinen, M A; Saarakkala, S; Jurvelin, J S; Lappalainen, R

    2003-03-21

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  2. Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

  3. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    PubMed Central

    Bogden, John D; Kemp, Francis W; Huang, Abigail E; Shapses, Sue A; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Jagpal, Sugeet; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks) were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls) or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight) throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p < 0.05) and marginally lower BMD (p = 0.09) than rats not undergoing weight cycling. In comparison to controls, rats fed RS2 had higher femur BMD (p < 0.01) and BMC (p < 0.05), as well as higher values for BMD and BMC measured at the distal end (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) and femoral neck (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Consistent with these findings, RS2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.0001) concentrations. They also had higher lumbar vertebrae calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.05) concentrations. Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A

  4. Comparative investigation of bone mineral density using CT and DEXA in a canine femoral model.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Karin; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; Betancur, Stefanie; Almohallami, Amer; Bouguecha, Anas; Mostafa, Ayman; Lerch, Matthias; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2017-04-07

    Bone density measurements using computed tomography (CT) instead of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are currently of great interest in human and veterinary medical research as it would be beneficial to use CT scans obtained for other indications also for determining bone density. For Hounsfield units (HU) measured with CT in specific regions of interests (ROIs) in one or several slice/s a corrrelation with bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in humans and dogs of between 0.44 and 0.77 is reported in the literature. In the present study instead certain volumes of interest (VOIs) obtained by CT scan and the corresponding HU to the respective VOIs were compared with the bone mineral density of the corresponding areas measured by DEXA. The aim of the study was to investigate whether this procedure gives more accurate information about bone density of the bones as 3-dimensional objects of the respective patient. Correlation between measured HU in the respective VOI and BMD measured with DEXA in the corresponding ROI showed a very good correlation of 0.93. Linear regression with R(2) = 0.85 (p = 0.0262) was calculated. Except for VOI5, similar distribution of values and significant differences (p < 0.0001-0.0087) between ROIs/VOIs were detected. Determining HU for assessing bone mineral density in a certain volume provides more accurate results than those previously reported from 2-dimensional (2D) CT measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  6. Conversations between insulin and bone: Potential mechanism of high bone density in patients with Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Josivan Gomes; Lima, Natalia Nobrega; Nobrega, Lucia Helena C; Jeronimo, Selma Maria B

    2016-12-01

    Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by a difficulty storing lipid in adipocytes, low body fat, hypertriglyceridemia, and fat liver. The serum leptin is usually very low, and serum insulin, as well as HOMAIR (homeostasis model assessment), is very high and correlated positively with bone mineral density (BMD). Despite deficiency/insufficiency of vitamin D, low body mass index, low daily calcium intake, physical inactivity, and menarche at a later age, BSCL patients usually have normal or even high BMD. We hypothesize that low leptin and high insulin may play a role in this outcome. Understanding the potential pathophysiological mechanism of these bone abnormalities will help to clarify the effects of extreme insulin resistance in the bone.

  7. Bone Density as a Marker of Response to Radiotherapy in Bone Metastatic Lesions: A Review of the Published Data

    PubMed Central

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Liakouli, Zoi; Zygogianni, Anna; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Kouvaris, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the bone are presenting in a great percentage of patients with cancer, causing a variety of symptoms, affecting the quality of life and survival of patients. A multidisciplinary approach from different health providers is required for treatment, including radiation oncologists, medical oncologists and surgeons. The role of radiotherapy in the management of bone metastases has long been established through multiple randomized trials. The estimation of response to the therapy is subjective and is based on the palliation of the symptoms that the patients report. However, a quantification of the tumor burden and response to the treatment with the use of an objective method to measure those parameters is a clinical expectation in oncology. The change in bone density in affected areas (mainly lytic) after local radiotherapy, representing the cellular changes that have occurred, is a promising marker of response to treatment. PMID:27563886

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the magnitude and mediators of the association between cigarette smoking and bone mass in the epidemiologic literature we reviewed articles, published abstracts, and conference proceedings, identified through MEDLINE, psychological abstracts, conference proceedings, and article bibliographies. We studied cross-sectional and prospective human studies that provided a quantitative measure of bone mass (X-ray, absorptiometry, or computed tomography) as a function of cigarette smoking exposure. Effects were expressed as pooled standardized mean differences for categorical comparisons (e.g., bone mass in current versus nonsmokers), and as pooled correlation coefficients for continuous comparisons (e.g., correlation of bone mass and pack-years of smoking). Effects were derived for combined bone sites (all bone sites pooled within each study) and four specific sites (hip, lumbar spine, forearm, and os calcis), and were examined overall and as a function of subject and methodologic characteristics (gender, age, body weight, menopausal status, health status). Data were pooled across 86 studies, enrolling 40,753 subjects. Smokers had significantly reduced bone mass compared with nonsmokers (never and former smokers) at all bone sites, averaging a one-tenth standard deviation (SD) deficit for combined sites. Deficits were especially pronounced at the hip, where the bone mass of current smokers was one-third of a SD less than that of never smokers. Overall, effects were greatest in men and in the elderly, and were dose-dependent. In prospective studies, smokers had greater rates of bone loss over time compared with nonsmokers. Bone mass differences remained significant after controlling for age and body weight differences between the two groups. Absolute effect sizes at most bone sites were greatest for current smokers compared with never smokers, intermediate for current smokers compared with former smokers, and lowest for former smokers compared with never

  9. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2015-11-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts.

  10. Radiation activated CHK1/MEPE pathway may contribute to microgravity-induced bone density loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Bone density loss in astronauts on long-term space missions is a chief medical concern. Microgravity in space is the major cause of bone density loss (osteopenia), and it is believed that high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in space exacerbates microgravity-induced bone density loss; however, the mechanism remains unclear. It is known that acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) as a small peptide released by matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) promotes osteopenia. We previously discovered that MEPE interacted with checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) to protect CHK1 from ionizing radiation promoted degradation. In this study, we addressed whether the CHK1-MEPE pathway activated by radiation contributes to the effects of microgravity on bone density loss. We examined the CHK1, MEPE and secreted MEPE/ASARM levels in irradiated (1 Gy of X-ray) and rotated cultured human osteoblast cells. The results showed that radiation activated CHK1, decreased the levels of CHK1 and MEPE in human osteoblast cells and increased the release of MEPE/ASARM. These results suggest that the radiation-activated CHK1/MEPE pathway exacerbates the effects of microgravity on bone density loss, which may provide a novel targeting factor/pathway for a future countermeasure design that could contribute to reducing osteopenia in astronauts. PMID:26553637

  11. Menstrual state and exercise as determinants of spinal trabecular bone density in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, R L; Clark, P; McNally, E; Harries, M; Reeve, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effects of amenorrhoea and intensive back exercise on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in female athletes. DESIGN--Cross sectional study comparing amenorrhoeic with eumenorrhoeic athletes and rowers with non-rowers. SETTING--The British Olympic Medical Centre, Northwick Park Hospital. PATIENTS--46 Elite female athletes comprising 19 rowers, 18 runners, and nine dancers, of whom 25 were amenorrhoeic and 21 eumenorrhoeic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Trabecular bone mineral density of the lumbar spine measured by computed tomography. RESULTS--Mean trabecular bone mineral density was 42 mg/cm3 (95% confidence interval 22 to 62 mg/cm3) lower in the amenorrhoeic than the eumenorrhoeic athletes; this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0002). Mean trabecular bone mineral density was 21 mg/cm3 (1 to 41 mg/cm3) lower in the non-rowers than the rowers; this was also significant (p = 0.05). There was no interaction between these two effects (p = 0.28). CONCLUSION--The effect of intensive exercise on the lumbar spine partially compensates for the adverse effect of amenorrhoea on spinal trabecular bone density. Images p516-a PMID:2207417

  12. Bone mineral density and body composition in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, A B; Ames, R W; Matthews, R D; Reid, I R

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease characterised by chronic pulmonary sepsis and malnutrition. To ascertain whether osteoporosis is a feature of cystic fibrosis in adult patients, total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in a group of eight men and eight women aged 17-42 years. METHODS--Total body and regional BMD (lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck, trochanteric, and Ward's triangle), as well as total body fat and lean mass, were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. A range of biochemical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables was also assessed. RESULTS--Patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly reduced bone density at all sites compared with normal young adults. The mean reductions ranged from 7% at Ward's triangle to 13% at the trochanter. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with BMD at four sites and disease severity negatively correlated with BMD at two sites. Other biochemical and anthropometric variables were not predictive of bone density. Total body fat mass was reduced by 30% compared with normal young adults. CONCLUSIONS--Bone density is decreased in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and BMI and disease severity are independent predictors of bone density. PMID:8346485

  13. Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Carlson, Kristian J

    2008-10-23

    Vertebrate morphologists often are interested in inferring limb-loading patterns in animals characterized by different locomotor repertoires. Because bone apparent density (i.e. mass per unit volume of bone inclusive of porosities) is a determinant of compressive strength, and thus indicative of compressive loading, recent comparative studies in primates have proposed a structure-function relationship between apparent density of subchondral bone and locomotor behaviours that vary in compressive loading. If such patterns are found in other mammals, then these relationships would be strengthened further. Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that generally load their FLs in compression. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry was used to visualize the patterns in subchondral apparent density. Suspensory sloths exhibit relatively smaller areas of high apparent density than quadrupedal anteaters. This locomotor-based pattern is analogous to the pattern observed in suspensory and quadrupedal primates. Similarity between xenarthran and primate trends suggests broad-scale applicability for analysing subchondral bone apparent density and supports the idea that bone functionally alters its material properties in response to locomotor behaviours.

  14. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  15. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  16. Cell seeding density is a critical determinant for copolymer scaffolds‐induced bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Leknes, Knut N.; Pedersen, Torbjorn O.; Xing, Zhe; Sun, Yang; Lie, Stein A.; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Mustafa, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Constructs intended for bone tissue engineering (TE) are influenced by the initial cell seeding density. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) density loaded onto copolymer scaffolds on bone regeneration. BMSCs were harvested from rat's bone marrow and cultured in media with or without osteogenic supplements. Cells were seeded onto poly(l‐lactide‐co‐ε‐caprolactone) [poly(LLA‐co‐CL)] scaffolds at two different densities: low density (1 × 106 cells/scaffold) or high density (2 × 106 cells/scaffold) using spinner modified flasks and examined after 1 and 3 weeks. Initial attachment and spread of BMSC onto the scaffolds was recorded by scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed by DNA quantification and cell differentiation by quantitative real‐time reverse transcriptase‐polymerized chain reaction analysis (qRT‐PCR). Five‐millimeter rat calvarial defects (24 defects in 12 rats) were implanted with scaffolds seeded with either low or high density expanded with or without osteogenic supplements. Osteogenic supplements significantly increased cell proliferation (p < 0.001). Scaffolds seeded at high cell density exhibited higher mRNA expressions of Runx2 p = 0.001, Col1 p = 0.001, BMP2 p < 0.001, BSP p < 0.001, and OC p = 0.013. More bone was formed in response to high cell seeding density (p = 0.023) and high seeding density with osteogenic medium (p = 0.038). Poly (LLA‐co‐CL) scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for bone TE. The optimal number of cells to be loaded onto scaffolds is critical for promoting Extracellular matrix synthesis and bone formation. Cell seeding density and osteogenic supplements may have a synergistic effect on the induction of new bone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3649–3658, 2015. PMID:26013960

  17. Local calibrated bone mineral density in the mandible presented using a color coding scheme.

    PubMed

    Homolka, P; Beer, A; Birkfellner, W; Gahleitner, A; Nowotny, R; Bergmann, H

    2001-11-01

    Calibrated information on bone mineral density (BMD) may be used in dental implantology to measure "bone quality". It can be used to estimate the expected primary implant stability preoperatively and to guide the surgeon in selecting optimum implant types and operation techniques. Using a preoperative dental computed tomography (Dental-CT) scan, all of this information can be obtained without additional examinations and thus without additional X-ray exposure of the patient. In contrast to bone mineral determination in other body regions, local BMD values are important in the jaw bone. Therefore, a regimen where color-coded information on local bone mineralization is superimposed on Dental-CT images is proposed using the original CT volumes as well as reformatted views.

  18. The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Botella Martínez, Sonsoles; Varo Cenarruzabeitia, Nerea; Escalada San Martin, Javier; Calleja Canelas, Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice. The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'.

  19. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D.; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. Study Design The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. Results The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 –L4: r = 0.73; P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted Z-score of L1 –L4 and the height-adjusted score showed a positive correlation with the BHI-SDS (standard deviation score, r = 0.23; P < 0.002 and r = 0.27; P < 0.001, respectively). Total bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001), but the trabecular values displayed only a weak correlation. Conclusions The BHI obtained using BoneXpert can be a useful parameter in the assessment of bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands. PMID:27014874

  20. Alveolar bone density and its clinical implication in the placement of dental implants and orthodontic mini-implants

    PubMed Central

    Almasoud, Naif N.; Tanneru, Nagaraju; Marei, Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bone density in maxilla and mandible in dentate and edentulous patients in Saudi population. Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of cone beam CT images of 100 patients (50 male and 50 female) who have come to College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2014 and 2015. Using the bone density option in the Simplant software, the Hounsfield unit (HU) was calculated at the edentulous sites. While for dentate sites, a region of interest was selected coronally at 3-5 mm to the root apex using I-CAT vision software. The densities of the buccal bone and cancellous bone were measured at interradicular areas of a specific teeth. Results: The highest bone density at the edentulous sites was at the mandibular anterior region (776.5 ± 65.7 HU), followed by the mandibular posterior region (502.2 ± 224.2 HU). Regarding the dentate sites, the highest bone density was at the buccal cortical plate of the lower incisor teeth (937.56 ± 176.92 HU) and the lowest bone density was at the cancellous bone around the posterior maxillary teeth (247.12 ± 46.75 HU). Conclusion: The alveolar bone density at dentate and edentulous sites in our population is generally lower than the norm reference density of other populations, which dictates the need for quantitative assessment of bone density before implants and mini-implants placement. PMID:27279516

  1. Three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide improves vertebral and peripheral bone density, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties without accelerating bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Takao-Kawabata, Ryoko; Isogai, Yukihiro; Takakura, Aya; Shimazu, Yukari; Sugimoto, Emika; Nakazono, Osamu; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya; Oda, Hiromi; Ishizuya, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    Daily and weekly administration of teriparatide (PTH1-34) reduces the risk of osteoporotic bone fractures. However, their effects on markers of bone formation and bone resorption differ. These results indicate that the dosing frequency of teriparatide may affect bone metabolism and bone structure, with different effects on bone strength. In the present study, to evaluate the dose-related effects of a low administration frequency of teriparatide on bone status, we investigated the effects of three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide (1.1, 5.6, or 28.2 µg/kg) for 12 months on bone parameters, including bone metabolism markers, bone mineral density (BMD), micro-computed tomography, and bone strength, using 6-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three-times-weekly administration of teriparatide dose-dependently increased the BMD of the lumbar vertebra and femur in OVX rats, and increased serum osteocalcin (a marker of bone formation), but not type I collagen C-telopeptide (a marker of bone resorption). The trabecular number and thickness increased in the vertebrae and femur, as in prior reports of daily teriparatide administration in OVX rats. Cortical thickness increased only toward the endocortical side of the femur, unlike with daily administration. Bone strength of the vertebrae and proximal and shaft of the femur was correlated with the changes in BMD and bone structure. These results demonstrate the effects of low frequency, intermittent administration of teriparatide on the biomechanical, and microstructural properties of bone in OVX rats.

  2. The effects of the organopollutant PCB 126 on bone density in juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Holliday, Dawn K; Holliday, Casey M

    2012-03-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue with diverse functions including growth, structural support, pH balance and reproduction. These functions may be compromised in the presence of organopollutants that can alter bone properties. We exposed juvenile diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a ubiquitous anthropogenic organochlorine, and measured organic content, apparent bone mineral density (aBMD) using radiography and computed tomography, and quantified bone microstructure using histological preparations of femora. PCB-exposed terrapins were smaller in total size. Skulls of exposed animals had a higher organic content and a skeletal phenotype more typical of younger animals. The femora of exposed individuals had significantly reduced aBMD and significantly more cortical area occupied by non-bone. Because bone is an integral component of physiology, the observed skeletal changes can have far-reaching impacts on feeding and locomotor performance, calcium reserves and ultimately life history traits and reproductive success. Additionally, we caution that measurements of bone morphology, density, and composition from field-collected animals need to account not only for relatedness and age, but also environmental pollutants.

  3. Implant stability related to insertion torque force and bone density: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tricio, J; van Steenberghe, D; Rosenberg, D; Duchateau, L

    1995-12-01

    Seventy-five implants were installed in 12 fresh ethanol-treated bovine ribs by use of a torque gauge manometer to measure the force needed to screw the implants fully into the bone. Digital radiographs were taken and a density histogram of the bone at the implant/bone interface was obtained. The damping characteristics of the implant/bone interface were assessed by tapping the abutment with the Periotest (PT) device. Abutments of several lengths screwed at 20 N/cm were used to conduct PT measurements and the PT values (PTVs) were related to the insertion torque force, the bone density, and implant and abutment length. The results indicated that high correlations exist between PTVs and insertion torque force (R value -0.74579), and PTVs and bone density (R value -0.83031). There was also a significant difference (p 0.001) among the PTVs of the different abutment lengths used. Implant length did not demonstrate influence on PTVs (p 0.3847).

  4. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jikun; Chen, Laigao; Sandison, George A.; Liang, Yun; Xu, Lisa X.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy).

  5. Bone Density Loss Is Associated With Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Valderrábano, Rodrigo J; Lui, Li-Yung; Lee, Jennifer; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S; Hoffman, Andrew R; Wu, Joy Y

    2017-02-01

    Hematopoiesis depends on a supportive microenvironment. Preclinical studies in mice have demonstrated that osteoblasts influence the development of blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, B lymphocytes, and neutrophils. However, it is unknown whether osteoblast numbers or function impact blood cell counts in humans. We tested the hypothesis that men with low BMD or greater BMD loss have decreased circulating erythrocytes and lymphocytes and increased myeloid cells. We performed a cross-sectional analysis and prospective analysis in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a multisite longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2571 community-dwelling men (≥65 years) who were able to walk without assistance, did not have a hip replacement or fracture, and had complete blood counts (CBCs) at the third study visit were analyzed. Multivariable (MV)-adjusted logistic regression estimated odds of white blood cell (WBC) subtypes (highest and lowest quintile versus middle), and anemia (clinically defined) associated with BMD by DXA scan (at visit 3), annualized percent BMD change (baseline to visit 3), and high BMD loss (>0.5%/year, from baseline to visit 3) at the femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). MV-adjusted models included age, BMI, cancer history, smoking status, alcohol intake, corticosteroid use, self-reported health, thiazide use, and physical activity. At visit 3 greater TH BMD loss (per 1 SD) was associated with increased odds of anemia, high neutrophils, and low lymphocytes. Annualized BMD loss of >0.5% was associated with increased odds of anemia, high neutrophils, and low lymphocytes. Similar results were observed for FN BMD regarding anemia and lymphocytes. We conclude that community-dwelling older men with declining hip BMD over about 7 years had increased risks of anemia, lower lymphocyte count, and higher neutrophil count, consistent with preclinical studies. Bone health and hematopoiesis may have greater interdependency than previously recognized.

  6. Steroidal contraceptive use is associated with lower bone mineral density in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Thomson, R L; Buckley, J D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Norman, R J; Brinkworth, G D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting reproductive-aged women with features including hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity frequently treated with hormonal steroidal contraceptives. Women with PCOS appear to have lower bone mineral density (BMD). While steroidal contraceptives may positively affect bone health, their effect on BMD in PCOS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess BMD in women with PCOS according to recent contraceptive use. A cross-sectional analysis of 95 pre-menopausal overweight or obese sedentary women with PCOS [age 29.4 ± 6.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 36.1 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)] who either recently took steroidal contraceptives (ceased 3 months prior) or were not taking steroidal contraceptives was conducted. Clinical outcomes included BMD, anthropometry, insulin, glucose, reproductive hormones, dietary intake and vitamin use. BMD was significantly lower for women who used contraceptives compared to those who did not (mean difference 0.06 g/cm(2) 95 % confidence interval -0.11, -0.02, p = 0.005). In regression models, lower BMD was independently associated with contraceptive use (β = -0.05, 95 % CI -0.094, -0.002, p = 0.042), higher testosterone (β = -0.03, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.0008, p = 0.043) and lower BMI (β = 0.006, 95 % CI 0.002, 0.01, p = 0.007) (r (2) = 0.22, p = 0.001 for entire model). We report for the first time that overweight and obese women with PCOS with recent steroidal contraceptive use had lower BMD in comparison to non-users independent of factors known to contribute to BMD. Whether this observation is directly related to steroidal contraceptive use or other factors requires further investigation.

  7. Alterations of mass density and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrotic human jaw bone, a synchrotron µCT study.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bernhard; Langer, Max; Varga, Peter; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Dong, Pei; Schrof, Susanne; Männicke, Nils; Suhonen, Heikki; Olivier, Cecile; Maurer, Peter; Kazakia, Galateia J; Raum, Kay; Peyrin, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ) used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involved in bone remodeling and mineralization where they orchestrate the delicate equilibrium between osteoclast and osteoblast activity and through the active process called osteocytic osteolysis. Here, we hypothesized that (i) changes of the mineralized tissue matrix play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BRONJ, and (ii) the osteocyte lacunar morphology is altered in BRONJ. Synchrotron µCT with phase contrast is an appropriate tool for assessing both the 3D morphology of the osteocyte lacunae and the bone matrix mass density. Here, we used this technique to investigate the mass density distribution and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties at the sub-micrometer scale in human bone samples from the jaw, femur and tibia. First, we compared healthy human jaw bone to human tibia and femur in order to assess the specific differences and address potential explanations of why the jaw bone is exclusively targeted by the necrosis as a side effect of BP treatment. Second, we investigated the differences between BRONJ and control jaw bone samples to detect potential differences which could aid an improved understanding of the course of BRONJ. We found that the apparent mass density of jaw bone was significantly smaller compared to that of tibia, consistent with a higher bone turnover in the jaw bone. The variance of the lacunar volume distribution was significantly different depending on the anatomical site. The comparison between BRONJ and control jaw specimens revealed no significant increase in mineralization after BP. We found a significant decrease in osteocyte-lacunar density in the BRONJ group compared to the control jaw. Interestingly, the osteocyte-lacunar volume distribution was not altered after BP treatment.

  8. A Surrogate Measure of Cortical Bone Matrix Density by Long T2-Suppressed MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance has the potential to image and quantify two pools of water within bone: free water within the Haversian pore system (transverse relaxation time, T2 > 1 ms), and water hydrogen-bonded to matrix collagen (T2 ~ 300–400 µs). While total bone water concentration quantified by MRI has been shown to scale with porosity, greater insight into bone matrix density and porosity may be gained by relaxation-based separation of bound and pore water fractions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a recently developed surrogate measurement for matrix density, single adiabatic inversion recovery (SIR) zero echo-time (ZTE) MRI, in human bone. Specimens of tibial cortical bone from 15 donors (27–97 y/o, eight female and seven male) were examined at 9.4T field strength using two methods: (1) 1H ZTE MRI, to capture total 1H signal, and (2) 1H SIR-ZTE MRI, to selectively image matrix-associated 1H signal. Total water, bone matrix, and bone mineral densities were also quantified gravimetrically, and porosity was measured by micro-CT. ZTE apparent total water 1H concentration was 32.7±3.2 M (range: 28.5–40.3 M), and was correlated positively with porosity (R2 = 0.80) and negatively with matrix and mineral densities (R2 = 0.90 and 0.82, respectively). SIR-ZTE apparent bound water 1H concentration was 32.9±3.9 M (range: 24.4–39.8 M), and its correlations were opposite to those of apparent total water: negative with porosity (R2 = 0.73) and positive with matrix density (R2 = 0.74) and mineral density (R2 = 0.72). Porosity was strongly correlated with gravimetric matrix density (R2 = 0.91, negative) and total water density (R2 = 0.92, positive). The strong correlations of SIR-ZTE-derived apparent bound water 1H concentration with ground-truth measurements suggest that this quantitative solid-state MRI method provides a nondestructive surrogate measure of bone matrix density. PMID:26085307

  9. Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Brooks, George A.; Steiger, Peter; Stubbs, Harrison A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of weight bearing activity on the bone density was investigated in athletes by comparing the measures of bone density of athletes engaged in weight-training programs with those of polo players and nonexercising subjects. All subjects had measurements of spinal trabecular and integral bone density by quantitative tomography, as well as determinations of hip bone density by dual photon absorptiometry. Results confirmed previous findings by Block et al. (1987) of significantly greater bone density among highly trained athletes compared with nonexercising subjects of similar age. Results also indicated that athletes engaged in non-weight-bearing forms of rigorous exercise had greater levels of bone density. However, as the participants in this study were exceptional athletes, engaged in a strenuous sport with both aerobic and heavy resistance components, a confirmation of these data is needed, using larger samples of individuals.

  10. Further significant effects of eldecalcitol on bone resorption markers and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients having undergone long-term bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Iba, Kousuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Takada, Junichi; Dohke, Takayuki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether eldecalcitol has further significant effects on bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporosis patients having undergone long-term bisphosphonate treatment. Eldecalcitol treatment was initiated in 48 postmenopausal osteoporosis patients who had undergone bisphosphonate treatment with or without alfacalcidol treatment for more than 2 years (average period 6.3 years). Age, height, weight, total muscle volume, total fat volume, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and distal third of the radius were measured as background data for each patient. Serum alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, calcium, and phosphate levels were measured at the baseline and 3 and 12 months after the initiation of eldecalcitol treatment, and BMD was measured at the baseline and 12 months after the initiation of eldecalcitol treatment. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level was significantly decreased at 3 and 12 months after the initiation of eldecalcitol treatment in comparison with the baseline level. There were no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase, calcium, or phosphate levels in comparison with the baseline levels. In addition, the lumbar spine BMD at 12 months after the initiation of treatment was significantly increased in comparison with the baseline level, although no significant changes in BMD at the total hip and distal third of the radius were observed. Eldecalcitol demonstrated significant effects in additionally decreasing the level of the bone resorption marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and increasing BMD at the lumbar spine, even in osteoporosis patients having undergone long-term bisphosphonate treatment.

  11. The effects of soy isoflavone on bone density in north region of climacteric Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiao-Xing; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Only a few investigations were based on limb bone density. This study evaluated the efficacy of soy isoflavone in the treatment of the principal menopausal disorders, limb bone density and the role of pathway. The research protocol involved the random subdivision of the enrolled sample into two groups of 40 women, who were to receive treatment for 6 months with isoflavone (90 mg/day) and with placebo. All of the patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their complaints. BMD of the radius and tibia were measured using quantitative ultrasound. Bone metabolism indexes calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were examined regularly. Serum cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) examined by ELISA. The results of the score of Kupperman table showed that the isoflavone can lead to a significant reduction in some of the disorders. Compared with placebo, the tibia bone density in isoflavone group increased obviously against the base value before trail. Isoflavone led to a stronger descent of the concentration of ALP and a decrease of IL-6 and TNF-α level than placebo. For climacteric women, soy isoflavone in the dose of 90 mg/day could improve some menopausal syndromes and was effective on increasing limb bone density, which maybe had the relationship with the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ALP in serum. PMID:24062607

  12. High bone density masks architectural deficiencies in an individual with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Amelon, Ryan; Liu, Yinxiao; Saha, Punam K; Shields, Richard K

    2014-05-01

    Context Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a decline of bone mineral density (BMD) in the paralyzed extremities via the gradual degradation and resorption of trabecular elements. Clinical tools that report BMD may not offer insight into trabecular architecture flaws that could affect bone's ability to withstand loading. We present a case of a woman with a 30-year history of SCI and abnormally high distal femur BMD. Findings Peripheral quantitative-computed tomography-based BMD for this subject was ∼20% higher than previously published non-SCI values. Computed tomography (CT) revealed evidence of sclerotic bone deposition in the trabecular envelope, most likely due to glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis. Volumetric topologic analysis of trabecular architecture indicated that the majority of the bone mineral was organized into thick, plate-like structures rather than a multi-branched trabecular network. Visual analysis of the CT stack confirmed that the sclerotic bone regions were continuous with the cortex at only a handful of points. Conclusions Conventional clinical BMD analysis could have led to erroneous assumptions about this subject's bone quality. CT-based analysis revealed that this subject's high BMD masked underlying architectural flaws. For patients who received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, excessively high BMD should be viewed with caution. The ability of this subject's bone to resist fracture is, in our view, extremely suspect. A better understanding of the mechanical competency of this very dense, but architecturally flawed bone would be desirable before this subject engaged in activities that load the limbs.

  13. Statistical Parametric Mapping of HR-pQCT Images: A Tool for Population-Based Local Comparisons of Micro-Scale Bone Features.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bonaretti, Serena; Kazakia, Galateia J; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lang, Thomas F; Burghardt, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In addition, we present tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone structural changes. The SPM techniques were evaluated based on scan-rescan HR-pQCT acquisitions with repositioning of the distal radius and distal tibia of 30 subjects. For VBM and surface-based SPM purposes, all scans were spatially normalized to common radial and tibial templates, while for TBM purposes, rescans (follow-up) were spatially normalized to their corresponding scans (baseline). VBM was evaluated based on maps of local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), homogenized volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and homogenized strain energy density (SED) derived from micro-finite element analysis; while the cortical bone framework was evaluated based on surface maps of cortical bone thickness, vBMD, and SED. Voxel-wise and vertex-wise comparisons of bone features were done between the groups of baseline and follow-up scans. TBM was evaluated based on mean square errors of determinants of Jacobians at baseline bone voxels. In both anatomical sites, voxel- and vertex-wise uni- and multi-parametric comparisons yielded non-significant differences, and TBM showed no artefactual bone loss or apposition. The presented SPM techniques demonstrated robust specificity thus warranting their application in future clinical HR

  14. Temperature Prediction Model for Bone Drilling Based on Density Distribution and In Vivo Experiments for Minimally Invasive Robotic Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Arne; Anso, Juan; Bell, Brett; Williamson, Tom; Gavaghan, Kate; Gerber, Nicolas; Rohrbach, Helene; Weber, Stefan; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Surgical robots have been proposed ex vivo to drill precise holes in the temporal bone for minimally invasive cochlear implantation. The main risk of the procedure is damage of the facial nerve due to mechanical interaction or due to temperature elevation during the drilling process. To evaluate the thermal risk of the drilling process, a simplified model is proposed which aims to enable an assessment of risk posed to the facial nerve for a given set of constant process parameters for different mastoid bone densities. The model uses the bone density distribution along the drilling trajectory in the mastoid bone to calculate a time dependent heat production function at the tip of the drill bit. Using a time dependent moving point source Green's function, the heat equation can be solved at a certain point in space so that the resulting temperatures can be calculated over time. The model was calibrated and initially verified with in vivo temperature data. The data was collected in minimally invasive robotic drilling of 12 holes in four different sheep. The sheep were anesthetized and the temperature elevations were measured with a thermocouple which was inserted in a previously drilled hole next to the planned drilling trajectory. Bone density distributions were extracted from pre-operative CT data by averaging Hounsfield values over the drill bit diameter. Post-operative [Formula: see text]CT data was used to verify the drilling accuracy of the trajectories. The comparison of measured and calculated temperatures shows a very good match for both heating and cooling phases. The average prediction error of the maximum temperature was less than 0.7 °C and the average root mean square error was approximately 0.5 °C. To analyze potential thermal damage, the model was used to calculate temperature profiles and cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C at a minimal distance to the facial nerve. For the selected drilling parameters, temperature elevation profiles and

  15. MODEL COMPARISON FOR THE DENSITY STRUCTURE ACROSS SOLAR CORONAL WAVEGUIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2015-10-01

    The spatial variation of physical quantities, such as the mass density, across solar atmospheric waveguides governs the timescales and spatial scales for wave damping and energy dissipation. The direct measurement of the spatial distribution of density, however, is difficult, and indirect seismology inversion methods have been suggested as an alternative. We applied Bayesian inference, model comparison, and model-averaging techniques to the inference of the cross-field density structuring in solar magnetic waveguides using information on periods and damping times for resonantly damped magnetohydrodynamic transverse kink oscillations. Three commonly employed alternative profiles were used to model the variation of the mass density across the waveguide boundary. Parameter inference enabled us to obtain information on physical quantities such as the Alfvén travel time, the density contrast, and the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The inference results from alternative density models were compared and their differences quantified. Then, the relative plausibility of the considered models was assessed by performing model comparison. Our results indicate that the evidence in favor of any of the three models is minimal, unless the oscillations are strongly damped. In such a circumstance, the application of model-averaging techniques enables the computation of an evidence-weighted inference that takes into account the plausibility of each model in the calculation of a combined inversion for the unknown physical parameters.

  16. Model Comparison for the Density Structure across Solar Coronal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Soler, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2015-10-01

    The spatial variation of physical quantities, such as the mass density, across solar atmospheric waveguides governs the timescales and spatial scales for wave damping and energy dissipation. The direct measurement of the spatial distribution of density, however, is difficult, and indirect seismology inversion methods have been suggested as an alternative. We applied Bayesian inference, model comparison, and model-averaging techniques to the inference of the cross-field density structuring in solar magnetic waveguides using information on periods and damping times for resonantly damped magnetohydrodynamic transverse kink oscillations. Three commonly employed alternative profiles were used to model the variation of the mass density across the waveguide boundary. Parameter inference enabled us to obtain information on physical quantities such as the Alfvén travel time, the density contrast, and the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The inference results from alternative density models were compared and their differences quantified. Then, the relative plausibility of the considered models was assessed by performing model comparison. Our results indicate that the evidence in favor of any of the three models is minimal, unless the oscillations are strongly damped. In such a circumstance, the application of model-averaging techniques enables the computation of an evidence-weighted inference that takes into account the plausibility of each model in the calculation of a combined inversion for the unknown physical parameters.

  17. Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorban-Sabbagh, Mahin; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadi-Simab, Saeedeh; Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal. Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed. Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass. Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment. PMID:27689105

  18. Prevalence of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities and Factors Affecting Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sathish Kumar; Gopal, Gopinath Kango; Rangasami, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease of wasting with airflow limitation, associated with a variety of systemic manifestations such as reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD). There is a paucity of Indian studies on the effects of COPD on BMD. Aim This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in COPD patients and the correlation between bone density and severity of COPD classified according to GOLD Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD). Materials and Methods A prospective study of 60 patients diagnosed to have COPD, was conducted in the outpatient department of Respiratory Medicine, at a tertiary care hospital in Southern India, between September 2012 and September 2013. BMD was measured using ultrasound bone densitometer (ACHILLES GE HEALTH CARE). Patients with a T-score between -1 and -2.5 were considered to be osteopenic while patients with a T score less than -2.5 were considered to be osteoporotic (WHO criteria). Results Overall, 40 (67%) patients had an abnormal bone mineral density. A total of 21 (35%) patients were osteoporotic while 19 (33%) were osteopenic. BMD levels correlated with severity of obstruction (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.02), age (p=0.05) and number of pack years (p=0.001). Conclusion Patients with COPD are at an increased risk for lower BMD and osteoporotic fractures and the risk appears to increase with disease severity. Further studies are required to assess whether routine BMD measurements in COPD patients is beneficial to diagnose osteoporosis and reduce morbidity. PMID:27790490

  19. Regional Variations in Shear Strength and Density of the Human Thoracic Vertebral Endplate and Trabecular Bone

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Julio J.; Cornish, Nathan; Jason-Rousseau, Rebecca; Chatterjee, Dipal; Feuer, Gavriel; Hayes, Westley; Kapadia, Bhaveen H.; Carter, John N.; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Saha, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigated the overall mechanical strength of the vertebral body; however, limited information is available on the biomechanical properties of different regions within the vertebral endplate and cancellous bone. In addition, the correlation between mechanical strength and various density measurements has not been studied yet. Methods Thoracic (T10) vertebrae were harvested from fifteen human cadaveric spines (average age: 77 years old). Twelve cylindrical cores of 7.2 mm (diameter) by 3.2 mm (height) were prepared from each vertebral body. Shear was produced using a stainless steel tubular blade and measured with a load cell from a mechanical testing machine. Optical and bulk densities were calculated before mechanical testing. Apparent, material, and ash densities were measured after testing. Results Material density and shear strength increased from anterior to lateral regions of both endplate and cancellous bone. Endplate shear strength was significantly lower in the anterior (0.52 ± 0.08 MPa) than in the lateral region (2.72 ± 0.59 MPa) (p=0.017). Trabecular bone maximum load carrying capacity was 5 times higher in the lateral (12 ± 2.74 N) (p=0.09) and 4.5 times higher in the central (10 ± 2.24 N) (p=0.2) than in the anterior (2 ± 0.60 N) regions. Mechanical strength positively correlated with ash density, and even moreso with material density. Conclusion Shear strength was the lowest at the anterior region and highest at the lateral region for both endplate and cancellous bone. Material density had the best correlation with mechanical strength. Newer spinal implants could optimize the loading in the lateral aspects of both endplate and cancellous bone to reduce the likelihood of screw loosening and the subsidence of disc replacement devices. This study was reviewed by the SUNY Downstate Medical Center IRB Committee; IRB#: 533603-2. PMID:28377865

  20. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  1. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone

  2. The role of orthodontic tooth movement in bone and root mineral density: A study of patients submitted and not submitted to orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Campos, Marcio José; de Albuquerque, Elisa Gomes; Pinto, Bernardo Caixeiro Hauck; Hungaro, Hélio Moreira; Gravina, Marco Abdo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Orthodontic force application to the teeth is responsible for a series of biological responses in the bone and dentin, which lead to some alterations of the mineral density of the tissues. Our objective was determine, through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the mineral density of the apical third of the roots of the upper central incisors and of the periapical bone portion surrounding these teeth, in patients submitted to orthodontic treated and untreated individuals. Material/Methods 30 untreated individuals and 15 treated ones (treatment cessation at least 1 year before the study) underwent CBCT. Mineral density was assessed in the apical third of the root of the upper central incisors and in the alveolar bone in the periapical region of these teeth. In order to reduce CBCT-related mineral density variability, we standardized the cone-beam tomography device, the image-acquisition settings and the field of view positioning and size. Student’s t test was used for the analyses. Results bone mineral density (BMD) and root mineral density (RMD), in Hounsfield Units, were 674.84 and 1282.26 for the untreated group and 630.28 and 1370.29 for the treated group, respectively. The differences between the group means were statistically significant for RMD (p<0.05). Conclusions untreated individuals had a significant lower mean RMD in comparison with those submitted to orthodontic treatment. PMID:23197239

  3. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  4. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    loading. 4) It has been predicted that some of the skeletal changes in the F2 mice could be due to periosteal pressure caused by four-point bending...Our previous findings that sham loading neither increased periosteal bone formation nor caused changes in expression levels of bone formation...1.04 0.01 26.0 ± 5.9 Total Mineral content 1.20 ± 0.13 1.55 ± 0.17 0.003 30.0 ± 4.25 Periosteal . Circum mm 5.13 ± 0.29 5.73 ± 0.38 0.01 12.0 ± 2.63

  5. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  6. Menopause, menstrual and reproductive history, and bone density in northern Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Parazzini, F; Bidoli, E; Franceschi, S; Schinella, D; Tesio, F; La Vecchia, C; Zecchin, R

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship between menstrual and reproductive factors and the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: This was a population based screening programme carried out between 1991 and 1993 among 1373 perimenopausal women in northern Italy by means of dual photon absorptiometry at the lumbar spine. MAIN RESULTS: BMD was strongly related to the age at menopause. In comparison with women reporting menopause below 45 years of age, the odds ratios (OR) of being in the lowest compared with the highest BMD tertile were 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3,1.5) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1,0.8), respectively, in those with menopause at age 45-49 and above 50 years: the trend in risk was significant. Likewise, the risk of being in the lowest tertile increased with years since the menopause. Compared with women who reported they had undergone the menopause less than two years before interview, the OR of being in the lowest BMD tertile were 2.1 (95% CI 1.1,4.3), 2.3 (95% CI 1.1, 5.0), and 5.7 (95% CI 2.5,12.9) respectively in women who reported menopause 2-5, 6-9, and > or = 10 years earlier. The protective effect on bone density of late age at menopause was observed in different strata of years since menopause. Likewise, the increasing risk of a low BMD with increasing years since the menopause was evident in strata of different age at menopause. No relationships were observed between BMD and the age at menarche, characteristics of menstrual cycles, and the duration of menses. Likewise, no association emerged between reproductive history, including parity and age at first pregnancy, and BMD. CONCLUSIONS: In this Italian population the risk of being in the lowest BMD tertile decreased with increasing age at menopause and increased with years since menopause. No relationships emerged between BMD and other menstrual characteristics or reproductive factors. PMID:8944857

  7. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-04-13

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements.

  8. Correlation between Density and Resorption of Fresh-Frozen and Autogenous Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Edoardo; Consolo, Ugo; Marchetti, Claudio; Bonanini, Mauro; Salgarelli, Attilio; Macaluso, Guido M.

    2014-01-01

    Trial Design. This analysis compared the outcome of fresh-frozen versus autologous bone block grafts for horizontal ridge augmentation in patients with Cawood and Howell class IV atrophies. Methods. Seventeen patients received autologous grafts and 21 patients received fresh-frozen bone grafts. Patients underwent CT scans 1 week and 6 months after surgery for graft volume and density analysis. Results. Two autologous and 3 fresh-frozen grafts failed. Autologous and fresh-frozen grafts lost, respectively, 28% and 46% of their initial volume (P = 0.028). It is noteworthy that less dense fresh-frozen blocks lost more volume than denser grafts (61% versus 16%). Conclusions. According to these 6-month results, only denser fresh-frozen bone graft may be an acceptable alternative to autologous bone for horizontal ridge augmentation. Further studies are needed to investigate its behaviour at longer time points. PMID:25050354

  9. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  10. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  11. Improvements in Bone Density and Structure during Anti-TNF-α Therapy in Pediatric Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thayu, Meena; Baldassano, Robert N.; DeBoer, Mark D.; Zemel, Babette S.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Denson, Lee A.; Shults, Justine; Herskovitz, Rita; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pediatric Crohn's Disease (CD) is associated with deficits in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure, potentially related to TNF-α effects to decrease bone formation and promote bone resorption. Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in bone density and structure in children and adolescents with CD following initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy. Design and Participants: Participants (n = 74; age 5–21 years) with CD completed a 12-month prospective cohort study. Main Outcome Measures: Tibia peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were obtained at initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy and 12 months later. Musculoskeletal outcomes were expressed as sex-and race-specific z scores relative to age, based on >650 reference participants. Results: At baseline, CD participants had lower height, trabecular BMD, cortical area (due to smaller periosteal and larger endocortical circumferences), and muscle area z scores, compared with reference participants (all P < .01). Pediatric CD activity index decreased during the 10-week induction (P < .001), in association with subsequent gains in height, trabecular BMD, cortical area (due to recovery of endocortical bone), and muscle area z scores over 12 months (height P < .05; others P < .001). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, a biomarker of bone formation, increased a median of 75% (P < .001) during induction with associated 12-month improvements in trabecular BMD and cortical area z scores (both P < .001). Younger age was associated with greater increases in trabecular BMD z scores (P < .001) and greater linear growth with greater recovery of cortical area (P < .001). Conclusions: Anti-TNF-α therapy was associated with improvements in trabecular BMD and cortical structure. Improvements were greater in younger and growing participants, suggesting a window of opportunity for treatment of bone deficits. PMID:25919459

  12. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P < 0.05). Water consumption decreased 5.9 times while total fluid consumption increased 1.6-1.9 times in the group consuming cola drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). While we did not detect any pathological oesophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  13. Correlation between ultrasonic power spectrum and bone density on the heel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yubing; Xu, Yang; Ding, Zenghui; Chen, Yanyan; Su, Benyue; Ma, Zuchang; Sun, Yi-Ning

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to evaluate the correlation between ultrasonic power spectrum and bone density and to extract the effectiveness of parameters from power spectrum for evaluating bone density. A total of 50 persons 24-72years of age were recruited. All study participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine (vertebral levels L1-L4). The participants also underwent calcaneal measurements to determine ultrasonic power spectrum with central frequencies of 0.5MHz. Three parameters from normalized power spectrum, called principle frequency (PF), frequency band (FB), and amplitude for principle frequency (APF), were chosen and be evaluated the correlation with the lumbar spine BMD. The correlation coefficient of PF, FB and APF with BMD was r=-0.48 (p<0.001), r=0.48 (p<0.001), and r=-0.71 (p<0.001), respectively. The results showed that the correlation between APF and BMD was better than the correlation among PF, FB and BMD, and APF have a significant correlation with BMD. In conclusion, the correlations among the parameters of ultrasonic power spectrum and BMD are significant, and especially APF performs better than PF and FB in evaluating bone density of participants. These results suggest that ultrasonic power spectrum may contain substantial information not already contained in BUA and SOS. A multiple regression model including all three QUS variables was somewhat more predictive of BMD than a model including only BUA and SOS.

  14. Dietary modifications alone do not improve bone mineral density in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Schwaderer, A L; Srivastava, T; Schueller, L; Cronin, R; Mahan, J D; Hains, D

    2011-11-01

    Prior cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between hypercalciuria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adults. However, the natural history of BMD in children with hypercalciuria and its response to therapy has not been evaluated. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the change over time in lumbar (L1 - L4) BMD Z-score measured on sequential DXA scans in 19 children with hypercalciuria treated with dietary recommendations without (n = 12, Group A) and with citrate (n = 7, Group B). The mean lumbar bone density Z-score/year decreased in Group A (-0.11 ±/0.41) indicating that children with hypercalciuria lose L1 - L4 BMD over time. In contrast, the L1 - L4 BMD Zscore/ year increased in Group B (0.19 ± 0.38) suggesting that pharmacologic therapy may reverse this trend. Similarly 75% of patients in Group A, but only 29% patients in Group B had a decrease in L1 - L4 BMD. There was a definite, although not significant, trend towards improved mean bone mineral density Z-score per year and a lower percentage of patients with a decreased Z-score in hypercalciuric children treated with potassium citrate. Our findings suggest the possibility that dietary recommendations alone is not adequate as the bone mineral density of children with hypercalciuria will decrease over time, potentially increasing the risk for osteoporosis as an adult.

  15. Bone mineral density evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Adil, Camli; Aydın, Teoman; Taşpınar, Özgür; Kızıltan, Huriye; Eriş, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Poşul, Sevde; Kepekci, Muge; Denizli, Ebru; Güler, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. A consequence of this is chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. We investigated whether there is any difference among DM patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur BMD (bone mineral density), and standard deviation scores (Z score and T score). [Subjects and Methods] This randomized, prospective, controlled, single-blind study was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Faculty of Medicine, Bezm-i Alem Vakıf University. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the patient groups. Healthy individuals were included in the control group. [Results] A total of 126 patients completed the study (63 in the study group, 63 in the control group). There was no significant difference in the results of the laboratory examinations of the cases. The bone mineral densities of the cases were found to be significantly low in terms of the lumbar (L1-4) T scores in the type 2 diabetes group. [Conclusion] Although osteoporosis is one of the potential complications of type 1 diabetes, its effect on bone mineral density in type 2 DM is controversial. In different studies, the bone mineral density values have increased, decreased or remained normal. With the exception of the lumbar (L1-4) T score, similar results were obtained in this study.

  16. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  17. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    PubMed

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  19. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  20. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  1. Associations of APOE gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and fracture risk: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been studied for its potential role in osteoporosis risk. It is hypothesized that genetic variation at common APOE loci, known as E2, E3, and E4, may modulate bone mineral density (BMD) through its effects on lipoproteins and vitamin K transport. To determine the associa...

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  3. Low bone mineral density and vitamin d deficiency correlated with genetics and other bone markers in female Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tastan, Yasemin; Kann, Peter Herbert; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; Hadji, Peyman; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Lange, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Patients with osteoporosis have a low bone mass resulting in an increased risk for bone fractures, morbidity and mortality. One hundred thirty-one female pre-menopausal participants (98 Turkish immigrants living in Germany in comparison with 33 age-matched healthy Germans) were recruited for this study which explored vitamin D deficiency and specific genetic modifications of bone metabolism. The subjects were investigated for their femoral and lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the right total femur and the lumbar spine. Serum levels of osteologic parameters were determined: parathormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), phosphate (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), beta-crossLaps (CL), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), and 25-vitamin D3 (25-OH D3). The Bsml- and Fokl-polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1)-gene polymorphism were also genotyped. An extremely high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency could be found in the immigrant cohort (87.8 %). Osteoporosis but not osteopenia was more prevalent in this group. Among immigrants with osteoporosis, TRAP5b was elevated in 42.9 % and beta-CL in 28.6 %. Only the Fokl FF-genotype of the VDR polymorphism was significantly more prevalent among the Turkish women, Ff-genotyped immigrants showed significantly decreased BMD. A significant correlation between the COLIA1-gene polymorphism and BMD could not be identified in the two groups. Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis appear to be dominant and unrecognized problem among female Turkish immigrants in Germany. Therefore, in this population, osteologic parameters and BMD should be routinely analyzed and deficiencies be treated immediately.

  4. [Comparative evaluation of bone mineral density in Mexican women using x-ray bone densitometry and ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Llaca Rodríguez, V; Aguilera Pérez, R; Ahued Ahued, R; Rio de la Loza, F; Mendoza Torres, L J; Coria Soto, I; Zambrana Castañeda, M M

    2000-03-01

    With lifestyle changes in women, smoking and use of beverages with caffeine, and sedentarism increasing, so the risk factors for decalcification, increase; which is a public health problem by the higher incidence of osteoporotic fractures, as the age advances, specially in the postmenopause woman, which means a greater secondary morbidity-mortality; an important cause of physical disability, which directly affects psychoemotional wellbeing in women. In this study two methods of bone densitometry, were used; one of x ray, and other with ultrasound in 138 women during postmenopause with an average index of corporal mass of 29. Both results were compared of bone density, T measurement with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Double densitometry, was done in the 138 patients of lumbar spine with DEXA equipment, and of calcaneum with DTU-one equipment, by the same technician, finding the difference of T punctuation in this double study.

  5. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  6. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Subburaman Mohan, Ph.D. 6 180-730 mg/cm3 threshold was used to measure total area, total mineral content, periosteal circumference, and endosteal...bending are not due to periosteal pad pressure, we performed sham-bending in 10-week old female B6 mice for 12 days using 9N load at 2Hz for 36 cycles...The results from our pQCT analysis revealed no significant changes in the BMD, periosteal circumference and other bone parameters (Table-1). This

  7. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Salerni, H.; González, D.; Bagur, A.; Oliveri, B.; Farías, V.; Maffei, L.; Mansur, J. L.; Larroudé, M. S.; Pavlove, M. M.; Karlsbrum, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed. PMID:27579211

  8. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Canagliflozin

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Nelson B.; Usiskin, Keith; Polidori, David; Fung, Albert; Sullivan, Daniel; Rosenthal, Norm

    2016-01-01

    Context: Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: Our objective is to describe the effects of canagliflozin on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biomarkers in patients with T2DM. Design: This was a randomized study, consisting of a 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled period and a 78-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension. Setting: This study was undertaken in 90 centers in 17 countries. Patients: Patients were aged 55–80 years (N = 716) and whose T2DM was inadequately controlled on a stable antihyperglycemic regimen. Interventions: Canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo were administered once daily. Outcome and Measures: BMD was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at weeks 26, 52, and 104. Bone strength was assessed using quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis at week 52. Serum collagen type 1 β-carboxy-telopeptide, osteocalcin, and estradiol were assessed at weeks 26 and 52. Results: Canagliflozin doses of 100 and 300 mg were associated with a decrease in total hip BMD over 104 weeks, (placebo-subtracted changes: −0.9% and −1.2%, respectively), but not at other sites measured (femoral neck, lumbar spine, or distal forearm). No meaningful changes in bone strength were observed. At week 52, canagliflozin was associated with an increase in collagen type 1 β-carboxy-telopeptide that was significantly correlated with a reduction in body weight, an increase in osteocalcin, and, in women, a decrease in estradiol. Conclusions: In older patients with T2DM, canagliflozin showed small but significant reductions in total hip BMD and increases in bone formation and resorption biomarkers, due at least in part to weight loss. PMID:26580234

  9. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Brun, L R; Salerni, H; Costanzo, P R; González, D; Bagur, A; Oliveri, B; Zanchetta, M B; Farías, V; Maffei, L; Premrou, V; Mansur, J L; Larroudé, M S; Sarli, M A; Rey, P; Ulla, M R; Pavlove, M M; Karlsbrum, S; Brance, M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed.

  10. Increased fracture risk and low bone mineral density in patients with loeys-dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Offoha, Roosevelt U; Oswald, Gretchen L; Skolasky, Richard L; Dewan, Ashvin K; Zhen, Gehua; Shapiro, Jay R; Dietz, Harry C; Cao, Xu; Sponseller, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a recently recognized connective tissue disorder with widespread systemic involvement. Little is known about its skeletal phenotype. Our goal was to investigate the risk of fracture and incidence of low bone mineral density in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive, survey-based study with subsequent chart review from July 2011 to April 2012. Fifty-seven patients (26 men, 31 women) with Loeys-Dietz syndrome confirmed by genetic testing completed the survey (average age, 25.3 years; range, 0.9-79.6 years). There were a total of 51 fractures (33 patients): 35 fractures in the upper extremities, 14 in the lower extremities, and two in the spine. Fourteen patients (24.6%) reported two or more fractures. There was a 50% risk of fracture by age 14 years. The incidence of any fracture in this cohort was 3.86 per 100 person-years. Seventeen patients had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans available for review, 11 (64.7%) of whom had at least one fracture. Thirteen included lumbar spine absorptiometry reports; eight (61.5%) indicated low or very low bone mineral density. In the left hip, ten of 14 participants (71.4%) had low or very low bone mineral density. In the left femoral neck, nine of 13 participants (69.2%) had low or very low bone mineral density. The lowest Z- and T-scores were not associated with an increased number of fractures. Patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have a high risk of fracture and a high incidence of low bone mineral density.

  11. Comparisons of thermospheric density data sets and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, Eelco; van Helleputte, Tom; Emmert, John; Drob, Douglas; Bowman, Bruce R.; Pilinski, Marcin

    During the past decade, continuous long-term data sets of thermospheric density have become available to researchers. These data sets have been derived from accelerometer measurements made by the CHAMP and GRACE satellites and from Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracking data and related Two-Line Element (TLE) sets. These data have already resulted in a large number of publications on physical interpretation and improvement of empirical density modelling. This study compares four different density data sets and two empirical density models, for the period 2002-2009. These data sources are the CHAMP (1) and GRACE (2) accelerometer measurements, the long-term database of densities derived from TLE data (3), the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (4) run by Air Force Space Command, calibrated using SSN data, and the NRLMSISE-00 (5) and Jacchia-Bowman 2008 (6) empirical models. In describing these data sets and models, specific attention is given to differences in the geo-metrical and aerodynamic satellite modelling, applied in the conversion from drag to density measurements, which are main sources of density biases. The differences in temporal and spa-tial resolution of the density data sources are also described and taken into account. With these aspects in mind, statistics of density comparisons have been computed, both as a function of solar and geomagnetic activity levels, and as a function of latitude and local solar time. These statistics give a detailed view of the relative accuracy of the different data sets and of the biases between them. The differences are analysed with the aim at providing rough error bars on the data and models and pinpointing issues which could receive attention in future iterations of data processing algorithms and in future model development.

  12. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  13. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  14. Effect of cortical thickness and cancellous bone density on the holding strength of internal fixator screws.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, J; Goldhahn, J; Städele, H; Messmer, P; Morlock, M M; Schneider, E

    2004-11-01

    Internal fixators are a new class of implants designed to preserve the periosteal blood supply of the bone. In contrast to conventional plate fixation in which the screws have spherical heads and are loaded mainly by axial pullout forces, screws in internal fixators are "locked" within the plate and therefore subjected to axial as well as bending loads. In this study the ultimate loads of screws of a commercially available internal fixator system were tested in a pullout (n = 72) and cantilever bending mode (n = 72) in metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of four pairs of human tibiae with different bone qualities. Cortical thickness and cancellous bone density were determined at the screw insertion sites. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that cortical thickness and cancellous density can explain 93% and 98% of the variance of the ultimate load of the screws in an axial pullout and cantilever bending mode. Screws in internal fixators are better suited to transmit shear forces and thereby make better use of the strength potential of bone than screws used in conventional plate fixation: this is especially advantageous when bone strength is reduced, e.g. due to osteoporosis.

  15. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a "call to action" to develop bone-health plans that: (1) improve nutrition, (2) increase health literacy and, (3) increase physical activity. This study is a response to this call to action. Methods After signing an informed consent, 158 adults agreed to follow an open-label bone-health plan for six months after taking a DXA test of bone density, a 43-chemistry blood test panel and a quality of life inventory (AlgaeCal 1). Two weeks after the last subject completed, a second group of 58 was enrolled and followed the identical plan, but with a different bone-health supplement (AlgaeCal 2). Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline bone mineral density (BMD) or in variables related to BMD (age, sex, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, or fat-free mass). In both groups, no significant differences in BMD or related variables were found between volunteers and non-volunteers or between those who completed per protocol and those who were lost to attrition. Both groups experienced a significant positive mean annualized percent change (MAPC) in BMD compared to expectation [AlgaeCal 1: 1.15%, p = 0.001; AlgaeCal 2: 2.79%, p = 0.001]. Both groups experienced a positive MAPC compared to baseline, but only AlgaeCal 2 experienced a significant change [AlgaeCal 1: 0.48%, p = 0.14; AlgaeCal 2: 2.18%, p < 0.001]. The MAPC in AlgaeCal 2 was significantly greater than that in AlgaeCal 1 (p = 0.005). The MAPC contrast between compliant and partially compliant subjects was significant for both plans (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). No clinically significant changes in a 43-panel blood chemistry test were found nor were there any changes in self-reported quality of life in either group. Conclusions Following The Plan for six months with either version of the bone health supplement was associated with significant increases in

  16. Possible role of lymphocytes in glucocorticoid-induced increase in trabecular bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Grahnemo, Louise; Jochems, Caroline; Andersson, Annica; Engdahl, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Claes; Islander, Ulrika; Carlsten, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids is associated with osteoporosis. Many of the treated patients are postmenopausal women, who even without treatment have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lymphocytes have been shown to play a role in postmenopausal and arthritis-induced osteoporosis, and they are targeted by glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind effects of glucocorticoids on bone during health and menopause, focusing on lymphocytes. Female C57BL/6 or SCID mice were therefore sham-operated or ovariectomized and 2 weeks later treatment with dexamethasone (dex), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen, or vehicle was started and continued for 2.5 weeks. At the termination of experiments, femurs were phenotyped using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution micro-computed tomography, and markers of bone turnover were analyzed in serum. T and B lymphocyte populations in bone marrow and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dex-treated C57BL/6 mice had increased trabecular bone mineral density, but lower cortical content and thickness compared with vehicle-treated mice. The dex-treated mice also had lower levels of bone turnover markers and markedly decreased numbers of spleen T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, these effects could not be repeated when mice were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. In addition, dex did not increase trabecular bone in ovariectomized SCID mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes. In contrast to most literature, the results from this study indicate that treatment with dex increased trabecular bone density, which may indicate that this effect is associated with corticosteroid-induced alterations of the lymphocyte populations. PMID:25359897

  17. Comparison and evaluation of bone measurements for the assessment of mineral phosphorus sources in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shastak, Y; Witzig, M; Hartung, K; Bessei, W; Rodehutscord, M

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare different bone measurements in response to supplements of mineral P sources. Comparisons were also made with P retention and digestibility responses determined in a companion study and with blood inorganic phosphate (P(i)) responses. A corn-soybean meal-based basal diet was used (0.35% total P on DM basis). Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSP(a)) or anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP(a)) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.08%, 0.16%, or 0.24%. Each of the 7 diets was fed for 10 d starting 11 d (period 1) or 25 d posthatch (period 2). Bone ash and P were determined, and density criteria were measured using quantitative computed tomography. Responses were evaluated and compared based on linear regression analysis. In general, responses to MSP(a) had a greater slope than DCP(a) for all criteria studied. In period 1, differences between the slopes were significant (P < 0.05) for almost all bone criteria. In period 2, the slopes significantly differed for the amounts of ash and P of all bones studied, for tibia, tarsometatarus, and foot ash percentage, for total and cortical density of tibiae, but not for the other criteria. For the different bones, the ratio of slopes for MSP(a) and DCP(a) was very similar based on the amount of ash in both periods. Foot ash proved to be as sensitive as tibia ash for evaluation of mineral P sources in both periods. Ninety-four percent of the variance of the corticalis content based on quantitative computed tomography measurements could be explained by the amount of tibia ash in period 1. Blood serum P(i) and BW gain were not suitable for P evaluation. We concluded that the ranking of mineral P sources based on bone criteria differed from the ranking that was based on P retention or prececal digestibility. This underlines the need for developing a standard protocol of determination of available P in poultry.

  18. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  19. Association of bone mineral density with polymorphism of the human calcium-sensing receptor locus.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, K; Orimo, H; Hosoi, T; Miyao, M; Ota, N; Nakajima, T; Yoshida, H; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Emi, M

    2000-03-01

    A strong correlation between bone mass and genetic factors has been shown in twins and family studies. Some of the genes involved would regulate bone metabolism, bone formation, and resorption, all processes that determine bone mass. One candidate genes, calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) in the parathyroid gland, regulates calcium homeostasis by sensing decreases in extracellular calcium level and effecting an increase in secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium (Ca) reabsorption in the kidney. We have investigated a possible association between the CA-repeat polymorphism at the human CASR gene locus and the bone mineral density (BMD) of radial bone in 472 postmenopausal Japanese women. Genotypes were classified into nine groups according to the number of CA repeats present, from 20 to 12. BMD was expressed as the adjusted BMD, which was the body mass index (BMI), and age-adjusted average BMD. The 247 women who had an A3 allele (228 bp, containing 18 repeats of CA) had significantly lower adjusted BMD (mean +/- SD: 0.303 +/- 0.059 versus 0.316 +/- 0.063 g/cm(2); P = 0.0308) than the participants (n = 201) who did not carry an allele of that size. This result suggests that genetic variation at the CASR gene locus is associated with some determinants for BMD in postmenopausal women.

  20. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  1. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Badescu, Laurentiu; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Magda; Ciocoiu, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and fat (%Fat) in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA) increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS) dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:23024697

  2. Cadmium and lead in blood in relation to low bone mineral density and tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Alfvén, Tobias; Järup, Lars; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to cadmium may cause kidney and bone damage. Urinary cadmium is commonly used as the dose estimate for the body burden of cadmium. However, elevated levels of cadmium in the urine may reflect not only high levels of cadmium dose but also renal dysfunction. In this study we used blood cadmium as the dose estimate. In addition, we analyzed blood lead. We examined 479 men and 542 women, ages 16-81 years, who were environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium and lead. We used urinary protein alpha 1-microglobulin as a marker for tubular proteinuria and measured forearm bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between blood cadmium and tubular proteinuria was strong, even when we excluded occupationally exposed participants. The subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels had a 4-fold risk of tubular proteinuria compared to the subgroup with the lowest blood cadmium levels. In the older age group (age > 60), the risk of low bone mineral density (z-score < -1) for the subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels was almost 3-fold compared to the group with lowest blood cadmium levels. We found no similar associations for lead. The observed effects may be caused by higher cadmium exposure in the past. This study strengthens previous evidence that cadmium exposure may affect both bone mineral density and kidney function. PMID:12117647

  3. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  4. Low dose pioglitazone does not affect bone formation and resorption markers or bone mineral density in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tsirella, E; Mavrakanas, T; Rager, O; Tsartsalis, S; Kallaras, K; Kokkas, B; Mironidou-Tzouveleki, M

    2012-04-01

    Our study aims to investigate the effect of a low-dose pioglitazone regimen on bone mineral density and bone formation-resorption markers in control and diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-diabetic controls, control rats receiving pioglitazone (3 mg/kg), streptozocin-treated diabetic rats (50 mg/kg), diabetic rats treated with pioglitazone (3 mg/kg). The duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Diabetes in our rats was associated with weight loss, increased urinary calcium excretion and reduced plasma osteocalcin levels. Diabetes mellitus did not affect bone mineral density. Pioglitazone administration had no impact on bone formation and resorption markers levels and did not modify bone mineral density in the four studied groups. Pioglitazone at the 3 mg/kg dose was not associated with significant skeletal complications in our experimental model.

  5. Experimental comparison of bone revascularization by musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.

  6. Assessment of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in young male adults recently diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinyue; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi; He, Lan; Zhou, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. However, the exact mechanism underlying SLE-related osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients newly diagnosed with SLE remains unknown. Methods 60 male subjects with SLE aged 20-30 years were enrolled. Serum osteocalcin was examined as a marker of bone formation and type I collagen degradation products (β-crosslaps) as markers of bone resorption. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA). Results Among the 60 subjects with SLE at the time of diagnosis, the cohort showed a significant reduction of osteocalcin (12.62 ± 2.16 ng/mL), and serum β-crosslaps level (992.6 ± 162.6 pg/mL) was markedly elevated. Univariate correlation analyses revealed negative correlations between osteocalcin and SLEDAI, dsDNA antibody and β-crosslaps. A positive correlation was also observed between osteocalcin and C3, C4, 25-OH vitamin D, BMD L1-L4 and BMD total hip (see Table 3). Osteocalcin and β-crosslaps were strongly associated with SLE disease activity by multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Osteocalcin was negatively associated with SLE disease activity, and β-crosslaps was positively associated with SLE disease activity, suggesting SLE disease activity itself directly contributed to the development of SLE-associated osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  7. Does cancellous screw insertion torque depend on bone mineral density and/or microarchitecture?

    PubMed

    Ab-Lazid, Rosidah; Perilli, Egon; Ryan, Melissa K; Costi, John J; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-01-22

    During insertion of a cancellous bone screw, the torque level reaches a plateau, at the engagement of all the screw threads prior to the screw head contact. This plateau torque (T(Plateau)) was found to be a good predictor of the insertion failure torque (stripping) and also exhibited strong positive correlations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ovine bone. However, correlations between T(Plateau) and aBMD, as well as correlations between T(Plateau) and bone microarchitecture, have never been explored in human bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether T(Plateau), a predictor of insertion failure torque, depends on aBMD and/or bone microarchitecture in human femoral heads. Fifty-two excised human femoral heads were obtained. The aBMD and microarchitecture of each specimen were evaluated using dual X-ray Absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography. A cancellous screw was inserted into specimens using an automated micro-mechanical test device, and T(Plateau) was calculated from the insertion profile. T(Plateau) exhibited the strongest correlation with the structure model index (SMI, R=-0.82, p<0.001), followed by bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R=0.80, p<0.01) and aBMD (R=0.76, p<0.01). Stepwise forward regression analysis showed an increase for the prediction of T(Plateau) when aBMD was combined with microarchitectural parameters, i.e., aBMD combined with SMI (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.72) and aBMD combined with BV/TV and BS/TV (R(2) increased from 0.58 to 0.74). In conclusion, T(Plateau), a strong predictor for insertion failure torque, is significantly dependent on bone microarchitecture (particularly SMI and BV/TV) and aBMD.

  8. Bone mineral density response to long-term bisphosphonate therapy in fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Parisi, M S; Oliveri, M B; Mautalen, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare disease related to a genetic mutation in which bone formation at osseous sites is altered. In the last few years, bisphosphonates have become one of the choice drugs to treat this disease. A 26-yr-old woman presented after 6 wk of spontaneous right leg pain owing to a fissure fracture of the right femoral neck. She reported precocious puberty at the age of 2, with diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome. Radioisotope bone scanning, radiographic, biochemical, and densitometric studies were performed. Treatment with bisphosphonates was started because bone turnover biochemical markers were abnormal. Oral olpadronate followed by iv pamidronate substantially decreased bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total skeleton and subareas was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) throughout the 5 yr of treatment. At the end of this period, BMD of the total skeleton had increased 6.2%. However, BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia, the legs and pelvis, had increased 12.7 and 11%, respectively. Region of interest analysis of individual bones of the legs performed with the total skeleton scan revealed that BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia was lower than that of the less affected contralateral bones. During the first 3 yr, treatment with bisphosphonates substantially increased BMD of the right femur and tibia (22 and 28%, respectively). After that, values seemed to stabilize. DXA evaluation of the total skeleton and its subareas was useful to evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the plateau observed in BMD values after 3 yr of treatment suggests that treatment could have been discontinued when the densitometric values stabilized.

  9. Bone mineral density and protein derived food clusters from the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary protein is beneficial to bone health; however, dietary patterns of protein intake and their relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have not been evaluated. Objective To examine the relation of dietary protein food clusters with BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total femur and lumbar spine among middle-aged and older men and women. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and setting 2,758 community-dwelling individuals from the Framingham Offspring Study. Methods BMD was measured by Lunar DPX-L in 1996–2001. Dietary intakes were estimated using the Willett food frequency questionnaire in either 1995–1998 or 1998–2001, and the exam closest to a participant’s BMD measurement was used. Cluster analysis (fastclus procedure, k-means method) was used to classify participants into groups, determined by major sources of protein. Generalized linear regression was used to compare adjusted least-squares mean BMD across protein food clusters for all pairwise comparisons. Results From 2,758 participants (44% men; mean age 61 ± 9y, range 29–86y), five protein food clusters were identified (chicken, fish, processed foods, red meat, low-fat milk). Three of these food clusters showed associations with BMD. The red meat protein food cluster presented with significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to the low-fat milk cluster (red meat: 0.898 ± 0.005 versus low-fat milk: 0.919 ± 0.007, p=0.04). Further, the processed foods protein cluster presented with significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to the low fat milk cluster (processed foods: 0.897 ± 0.004 versus low-fat milk: 0.919 ± 0.007, p=0.02). A similar, yet non-significant trend was observed for other BMD sites examined. Conclusions Diets with the greatest proportion of protein intake from red meat and processed foods may not be as beneficial to the skeleton compared to dietary patterns where the highest proportion of protein is derived from low-fat milk. PMID:26038297

  10. The levels of bone turnover markers 25(OH)D and PTH and their relationship with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in a suburban district in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Qiao, J; Li, S S; Yu, W J; He, J W; Fu, W Z; Zhang, Z L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and investigated relationships between them and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in China suburban district. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 25.03 % at lumbar spine and 6.23 % at femoral neck, and BTMs were negatively correlated with BMDs.

  11. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    PubMed

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less.

  12. Efficacy and safety of medical therapy for low bone mineral density in patients with Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Changcheng; Chen, Han; Ma, Jingjing; Zhu, Yunjuan; Wang, Peixue; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Haiqin; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in patients with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of our study is to determine the efficacy and safety of different drugs used to treat low BMD in patients with CD. Methods: PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies. A random-effects model within a Bayesian framework was applied to compare treatment effects as standardized mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% credible interval (CrI), while odds ratio (OR) was applied to compare adverse events with 95% CrI. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) was calculated to make the ranking of the treatments for outcomes. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Compared with placebo, zoledronate (SMDs 2.74, 95% CrI 1.36–4.11) and sodium-fluoride (SMDs 1.23, 95% CrI 0.19–2.26) revealed statistical significance in increasing lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD). According to SUCRA ranking, zoledronate (SUCRA = 2.5%) might have the highest probability to be the best treatment for increasing LSBMD in CD patients among all agents, followed by sodium-fluoride (27%). For safety assessment, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) demonstrated no statistical difference between agents and placebo. The corresponding SUCRA values indicated that risedronate (SUCRA = 77%) might be the most safe medicine for low BMD in CD patients and alendronate ranked the worst (SUCRA = 16%). Conclusions: Zoledronate might have the highest probability to be the best therapeutic strategy for increasing LSBMD. For the safety assessment, risedronate showed the greatest trend to decrease the risk of AEs. In the future, more RCTs with higher qualities are needed to make head-to-head comparison between 2 or more treatments. PMID:28296781

  13. Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover Markers and Fractures in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Atteritano, Marco; Sorbara, Stefania; Bagnato, Gianluca; Miceli, Giovanni; Sangari, Donatella; Morgante, Salvatore; Visalli, Elisa; Bagnato, Gianfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis-related osteoporosis and the prevalence of vertebral fragility fracture in postmenopausal women with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methodology Fifty-four postmenopausal women with scleroderma and 54 postmenopausal controls matched for age, BMI, and smoking habits were studied. BMD was measured by dual energy-x-ray absorptiometry at spine and femur, and by ultrasonography at calcaneus The markers of bone turnover included serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline. All subjects had a spine X-ray to ascertain the presence of vertebral fractures. Results bone mineral density at lumbar spine (BMD 0.78±0.08 vs 0.88±0.07; p<0,001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.56±0.04 vs 0.72±0.07; p<0,001) and total femur (BMD: 0.57±0.04 vs 0.71±0.06; p<0,001) and ultrasound parameter at calcaneus (SI: 80.10±5.10 vs 94.80±6.10 p<0,001) were significantly lower in scleroderma compared with controls; bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone level were significantly higher in scleroderma compared with controls, while serum of 25(OH)D3 was significantly lower. In scleroderma group the serum levels of 25(OH)D3 significantly correlated with PTH levels, BMD, stiffness index and bone turnover markers. One or more moderate or severe vertebral fractures were found in 13 patients with scleroderma, wherease in control group only one patient had a mild vertebral fracture. Conclusion Our data shows, for the first time, that vertebral fractures are frequent in subjects with scleroderma, and suggest that lower levels of 25(OH)D3 may play a role in the risk of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. PMID:23818972

  14. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  15. Increased Training Volume Improves Bone Density and Cortical Area in Adolescent Football Players.

    PubMed

    Varley, Ian; Hughes, David C; Greeves, Julie P; Fraser, William D; Sale, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Habitual football participation has been shown to be osteogenic, although the specific volume of football participation required to cause bone adaptations are not well established. The aim of the present study is to investigate tibial bone adaptations in response to 12 weeks of increased training volume in elite adolescents who are already accustomed to irregular impact training. 99 male adolescent elite footballers participated (age 16±0 y; height 1.76±0.66 m; body mass 70.2±8.3 kg). Tibial scans were performed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography immediately before and 12 weeks after an increase in football training volume. Scans were obtained at 4, 14, 38 and 66% of tibial length. Trabecular density (mg/cm(3)), cortical density (mg/cm(3)), cross-sectional area, cortical area (mm(2)), cortical thickness (mm) and strength strain index (mm(3)) were assessed. Trabecular (4%) and cortical density (14, 38%), cortical cross-sectional area (14, 38%), total cross-sectional area (66%), cortical thickness (14, 38%) and strength strain index (14, 38%) increased following 12 weeks of augmented volume training (P<0.05). Increased density of trabecular and cortical compartments and cortical thickening were shown following an increased volume of training. These adaptive responses may have been enhanced by the adolescent status of the cohort, supporting the role of early exercise intervention in improving bone strength.

  16. Osteocyte density and histomorphometric parameters in cancellous bone of the proximal femur in five mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Mullender, M G; Huiskes, R; Versleyen, H; Buma, P

    1996-11-01

    The species-specific relationships between trabecular morphology and osteocyte density were investigated in the femoral heads of 30 adult animals of five mammalian species (rat, rabbit, Rhesus monkey, pig, and cow). Our hypothesis is that osteocytes are mechanosensory cells and are involved in the regulation of bone remodeling. According to the predictions from a simulation model, this hypothesis implies that the influencing distance of osteocytes, together with the magnitude of the mechanical loads, determines the thickness of trabeculae and that the number of osteocytes primarily affects the rate of bone remodeling. The number of osteocytes per bone volume ranged from 93,200 mm-3 in rat to 31,900 mm-3 in bovine cancellous bone. Osteocyte density was inversely related to the size of the species. Since basal metabolic output is related to body mass, we speculate that osteocyte density may be related to metabolic rates. Trabecular thickness was larger in the cow than in the other species, but the range of variation between species was relatively small. This agrees with the hypothesis that trabecular thickness is limited by the domain that can be regulated by an osteocyte and that this domain is of similar size regardless of the species. Only in the rat was trabecular thickness considerably smaller than in the other species. This is probably due to the presence of the cartilaginous growth plate in the femoral head of the rat. The relationships with species are different for osteocyte density than for morphometric parameters. Hence, our data support our hypothesis that osteocyte density is not directly associated with the macroscopic trabecular architecture.

  17. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p < 0.01). This correlation appeared to be more clearly observed in the subgroup with a high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  18. Efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates in management of low bone density in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Liwei; Wang, Haiqing; Dong, Wenwei; Liu, Zhenxin; Mao, Haijiao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to determine whether bisphosphonates are safe, as well as effective against bone mineral loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A computerized search of electronic databases from 1966 to 2016 was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this review to evaluate the role of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis in IBD patients. A revised 7-point Jadad scale was used to evaluate the quality of each study. Overall, 13 RCTs and 923 patients met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis. The result showed that bisphosphonates decreased bone mass density (BMD) loss at the lumbar spine (P = 0.0002), reduced the risk of new fractures (P = 0.01), and retained the similar adverse events (P = 0.86). Bisphosphonates may provide protection and safety against bone mineral loss in IBD patients. PMID:28099343

  19. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  20. Marital histories, marital support, and bone density: findings from the Midlife in the United States Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Martinez, D.; Seeman, T.; Karlamangla, A. S.; Greendale, G. A.; Binkley, N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) in a national sample from the US. In men, being stably married was independently associated with better lumbar spine BMD, and in women, more spousal support was associated with better lumbar spine BMD. Introduction Adult bone mass may be influenced by stressors over the life course. We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) net socioeconomic and behavioral factors known to influence bone mass. We sought evidence for a gender difference in the association between marital history and adult BMD. Methods We used data from 632 adult participants in the Midlife in the United States Study to examine associations between marital history and BMD, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age, weight, menopausal stage, medication use, childhood socioeconomic advantage, adult financial status, education, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results Compared to stably married men, men who were currently divorced, widowed, or separated, men who were currently married but previously divorced, widowed, or separated, and never married men had 0.33 (95 % CI: 0.01, 0.65), 0.36 (95 % CI: 0.10, 0.83), and 0.53 (95 % CI: 0.23, 0.83) standard deviations lower lumbar spine BMD, respectively. Among men married at least once, every year decrement in age at first marriage (under age 25) was associated with 0.07 SD decrement in lumbar spine BMD (95 % CI: 0.002, 0.13). In women, greater support from the spouse was associated with higher lumbar spine BMD. Conclusions Our findings suggest that marriage before age 25 and marital disruptions are deleterious to bone health in men, and that marital quality is associated with better bone health in women. PMID:24424630

  1. Comparison of measured and calculated thermospheric molecular oxygen densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, W. E.; Kayser, D. C.; Brinton, H. C.; Brace, L. H.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1977-01-01

    The open source neutral mass spectrometers on the AE-C, -D, and -E satellites were equipped with a 'fly-through' mode of operation which has provided direct measurements of molecular oxygen densities over a large portion of the globe. A complementary set of O2 densities is derived by using AE ion measurements and a scheme based on the daytime ion chemistry of O2(+) in the thermosphere. A comparison of the two data sets reveals general agreement over northern latitudes during periods of relatively low Ap and F10.7. The simplifying assumptions made in the photochemical scheme require that caution be used in calculating O2, especially at high latitudes and altitudes below 200 km

  2. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    jumping. At three weeks of jumping, the changes were maximal with significant increases in periosteal parameter, cortical thickness and cortical area...Control Jump (MeanSD) (MeanSD) 3-Week Control Jump (MeanSD) (MeanSD) 4-Week Control Jump (MeanSD) (MeanSD) Periosteal Circumference (mm) 4.230.08...Hoc Week 3 vs week 4 Periosteal Circumference P=0.046 NS NS NS Total Content P=0.03 P=0.01 Pɘ.014 NS Total Density P=0.004 P=0.03 Pɘ.03 NS Table 1A4

  3. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  4. Effects of estrogen deficiency and low bone mineral density on healthy knee cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Santos; Largo, Raquel; Calvo, Emilio; Bellido, Miriam; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of estrogen deficiency and bone mass loss on normal knee cartilage in mature rabbits. Bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 13 rabbits, 6 of which also received systemic glucocorticoid for 4 weeks. Seven additional healthy rabbits were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar spine, knee, and subchondral bone of the knee at baseline and 22 weeks after OVX. After sacrifice, the knees were dissected, macroscopy was assessed, and histological cartilage abnormalities were evaluated according to the Mankin score. Correlations of Mankin with BMD at different regions were also performed. When compared to baseline, differences in BMD were only found in spine and knee of the animals receiving glucocorticoids. All the animals subjected to OVX had a significantly higher Mankin score than controls. Mankin was upper in OVX animals receiving glucocorticoids, but differences were not significant. The Mankin score was inversely related with BMD in lumbar spine (r = -0.67; p < 0.01). Although low bone mineral density contributes to the minor osteoarthritic alterations observed in our model, estrogen deficiency itself seems to act directly to induce the main pathogenic effects in healthy cartilage of the rabbit.

  5. TIEG1-NULL OSTEOCYTES DISPLAY DEFECTS IN THEIR MORPHOLOGY, DENSITY AND SURROUNDING BONE MATRIX

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Oualid; Hawse, John R.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Bensamoun, Sabine F.

    2011-01-01

    Through the development of TGFβ-inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) knockout (KO) mice, we have demonstrated that TIEG1 plays an important role in osteoblast-mediated bone mineralization, and in bone resistance to mechanical strain. To further investigate the influence of TIEG1 in skeletal maintenance, osteocytes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using TIEG1 KO and wild-type mouse femurs at one, three and eight months of age. The results revealed an age-dependent change in osteocyte surface and density, suggesting a role for TIEG1 in osteocyte development. Moreover, there was a decrease in the amount of hypomineralized bone matrix surrounding the osteocytes in TIEG1 KO mice relative to wild-type controls. While little is known about the function or importance of this hypomineralized bone matrix immediately adjacent to osteocytes, this study reveals significant differences in this bone microenvironment and suggests that osteocyte function may be compromised in the absence of TIEG1 expression. PMID:22121306

  6. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  7. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  8. Osteocyte density in aging subjects is enhanced in bone adjacent to remodeling haversian systems.

    PubMed

    Power, J; Loveridge, N; Rushton, N; Parker, M; Reeve, J

    2002-06-01

    The osteocyte is a candidate regulatory cell for bone remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that there is a substantial (approximately 50%) loss of osteocytes from their lacunae in the cortex of the elderly femoral neck. Higher occupancy was evident in tissue exhibiting high remodeling and high porosity. The present study examines the distribution of osteocytes within individual osteonal systems at differing stages of the remodeling cycle. In 22 subjects, lacunar density, osteocyte density, and their quotient, the percent lacunar occupancy, was assessed up to a distance of 65 microm from the canal surface in six quiescent, resorbing, and forming osteons. In both forming (p = 0.024) and resorbing (p = 0.034) osteons, osteocyte densities were significantly higher in cases of hip fracture than controls. However, there were no significant between-group differences in lacunar occupancy. In both cases and controls, osteocyte density (p < 0.0001; mean difference +/-SEM: 157 +/- 34/mm2) and lacunar occupancy (p = 0.025; mean difference: 8.1 +/- 3.4%) were shown to be significantly higher in forming compared with quiescent osteons. Interestingly, resorbing systems also exhibited significantly elevated osteocyte density in both the fracture and the control group combined (mean difference 76 +/- 23/mm2; p = 0.003). Lacunar occupancy was also greater in resorbing compared with quiescent osteons (both groups combined: p = 0.022; mean difference: 5.7 +/- 2.3%). Elevated osteocyte density and lacunar occupancy in forming compared with quiescent systems was expected because of the likely effects of aging on quiescent osteons. However, the higher levels of these parameters in resorbing compared with quiescent systems was the opposite of what we expected and suggests that, in addition to their postulated mechanosensory role in the suppression of remodeling and bone loss, osteocytes might also contribute to processes initiating or maintaining bone resorption.

  9. Assessment of bone mineral density in the jaws and its relationship to radiomorphometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Gulsahi, A; Paksoy, CS; Ozden, S; Kucuk, NO; Cebeci, ARI; Genc, Y

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate maxillary, mandibular and femoral neck bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine any correlation between the bone mineral density of the jaws and panoramic radiomorphometric indices. Methods 49 edentulous patients (18 males and 31 females) aged between 41 and 78 years (mean age 60.2 ± 11.04) were examined by panoramic radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws and femoral neck was measured with a DXA; bone mineral density was calculated at the anterior, premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible. Results The mean maxillary molar BMD (0.45 g cm−2) was significantly greater than the maxillary anterior and premolar BMD (0.31 g cm−2, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean mandibular anterior and premolar BMD (1.39 g cm−2 and 1.28 g cm−2, respectively) was significantly greater than the mean mandibular molar BMD (1.09 g cm−2, P < 0.01). Although BMD in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were correlated, BMD in all the mandibular regions were highly correlated. Maxillary and mandibular BMD were not correlated with femoral BMD. In addition, mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, mental index (MI) or panoramic mandibular index (PMI) values were not significantly correlated with the maxillary and mandibular BMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions The BMD in this study was highest in the mandibular anterior region and lowest in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions. The BMD of the jaws was not correlated with either femoral BMD or panoramic radiomorphometric indices. PMID:20587652

  10. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Rignell-Hydbom, A.; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H.; Elmstahl, S.; Bjellerup, P.; Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U.; Akesson, A.

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  11. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age (± SD) of the participants was 58.75 ± 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 ± 15.63 vs. 92.15 ± 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 ± 0.11 to 0.12 ± 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femur’s BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  12. Vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Bulut, Serpil; Ilhan, Nevin; Gulkesen, Arif; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease and a major cause of disability in young adults. The aims of this study were to assess bone mass in patients with MS in comparison to healthy age- and sex-matched controls, and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD), and the relationship of the pain threshold at peripheral and axial sites with BMD in MS. Thirty-one patients with MS and 30 matched healthy controls participated in the study. The Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the functional independence measure (FIM) were used to scale disability, mobility, and functional status. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MS patients had significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femur trochanter compared to the matched controls. BMD of the lumbar spine was nearly 1 SD lower in MS patients compared with the healthy reference population (Z scores). MS patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels (17.3 ng/ml vs 43.1 ng/ml; P < 0.001) compared to controls, and 19 patients (61%) had a serum level of vitamin D that was less than 20 ng/ml. EDSS scores in the patients were inversely correlated with proximal femur BMD but not with spinal BMD. There was a negative correlation with the cumulative steroid dose and BMD only for femur trochanter BMD. Total myalgia scores for paravertebral muscles correlated significantly with spinal BMD. In conclusion, BMD is significantly lower in MS patients than in healthy controls, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in MS, and ambulatory status is a determinative factor for osteoporosis in MS. Patients should be encouraged to have adequate sunlight exposure and to increase their mobility. Specific strengthening exercises for hip and back muscles in MS patients would have a substantial impact on bone density, osteoporosis, fracture risk, and mobility.

  13. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  14. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players

    PubMed Central

    Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare whole and segmental body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players by playing positions. Forty collegiate American football players voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were categorized by playing positions into one of five categories i.e., defensive linemen, offensive linemen, defensive secondary players, offensive secondary players and receivers. Whole body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Offensive and defensive linemen had higher body mass, a body mass index, lean mass and a fat mass index compared to the remaining three positions and a higher lean mass index compared to offensive secondary players and receivers. Offensive linemen had a higher body fat percentage and lower values of upper to lower lean mass than offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers, and higher total mass to the lean mass ratio and fat mass to the lean mass ratio compared to the other players. Offensive linemen had a higher fat mass index and fat mass to the lean mass ratio than defensive linemen. However, in all other measures they were similar. Offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers were similar with respect to the measured variables. Bone mineral density of the players was within the normal range and no difference in lean mass was observed between the legs. In conclusion, findings of this study showed that the total and segmental body composition profile of collegiate American football players reflected the demands of particular playing positions. PMID:28149373

  15. Acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is a determinant of changes in bone density.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Riikka; Vihriälä, Erkki; Vainionpää, Aki; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-01-01

    High acceleration levels (>4g) seen during impact exercises have been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. The aim of this study was to examine how the other acceleration signal characteristics, i.e. the slope, area and energy of the signal are related to changes in bone density, using long-term quantification of physical activity. Daily physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer-based body movement monitor in 64 premenopausal women participating in a 12-month population-based exercise trial. The daily number of exercise-induced impacts at different slope, area and energy levels of the acceleration signal was analyzed. Physical activity inducing slopes 1000 m/s(3), acceleration peak areas 2m/s or signal energies 75 m(2)/s(3) was associated with BMD change in the hip (p<0.05). Impacts with the smallest slopes (<1000 m/s(3)) were positively associated with changes in calcaneal speed of ultrasound, while impacts with slopes 1500 m/s(3) or areas 4m/s were positively correlated with broadband ultrasound attenuation changes (p<0.05). We conclude that the acceleration slope of exercise-induced impacts is an important determinant of bone density. The slope threshold for improving BMD at the hip is 1000 m/s(3), which can be achieved during normal exercise including fast movements such as running and jumping.

  16. Determinants of bone mineral density in immobilization: a study on hemiplegic patients.

    PubMed

    del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Mandes, M G; Mantova, D; Scarpa, R; Oriente, P

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis that develops during immobilization is a severe condition that confers increased risk of fractures with their burden of mortality and disability. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of immobilization osteoporosis. As a model of this condition we studied hemiplegic subjects, measuring bone mineral density in the paralyzed lower limb as compared with the non-paralyzed one. In spite of the limits related to the loss of nervous stimulation, this model offers the advantage of a proper control for the complex genetic and environmental cofactors involved. We examined 48 hemiplegic subjects (31 men, 17 women in menopause) admitted consecutively over a 9-month period. Mean length immobilization was 10.9 months for men (range 1-48 months) and 7.8 months for women (range 1-40 months). The average time since menopause was 14.9 years (range 1.7-23.9 years). For each subject the following were performed: questionnaire, medical examination, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the scores for spasticity and for lower limb motor capacity in order to account for the different degrees of disability among patients. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at both femoral necks. For each patient we defined a percentage difference in bone loss between the paralyzed and non-paralyzed limb. Regression coefficient were calculated by multiple logistic regression. There was significant bone loss in the paralyzed limb in both sexes, accounting for up to 6.3% in women. Multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of bone loss depends significantly and directly on the length of immobilization, even when controlling for age and sex in the regression model (R = 0.193, p = 0.034). However, when time since menopause was included in the regression model, with length of immobility as a covariate, it was the only significant determinant of bone loss (R = 0.312, p = 0.039). No additional factors were observed among

  17. Quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and (1)H MRI measurements of bone mineral and matrix density differentiate metabolic bone diseases in rat models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haihui; Nazarian, Ara; Ackerman, Jerome L; Snyder, Brian D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Hrovat, Mirko I; Dai, Guangping; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Wu, Yaotang

    2010-06-01

    In this study, bone mineral density (BMD) of normal (CON), ovariectomized (OVX), and partially nephrectomized (NFR) rats was measured by (31)P NMR spectroscopy; bone matrix density was measured by (1)H water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI); and the extent of bone mineralization (EBM) was obtained by the ratio of BMD/bone matrix density. The capability of these MR methods to distinguish the bone composition of the CON, OVX, and NFR groups was evaluated against chemical analysis (gravimetry). For cortical bone specimens, BMD of the CON and OVX groups was not significantly different; BMD of the NFR group was 22.1% (by (31)P NMR) and 17.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. For trabecular bone specimens, BMD of the OVX group was 40.5% (by (31)P NMR) and 24.6% (by gravimetry) lower than CON; BMD of the NFR group was 26.8% (by (31)P NMR) and 21.5% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. No significant change of cortical bone matrix density between CON and OVX was observed by WASPI or gravimetry; NFR cortical bone matrix density was 10.3% (by WASPI) and 13.9% (by gravimetry) lower than CON. OVX trabecular bone matrix density was 38.0% (by WASPI) and 30.8% (by gravimetry) lower than CON, while no significant change in NFR trabecular bone matrix density was observed by either method. The EBMs of OVX cortical and trabecular specimens were slightly higher than CON but not significantly different from CON. Importantly, EBMs of NFR cortical and trabecular specimens were 12.4% and 26.3% lower than CON by (31)P NMR/WASPI, respectively, and 4.0% and 11.9% lower by gravimetry. Histopathology showed evidence of osteoporosis in the OVX group and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (renal osteodystrophy) in the NFR group. These results demonstrate that the combined (31)P NMR/WASPI method is capable of discerning the difference in EBM between animals with osteoporosis and those with impaired bone mineralization.

  18. Genetic influences on bone density: Physiological correlates of vitamin D receptor gene alleles in premonopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, G.; Nguyen, T.; Morrison, N.

    1995-09-01

    Common vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene alleles have recently been shown to contribute to the genetic variability in bone mass and bone turnover; however, the physiological mechanisms involved are unknown. To examine this, the response to 7 days of 2 {mu}g oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25-(OH){sub 2}D] (calcitrol) stimulation was assessed in 21 premenopausal women, homozygous for one or other of the common VDR alleles (bb, N = 11; BB, n = 10). Indices of bone turnover and calcium homeostasis were measured during 2 weeks. Baseline osteocalcin, 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D, type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide, and inorganic phosphate levels were significantly higher and spinal bone mineral density was significantly lower in the BB allelic group. After calcitrol administration, similar levels of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D were attained throughout the study in both genotypic groups. The increase in serum osteocalcin levels in the BB group was significantly less than that in the bb group (11% vs. 32%, P = 0.01). The genotype-related baseline difference in osteocalcin levels was not apparent at the similar serum 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D levels. By contrast, the baseline differences in phosphate and type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide persisted throughout the study. Serum ionized calcium levels did not differ between genotypes, nor did it move out of normal range values. However, parathyroid hormone was less suppressed in the low bone density group (38% vs. 11%, P = 0.01). These data indicate that the VDR alleles are associated with differences in the vitamin D endocrine system and may have important implications in relation to the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density by Computed Tomography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157

  20. Probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum) Increase Bone Mass Density and Upregulate Sparc and Bmp-2 Genes in Rats with Bone Loss Resulting from Ovariectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sabran, Mohd Redzwan; Karimi, Golgis; Hwei, Angela Ng Min; Abdul-Majeed, Saif; Ahmad, Zuraini; Ibrahim, Zuriati; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host, when administered in adequate amounts. Mostly, probiotics affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the host and alter the composition of gut microbiota. Nowadays, the incidence of hip fractures due to osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats have fragile bone due to estrogen deficiency and mimic the menopausal conditions in women. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) on bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone remodeling, bone structure, and gene expression in OVX rats. The rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (sham, OVX, and the OVX group supplemented with 1 mL of B. longum 108–109 colony forming units (CFU)/mL). B. longum was given once daily for 16 weeks, starting from 2 weeks after the surgery. The B. longum supplementation increased (p < 0.05) serum osteocalcin (OC) and osteoblasts, bone formation parameters, and decreased serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteoclasts, bone resorption parameters. It also altered the microstructure of the femur. Consequently, it increased BMD by increasing (p < 0.05) the expression of Sparc and Bmp-2 genes. B. longum alleviated bone loss in OVX rats and enhanced BMD by decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. PMID:26366421

  1. [Investigation of mineral density and the bone structure following 105 day experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105)].

    PubMed

    Prostiakov, I V; Novikov, V E; Morukov, B V

    2010-01-01

    Healthy volunteers' bone system investigation was performed before and after 105 days experiment in an isolated environment (MARS-105) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Volumetric bone mineral density (VBMD), bone mineral density (BMD), structural parameters of radius and tibia were evaluated. There were no significant BMD changes revealed in skeletal parts critical in terms of biomechanical properties. pQCT examination noted microarchitecture deterioration of radius that was reflected in decreasing of trabecular number and increasing of bone tissue inhomogeneity. Decreasing VBMD both cortical and trabecular bone were revealed for tibia. Unexpectedly, increasing oftrabecular number and decreasing of inhomogeneity were revealed for tibia. Experiment showed that only the complex investigation including DXA and pQCT measurements gives an idea about bone system changes under simulated experiment conditions.

  2. Gene-dietary fat interaction, bone mineral density and bone speed of sound in Children: a twin study in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ji; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Scope Dietary fat correlates with bone mineral density (BMD). We tested the association between fat intake and BMD, and tested if fat intake modified the degree of genetic influence on BMD and bone speed of sound (SOS). Methods and results We included 622 twins aged 7–15 y from South China. Data on anthropometry, dietary intake, BMD, and SOS were collected. Quantitative genetic analyses of structural equation models were fit using the Mx statistical package. The within-pair intra-class correlations (ICC) for BMD in DZ twins were nearly half of that for MZ twins (ICC=0.39 vs 0.70). The heritability of BMD and SOS were 71% and 79%. Phenotypic correlation between fat intake and SOS was significant (r=−0.19, p=0.04). SOS was negatively correlated with fat intake in boys (r=−0.11, p=0.05), but not in girls. Full Cholesky decomposition models showed SOS has a strong genetic correlation with fat intake (rA =−0.88, 95% CI=−0.94, 0.01); the environmental correlation between fat intake and SOS was weak (rE =−0.04, 95% CI=−0.20, 0.13). Fat intake modified the additive genetic effects on BMD. Conclusion Genetic factors explained 71% and 79% of individual variance in BMD and SOS, respectively. Low fat intake counteracts genetic predisposition to low BMD. PMID:25546604

  3. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  4. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual.

  5. Bone mineral density and vitamin D status in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, F; Speelman, A D; van Nimwegen, M; van der Schouw, Y T; Backx, F J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M; Verhaar, H J J

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss is more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in the general population. Several factors may be involved in the development of bone loss, including malnutrition, immobilization, low body mass index, decreased muscle strength, vitamin D deficiency and medication use. This study investigates the prevalence of osteoporosis and possible risk factors associated with bone loss in early stage PD. In 186 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5, mean age 64.1 years, 71 % men) bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with DEXA. T- and Z-scores were calculated. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that contributed to BMD. 25-OH-vitamin D status of PD patients was compared with 802 controls (mean age 63.3 years, 50 % men) using linear regression analysis. Osteoporosis (11.8 %) and osteopenia (41.4 %) were common in PD patients. Mean Z-score for the hip was 0.24 (SD 0.93), and for the lumbar spine 0.72 (SD 1.91). Female gender, low weight, and low 25-OH-vitamin D were significantly correlated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. PD patients had lower 25(OH)D serum levels than controls (B = -10, p = 0.000). More than half of the patients with early stage PD had an abnormal BMD. Female gender, low weight, and low vitamin D concentration were associated with bone loss. Furthermore, vitamin D concentrations were reduced in PD patients. These results underscore the importance of proactive screening for bone loss and vitamin D deficiency, even in early stages of PD.

  6. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Ayatollahi, Sayed Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children. PMID:26401143

  7. Assessment of trabecular bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Haengbok; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Youngjae; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Juhyung; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Kijeong; Chang, Jinhwa; Chang, Dongwoo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related changes and anatomic variation in trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in normal cats. Seventeen normal cats were included in this study and divided into the following 3 age groups:<6 months (n=4), 2-5 years (n=10) and >6 years (n=3). A computed tomographic scan of each vertebra from the 12th thoracic to the 7th lumbar spine and the pelvis was performed with a bone-density phantom (50, 100 and 150 mg/cm(3), calcium hydroxyapatite, CIRS phantom(®)). On the central transverse section, the elliptical region of interest (ROI) was drawn to measure the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) value. Those values were converted to equivalent tBMD (mg/cm(3)) by use of the bone-density phantom and linear regression analysis (r(2) >0.95). The mean tBMD value of the thoracic vertebrae (369.4 ± 31.8 mg/cm(3)) was significantly higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae (285 ± 58.1 mg/cm(3)). The maximum tBMD occurred at the T12, T13 and L1 levels in all age groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean tBMD value among the 3 age groups at the T12 (P<0.001), T13 (P<0.001) and L4 levels (P=0.013), respectively. The present study suggests that age-related changes and anatomic variation in tBMD values should be considered when assessing tBMD using QCT in cats with bone disorders.

  8. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A.; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Henry, Brandon Michael; Wroński, Sebastian; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Maredziak, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs) isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine. PMID:27195075

  9. Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Henry, Brandon Michael; Wroński, Sebastian; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Maredziak, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to its pleiotropic effects, the commonly used drug metformin has gained renewed interest among medical researchers. While metformin is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, recent studies suggest that it may have further application in anticancer and antiaging therapies. In this study, we investigated the proliferative potential, accumulation of oxidative stress factors, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of mouse adipose-derived stem cells (MuASCs) isolated from mice treated with metformin for 8 weeks. Moreover, we investigated the influence of metformin supplementation on mice bone density and bone element composition. The ASCs isolated from mice who were treated with metformin for 8 weeks showed highest proliferative potential, generated a robust net of cytoskeletal projections, had reduced expression of markers associated with cellular senescence, and decreased amount of reactive oxygen species in comparison to control group. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cells possessed greatest osteogenic differentiation potential, while their adipogenic differentiation ability was reduced. We also demonstrated that metformin supplementation increases bone density in vivo. Our result stands as a valuable source of data regarding the in vivo influence of metformin on ASCs and bone density and supports a role for metformin in regenerative medicine.

  10. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2. Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. PMID:27578881

  11. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, C H

    2016-12-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m(2), were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m(2) Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m(2) stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m(2) stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m(2) elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens.

  12. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with significant changes in the BMD parameters. At 12 months, curcumin treatment led to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown.

  13. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Meagan M.; Snively, Eric; Cotton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomography (CT) reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE) model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy–Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics–FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches. Conclusions/Significance High safety factors suggest that bone

  14. A potential reference point for assessment of condylar bone marrow of the temporomandibular joint on proton density weighted images.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Aya; Sano, Tsukasa; Otonari-Yamamoto, Mika; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Kwok, Edmund

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine a potential reference point for measurement of signal intensity of bone marrow of the condyle on proton density-weighted images (PDW) prior to analysis of bone marrow abnormality related to symptomatic osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The study was based on 79 joints in 41 patients. The regions of interest (ROI) were placed over the bone marrow of the condyle and four other structures, It was hypothesized that a correlation between signal intensity of ROI over bone marrow and that of another structure would provide a potential reference point4or measurement of signal intensity of bone marrow. A significant positive linear correlation was found in the group for gray matter-1 and bone marrow. The correlation coefficient was 0.3 (Pearson correlation coefficient; p < 0.05). It was determined that gray matter is a potential reference point in evaluating the signal intensity of bone marrow in the mandibular condyle.

  15. Effect of Low Vitamin D on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Bone Microarchitecture, and Stiffness in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Kyle K.; Zhou, Bin; Cong, Elaine; Wang, Ji; Lee, James A.; Kepley, Anna; Zhang, Chengchen; Guo, X. Edward; Silverberg, Shonni J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (25OHD <20 ng/ml) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have more severe disease reflected by higher serum PTH levels compared to those with vitamin D levels in the insufficient (20–29 ng/ml) or replete range (≥30 ng/ml). Objective: To study the effect of low vitamin D in PHPT on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and bone strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 99 PHPT patients with and without 25OHD insufficiency and deficiency from a university hospital. Outcome Measures: Bone microarchitecture and strength were assessed with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), microfinite element analysis, and individual trabecula segmentation. Results: In this cohort, 25OHD levels were deficient in 18.1%, insufficient in 35.4% and replete in 46.5%. Those with lower 25OHD levels had higher PTH (P < .0001), were younger (P = .001) and tended to weigh more (P = .053). There were no age-, weight- and sex-adjusted between-group differences (<20 vs 20–29 vs ≥30 ng/ml) in any HRpQCT, microfinite element analysis, or individual trabecula segmentation indices. Because few participants had 25OHD below 20 ng/ml, we also compared those with 25OHD below 30 vs at least 30 ng/ml and found only a trend toward lower adjusted cortical vBMD (3.1%, P = .08) and higher cortical porosity (least squares mean ± SEM 7.5 ± 0.3 vs 6.6 ± 0.3%, P = .07) at the tibia but not the radius. Stiffness did not differ at either site. In multiple regression analysis, 25OHD accounted for only three of the 49.2% known variance in cortical vBMD; 25OHD was not significant in the model for cortical porosity at the tibia. Conclusion: Low 25OHD levels are associated with higher PTH levels in PHPT, but contrary to our hypothesis, these differences did not significantly affect vBMD or microarchitecture, nor did they result in lower stiffness. Low vitamin

  16. Quantitative micro-computed tomography: a non-invasive method to assess equivalent bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Snyder, Brian D; Zurakowski, David; Müller, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    One of the many applications of micro computed tomography (microCT) is to accurately visualize and quantify cancellous bone microstructure. However, microCT based assessment of bone mineral density has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Specifically, the effects of varying imaging parameters, such as tube voltage (kVp), current (microA), integration time (ms), object to X-ray source distance (mm), projection number, detector array size and imaging media (surrounding the specimen), on the relationship between equivalent tissue density (rhoEQ) and its linear attenuation coefficient (micro) have received little attention. In this study, in house manufactured, hydrogen dipotassium phosphate liquid calibration phantoms (K2HPO4) were employed in addition to a resin embedded hydroxyapatite solid calibration phantoms supplied by Scanco Medical AG Company. Variations in current, integration time and projection number had no effect on the conversion relationship between micro and rhoEQ for the K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p>0.05 for all cases]. However, as expected, variations in scanning tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media (referring to the solution that surrounds the specimen in the imaging vial) significantly affected the conversion relationship between mu and rhoEQ for K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p<0.05 for all cases]. A multivariate linear regression approach was used to estimate rhoEQ based on attenuation coefficient, tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media for K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms, explaining 90% of the variation in rhoEQ. Furthermore, equivalent density values of bovine cortical bone (converted from attenuation coefficient to equivalent density using the K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms) samples highly correlated [R2=0.92] with the ash densities of the samples. In conclusion, Scanco calibration phantoms can be used to assess equivalent

  17. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test.

  18. The effects of antihypertensive drugs on bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kwi Young; Kang, Yoongoo; Kim, Mirinae; Kim, Youngkyun; Yi, Hyoju; Kim, Juryun; Jung, Hae-Rin; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Hong, Yeon Sik

    2013-08-01

    The effects of several antihypertensive drugs on bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-architectural changes in ovariectomized (OVX) mice were investigated. Eight-week-old female C57/BL6 mice were used for this study. Three days after ovariectomy, mice were treated intraperitoneally with nifedipine (15 mg/kg), telmisartan (5 mg/kg), enalapril (20 mg/kg), propranolol (1 mg/kg) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/kg) for 35 consecutive days. Uterine atrophy of all mice was confirmed to evaluate estrogen deficiency state. BMD and micro-architectural analyses were performed on tibial proximal ends by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). When OVX mice with uterine atrophy were compared with mice without atrophy, BMD decreased (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in BMD loss between different antihypertensive drugs (P = 0.005). Enalapril and propranolol increased BMD loss in mice with atrophied uteri compared with control mice. By contrast, thiazide increased BMD in mice with uterine atrophy compared with vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.048). Thiazide (P = 0.032) and telmisartan (P = 0.051) reduced bone loss and bone fraction in mice with uterine atrophy compared with the control. Thiazide affects BMD in OVX mice positively. The reduction in bone loss by thiazide and telmisartan suggest that these drugs may benefit menopausal women with hypertension and osteoporosis.

  19. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  20. Bone mineral density in children with Fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E.; Barnum, Jessie L.; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S.; Baker, K. Scott; Wagner, John E.; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). While low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls, and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (Cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 Cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-forage Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by 0.8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ −1 than healthy controls (42% vs. 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and Cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower BMI and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients. PMID:25591848

  1. Bone mineral density in children with fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E; Barnum, Jessie L; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S; Baker, K Scott; Wagner, John E; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L

    2015-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure, usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by .8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ -1 than healthy controls (42% versus 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower body mass index and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients.

  2. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  3. Socioeconomic status and bone mineral density in adults by race/ethnicity and gender: the Louisiana osteoporosis study.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Zhao, L-J; Xu, Q; Wu, K-H; Deng, H-W

    2017-02-24

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions.

  4. Effect of a multiporous beta-tricalicum phosphate on bone density around dental implants inserted into fresh extraction sockets.

    PubMed

    Daif, Emad Tawfik

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, via multi-slice helical computerized tomography (CT), the influence of the pure-phase multiporous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) on bone density around dental implants inserted into fresh extraction sockets. Twenty-eight patients (18 women and 10 men), indicated for extraction of their lower premolars and insertion of immediate dental implants, were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two equal groups (14 patients each). Group A received immediate dental implants without any filling material around the implants, while in group B, a pure-phase multiporous beta-TCP was gently packed into the bone gaps around the implants. Three and 6 months after loading the implants, a CT, sagittal and coronal, was made to measure the bone density around the implants. The results of the current study have shown that the mean values of the bone density measurements around the implants in group A were 1150 ± 205 (range, 645-1460) at 3 months and 1245 ± 165 (range, 884-1650) at 6 months after loading the implants. In group B, the mean values of the bone density measurements around the implants were 1280 ± 320 (range, 876-1790) and 1490 ± 358 (range, 1061-1965) at 3 and 6 months after loading the implants, respectively. The statistical analysis of the collected data showed a significant increase in the bone density measurements from 3 to 6 months only in group B (P < .05). Also, the difference between group A and B in the bone density measurements around the implants was statistically significant (P < .05) at only 6 months after loading. On the basis of the results presented in this study, it may be possible to mention that the pure-phase multiporous beta-TCP may enhance the bone density when inserted into the bone gaps around immediate dental implants.

  5. Influence of Regional Difference in Bone Mineral Density on Hip Fracture Site in Elderly Females by Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z L; Li, P F; Pang, Z H; Zheng, X H; Huang, F; Xu, H H; Li, Q L

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture is a kind of osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients. Its important monitoring indicator is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. The stress characteristics and material distribution in different parts of the bones can be well simulated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Our previous studies have demonstrated a linear positive correlation between clinical BMD and the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur. However, the correlation between the density variation between intertrochanteric region and collum femoris region of the model and the fracture site has not been studied yet. The present study intends to investigate whether the regional difference in the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur can be used to predict hip fracture site in elderly females. The CT data of both hip joints were collected from 16 cases of elderly female patients with hip fractures. Mimics 15.01 software was used to reconstruct the model of proximal femur on the healthy side. Ten kinds of material properties were assigned. In Abaqus 6.12 software, the collum femoris region and intertrochanteric region were, respectively, drawn for calculating the corresponding regional density of the model, followed by prediction of hip fracture site and final comparison with factual fracture site. The intertrochanteric region/collum femoris region density was [(1.20 ± 0.02) × 10(6)] on the fracture site and [(1.22 ± 0.03) × 10(6)] on the non-fracture site, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Among 16 established models of proximal femur on the healthy side, 14 models were consistent with the actual fracture sites, one model was inconsistent, and one model was unpredictable, with the coincidence rate of 87.5 %. The intertrochanteric region or collum femoris region with lower BMD is more prone to hip fracture of the type on the corresponding site.

  6. Comparisons of trabecular and cortical bone in late adolescent black and white females.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Taylor, Ruth G; Baile, Clifton A; Hamrick, Mark W; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Few childhood studies have investigated racial differences in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and bone strength indices measured by three-dimensional bone imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular and cortical bone parameters at the radius and tibia between late adolescent white and black females using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). White (n = 25) and black females (n = 25), 18-19 years of age, were pair-matched for age, height, and fat-free soft tissue mass. Peripheral QCT scans were obtained at the 4% (trabecular bone), 20% (cortical bone), and 66% [muscle cross-sectional area (CSA)] sites from the distal metaphyses. Bone strength was determined from vBMD and bone geometry to calculate bone strength index (BSI; trabecular site) and polar strength-strain index (SSI; cortical site). Radial SSI was not different between groups; however, blacks had greater radial BSI (P = 0.02) than whites. After adjustment for the longer forearm in blacks, the greater radial BSI in blacks no longer remained. At the tibia, blacks versus whites had greater bone strength at the trabecular and cortical bone sites (BSI, P = 0.03; SSI, P = 0.04, respectively). When controlling for differences in tibial length and muscle CSA, the higher estimates of bone strength persisted in blacks versus whites (BSI, P = 0.01; SSI, P = 0.02). Our data suggest that when differences in body size are considered, late adolescent black versus white females have a stronger bone profile, due to greater bone geometry and vBMD, at the trabecular and cortical regions of the tibia but not at the radius.

  7. Assessment of Regional Bone Density in Fractured Vertebrae Using Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hany A.G.; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Levasseur, Annie; Parent, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Purpose The aim of this study is to propose and evaluate a new technique to assess bone mineral density of fractured vertebrae using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Overview of Literature There is no available technique to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) at the fractured vertebra because of the alterations in bony structures at the fracture site. Methods Forty patients with isolated fracture from T10 to L2 were analyzed from the vertebrae above and below the fracture level. Apparent density (AD) was measured based on the relationship between QCT images attenuation coefficients and the density of calibration objects. AD of 8 independent regions of interest (ROI) within the vertebral body and 2 ROI within the pedicles of vertebrae above and below the fractured vertebra were measured. At the level of the fractured vertebra, AD was measured at the pedicles, which are typically intact. AD of the fractured vertebral body was linearly interpolated, based on the assumption that AD at the fractured vertebra is equivalent to the average AD measured in vertebrae adjacent to the fracture. Estimated and measured AD of the pedicles at the fractured level were compared to verify our assumption of linear interpolation from adjacent vertebrae. Results The difference between the measured and the interpolated density of the pedicles at the fractured vertebra was 0.006 and 0.003 g/cm3 for right and left pedicle respectively. The highest mean AD located at the pedicles and the lowest mean AD was found at the anterior ROI of the vertebral body. Significant negative correlation exist between age and AD of ROI in the vertebral body. Conclusions This study suggests that the proposed technique is adequate to estimate the AD of a fractured vertebra from the density of adjacent vertebrae. PMID:28243370

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy and Ozone Therapy on Bone Healing.

    PubMed

    Alan, Hilal; Vardi, Nigar; Özgür, Cem; Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Hüseyin, Ahmet; Yolcu, Ümit; Doğan, Derya Ozdemir

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone therapy on the bone healing. Thirty-six adult male Wistar albino rats were used for this study. Monocortical defects were shaped in right femur of all rats. Defects were filled with nano-hydroxyapatite graft. The animals were divided into 3 groups and each group was than divided into 2 subgroups. Then, LLLT with a diode laser was applied to the first group (G1), ozone therapy was applied to the second group (G2), and no treatment was applied to the third group as a control group (G3). Animals were sacrificed after 4th and 8th weeks and the sections were examined to evaluate the density of the inflammation, the formation of connective tissue, the osteogenic potential, and osteocalcin activity. As a result, there were no significant differences among the groups of 4 weeks in terms of new bone formation. In the immunohistochemical assessment, the number of osteocalcin-positive cells was higher in the laser group compared to the other group of 4 weeks; this difference was statistically significant in the LLLT and ozone groups (P < 0.05). Histomorphometric assessment showed that the new bone areas were higher in the LLLT and ozone groups; furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in the LLLT in comparison with the control group at 8th week (P < 0.05). At the same time immunohistochemical assessment showed that osteocalcin-positive cells were considerably higher in G2 than G1 at 8th week (P < 0.05). The findings of this study may be the result of differences in the number of treatment sessions. Further studies are therefore needed to determine the optimal treatment modality.

  9. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  10. Body composition and bone mineral density in competitive athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; Dieli, M; Vintaloro, G; Gibilaro, M; Giacone, G; Cottini, E

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the vertebral spine, appendicular skeleton, and whole body was studied in male athletes who chronically trained by different forms of skeletal loading. Eighteen subjects performed weight-bearing activity (canoeists, n = 18), and 14 performed non-weight-bearing activity (cyclists, n = 14). Twenty-eight age-matched male students served as non-athletic controls. The canoeists had significantly higher spine, pelvic and total body BMD than cyclists and controls. No intergroup difference was observed in the BMD of arms and legs despite the fact that physical activity of canoeists and cyclists were characterized by forceful muscular contractions. It is concluded that weight-bearing activity is essential to obtain beneficial skeletal effects on total and regional bone mass in young subjects.

  11. Bone Density Following Three Years of Recovery from Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Shreyasee; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Sibonga, Jean

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone mineral density [BMD] at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine sustain significant loss during space flight, estimated at approximately 0.5-1.0% per month. However, the long-term effects on bone health following return from long-duration space flight remain unclear. It is unknown whether BMD for men recovers beyond 1 year following return from space to what would be predicted or if deficits persist. Using our previously created prediction models, we compared the observed BMD of male US crew following 3 years since returning from longduration space flight with what would be predicted if they had not been exposed to microgravity.

  12. The Impact of Freezing on Bone Mineral Density: Implications for Forensic Research.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amanda R; Ross, Ann H

    2017-03-01

    It is common for researchers using animal or human remains for scientific study to freeze samples prior to use. However, effects of freezing on bone macro- or microstructure are relatively unknown. The research objective of this study was to determine whether freezing could potentially bias experimental results by analyzing changes in bone mineral density (BMD) with the freezing of remains over time. Eight fetal pigs were scanned to determine their initial BMD before freezing. Three piglets underwent a freeze-thaw cycle to assess the effects of the freezing process. Four piglets were frozen and scanned weekly for 20 weeks to assess freezing over time. The overall average between the fresh initial scan and final frozen scan was significantly different (p < 0.001). Per contra, the final thawed BMD scans did not differ from the initial fresh scan (p = 0.418). Thus, completely thawed remains are recommended for experimental studies.

  13. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  14. Comparison of failure characteristics of a range of cancellous bone-bone cement composites.

    PubMed

    Lucksanasombool, P; Higgs, W A J; Ignat, M; Higgs, R J E D; Swain, M V

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, orthopedic surgery has embraced an increase in the depth of cement penetration into the adjacent cancellous bone structure. The resultant interdigitation transforms this zone into a thick layer of continuous interpenetrating composite material. The failure behavior of the composite formed with a number of potential bone cements with different bonding ability was investigated. The cancellous bone-cement composites exhibit considerable resistance to crack extension, and in situ optical observation indicates that the contribution of the cancellous bone is analogous to that of a typical fiber bridging process. The critical stress intensity factor and the work of fracture have been used to quantify the failure characteristics of the cancellous bone-cement composites. The nature of the crack propagation through these cement-bone composites was also captured via optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken of the failure surfaces. The R-curve behavior, or crack extension characteristic, of the cancellous bone-cement composite was also determined. The interesting outcome is that the cancellous bone-PMMA (poly-methylmethacrylate) composite, despite the absence of chemical bonding with bone, required the highest energy to fracture. In addition, the dimensional stability of the cement has a great effect on the interface.

  15. Irreversible bone loss in osteomalacia. Comparison of radial photon absorptiometry with iliac bone histomorphometry during treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Parfitt, A M; Rao, D S; Stanciu, J; Villanueva, A R; Kleerekoper, M; Frame, B

    1985-01-01

    We examined the relationships between the changes in bone mineral deficit in the radius, determined by single-energy photon absorptiometry at standard proximal and distal sites, and in the ilium, determined by bone histomorphometry, during the treatment of osteomalacia of diverse etiology in 28 patients. In the ilium, relative osteoid volume decreased by 75-80% in both cortical bone (from 6.0% to 1.5%) and trabecular bone (from 30.1% to 6.6%) during a mean treatment duration of 2 yr. There was also a significant fall in iliac cortical porosity from 10.3% to 7.8%. As a result, mineralized bone volume increased by 7.5% in cortical and by 40.1% in trabecular bone; the cortical and trabecular increments were correlated (r = 0.69, P less than 0.001). The properly weighted increase for the entire tissue sample was 18.6%. By contrast, there was no change in bone mineral at either radial site, although there was a 2% increase at both sites when allowance was made for age-related bone loss during treatment. The proximal and distal age-adjusted increments was correlated (r = 0.76, P less than 0.001), but there was no correlation between the changes in any photon absorptiometric and any histomorphometric index. In that iliac cortical bone turnover in normal subjects was 7.2%/yr, we estimated the rate of bone turnover to be less than 2%/yr at both proximal and distal radial sites, including any trabecular bone present at the distal site. Compared to appropriate control subjects, the bone mineral deficits fell during treatment from 19.2% to 17.1% at the proximal radius (greater than 95% cortical bone) and from 20.5% to 18.5% at the distal radius (greater than 75% cortical bone). In the ilium the deficits, assuming attainment of normal values for osteoid volume and cortical porosity, fell from 41.7% to 36.1% in cortical and from 31.5% to 6.3% in trabecular bone, the properly weighted combined deficit falling from 38.6% to 27.7%. The irreversible iliac cortical deficit was

  16. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  17. Inhomogeneity of human vertebral cancellous bone: systematic density and structure patterns inside the vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Banse, X; Devogelaer, J P; Munting, E; Delloye, C; Cornu, O; Grynpas, M

    2001-05-01

    In the spine, cancellous bone quality is usually assessed for the whole vertebral body in a transverse central slice. Correct identification and assessment of the weakest parts of the cancellous bone may lead to better prediction of fracture risk. The density and structural parameters were systematically investigated inside the thoracic (T-9), thoracolumbar (T12-L1), and lumbar (L-4) vertebral bodies of nine subjects. On both sides of the median sagittal plane, anterior and posterior 8.2 mm vertical cores were harvested in the thoracic vertebra. In the thoracolumbar and lumbar vertebrae, external samples were also cored. Peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) density analysis of the 136 cores was performed at four different levels, from the lower to the upper endplate. The relatively thin slice thickness (300 microm) and small pixel size (70 microm x 70 microm) was considered sufficient to investigate the structural parameters on the four transverse slices and in the sagittal and coronal planes (total of 816 images). Using a constant threshold a binary image was generated and the morphometric data were extracted. The binary image was further skeletonized and classical strut analysis was performed. Cancellous bone density was 20% higher in the posterior cores than in the anterior and external cores. Moreover, clear vertical inhomogeneity was noted because the lowest half of the vertebral body presented lower density than the upper half (differences ranging from 25% to 15%). All structural parameters were strongly dependent on the location of the measurement. Structural differences between anterior, posterior, and external areas were mild and followed the density patterns. On the other hand, vertical inhomogeneity of the structural parameters was important. For example, in the thoracolumbar and lumbar vertebrae, the numbers of nodes or node-to-node struts were almost twofold higher in the inferior half than in the superior half (p < 0.01), whereas

  18. Dental malocclusion is associated with reduced systemic bone mineral density in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Sierpinska, Teresa; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, Janina; Golebiewska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    There is no published data about associations between the state of dentition and bone mass in adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of caries and dental malocclusion is associated with bone mass during growth. In 123 healthy Caucasian subjects (72 males, 51 females) aged 14-18 yr, DMFT figures (decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth) and presence of malocclusion, according to Angle classification, were determined. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding dental hygiene, physical activity level, and consumption of sweets. Anthropometry and pubertal stages were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, head, and lumbar spine. No association was found between DMFT (mean+/-SD: 8.33+/-3.9) and BMD or Z-scores for BMD. Malocclusion was found in 49 subjects (39.8%) and was more prevalent in females than males. Malocclusion was associated with lower total BMD independently of body size (p=0.001; Z-scores: -0.21+/-0.27 vs +0.33+/-0.17; p=0.1) in males (but not females), producing odds ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.34%; p=0.02). Head BMD was also lower in the males with malocclusion than in those without (p=0.004). Neither caries nor the tooth loss appear to be associated with BMD during growth. Boys with malocclusion are at higher risk of reduced BMD. This suggests that inadequate bone mass accrual in males coexists with impaired growth of the masticatory system in childhood and adolescence, however, the causal pathway is unknown. Factors that produce malocclusion may also affect bone mass or size but further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relationship.

  19. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  20. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Felser, Sabine; Skripitz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1) the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2) the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count), and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008) 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2 = 0.002; df = 1; P = 0.96; χ2/df = 0.002; RMSEA < 0.01; TLI = 1.5; CFI = 1.0). A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β = 0.38; b = 0.15; SE = 0.07; C.R. = 2.0; P = 0.046). It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass. PMID:25793194

  1. Long-term unilateral loading and bone mineral density and content in female squash players.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, H; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Vuori, I

    1994-04-01

    We examined 19 female Finnish national level squash players and 19 healthy female controls with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanner for the determination of the association between long-term unilateral activity and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of the upper extremities. In players, the BMDs and the BMCs were significantly higher in each bone site of the playing extremity. The side-to-side difference was largest in the proximal humerus (BMD 15.6%, BMC 17.8%) and smallest in the ulnar shaft (BMD 5.6%, BMC 7.3%). In sex-, age-, weight-, and height-matched controls, the side-to-side differences were significantly smaller, ranging from 1.6% to 4.1%. The number of training years and elbow flexion strength correlated positively with the relative BMD and BMC in the humerus of the playing arm (r = 0.632-0.685). The starting age of training in turn correlated negatively (r = -0.483 to -0.577) with these bone parameters. Significantly larger side-to-side differences (average 22%) were found in players who had started their career before or during menarche than in those who had begun the training 1 year or more after the menarche (9%). These findings suggest that the bones of the playing extremity clearly benefit from active squash playing. The benefit is largest in humerus and smaller in the bone of the forearm. The benefit of playing is stronger if the athlete has started the training at or before menarche than after it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Materials and Methods Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Results Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Conclusion Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone

  3. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species.

  4. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  5. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wesley K.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Zuber, Verena; LeBlanc, Marissa; Bettella, Francesco; Mills, Ian G.; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Dale, Anders M.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR) method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease