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Sample records for bone graft surgery

  1. [Bone grafts in orthopedic surgery].

    PubMed

    Zárate-Kalfópulos, Barón; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery the demand for the use of bone grafts increases daily because of the increasing quantity and complexity of surgical procedures. At present, the gold standard is the autologous bone graft but the failure rate, morbidity of the donor site and limited availability have stimulated a proliferation for finding materials that work as bone graft substitutes. In order to have good success, we must know the different properties of these choices and the environment where the graft is going to be used. As bone graft substitutes and growth factors become clinical realities, a new gold standard will be defined. Tissue engineering and gene therapy techniques have the objective to create an optimum bone graft substitute with a combination of substances with properties of osteconduction, osteogenesis and osteoinduction.

  2. Bone Grafts in Craniofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Genecov, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects is a challenging task. The standard reconstruction method has been bone grafting. In this review, we shall describe the biological principles of bone graft healing, as pertinent to craniofacial reconstruction. Different types and sources of bone grafts will be discussed, as well as new methods of bone defect reconstruction. PMID:22110806

  3. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  4. Autologous Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Chiodo, Christopher P

    2016-12-01

    Bone graft is a common adjunct procedure in orthopedic surgery used for fusions, fracture repair, and the reconstruction of skeletal defects in the foot and ankle. Autologous graft, or autograft, involves the transport of bone from a donor site to another location in the same patient. It is considered by many to be the gold standard of bone grafting, as it is provides all biologic factors required for functional graft. Further, autograft is 100% histocompatible with no risk of disease transmission.

  5. The Use of Bone Graft Substitute in Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kraemer, Robert; Mailaender, Peter; Stang, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bone defects are a very common problem in hand surgery, occurring in bone tumor surgery, in complicated fractures, and in wrist surgery. Bone substitutes may be used instead of autologous bone graft to avoid donor site morbidity. In this article, we will review our experience with the use of Cerament bone void filler (Bonesupport, Lund, Sweden) in elective and trauma hand surgery. A prospective clinical study was conducted with 16 patients treated with this bone graft substitute in our department over a period of 3.5 years. Twelve patients (2 female, 10 male; with an average age of 42.42 years) with monostoic enchondroma of the phalanges were treated and 4 patients (1 female, 3 male; with an average age of 55.25 years) with complicated metacarpal fractures with bone defect. Data such as postoperative course with rating of pain, postoperative complications, functional outcome assessment at 1, 2, 3, 6 months, time to complete remodeling were registered. Postoperative redness and swelling after bone graft substitute use was noticed in 7 patients with enchondroma surgery due to the thin soft-tissue envelope of the fingers. Excellent total active motion of the involved digit was noticed in 10 of 12 enchondroma patients and in all 4 fracture patients at 2-month follow-up. In summary, satisfying results are described, making the use of injectable bone graft substitute in the surgical treatment of enchondromas, as well as in trauma hand surgery a good choice. PMID:27310946

  6. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  7. Temporal fossa bone grafts: a new technique in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Spear, S L; Wiegering, C E

    1987-04-01

    The calvarium has become an increasingly popular bone-graft donor site. Previously described harvesting techniques are often difficult to perform and may produce unsatisfactory bone fragments. However, full-thickness bone grafts taken from the region of the temporal fossa, beneath the temporaiis muscle, have proven to be of high quality and technically easy to obtain. In our experience with eight patients, temporal fossa bone grafts were used primarily around the orbit, including reconstruction of the orbital floor, frontal bone, and zygoma. The procedure begins with a hemicoronal or bicoronal incision; the temporalis muscle is reflected, and an underlying bone plate up to 4 X 6 cm is removed. The resulting bone graft is consistently 3 to 4 mm in thickness. The cranial defect is packed with bone debris, and the muscle is replaced. This technique has proven to be safe, technically simple, consistently productive of high-quality bone grafts, and within discernible donor-site deformity.

  8. Grafting Using Injectable Calcium Sulfate in Bone Tumor Surgery: Comparison with Demineralized Bone Matrix-based Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June Hyuk; Oh, Joo Han; Han, Ilkyu; Kim, Han-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Injectable calcium sulfate is a clinically proven osteoconductive biomaterial, and it is an injectable, resorbable and semi-structural bone graft material. The purpose of this study was to validate the clinical outcomes of injectable calcium sulfate (ICS) grafts as compared with those of a demineralized bone matrix (DBM)-based graft for filling in contained bony defects created by tumor surgery. Methods Fifty-six patients (41 males and 15 females) with various bone tumors and who were surgically treated between September 2003 and October 2007 were included for this study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups, and either an ICS graft (28 patients) or a DBM-based graft (28 patients) was implanted into each contained defect that was developed by the surgery. The radiographic outcomes were compared between the two groups and various clinical factors were included for the statistical analysis. Results When one case with early postoperative pathologic fracture in the DBM group was excluded, the overall success rates of the ICS and DBM grafting were 85.7% (24/28) and 88.9% (24/27) (p > 0.05), respectively. The average time to complete healing was 17.3 weeks in the ICS group and 14.9 weeks in the DBM group (p > 0.05). Additionally, the ICS was completely resorbed within 3 months, except for one case. Conclusions Although the rate of resorption of ICS is a concern, the injectable calcium sulfate appears to be a comparable bone graft substitute for a DBM-based graft, with a lower cost, for the treatment of the bone defects created during surgery for various bone tumors. PMID:21909466

  9. Grafting using injectable calcium sulfate in bone tumor surgery: comparison with demineralized bone matrix-based grafting.

    PubMed

    Kim, June Hyuk; Oh, Joo Han; Han, Ilkyu; Kim, Han-Soo; Chung, Seok Won

    2011-09-01

    Injectable calcium sulfate is a clinically proven osteoconductive biomaterial, and it is an injectable, resorbable and semi-structural bone graft material. The purpose of this study was to validate the clinical outcomes of injectable calcium sulfate (ICS) grafts as compared with those of a demineralized bone matrix (DBM)-based graft for filling in contained bony defects created by tumor surgery. Fifty-six patients (41 males and 15 females) with various bone tumors and who were surgically treated between September 2003 and October 2007 were included for this study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups, and either an ICS graft (28 patients) or a DBM-based graft (28 patients) was implanted into each contained defect that was developed by the surgery. The radiographic outcomes were compared between the two groups and various clinical factors were included for the statistical analysis. When one case with early postoperative pathologic fracture in the DBM group was excluded, the overall success rates of the ICS and DBM grafting were 85.7% (24/28) and 88.9% (24/27) (p > 0.05), respectively. The average time to complete healing was 17.3 weeks in the ICS group and 14.9 weeks in the DBM group (p > 0.05). Additionally, the ICS was completely resorbed within 3 months, except for one case. Although the rate of resorption of ICS is a concern, the injectable calcium sulfate appears to be a comparable bone graft substitute for a DBM-based graft, with a lower cost, for the treatment of the bone defects created during surgery for various bone tumors.

  10. Application of fossa bone graft to stabilize stock total joint prosthesis in temporomandibular joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guo; Yang, Chi; He, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaohu; Abdelrehem, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    To describe a new glenoid fossa bone graft technique, and to evaluate its effect on the stability of stock fossa prosthesis implantation in total alloplastic joint replacement surgery. Eight patients who underwent total joint replacement surgery with a Biomet stock prosthesis (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) from November 2013 to April 2014 were included in this study. ProPlan CMF 1.4 software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) was used to choose the prosthesis size and place it in the right position. The depth of the fossa was measured, and the osteotomy line was designed to cut the bone which overlapped the fossa prosthesis. A bone graft, taken from the bottom of the articular eminence or the condylar neck, was used to fill in the fossa and make a flat plane in combination with the residual eminence for the positioning of the fossa prosthesis. The stability of the fossa prosthesis was evaluated both intra-operatively and postoperatively with computed tomography (CT) scanning after at least 6 months of follow-up. The bone contact area of the fossa prosthesis and the volume of the grafted bone were measured. Fossa prostheses were intra-operatively stable after bone grafting. All patients had stable occlusion after surgery and at follow-up. Postoperative measurement showed that the bone contact area with the fossa prosthesis increased from 52.8% to 88.5% after bone grafting. Postoperative CT measurements (at an average of 9 months after surgery) showed that the bone graft volume decreased by 11.1%. Bone grafts in the glenoid fossa help to improve the stability of Biomet stock fossa prosthesis implantation. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Le Fort I Osteotomy with Bone Grafts in Preprosthetic Surgery: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Pingarron-Martin, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, Javier; Ong, Hui Shan; Pons, Manuel Chamorro

    2013-01-01

    Background Being edentulous causes progressive bony resorption in maxillae, which can lead to altered maxillomandibular relationships. Discussion should consider Le Fort I osteotomy with inlay grafts for a better success rate. Thus, this article introduces a technical note in improving the success rate. Case Report The presented technical note permits transformation of the surgery in a conventional Le Fort I with a simple fixation not only of the grafts but also of the osteotomy. The surgical steps are explained as well as the follow-up results. Discussion Adding additional wire anchorage around bone grafts greatly improved our success rate and reduced our operative time. Bone grafting concurrently with Le Fort I osteotomy immediately improved the facial skeletal profile. Several in vitro studies have shown that galvanic corrosion does not play a significant role when combining stainless steel and titanium. Our novel technique is relatively simple and can be easily picked up by young surgeons. PMID:24436751

  12. Immediate post-operative pain in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery with bone patellar tendon bone graft versus hamstring graft.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi; Kapoor, Dheeraj; Kapoor, Love; Malhotra, Anubhav; Masih, Gladson David; Kapoor, Anil; Joshi, Shweta

    2016-06-08

    Pain in the immediate post-operative period after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, apart from an unpleasant experience for the patient, can act as a barrier for static quadriceps contractions and optimum execution of the initial rehabilitation protocol resulting in slow recovery and a later return to full function for a sportsperson. There is no report in the literature comparing pain in the immediate post-operative period after using the two most widely used autografts, bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) graft and hamstring graft. The present study compared the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score in the immediate post-operative period after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the BPTB and hamstring autografts. Both groups consisted of 50 patients each. The mean age of the BPTB and hamstring cohorts was 26.9 ± 7.3 years (age range 18-59 years) and 26.7 ± 9.0 years (age range 17-52 years), respectively. Unpaired t test was applied to compare pain scores between the BPTB and hamstring cohorts. In the present study, patients in the BPTB cohort showed higher mean pain scores across all the post-operative time intervals except at 6 h. However, the difference in the mean VAS pain score at post-operative 6, 12,18, 24, 36 and 48 h in the two groups was statistically not significant (p value of 1, 0.665, 0.798, 0.377, 0.651 and 0.215 at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h, respectively). Our study concludes that the arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and hamstring autograft is associated with similar pain in the immediate post-operative period. As a result, aggressive physiotherapy regime is not affected by the type of graft being used for ACL reconstruction, as the pain scores in the immediate post-operative period are similar for both techniques. Clinical Trials Registry-India, CTRI/2016/01/006502.

  13. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  14. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  15. Impaction bone grafting for tibial defects in knee replacement surgery. Results at two years.

    PubMed

    Naim, Soulat; Toms, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Bone loss with large defects poses a complex and challenging problem in primary and revision knee arthroplasty. The defects are often irregular and difficult to quantify. One of the techniques available to restore bone in such cases is Knee Impaction Bone Grafting (KIBG); however, the clinical literature to support this technique is weak. Since 2006 we have used impaction bone grafting for contained and uncontained large tibial defects in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty. We have prospectively studied 11 patients with large tibial defects treated at the Exeter Knee Reconstruction Unit with KIBG using a short cemented stem following the Slooff-Ling philosophy. Average age was 66 years (41-86 years). Minimum follow-up was 2 years. The Knee Society Scores improved from 27.4 to 89.2 on average, with Knee Society Function score and WOMAC increasing by 263 and 23.2 points respectively. The mean post-operative flexion was 112 degrees. The average gain in motion over preoperative value was 20 degrees. At two years there were no mechanical failures. None of the patients have required secondary procedures or further revisions. All radiographs showed incorporation and remodelling of the graft. The only complication was a superficial dysaesthesia around the operative scar. Although being time consuming and technically demanding, KIBG for substantial tibial bone loss has shown excellent versatility and good short term results, providing a stable construct with immediate weight bearing post operatively. In view of previous concerns regarding early incorporation and stability of impaction bone grafting in the tibia, we present our early results at 2 years. This technique has become our preferred technique for treating substantial bone loss in tibial defects seen in primary and revision knee arthroplasty surgery.

  16. Evaluation of inorganic bovine bone graft in periodontal defects after third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Daniela Guimaraes; de Santana Santos, Thiago; Sehn, Felipe Perraro; de Oliveira e Silva, Emanuel Dias; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Dourado, Ana Cláudia Amorim Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the e cacy of inorganic bovine bone graft (IBB) in periodontal defect after mandibular third molar (3M) surgery. Methods: The authors conducted a split-mouth, prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 20 participants with a mean age of 21.60 ± 6.5 years who had symmetrical bilateral lower 3M randomly assigned to receive IBB or left empty (blooding clot). The clinical variables studied were probing depth and clinical attachment level (CAL) at preoperative and postoperative periods of 10, 30, and 60 days. Radiographic measures included the distance from the alveolar bone crest to the cementoenamel junction and the bone density at 30 and 60 days postsurgical procedure. For statistical analysis, we used the paired t-test at a level of signi cance of 5%. Results: It was observed a reduction in pocket depth and CAL in both groups, but IBB did not provide better results than blooding clot (P > 0.05). On the other hand, IBB group showed an increased in the bone density, and a decrease in the periodontal defect on the distal surface of second molar (2M) after 30 and 60 days of surgery compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of inorganic bone graft (GenOx) did not enhance the probing depth after 3M removal. Although the radiographic ndings have showed an increase in bone density and a decrease in the periodontal defect on the distal surface of the 2M, we cannot recommend the use of IBB as a treatment for periodontal defect prevention after 3M removal. PMID:26981470

  17. Biomechanical Comparison Between Bashti Bone Plug Technique and Biodegradable Screw for Fixation of Grafts in Ligament surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bashti, Kaveh; Tahmasebi, Mohammad N; Kaseb, Hasan; Farahmand, Farzam; Akbar, Mohammad; Mobini, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ligament reconstruction is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery. Although several popular techniques are currently in use, new methods are proposed for secure fixation of the tendon graft into the bone tunnel. Purposes: We sought to introduce our new technique of Bashti bone plug for fixation of soft tissue graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to compare its biomechanical features with conventional absorbable interference screw technique in a bovine model. Methods: Twenty pairs of bovine knees were harvested after death. Soft tissue was removed and the Achilles tendon was harvested to be used as an ACL graft. It was secured into the bone tunnel on the tibial side via two different methods: Bashti Bone Plug technique and conventional screw method. Biomechanical strength was measured using 200 N and 300 N cyclic loading on the graft. Pull out strength was also tested until the graft fails. Results: No graft failure was observed after 200 N and 300 N cyclic loading in either fixation methods. When testing for pull out failure, 21 tendons (53%) were torn and 19 tendons (48%) slipped out. No fixation failure occurred, which did not reveal a significant difference between the bone plug or interference screw group (P=0.11). The mean pull out force until failure of the graft was 496±66 N in the screw group and 503±67 N in the bone plug group (P=0.76). Conclusions: Our suggested fixation technique of Bashti bone plug is a native, cheap, and feasible method that provides comparable biomechanical strength with interference screw when soft tissue fixation was attempted in bovine model. PMID:25692166

  18. Biomechanical Comparison Between Bashti Bone Plug Technique and Biodegradable Screw for Fixation of Grafts in Ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Bashti, Kaveh; Tahmasebi, Mohammad N; Kaseb, Hasan; Farahmand, Farzam; Akbar, Mohammad; Mobini, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Ligament reconstruction is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery. Although several popular techniques are currently in use, new methods are proposed for secure fixation of the tendon graft into the bone tunnel. We sought to introduce our new technique of Bashti bone plug for fixation of soft tissue graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to compare its biomechanical features with conventional absorbable interference screw technique in a bovine model. Twenty pairs of bovine knees were harvested after death. Soft tissue was removed and the Achilles tendon was harvested to be used as an ACL graft. It was secured into the bone tunnel on the tibial side via two different methods: Bashti Bone Plug technique and conventional screw method. Biomechanical strength was measured using 200 N and 300 N cyclic loading on the graft. Pull out strength was also tested until the graft fails. No graft failure was observed after 200 N and 300 N cyclic loading in either fixation methods. When testing for pull out failure, 21 tendons (53%) were torn and 19 tendons (48%) slipped out. No fixation failure occurred, which did not reveal a significant difference between the bone plug or interference screw group (P=0.11). The mean pull out force until failure of the graft was 496±66 N in the screw group and 503±67 N in the bone plug group (P=0.76). Our suggested fixation technique of Bashti bone plug is a native, cheap, and feasible method that provides comparable biomechanical strength with interference screw when soft tissue fixation was attempted in bovine model.

  19. Experience of using vascularized bone grafts in reconstructive surgery of the upper limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atamanov, E. A.; Keosyan, V. T.; Bryukhanov, A. V.; Tsaregorodtseva, E. M.; Danilov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the results of treatment patients with defects and diseases of bone tissue using bone grafting with vascularized bone grafts from different areas of the body. The results of treatment of 27 patients with bone tissue defects of the upper extremities are demonstrated. 16 of patients had scaphoid nonunion. 2 cases of nonunion were reported: one scaphoid nonunion due to unstable osteosynthesis and one lunate fragmentation nonunion in patient with late stage Kienbock`s disease. Vascularized bone graft from distal radius was used in both cases. We had two cases of delayed union at 18 months in surgical treatment of scaphoid. 2 patients had metacarpal bone defect, 1 patient with radius bone defect, 2 patients with SLAC (scapholunate advanced collapse), 2 patients with bone defect of the humerus, 1 patient with bone defect of the ulna. In all cases we used vascularized bone crafts from various anatomical areas. We achieved union in all other cases. The study shows high efficiency of upper extremity bone defect replacement methods.

  20. Treatment outcomes of implants performed after regenerative treatment of absorbed alveolar bone due to the severe periodontal disease and endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift without bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Fukaya, Hajime; Sakaguchi, Shinji

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a regenerative medicine therapy for the alveolar bone and endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift without bone grafts, in patients experiencing severe periodontal disease with significant absorption of the maxillary alveolar bone, in which more than 10 mm of bone thickness in the maxillary bone was attained, with satisfactory results. The objective of this study was to examine the treatment outcomes of implants that were performed after these therapies. The participants were 36 patients with severe periodontal disease, who cannot be cured with any other treatments except the extirpation of all teeth. The 36 patients are all patients who underwent regenerative treatment of the alveolar bone through tooth replantation and transplantation of the iliac cancellous bone (the bone marrow) as well as endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift from May 2003 to July 2007 in our clinic. A total of 120 implants were placed in these patients when the replanted teeth fell out because of root resorption, and the success rate was examined. The success rates of the implants were 16 of 33 (48%) in the group when surveyed less than 2 years after the surgery and 84 of 87 (96.5%) in the group when surveyed more than 2 years after the surgery. A statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups (Chi-squared test, P < 0.001). It was believed that it takes approximately 2 years for the bones in the maxillary sinus floor, augmented through endoscopic surgery for maxillary sinus lift, to attain the thickness and hardness required for implant placement. Therefore, although the implant treatment should be performed later than 2 years after surgery, chewing is possible during this period, with the replanted teeth that were used for regenerative treatment of the alveolar bone. It is believed that this is an extremely effective treatment method to improve the patients' quality of life.

  1. Improving the Clinical Evidence of Bone Graft Substitute Technology in Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wellington K.; Nickoli, M. S.; Wang, J. C.; Lieberman, J. R.; An, H. S.; Yoon, S. T.; Youssef, J. A.; Brodke, D. S.; McCullough, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes have been used routinely for spine fusion for decades, yet clinical evidence establishing comparative data remains sparse. With recent scrutiny paid to the outcomes, complications, and costs associated with osteobiologics, a need to improve available data guiding efficacious use exists. We review the currently available clinical literature, studying the outcomes of various biologics in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion, and establish the need for a multicenter, independent osteobiologics registry. PMID:24353975

  2. Alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Semb, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s, Boyne and Sands published reports on a new technique for alveolar bone grafting. They recommended that only cancellous bone be used and that the procedure be undertaken in the mixed dentition prior to canine eruption. Alveolar bone grafting prior to canine eruption soon became a routine part of the protocol for 90% of European and North American cleft teams. Several uncertainties remain however, such as the specifics of the surgical and orthodontic procedures, type of bone and donor site, and the best way to manage the space in the dental arch. Probably the commonest timing of the bone graft falls between 8 and 11 years, however there has been a trend in some centres to graft earlier in the hope of better outcome for the unerupted incisors. The influence on maxillary growth of earlier grafting has not been ascertained. A wide range of donor sites has been use but iliac crest remains the most popular. Many teams perform orthodontics prior to grafting to correct severe segment displacement or align incisors to improve surgical access. Following grafting, absence of the lateral incisor may be managed with orthodontic space closure, placement of an implant or bridgework. The introduction of alveolar bone grafting probably represents one of the most significant clinical innovations in cleft care. Hopefully, advances in tissue engineering will replace the need for transplantation of autogenous bone, or will provide an in-situ biological solution to the generation of a continuous bone fill across the alveolar cleft. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Bone grafting options for lumbar spine surgery: a review examining clinical efficacy and complications

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth; Verma, Kushagra; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Schwab, Frank; Lonner, Baron; Errico, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Iliac crest harvest has been considered the “gold standard” at producing successful arthrodesis of the lumbar spine but is also associated with many donor-site morbidities. Many alternatives have been used to avoid iliac crest harvest, including autologous bone from other donor sites, allogeneic bone, ceramics, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs). This review will highlight the properties and preparations of these graft types and their potential complications and reported clinical efficacy. Methods A Medline search was conducted via PubMed by use of the following terms in various combinations: lumbar fusion, freeze-dried allograft, fresh-frozen allograft, autograft, iliac crest, demineralized bone matrix, rhBMP-2, rhBMP-7, scoliosis, bone marrow aspirate, HEALOS, coralline hydroxyapatite, beta tricalcium phosphate, synthetic, ceramics, spinal fusion, PLF, PLIF, ALIF, and TLIF. Only articles written in English were assessed for appropriate material. Related articles were also assessed depending on the content of articles found in the original literature search. Conclusions Although iliac crest remains the gold standard, reported success with alternative approaches, especially in combination, has shown promise. Stronger evidence with limited sources of potential bias is necessary to provide a clear picture of their clinical efficacy. PMID:25802654

  4. A new bioinspired collagen-hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute in adult scoliosis surgery: results at 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Pietro; Capitani, Dario; Sprio, Simone; Sandri, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Canella, Valentina; Nataloni, Angelo; Schirò, Giuseppe R

    2017-07-27

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure used for surgical treatment of spinal deformity. In recent years, many bone graft substitutes (BGS) have been developed to provide good arthrodesis when the available autologous bone harvested from the patient is not enough. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of a new-generation composite material (RegenOss) made of Mg-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles nucleated on type I collagen to obtain long posterolateral fusion in adult scoliosis surgery. A total of 41 patients who underwent spinal fusion for the treatment of adult scoliosis were retrospectively analyzed. According to Lenke classification, visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, radiographic rates of bone union were evaluated before surgery and at 6, 12 and 36 months of follow-up. Fusion was considered to be successful when criteria for Lenke grade A or B were satisfied. Patient-related risk factors were considered for the evaluation of the final outcome. At 36-month follow-up, radiographic evidence of spinal fusion was present in the majority of patients (95.1%). A time-dependent statistically significant improvement was evidenced after surgery for all clinical outcomes evaluated. Based on the demographic data collected, there were no statistically significant factors determining fusion. The correction of deformity was maintained at different time points. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were recorded. The present study demonstrated that RegenOss can safely be used to achieve good arthrodesis when associated with autologous bone graft to obtain long spinal fusion in the treatment of adult scoliosis.

  5. [Limb salvage surgery for wrist in bone tumor by using free vascularised fibular graft with fibular head or simple fibular graft].

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Huang, Fuguo; Yang, Zhiming

    2004-05-01

    To compare the long-term results of vascularised fibular graft and simple autologous fibular graft for reconstruction of wrist after distal bone tumor resection. From January 1979 to September 2002, 15 patients with wrist defects due to distal bone tumor resection were treated with vascularised fibular graft or simple autologous fibular graft and followed up 1 year. The results were graded with Enneking's system and evaluated radiographically according to the "International Symposium on Limb Salvage". The grade system included limb function, radiological examination and the function of ankle. The limb function of 8 patients with vascularised fibular graft restored to 80% of normal function and the bone union was achieved within 6 months. The limb function of 6 patients with simple autologous fibular graft restored to 67% of normal function. The bony union was achieved within 6 months in 4 cases with the bone graft less than 5 cm and in the 13th and 16th months in 2 cases with the bone graft more than 12 cm. It is suitable to use the head of fibular bone as a substitute for the distal radius. The healing of vascularised fibular graft is very quick and haven't the bone resorption. So in the procedure for reconstruction and limb salvage after bone tumor resection of distal radius, the free vascularised fibular graft with fibular head is an ideal substitute.

  6. Results of free vascularized fibula grafting for allograft nonunion after limb salvage surgery for malignant bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Donald S; Waters, Peter M; Gebhardt, Mark C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the results of free vascularized fibula grafting (FVFG) in the treatment of allograft fracture nonunion after limb salvage surgery for malignant bone tumors.A retrospective study was performed on 8 patients who underwent FVFG for allograft fracture nonunions. All had prior tumor resection and allograft reconstruction for osteosarcoma (n = 6) or Ewing sarcoma (n = 2) of the femur (n = 3), tibia (n = 2), humerus (n = 2), or ulna (n = 1). All patients failed an initial course of immobilization; 4 patients failed prior open reduction and internal fixation with autogenous nonvascularized bone grafting. Average age at the time of FVFG was 14 years. Average follow-up was 44 months. The FVFG resulted in successful bony healing in 7 of 8 patients, providing pain relief, limb preservation, and restoration of function. One patient developed an infection requiring fibula removal and staged prosthetic reconstruction. Additional complications requiring further treatment included limb-length discrepancy, additional allograft fracture, and wound infection. The FVFG is an effective treatment option for allograft nonunion after limb salvage surgery because it provides both the mechanical stability and biological stimulus for bony healing. Attention to internal fixation, limb alignment, and microvascular principles is essential to prevent complications and allow for the best functional outcomes.

  7. Combined endodontic therapy and periapical surgery with MTA and bone graft in treating palatogingival groove.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Mudit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Arora, Rachita; Dwivedi, Swati

    2013-04-18

    A 37-year-old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of pain and pus discharge from the labial marginal gingiva in the maxillary right lateral incisor region since last 4 months. Clinically, the tooth was hypersensitive to percussion and palpation but failed to respond to pulp sensitivity testing. After periodontal probing, a palatal groove was observed which started at the cingulum and travelled apically and laterally, associated with a pocket depth of 8 mm. Occlusal radiograph showed circumscribed radiolucency measuring 5 mm×7 mm in diameter at the apex of the tooth. A clinical diagnosis of chronic apical abscess was established. The case was treated with a combination of mineral trioxide aggregate and bone graft. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the tooth showed progressive healing without sinus track and sulcular bleeding.

  8. Combined endodontic therapy and periapical surgery with MTA and bone graft in treating palatogingival groove

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mudit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Arora, Rachita; Dwivedi, Swati

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of pain and pus discharge from the labial marginal gingiva in the maxillary right lateral incisor region since last 4 months. Clinically, the tooth was hypersensitive to percussion and palpation but failed to respond to pulp sensitivity testing. After periodontal probing, a palatal groove was observed which started at the cingulum and travelled apically and laterally, associated with a pocket depth of 8 mm. Occlusal radiograph showed circumscribed radiolucency measuring 5 mm×7 mm in diameter at the apex of the tooth. A clinical diagnosis of chronic apical abscess was established. The case was treated with a combination of mineral trioxide aggregate and bone graft. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the tooth showed progressive healing without sinus track and sulcular bleeding. PMID:23605830

  9. Bone Graft Substitution and Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Nauth, Aaron; Lane, Joseph; Watson, J Tracy; Giannoudis, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Selection of appropriate bone graft or bone graft substitute requires careful recognition of the bone healing needs of the patient's specific clinical problem and a thorough understanding of the different properties possessed by the available bone grafts and substitutes. Although autogenous iliac crest bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment for delayed unions, nonunions, and bone defects, there are a number of promising alternatives available, and emerging evidence suggests that they can be very effective when used in the proper setting. Among these, reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft, bone marrow concentrate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and calcium phosphate cements have received a great deal of attention in the literature. This review describes these grafts in detail along with the evidence for their use. In addition, a framework is provided for selecting the appropriate graft or substitute based on their provided properties.

  10. Biomaterials in maxillofacial surgery: membranes and grafts.

    PubMed

    Rodella, Luigi F; Favero, Gaia; Labanca, Mauro

    2011-06-01

    Today, significant differences in the use of biomaterials (membranes and grafts) of animal or synthetic origin have yet to be reported. Nevertheless, some evidences suggest that synthetic materials have a lower risk of disease transmission. This review aims to assess the available informations on regenerative bone technique using reasorbable membranes and bone grafts. In particular, biocompatibility, immunological response, tissue reaction, reabsorption time and histological features of materials daily use in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery were emphasized.

  11. Biomaterials in Maxillofacial Surgery: Membranes and Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, Luigi F.; Favero, Gaia; Labanca, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Today, significant differences in the use of biomaterials (membranes and grafts) of animal or synthetic origin have yet to be reported. Nevertheless, some evidences suggest that synthetic materials have a lower risk of disease transmission. This review aims to assess the available informations on regenerative bone technique using reasorbable membranes and bone grafts. In particular, biocompatibility, immunological response, tissue reaction, reabsorption time and histological features of materials daily use in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery were emphasized. PMID:23675225

  12. Guillain-Barré syndrome: report of two rare clinical cases occurring after allergenic bone grafting in oral maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott; Bramanti, Ennio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Guillaine-Barré Syndrome (GBS), also known as post-infectious polyneuropathy or acute idiopathic polyneuritis, is an infrequent disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The cause of GBS is unknown. It has been associated in the past with microbial infections, vaccinations, surgical procedures and debilitation of the patient. The classic signs of GBS occurring in the two patients being reported here are muscle weakness, motor and sensory impairment and ascending paralysis with respiratory involvement. The documented cases involved GBS syndrome following oral and maxillofacial surgery in which allogeneic-banked freeze-dried bone have been utilized along with autogenous grafting. There were no incidents of viral infection, vaccination or the other prodromal incidents involved in these cases. It is believed that the description of these two cases would be of interest in that it may stimulate the reporting of similar anecdotal occurrences by other surgeons. Both patients fully recovered from the GBS and are presently alive and well. PMID:26261679

  13. Future of bone pathology, bone grafting, and osseointegration in oral and maxillofacial surgery: how applying optical advancements can help both fields.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, advances in technology are propelling the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery into new realms. With a relatively thin alveolar mucosa overlying the underlying bone, significant diagnostic and therapeutic advantages are present; however, there remains an enormous gap between advancements in physics, in particular optics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Improvements in diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the various bone pathologies are still being sought after as advancements in technology continue to progress. Combining the clinical, histological, and pathological characteristics with these advancements, patients with debilitating pathologies may have more promising treatment options and prognosis. Defects in the facial bones, particularly in the jaws, may be due to a number of reasons: pathology, trauma, infections, congenital deformities, or simply due to atrophy. Bone grafting is commonly employed to correct such defects, and allows new bone formation through tissue regeneration. Growing use of dental implants has focused attention on osseointegration and its process. Osseointegration refers to the actual process of the direct contact between bone and implant, without an intervening soft tissue layer. The theories proposed regarding this process are many, yet a clear, unified stance on the actual process and its mechanisms has not emerged. Further investigation using optical probes could provide that unifying answer. The primary goal of this manuscript is to introduce pioneers in the field of optics to the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. With a brief introduction into the procedures and techniques, we are hopeful to bridge the ever-widening gap between the clinical science and the basic sciences.

  14. Complications in the use of the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis as donor sites in bone graft surgery. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cobo-Vázquez, Carlos; Monteserín-Matesanz, Marta; López-Quiles, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background To develop a systematic review by assessing and comparing the different complications that occurs in bone graft surgery using the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis as donor sites. Material and Methods In order to respond to the following question, a systematic review was developed: does the use of intraoral mandibular body and ramus as donor sites in bone graft surgery, produce fewer and less severe complications in comparison to the use of the mandibular symphysis in patients that present bone resorption that needs augmentation using autologous grafts? The review was carried out between January 1990 and 2015, during which only clinical essays with a minimum follow-up period of six months were included. Results The initial search yielded a total of 2912 articles, of which 6 were finally selected. In total, 259 graft surgeries were performed; 118 using the mandibular body and ramus as donor sites, and 141, the symphysis. The most frequent complications that arose when using the mandibular symphysis were temporary sensory alterations in the anterior teeth (33.87%), followed by sensory alterations of the skin and mucosa (18.57%). As for the mandibular body and ramus donor sites, the most frequent complications relate to temporary sensory alterations of the mucosa (8.19%) and to minor postoperative bleeding (6.55%). Conclusions The analyzed results show a higher prevalence and severity of complications when using mandibular symphysis bone grafts, producing more discomfort for the patient. Therefore, it would be advisable to perform further clinical essays due to the lack of studies found. Key words:Alveolar ridge augmentation, autogenous bone, mandibular bone grafts, chin, mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus. PMID:26827063

  15. A meta analysis of lumbar spinal fusion surgery using bone morphogenetic proteins and autologous iliac crest bone graft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Feng; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Deri; Feng, Xinmin; An, Jiuli; Zhu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease. Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to nov 2013. 19 RCTs (1,852 patients) met the inclusion criteria. BMPs group significantly increased fusion rate (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.05-1.23, P = 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in overall success of clinical outcomes (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 0.95-1.13, P = 0.38) and complications (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.85-1.09, p = 0.54). A significant reduction of the reoperation rate was found in BMPs group (RR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p = 0.0002). Significant difference was found in the operating time (MD-0.32; 95% CI-0.55, -0.08; P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in the blood loss, the hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and work status. Compared with ICBG, BMPs in lumbar fusion can increase the fusion rate, while reduce the reoperation rate and operating time. However, it doesn't increase the complication rate, the amount of blood loss and hospital stay. No significant difference was found in the overall success of clinical outcome of the two groups.

  16. A Meta Analysis of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Autologous Iliac Crest Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Feng; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Sun, Deri; Feng, Xinmin; An, Jiuli; Zhu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) as a substitute for iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) has been increasingly widely used in lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study is to systematically compare the effectiveness and safety of fusion with BMPs for the treatment of lumbar disease. Methods Cochrane review methods were used to analyze all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to nov 2013. Results 19 RCTs (1,852 patients) met the inclusion criteria. BMPs group significantly increased fusion rate (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.05–1.23, P = 0.001), while there was no statistical difference in overall success of clinical outcomes (RR: 1.04; 95% CI 0.95–1.13, P = 0.38) and complications (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.85–1.09, p = 0.54). A significant reduction of the reoperation rate was found in BMPs group (RR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.42–0.77, p = 0.0002). Significant difference was found in the operating time (MD−0.32; 95% CI−0.55, −0.08; P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in the blood loss, the hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and work status. Conclusion Compared with ICBG, BMPs in lumbar fusion can increase the fusion rate, while reduce the reoperation rate and operating time. However, it doesn’t increase the complication rate, the amount of blood loss and hospital stay. No significant difference was found in the overall success of clinical outcome of the two groups. PMID:24886911

  17. [Progress of bone graft substitute].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-10-01

    To sum up the recent progress of common bone graft substitute and to forecast the possible directions for further research. Recent original articles about investigation and application for bone graft substitute were extensively reviewed. Several common bone graft substitutes were selected and expounded in different categories. Bone graft was an essential treatment in order to provide structural support, fill bone cavity and promote bone defect healing. The gold standard for bone graft was autograft which is subject to many restrictions. In recent years, the research and development of bone graft substitute have received public attention. A very great progress has been made in the research and application of allograft bones, synthetic bones and engineered bones, and some research results have been put into use for real products. There still exist many problems in present bone graft substitutes. Combining various biomaterials and using the specific processing technology to develop a biomaterial which has the similar mechanical and chemical properties and physical structures to autograft so as to promote bone defect healing is the direction for future research.

  18. [Sinus lift with autogenous bone graft: surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Thiéry, G; Coulet, O; Adam, S; Lari, N

    2008-12-01

    Insufficient maxillar bone crest does not allow dental implant placement. The sinus lift technique with an autogenous bone graft compensates this deficiency. This technique is performed in two steps: iliac autogenous bone harvesting and sinus graft. After describing the possible complications, the various approaches of this technique are presented. This pre-implant surgery must be performed by experienced surgeons.

  19. Secondary alveolar bone grafting: our experience with olecranon bone graft.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Emmanuela; Sabás, Mariana; Dogliotti, Pedro; Espósito, Raquel

    2010-03-01

    Management of alveolar cleft has dramatically changed during the last century: secondary alveolar bone grafting is now an integral part of cleft palate and craniofacial center's protocols. The objectives of alveolar repair and bone grafting are as follows: providing a continuous and stable maxillary dental arch, closure of oronasal fistulae, adequate bone for tooth eruption or orthodontic movement, and nasal base support, improving facial aesthetic. Although cancellous iliac bone is the donor site selected more frequently, bone grafts harvested from different sites have been advocated to decrease donor site morbidity.The aim of this study was to propose and evaluate the use of olecranon as a donor site in 24 patients with secondary alveolar cleft. The graft is taken as a single piece to fit the alveolar cleft defect, and it includes periosteum and corticocancellous bone to improve early vascularization and greater volume maintenance.

  20. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  1. Postoperative irradiation of fresh autogenic cancellous bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.C.; Leake, D.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Snow, H.; Pizzoferrato, A.

    1986-01-01

    Discontinuity defects were created in the mandibles of dogs and then reconstructed immediately with fresh autogenic cancellous bone grafts and Dacron-urethane prostheses. The grafts were irradiated to a total dose of 5000 rads after waiting intervals of between 3 and 12 weeks. Nonirradiated grafts served as controls. The grafts were evaluated clinically, radiographically, and histologically. There was complete incorporation of all grafts, regardless of the interval between surgery and radiotherapy. There were no soft-tissue complications. The controls were distinguishable from the irradiated grafts only by the presence of hematopoietic bone marrow. Fibrofatty marrow was observed in the irradiated grafts. Theoretical support for this technique is found in the biology of cancellous bone grafting and the pathology of radiation injury. In view of the difficulties associated with mandibular bone grafting in preoperatively irradiated patients, a new method of reconstructing selected cancer patients who require both mandibular resection and radiotherapy is suggested.

  2. Role of vascularized bone grafts in lower extremity osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo

    2007-01-01

    Vascularized bone grafting seems to be a valuable reconstructive technique for the treatment of osteomyelitis with skeletal defects greater than 6 cm in length. Fibular osteocutaneous, composite rib, and iliac osteocutaneous flaps are the most commonly used vascularized bone grafts clinically. Vascularized bone can obliterate dead space, bridge large bone defects, enhance bone healing, resist infection by ensuring blood supply, allow early rehabilitation, and ensure better clinical outcomes in the treatment of lower extremity osteomyelitis. Success rates range from 80% to 95%. Complications of surgery include anastomosis failure, donor site problems, and fracture of the grafted bone.

  3. Evaluation of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with vascularized iliac crest bone graft compared to conventional surgery: a randomized prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted surgery plays an increasingly important role in mandibular reconstruction, ensuring the best possible masticatory function and aesthetic outcome. Methods Twenty patients were randomly assigned to computer-assisted or conventional mandibular reconstruction with vascularized iliac crest bone graft in a prospective study design. Virtual surgical planning was based on preoperative CT-data using specific surgical planning software. A rapid prototyping guide transferred the virtual surgery plan to the operation site. During surgery the transplant ischemic time, reconstruction time, time for shaping the transplant and amount of bone removed were measured. Additionally, the difference in the intercondylar distance before and after surgery was calculated. Results Computer-assisted surgery shortened the time of transplant ischemia (P < 0.005) and defect reconstruction (P < 0.001) compared to conventional surgery. The time to saw and shape the transplant at the donor site was shorter using conventional surgery (P < 0.005); therefore, the overall time for surgery didn’t change (P = 0.527). In the computer-assisted group, the amount of bone harvested equaled the defect size, whereas the transplant size in the conventional group exceeded the defect site by 16.8 ± 5.6 mm (P < 0.001) on average. The intercondylar distance before compared to after surgery was less affected in the computer-assisted than in the conventional group (P < 0.001). Conclusions The presented study shows that computer-assisted surgery can help reduce the time for mandibular defect reconstruction and consequently the transplant ischemic time. In the computer-assisted group, the iliac crest donor site defect was downsized and the postoperative condyle position was less altered, reducing possible risks of postoperative complications and donor site morbidity. Trial Registration DRKS00005181. PMID:24716651

  4. Bone Grafting the Cleft Maxilla

    MedlinePlus

    ... graft; 2) prosthetic replacement (dental bridge); or 3) dental metallic bone implants. The best option for an individual patient is best decided by the dental specialists on the cleft palate team. (See Replacing ...

  5. Assessment of the autogenous bone graft for sinus elevation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wang; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The posterior maxillary region often provides a limited bone volume for dental implants. Maxillary sinus elevation via inserting a bone graft through a window opened in the lateral sinus wall has become the most common surgical procedure for increasing the alveolar bone height in place of dental implants in the posterior maxillary region. The purpose of this article is to assess the change of bone volume and the clinical effects of dental implant placement in sites with maxillary sinus floor elevation and autogenous bone graft through the lateral window approach. Materials and Methods In this article, the analysis data were collected from 64 dental implants that were placed in 24 patients with 29 lacks of the bone volume posterior maxillary region from June 2004 to April 2011, at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Inha University Hospital. Panoramic views were taken before the surgery, after the surgery, 6 months after the surgery, and at the time of the final follow-up. The influence of the factors on the grafted bone material resorption rate was evaluated according to the patient characteristics (age and gender), graft material, implant installation stage, implant size, implant placement region, local infection, surgical complication, and residual alveolar bone height. Results The bone graft resorption rate of male patients at the final follow-up was significantly higher than the rate of female patients. The single autogenous bone-grafted site was significantly more resorbed than the autogenous bone combined with the Bio-Oss grafted site. The implant installation stage and residual alveolar height showed a significant correlation with the resorption rate of maxillary sinus bone graft material. The success rate and survival rate of the implant were 92.2% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Maxillary sinus elevation procedure with autogenous bone graft or autogenous bone in combination with Bio-Oss is a predictable treatment method for

  6. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  7. Investigating Clinical Failure of Bone Grafting through a Window at the Femoral Head Neck Junction Surgery for the Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Dingyan; Gao, Fuqiang; Su, Yangming; Li, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors related to the failure of bone grafting through a window at the femoral head-neck junction. Methods In total, 119 patients (158 hips) underwent bone grafting for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The patients were classified by their ARCO staging and CJFH classification. All patients were clinically and radiographically followed up every three months during the first year and every six months in the following year. The clinical follow-up comprised determination of pre- and postoperative Harris hip scores, while serial AP, frog lateral radiographs, and CT scan were used for the radiographic follow-up. Results The clinical failure of bone grafting was observed in 40 patients. The clinical failure rates in patients belonging to ARCO stage II period, IIIa, and III (b + c) were 25.9%, 16.2%, and 61.5%, respectively, while those in patients belonging to (C + M + L1) type and L2, L3 type disease groups were 1.7%, 38.9%, and 39%, respectively. The clinical failure rates in patients aged below 40 and those aged 40 and over were 20.5% and 39.0%, respectively (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Disease type, disease stage, and patient age are risk factors for failure of bone graft surgery. Patients belonging to ARCO stage II and IIIa showed a good overall response rate, while patients belonging to ARCO stage IIIb and IIIc and those with necrotic lesions involving the lateral pillar (L2 and L3 type) showed high surgical failure rates. PMID:27285821

  8. Mid-term outcome following revision surgery of clavicular non- and malunion using anatomic locking compression plate and iliac crest bone graft.

    PubMed

    Beirer, Marc; Banke, Ingo J; Harrasser, Norbert; Crönlein, Moritz; Pförringer, Dominik; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2017-03-29

    Treatment of clavicular non- and malunion is still challenging. Current surgical procedures often result in frustrating functional outcome along with high-grade subjective impairment and increased rates of revision surgery. However, the combination of biological augmentation with vital bone graft and a biomechanically sufficient fixation system seems to be a promising concept of treatment. In this retrospective study, 14 patients with a mean age of 44 years (26-67 years) suffering from non-union (n = 11) and/or malunion (n = 3) of the clavicle were enrolled. All patients were surgically treated using an anatomical precontoured locking compression plate (LCP) and autologous iliac crest bone graft. Functional outcome was assessed using the age- and sex-specific relative Constant Score. Mean follow-up was 27 months (range 12-44 months). The relative Constant Score significantly improved from preoperative 61 ± 8 (43-72) to 82 ± 10 (65-100) points at the final follow-up examination (p < 0.05). All patients showed bony union radiographically. One patient presented with a re-fracture of the clavicle nearly 3 years after revision surgery and 5 weeks after implant removal. Secondary fractures at the donor site of the anterior superior iliac spine were recorded in two patients. Iliac crest bone graft and anatomic locking plate fixation allow for a safe and adequate stabilization and radiographical bony union in non- and malunions of the clavicle with a high degree of patient satisfaction. However, secondary fractures of the anterior superior iliac spine constitute relevant complications and the time of hardware removal should be considered carefully.

  9. Bone Graft Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease transmission and a lessened effectiveness since the bone growth cells and proteins are removed during the cleansing ... mesh. Although ceramics may provide a framework for bone growth, they contain none of the natural proteins that ...

  10. Vein graft in stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S A

    1996-03-01

    Sealing the opening of the oval window during stapes surgery is essential; it prevents postoperative complications, such as perilymph fistula and sensorineural hearing loss. In this small series of 269 cases with otosclerosis, tympanosclerosis, and congenital ossicular abnormality, vein grafting was used to seal the opening of the footplate. Hearing improvement after surgery was acceptable, and none had total hearing loss or perilymphatic fistula. World literature from the last half of this century on grafting the oval window is reviewed. Absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam) seems to be causing more complications, so its use is highly discouraged. Temporalis fascia, fat, and perivenous loose areolar tissue have been used by different authors at different times in footplate surgery. The opening created in the oval window during stapes surgery must not be left uncovered.

  11. Mandibular Tori: A source of autogenous bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Santhanakrishnan, Muthukumar; Rangarao, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of lost alveolar bone support remains as one of the main objectives of periodontal surgery. Amongst the various types of bone grafts available for grafting procedures, autogenous bone grafts are considered to be the gold standard in alveolar defect reconstruction. Although there are various sources for autogenous grafts including the mandibular symphysis and ramus, they are almost invariably not contiguous with the area to be augmented. An alternative mandibular donor site that is continuous with the recipient area and would eliminate the need for an extra surgical site is the tori/exostoses. Bone grafting was planned for this patient as there were angular bone loss present between 35-36 and 36-37. As the volume of bone required was less and bilateral tori were present on the lingual side above the mylohyoid line, the tori was removed and used as a source of autogenous bone graft, which were unnecessary bony extensions present on the mandible and continuous with the recipient area. Post-operative radiographs taken at 6 and 12 month intervals showed good bone fill and also areas of previous pockets, which did not probe after treatment indicates the success of the treatment. The use of mandibular tori as a source of autogenous bone graft should be considered whenever a patient requires bone grafting procedure to be done and presents with a tori. PMID:25624635

  12. Bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Timothy T.; Rosenbaum, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The biology of fracture healing is better understood than ever before, with advancements such as the locking screw leading to more predictable and less eventful osseous healing. However, at times one’s intrinsic biological response, and even concurrent surgical stabilization, is inadequate. In hopes of facilitating osseous union, bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics are being relied on more than ever before. The osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenic properties of these substrates have been elucidated in the basic science literature and validated in clinical orthopaedic practice. Furthermore, an industry built around these items is more successful and in demand than ever before. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic science, clinical utility and economics of bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics. PMID:23247591

  13. Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

  14. Radiographic evaluation of the symphysis menti as a donor site for an autologous bone graft in pre-implant surgery

    PubMed Central

    Di Bari, Roberto; Coronelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the cortical and cancellous bone graft harvestable from the mental and canine regions, and to evaluate the cortical vestibular thickness. Materials and Methods This study collected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images of 100 Italian patients. The limits of the mental region were established: 5 mm in front of the medial margin of each mental foramen, 5 mm under the apex of each tooth present, and above the inferior mandibular cortex. Cortical and cancellous bone volumes were evaluated using SimPlant software (SimPlant 3-D Pro, Materialize, Leuven, Belgium) tools. In addition, the cortical vestibular thickness (minimal and maximal values) was evaluated in 3 cross-sections corresponding to the right canine tooth (3R), the median section (M), and the left canine tooth (3L). Results The cortical volume was 0.71±0.23 mL (0.27-1.96 mL) and the cancellous volume was 2.16±0.76 mL (0.86-6.28 mL). The minimal cortical vestibular thickness was 1.54±0.41 mm (0.61-3.25 mm), and the maximal cortical vestibular thickness was 3.14±0.75mm(1.01-5.83 mm). Conclusion The use of the imaging software allowed a patient-specific assessment of mental and canine region bone availability. The proposed evaluation method might help the surgeon in the selection of the donor site by the comparison between bone availability in the donor site and the reconstructive exigency of the recipient site. PMID:24083206

  15. Comparison of autogenous tooth bone graft and synthetic bone graft materials used for bone resorption around implants after crestal approach sinus lifting: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Junho; Yun, Ji-Young; Yun, Pil-Young; Um, In-Woong

    2014-10-01

    This retrospective study compares the amount of bone resorption around implants between an autogenous tooth bone graft (AutoBT) and a synthetic bone graft after a bone-added crestally approached sinus lift with simultaneous implant placements. In all, 37 patients participated in this study. Seventeen patients were grouped as group I and underwent an AutoBT-added sinus lift using the crestal approach. The remaining 20 patients were grouped as group II and underwent synthetic bone grafting. Both groups received the implant placements simultaneously. Of the 37 participating patients, only 22 patients were included in the final results: Eleven patients of group I and 11 patients of group II. Before the surgery, the distance from the alveolar crest to the sinus floor was measured using panoramic radiography. After the surgery, the distance was measured again from the neck of the implant thread to the most superior border of the added graft materials. Then, the amount of sinus lift was calculated by comparing the two panoramic radiographs. After a year, a panoramic radiograph was taken to calculate the resorption of the bone graft material from the radiograph that was taken after the surgery. The significance of the resorption amount between the two types of graft materials was statistically analyzed. The bone height was increased to an average of 4.89 mm in group I and 6.22 mm in group II. The analysis of panoramic radiographs 1 year after the surgery showed an average bone resorption of 0.76 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. However, the degree of lifting (P=0.460) and the amount of bone-grafted material resorption (P=0.570) showed no statistically significant difference. Based on this limited study, AutoBT can be considered a good alternative bone graft to a synthetic bone graft in a bone-added sinus lift, when extraction is necessary prior to the surgery.

  16. Effect of Gusuibu graft on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2006-05-01

    We compared the amount of new bone produced by Gusuibu in collagen grafts to that produced by bone grafts and collagen grafts. Twenty bone defects were created in the parietal bone of 14 New Zealand White rabbits. In the experimental group, 5 defects were grafted with Gusuibu extract mixed with absorbable collagen sponge, and 5 defects were grafted with autogenous endochondral bone. In the control groups, 5 defects were grafted with absorbable collagen sponge alone (active control) and 5 were left empty (passive control). Animals were killed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histologic assessment. Serial sections were cut across each defect. Quantitative analysis of new bone formation was made on 150 sections using image analysis. A total of 24% and 90% more new bone were present in defects grafted with Gusuibu in collagen grafts than those grafted with bone and collagen, respectively. No bone was formed in the passive control group. Gusuibu in collagen grafts have the effect of increased new bone formation locally and can be used as a bone graft material.

  17. No evidence of myocardial restoration following transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells in coronary bypass grafting surgery patients based upon cardiac SPECT and 18F-PET

    PubMed Central

    Tossios, Paschalis; Müller-Ehmsen, Jochen; Schmidt, Matthias; Scheid, Christof; Ünal, Nermin; Moka, Detlef; Schwinger, Robert HG; Mehlhorn, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis, that intramyocardial injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery improves tissue viability or function in infarct regions with non-viable myocardium as assessed by nuclear imaging techniques. Methods Thus far, 7 patients (60 ± 10 [SD] years) undergoing elective CABG surgery after a myocardial infarction were included in this study. Prior to sternotomy, bone marrow was harvested by sternal puncture. Mononuclear bone marrow cells were isolated by gradient centrifugation and resuspended in 2 ml volume of Hank's buffered salt solution. At the end of CABG surgery 10 injections of 0.2 ml each were applied to the core area and borderzones of the infarct. Global and regional perfusion and viability were evaluated by ECG-gated 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in all study patients < 6 days before and 3 months after the intervention. Results Non-viable segments indicating transmural defects were identified in 5 patients. Two patients were found to have non-transmural defects before surgery. Concomitant surgical revascularisation and bone marrow cell injection was performed in all patients without major complications. The median total injected mononuclear cell number was 7.0 × 107 (range: 0.8–20.4). At 3 months 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT and 18F-FDG-PET scanning showed in 5 patients (transmural defect n = 4; non-transmural defect n = 1) no change in myocardial viability and in two patients (transmural defect n = 1, non-transmural defect n = 1) enhanced myocardial viability by 75%. Overall, global and regional LV ejection fraction was not significantly increased after surgery compared with the preoperative value. Conclusion In CABG surgery patients with non-viable segments the concurrent use of intramyocardial cell transfer did not show any clear improvement in

  18. Fracture of the C-Stem cemented femoral component in revision hip surgery using bone impaction grafting technique: report of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Buttaro, Martin; Comba, Fernando; Zanotti, Gerardo; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We present a series of 9 fractures of a C-Stem femoral component (6 long stems and 3 conventional stems) that had been implanted with the use of impaction bone grafting (IBG). The length of the long fractured stems was 240 mm in 4 cases and 200 mm in 2. The patients presented had an average BMI of 26.5 and an average of 2.7 previous hip surgeries (range 2-5 surgeries) before the stem fracture. A total of 5 cases presented with a metal mesh fracture in addition to the fractured stem. Bending of the stems or stem defects was not observed in any case. Typical fracture waves consistent with fatigue failure were clearly visible on all the cut surfaces, starting anterolaterally and propagating to the medial side. Although fatigue fracture of a modern cemented tapered polished femoral stem is a rare event, stress due to the absence of proximal femoral bone support could be sufficient to put this stem at a higher risk for fatigue fracture in non-obese patients.

  19. The Clinical Use of Allografts, Demineralized Bone Matrices, Synthetic Bone Graft Substitutes and Osteoinductive Growth Factors: A Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Seigerman, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of new bone grafting options and alternatives has led to significant uncertainty when determining the most appropriate product for surgical procedures requiring bone graft in orthopedics. Allografts, demineralized bone matrices, synthetic bone graft substitutes, and osteoinductive growth factors are all viable options, yet there is a lack of data reporting clinical usage of these products. This correspondence reports on the use of bone grafting products at the Hospital for Special Surgery for a 27-month period and makes recommendations based on surgical usage, safety, and cost. Approximately half (48.6%) of all bone graft substitutes were implanted during spinal surgery. Arthroplasty, trauma, and foot/hand cases all used considerable amounts of bone grafting products as well (20.1%, 19.0%, 12.1%, respectively). Considerable differences were noticed in usage of bone grafting products among each orthopedic discipline. Of all bone graft substitutes used in arthroplasty, 14.4% were demineralized bone matrices, whereas 56.8% were allografts. Demineralized bone matrix grafts were used in 82% of trauma surgery and 89% of foot/hand cases. An increase in synthetic bone graft alternatives was noticed near the end of our investigation period. PMID:18751803

  20. The use of hydroxyapatite and autogenous cancellous bone grafts to repair bone defects in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, R V; Camilli, J A; Bertran, C A; Moreira, N H

    2005-03-01

    Bone grafts are frequently used in the treatment of bone defects. Bone harvesting can cause postoperative complications and sometimes does not provide a sufficient quantity of bone. Therefore, synthetic biomaterials have been investigated as an alternative to autogenous bone grafts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repair of bone defects by autogenous cancellous bone grafts or porous bioceramic discs of hydroxyapatite/phosphate cement mixture. Two 5-mm diameter defects were made in the skulls of rats and filled with the bioceramic material or cancellous bone. The rats were sacrificed 2, 4, 8 and 24 weeks after surgery and tissue samples were analyzed by radiography and histology. By the 24th week, the defects filled with autogenous cancellous bone grafts or bioceramic material showed similar volumes of bone tissue within the defect. However, defects treated with bioceramic material were almost completely closed as a result of the joining of ceramic fragments and the neoformed bone tissue, while those filled with autogenous grafts showed several areas filled with connective tissue. These results indicated that the osteointegration of bioceramic fragments allowed the reconstruction of parietal bone defects without the need for a bone graft.

  1. Alveolar bone grafting with simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Eun; Han, Jihyeon; Baek, Rong-Min; Kim, Baek-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    Optimal timing for cleft lip rhinoplasty is controversial. Definitive rhinoplasty is deferred until facial skeletal growth is completed. Intermediate rhinoplasty is performed after stabilization of the grafted alveolar bone, because the grafted bone tends to be absorbed over several months postoperatively, distorting the nasal profile. Here, we report our experience with simultaneous rhinoplasty during alveolar bone grafting for indicated patients, describe our surgical technique that ensures long-term bone graft survival, and report graft take rates and nasal profile changes. This retrospective chart review included a total of 54 patients; 44 underwent alveolar bone grafting only, and 10 underwent simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty. All surgeries were conducted with a judicious mucosal incision for tensionless wound closure. Bone graft take was evaluated with dental radiographs by the Bergland classification. Further, nasal aesthetic outcome was evaluated with medical photographs, based on nostril height and width and alar base width. In total, 96.3% of clefts showed graft success with Type I (66.7%) or Type II (27.8%) classifications; only 3.7% of clefts showed unfavorable results classified as Type III, and no clefts showed Type IV failure. The nasal shape was flatter with a decreased nostril height and increased nostril width after alveolar bone grafting, while nostril height was increased and nostril width was decreased in patients who underwent simultaneous rhinoplasty. With surgical techniques ensuring alveolar bone graft survival, simultaneous cleft lip rhinoplasty can result in nasal aesthetic improvement for patients with severe nasal deformities, decreasing the number of operations. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A new method for alveolar bone repair using extracted teeth for the graft material.

    PubMed

    Nampo, Tomoki; Watahiki, Junichi; Enomoto, Akiko; Taguchi, Tomohiro; Ono, Miki; Nakano, Haruhisa; Yamamoto, Gou; Irie, Tarou; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Maki, Koutaro

    2010-09-01

    In the clinical field of jawbone formation, the use of autogenous bone as the graft material is the gold standard. However, there are some problems with this technique, such as risk of infection on the donor side, the limited amount of available bone mass, and marked resorption of the grafted bone. We investigated the potential for using teeth as a bone graft material for jawbone formation because the dental pulp contains stem cells, including undifferentiated neural crest-derived cells. Alveolar bone defects were created in Wistar rats, and the defects were filled with either tooth or iliac bone graft material, or left as controls. The potential for using teeth as a bone graft material for jawbone formation was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, microcomputed tomography, and histologic analysis. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expressions of P75, P0, nestin, and musashi-1 were significantly higher in teeth than in mandibular bone and iliac bone grafts. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and microcomputed tomography showed that at 8 weeks, tooth graft material produced a similar amount of new bone compared to iliac bone graft material. Osteopontin was expressed in both the tooth and iliac bone graft material at 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. Dentin sialoprotein was expressed in the tooth graft material in the new bone at 6 weeks only. These results indicate that teeth may be an alternative material to autogenous bone for treating alveolar bone defects by grafting.

  3. Iliac bone grafting of the intact glenoid improves shoulder stability with optimal graft positioning.

    PubMed

    Willemot, Laurent B; Eby, Sarah F; Thoreson, Andrew R; Debeer, Phillipe; Victor, Jan; An, Kai-Nan; Verborgt, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Bone grafting procedures are increasingly popular for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. In patients with a high risk of recurrence, open coracoid transplantation is preferred but can be technically demanding. Free bone graft glenoid augmentation may be an alternative strategy for high-risk patients without significant glenoid bone loss. This biomechanical cadaveric study assessed the stabilizing effect of free iliac crest bone grafting of the intact glenoid and the importance of sagittal graft position. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested. The bone graft was fixed on the glenoid neck at 3 sagittal positions (50%, 75%, and 100% below the glenoid equator). Displacement and reaction force were monitored with a custom device while translating the humeral head over the glenoid surface in both anterior and anteroinferior direction. Peak force (PF) increased significantly from the standard labral repair to the grafted conditions in both anterior (14.7 ± 5.5 N vs 27.3 ± 6.9 N) and anteroinferior translation (22.0 ± 5.3 N vs 29.3 ± 6.9 N). PF was significantly higher for the grafts at the 50% and 75% positions compared with the grafts 100% below the equator with anterior translation. Anteroinferior translation resulted in significantly higher values for the 100% and 75% positions compared with the 50% position. This biomechanical study confirms improved anterior glenohumeral stability after iliac crest bone graft augmentation of the anterior glenoid. The results also demonstrate the importance of bone graft position in the sagittal plane, with the ideal position determined by the direction of dislocation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Bone gammagraphy for evaluating free vascularized bone grafts in mandibular reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Serra, J M; Paloma, V; Mesa, F; Ballesteros, A; Richter, J A

    1989-01-01

    In oncology jaw reconstruction, the probability of infection, sequestration and failure in scarring is high. For this reason, we use a vascularized free bone graft, whose direct blood flow makes it much more resistant to support the attendant properly. The use of bone scintigraphy by means of three phases acquisition technique is very effective to evaluate the viability of these vascularized grafts during the first days after surgery, in order to adjust the attendant treatments and to prevent the possible complications.

  5. Calcium carbonate powder containing gentamicin for mixing with bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, Débora; Hausdorfer, Johann; Fille, Manfred; Nogler, Michael; Kühn, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Bone grafts are used for reconstructing bone defects caused by implant-associated complications, trauma, and tumors. Surgery with bone allografts is complex and time consuming; therefore, it is prone to a higher infection rate (2.0%-2.5%). In the case of site infection, systemically administered antibiotics cannot reach the infected bone graft. This study evaluated the use of resorbable bone graft substitute powder (HERAFILL; Heraeus Medical GmbH, Wehrheim, Germany) as a bone void-filling material as well as an antibiotic carrier for mixing with bone grafts. The antibiotic activity of the bone chips mixed with HERAFILL powder was measured by drug release tests and bacterial susceptibility with Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. HERAFILL powder was added to the bone chips (bone chips/HERAFILL; w/w = 1:1), mixed with a spatula, and vortexed for 1 minute. Gentamicin base release was evaluated in phosphate-buffered saline for up to 7 days using B subtilis bioassay. Antimicrobial efficacy was tested with S aureus and S epidermidis. The average amount of gentamicin base released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL at 0 to 12 hours was 99.66 mg/mL. On day 7, the gentamicin base released 0.42 mg/mL. The elution released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL promoted the formation of a zone of inhibition on S epidermidis and S aureus plates. This study confirmed the capacity of bone grafts to act as antibiotic carriers once mixed with HERAFILL powder. Bone chips mixed with HERAFILL showed efficacy against S aureus and S epidermidis.

  6. Cellular contribution of bone graft to fusion.

    PubMed

    Gould, S E; Rhee, J M; Tay BK-B; Otsuka, N Y; Bradford, D S

    2000-11-01

    Although a number of studies have examined the fate of graft-derived cells during the process of fusion, there remains no consensus regarding their exact contribution to bone formation within the fusion mass. We developed two chimeric mouse isograft fusion models that allowed us to track the fate of graft cells within the host fusion bed. Cortical/cancellous bone graft (1:1 ratio of pelvic to vertebral body bone) from male mice was placed between (a) the tibia and fibula or (b) the coccygeal spine transverse processes of syngeneic female hosts. Both models were characterized histologically and histochemically. Graft-derived cells were then identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization for Y-chromosome sequences present in only the graft (male) cells. When the fusion mass was healing but not yet fused (at 1 and 2 weeks), numerous graft-derived cells were observed throughout the fusion site. The predominant graft-derived cell types included chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts. Chondrocytes arose from precursor cells in the graft de novo. as cartilage was not transplanted during the surgical procedure. By the time a mature fusion mass had formed (at 6 weeks), graft-derived cells persisted as osteocytes within the cortical rim surrounding the fusion mass. These osteocytes likely differentiated from graft-derived precursors that had directly formed bone, because transplanted osteocytes within cortical bone graft fragments were noted to rarely survive even at 1 and 2 weeks. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that bone graft contributes cells that, in conjunction with host cells, directly form bone within the fusion mass during all phases of fusion rather than just the early phases.

  7. Bone graft complications: what can we do to prevent them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: Bone grafts are commonly used in oral and maxillofacial surgery, helping to restore missing bone structure and provide osseous support. In spite of their reported success, complications can and do arise. Examples include loosening and resorption of the graft, infection, and complete loss of the graft. These complications can potentially lead to larger defects, necessitating additional procedures to correct the problem. This not only causes great discomfort to the patient, but also drains considerable time and resources away from the clinician. Thus, improvements on identifying ways to identify and prevent these complications are constantly being sought. We have performed a literature review and identified several areas in the field of optics that could potentially help solve our problem. Optical Techniques: Raman spectroscopy has been shown to provide a transcutaneous measurement of bone mineral and matrix Raman bands. This could potentially provide surgeons with the ability to more accurately assess bone graft osseointegration. In-vivo near-infrared optical imaging could potentially provide accurate diagnosis of pathologic lesions such as osteosarcoma. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound could be used to detect vascular disturbances and other information related to the transplantation of osseous components. Conclusion: Bone graft complications can be one of the most devastating consequences of osseous surgery. As surgeons, we are constantly searching for ways to identify them earlier and prevent them. We hope that by presenting areas that could be used, we can gain a better insight to ways in which both fields can benefit.

  8. Spasm in Arterial Grafts in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-Wei; Taggart, David P

    2016-03-01

    Spasm of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is still a clinical problem, and refractory spasm can occasionally be lethal. Perioperative spasm in bypass grafts and coronary arteries has been reported in 0.43% of all coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, but this may be an underestimate. Spasm can develop not only in the internal mammary artery but more frequently in the right gastroepiploic and radial artery. The mechanism of spasm can involve many pathways, particularly those involving regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration. Endothelial dysfunction also plays a role in spasm. Depending on the clinical scenario, the possibility of spasm during and after coronary artery bypass grafting should be confirmed by angiography. If present, immediate intraluminal injection of vasodilators is often effective, although other procedures such as an intraaortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may also become necessary to salvage the patient. Prevention of spasm involves many considerations, and the principles are discussed in this review article.

  9. Analysis of bone volume using computer simulation system for secondary bone graft in alveolar cleft.

    PubMed

    Shirota, T; Kurabayashi, H; Ogura, H; Seki, K; Maki, K; Shintani, S

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the bone volume necessary for secondary bone grafting in the alveolar cleft using surgical simulation software based on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scan data, to compare this measurement with the actual volume of the bone graft, and to evaluate consistency. The subjects were 13 patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent CT using a cone-beam CT unit (CB-CT) 1 month before surgery, followed by bone grafting with particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM) to close the cleft. The bone volume necessary for grafting was measured based on the CB-CT scan data. Correlation analysis, a test of the population mean between two samples, and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were conducted between these measurements and the actual bone volume (PCBM volume) used for grafting. SPSS was used for statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set below the 5% level. The results showed a significant correlation, with no significant differences between the two in all tests. These results suggest that measuring and preoperatively calculating the bone volume necessary for bone grafting with surgical simulation software using CB-CT scan data is beneficial. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of canine bone to a synthetic bone graft material.

    PubMed

    St John, K R; Zardiackas, L D; Black, R J; Armstrong, R

    1993-01-01

    A model simulating a spiral diaphyseal fracture with butterfly fragments and bone loss was utilized to evaluate an hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate, and collagen composite bone graft substitute in twelve dogs. The resultant grafted and contralateral control femora were tested in torsion at one year. This study examines the histological response to the graft material as well as crack propagation and fracture surface morphology using light microscopy and SEM. SEM and gross evaluation of the grafted bones revealed that 8/12 had fractured through bone outside the osteotomy site and all fractures included bone outside the graft site. No graft material was demonstrated at the points of initiation or termination of fracture for any of the bones. It was apparent that recorticalization had begun to occur at the graft site but the canal had not yet fully formed. The HA/TCP was seen to be tightly bound in tissue which had the appearance of new bone. Bone was found to be in direct apposition to the surface of the ceramic and within pores with no intervening soft tissue. Much of the new bone had remodeled into well organized Haversian systems with some patchy areas of woven bone and osteoid seen with polarized light illumination.

  11. Radial bone graft usage for nasal septal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cil, Yakup; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Yapici, Abdul Kerim; Ozturk, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although various techniques have been described for correction of crooked and saddle nose deformities, these problems are challenging with high recurrence and revision rates. Conventional septal surgery may not be adequate for nose reconstruction in crooked and saddle nose deformities. Materials and Methods: Between December 2005 and October 2009, six patients with crooked nose and five patients with saddle nose deformities underwent corrective surgery in our clinic. All patients were male, and the mean age was 21 years (range, 19-23 years). We used rigid radial bone graft to prevent redeviation and recurrence following corrective nasal septal surgery. Results: The mean follow-up period was 28 months, ranging from 18 to 46 months. Mean operation time was 4 hours (3-4.5). All patients healed uneventfully. None of the patients required secondary surgery. Conclusions: We believe that radial bone grafts offer a long lasting support in treatment of challenging cases with crooked and saddle nose deformities. PMID:21713215

  12. Tissue-Engineered Autologous Grafts for Facial Bone Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Bernhard, Jonathan C.; Alfi, David M.; Yeager, Keith; Eton, Ryan E.; Bova, Jonathan; Shah, Forum; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lopez, Mandi J.; Eisig, Sidney B.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Facial deformities require precise reconstruction of the appearance and function of the original tissue. The current standard of care—the use of bone harvested from another region in the body—has major limitations, including pain and comorbidities associated with surgery. We have engineered one of the most geometrically complex facial bones by using autologous stromal/stem cells, without bone morphogenic proteins, using native bovine bone matrix and a perfusion bioreactor for the growth and transport of living grafts. The ramus-condyle unit (RCU), the most eminent load-bearing bone in the skull, was reconstructed using an image-guided personalized approach in skeletally mature Yucatan minipigs (human-scale preclinical model). We used clinically approved decellularized bovine trabecular bone as a scaffolding material, and crafted it into an anatomically correct shape using image-guided micromilling, to fit the defect. Autologous adipose-derived stromal/stem cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in perfusion for 3 weeks in a specialized bioreactor to form immature bone tissue. Six months after implantation, the engineered grafts maintained their anatomical structure, integrated with native tissues, and generated greater volume of new bone and greater vascular infiltration than either non-seeded anatomical scaffolds or untreated defects. This translational study demonstrates feasibility of facial bone reconstruction using autologous, anatomically shaped, living grafts formed in vitro, and presents a platform for personalized bone tissue engineering. PMID:27306665

  13. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Warren L; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q; Liu, X Sherry; Guo, X Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-02-23

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a "biomimetic" scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle-in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries-to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions.

  14. Onlay Bone Grafts in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Sukru

    2010-01-01

    Bone grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations and can be divided into two categories: treatment of bone gaps (inlay bone grafting) and bone projection (onlay bone grafting). Cortical grafts are useful in situations requiring immediate mechanical strength. These grafts can survive with or without complete revascularization or resorption and are primarily used by plastic surgeons in the treatment of bone volume deficiency. Cancellous grafts, in contrast, have no mechanical strength and therefore require additional support to bridge bone defects. Thus, they are used primarily for the treatment of bone gaps and in general revascularize quickly, resorb completely, and stimulate significant new bone formation. PMID:22550447

  15. Vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of carpal bone pathology.

    PubMed

    Derby, Brian M; Murray, Peter M; Shin, Alexander Y; Bueno, Reuben A; Mathoulin, Christophe L; Ade, Tim; Neumeister, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    Primary bone healing fails to occur in 5-15 % of scaphoid bones that undergo fracture fixation. Untreated, occult fractures result in nonunion up to 12 % of the time. Conventional bone grafting is the accepted management in the treatment algorithm of scaphoid nonunion if the proximal pole is vascularized. Osteonecrosis of the proximal scaphoid pole intuitively suggests a need for transfer of the vascularized bone to the nonunion site. Scaphoid nonunion treatment aims to prevent biological and mechanical subsidence of the involved bone, destabilization of the carpus, and early degenerative changes associated with scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse. Pedicled distal radius and free vascularized bone grafts (VBGs) offer hand surgeons an alternative treatment option in the management of carpal bone nonunion. VBGs are also indicated in the treatment of avascular necrosis of the scaphoid (Preiser's disease), lunate (Kienböck's disease), and capitate. Relative contraindications to pedicled dorsal radius vascularized bone grafting include humpback deformity, carpal instability, or collapse. The free medial femoral condyle bone graft has offered a novel treatment option for the humpback deformity to restore geometry of the carpus, otherwise not provided by pedicled grafts. In general, VBGs are contraindicated in the setting of a carpal bone without an intact cartilaginous shell, in advanced carpal collapse with degenerative changes, and in attempts to salvage small or collapsed bone fragments. Wrist salvage procedures are generally accepted as the more definitive treatment option under such circumstances. This manuscript offers a current review of the techniques and outcomes of VBGs to the carpal bones.

  16. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 2: Bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this second article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during implant placement (particularly as surface treatment for the stimulation of osseointegration), the treatment of peri-implant bone defects (after peri-implantitis, during implantation in an insufficient bone volume or during immediate post-extraction or post-avulsion implantation), the sinuslift procedures and various complex implant-supported treatments. Other potential applications of the platelet concentrates are also highlighted in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, for the treatment of patients using bisphosphonates, anticoagulants or with post-tumoral irradiated maxilla. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during the regeneration of peri-implant bone defects, during the sinus-lift procedure and during complex implant-supported rehabilitations. The use of L-PRF allowed to define a new therapeutic concept called the Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges at the gingival and bone levels. As it is illustrated in this article, the NBR principles allow to push away some technical limits of global implant-supported rehabilitations, particularly when combined with other powerful biotechnological tools

  17. Carbon nanotube-based bioceramic grafts for electrotherapy of bone.

    PubMed

    Mata, D; Horovistiz, A L; Branco, I; Ferro, M; Ferreira, N M; Belmonte, M; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Oliveira, F J

    2014-01-01

    Bone complexity demands the engineering of new scaffolding solutions for its reconstructive surgery. Emerging bone grafts should offer not only mechanical support but also functional properties to explore innovative bone therapies. Following this, ceramic bone grafts of Glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced with conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) - CNT/Glass/HA - were prepared for bone electrotherapy purposes. Computer-aided 3D microstructural reconstructions and TEM analysis of CNT/Glass/HA composites provided details on the CNT 3D network and further correlation to their functional properties. CNTs are arranged as sub-micrometric sized ropes bridging homogenously distributed ellipsoid-shaped agglomerates. This arrangement yielded composites with a percolation threshold of pc=1.5vol.%. At 4.4vol.% of CNTs, thermal and electrical conductivities of 1.5W·m(-1)·K(-1) and 55S·m(-1), respectively, were obtained, matching relevant requisites in electrical stimulation protocols. While the former avoids bone damaging from Joule's heat generation, the latter might allow the confinement of external electrical fields through the conductive material if used for in vivo electrical stimulation. Moreover, the electrically conductive bone grafts have better mechanical properties than those of the natural cortical bone. Overall, these highly conductive materials with controlled size CNT agglomerates might accelerate bone bonding and maximize the delivery of electrical stimulation during electrotherapy practices. © 2013.

  18. Correlation between Density and Resorption of Fresh-Frozen and Autogenous Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Edoardo; Consolo, Ugo; Marchetti, Claudio; Bonanini, Mauro; Salgarelli, Attilio; Macaluso, Guido M.

    2014-01-01

    Trial Design. This analysis compared the outcome of fresh-frozen versus autologous bone block grafts for horizontal ridge augmentation in patients with Cawood and Howell class IV atrophies. Methods. Seventeen patients received autologous grafts and 21 patients received fresh-frozen bone grafts. Patients underwent CT scans 1 week and 6 months after surgery for graft volume and density analysis. Results. Two autologous and 3 fresh-frozen grafts failed. Autologous and fresh-frozen grafts lost, respectively, 28% and 46% of their initial volume (P = 0.028). It is noteworthy that less dense fresh-frozen blocks lost more volume than denser grafts (61% versus 16%). Conclusions. According to these 6-month results, only denser fresh-frozen bone graft may be an acceptable alternative to autologous bone for horizontal ridge augmentation. Further studies are needed to investigate its behaviour at longer time points. PMID:25050354

  19. Femoral fracture after harvesting of autologous bone graft using a reamer/irrigator/aspirator.

    PubMed

    Giori, Nicholas J; Beaupre, Gary S

    2011-02-01

    A case of postoperative fracture in the donor femur after obtaining autologous bone graft with a reamer/irrigator/aspirator is presented. This procedure was successful in healing a difficult femoral nonunion, but the patient sustained a fracture of the contralateral (bone graft donor) femur 20 days after surgery. A mechanical analysis is conducted of this case and recommendations are made. Unrestricted weightbearing on a limb that has undergone reamer/irrigator/aspirator bone graft harvesting, particularly in a noncompliant patient, is probably inadvisable. If possible, one should obtain bone graft from the same limb as the fracture being treated because this will leave the patient with one unaltered limb for mobilization.

  20. Reduction of bone resorption by the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in bone grafting of the alveolar cleft.

    PubMed

    Marukawa, Eriko; Oshina, Hidekazu; Iino, Gaichi; Morita, Keiichi; Omura, Ken

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the regeneration of autogenous cancellous bone and marrow grafted in the alveolar cleft. Twenty patients with alveolar clefts were examined; 6 were the control group and received cancellous bone and marrow grafts without PRP, while the remaining 14 comprised the PRP group and received grafts with PRP. Prior to surgery, 50 ml of blood was withdrawn and 5 ml of PRP gel produced through centrifugal separation. The bone graft mixed with PRP was then packed into the alveolar cleft. Postoperative bone density was assessed as the aluminium-equivalent value on occlusal X-ray films in a qualitative analysis. Quantitative evaluation of regenerated bone was made with computed tomography and panoramic radiographs at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Satisfactory bone bridging formation was observed in all patients without any complications. The bone density of the PRP group was lower than that of the control group at 1 week, but the same after 1 month. The added PRP reduced the resorption of regenerated bone postoperatively. Autogenous cancellous bone grafting with PRP, which significantly reduces postoperative bone resorption, is a reliable technique for alveolar bone grafting of cleft patients. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Piezosurgical osteotomy for harvesting intraoral block bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Daniel, Rajkumar; Ramesh, Sadashiva B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations for the cutting of bone was first introduced two decades ago. Piezoelectric surgery is a minimally invasive technique that lessens the risk of damage to surrounding soft tissues and important structures such as nerves, vessels, and mucosa. It also reduces damage to osteocytes and permits good survival of bony cells during harvesting of bone. Grafting with intraoral bone blocks is a good way to reconstruct severe horizontal and vertical bone resorption in future implants sites. The piezosurgery system creates an effective osteotomy with minimal or no trauma to soft tissue in contrast to conventional surgical burs or saws and minimizes a patient's psychological stress and fear during osteotomy under local anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to describe the harvesting of intraoral bone blocks using the piezoelectric surgery device. PMID:23066242

  2. Sinusfloor elevation and grafting with autogenous iliac crest bone.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Krekeler, G; Tuinzing, D B

    1998-12-01

    Insufficient bone height in the posterior area of the maxilla, due to expansion of the maxillary sinus and atrophic reduction of the alveolar process of the maxilla, represents a contra-indication for insertion of dental implants. This anatomic problem can, in many cases, be solved by augmentation of the floor of the maxillary sinus. This surgical technique was introduced by Tatum. The so-called top hinge door method creates a new floor of the maxillary sinus at a more cranial level. Underneath this new floor the existing space is filled with a bone graft. Implantation in the alveolar process with increased bone height allows insertion of dental implants. This sinus grafting technique was used in the present study. In total, 62 sinusfloor elevations were performed with cancellous iliac bone grafts in 42 patients. In those 62 augmented sinuses, 161 ITI screw type implants were inserted. The follow-up was 1-6 years after implantation. In 2 cases infections occurred. One implant needed an extended integration time. No implants were lost. The ITI solid screw implant appears to be a suitable implant following sinusfloor elevation operations, due to its rough surface, its shape and the size of the thread. The sinusfloor elevation procedure with autogenous cancellous bone graft appears to be a valuable and reliable pre-implantological procedure, provided a proper pre-operative investigation and careful surgery are performed. This procedure allows dental implant placement with a high success rate.

  3. Indirect sinus lift without bone graft material: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Sara; Martorell-Calatayud, Luis; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; García-Mira, Berta; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    A systematic literature review and a meta-analysis of indirect sinus lift without the use of bone graft material was performed. A PubMed search was made from January 2005 to January 2012 with keywords: "sinus lift", "osteotome", "graft" and "maxillary sinus elevation". The inclusion criteria were: maxillary sinus lift technique with osteotomes with a minimum follow-up period of 5 months after surgery without bone graft material. 11 articles were included. The mean gain in residual crestal bone height after maxillary sinus lift without bone graft material was 3,43 mm ± 0,09 (2,5 mm - 4,4 mm). The survival rate ranged from 94% to 100%. Placement of implants with sinus lift without bone graft material, is a valid surgical technique to gain residual crestal height and placed implants in an atrophic posterior maxillary with a crestal height from 5 to 9 mm. Key words:Sinus lift, osteotome, graft, maxillary sinus elevation.

  4. The use of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes in pediatric orthopaedics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gross, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes have become progressively more widely used, and are currently heavily marketed. To make intelligent decisions, a complete knowledge of autograaft and allograft bone healing is essential, including the definition of "sterile". Differences in donor selection and tissue processing may confound the user not familiar with the implications of these different approaches. Specific products include demineralized bone matrix (DBM), specific growth factors (recombinant BMP's), ceramic grafts, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There are a number of useful applications of bone graft substitues for pediatric orthopaedists, but the data base is evolving. This paper describes the current status of these products.

  5. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. Methods: 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4th, 8th and 16th weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. Results: No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. Conclusions: The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar. PMID:26885221

  6. Experimental and clinical analysis of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone graft fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Min; Wu, Hong; Ye, Ming; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the animal experimental and clinical results of the bone graft fusion of a posterolateral lumbar appendicular bone. 1. Sixty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Posterolateral lumbar bone graft with the appendicular bone and iliac bones, respectively, was then performed on these two groups. A lumbar spine X-ray was performed on the postoperative 4(th), 8(th) and 16(th) weeks, and the gray value changes of the bone graft fusion area were measured to calculate fusion rates. Histology analysis was also performed to observe and count osteoblasts. 2. The appendicular bones of 106 patients who suffered from lumbar disorders were cut during lumbar surgery, and a posterolateral lumbar bone graft was performed. The postoperative follow-up used the Steffee criteria to evaluate clinical efficacy and the White criteria to evaluate fusion conditions. No significant difference was observed in the relative gray values of X-ray bone density, bone graft fusion rates, and osteoblast counts in the bone graft regions between the two groups (P > 0.05). The follow-up duration of the 106 patients were 4-8 years (6.12 years), the clinical efficacy rate was 85.85%, and the fusion rate was 83.02%. The animal experimental and clinical results of posterolateral lumbar bone graft fusion with autologous iliac and appendicular bones were similar.

  7. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ong, J C Y; Kennedy, M T; Mitra, A; Harty, J A

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects. Hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate synthetic bone graft was utilised in 14 patients (six males and eight females). Allograft/autograft were utilised in the remaining 10 patients (six males and four females). All the 24 patients had clinical, radiological and subjective functional score assessments. There was no significant statistical difference between the groups for post-operative articular reduction, long-term subsidence, and WOMAC scores. The degree of subsidence was not related to age or fracture severity. Maintenance of knee flexion was found to be better in the allograft/autograft group (p = 0.048) when compared between the groups. Multivariate analysis compared graft type, fracture severity, post-operative reduction, subsidence rate, range of movement and WOMAC score. The only finding was a statistical significant association with the graft type related to the 6-month range of movement figures. Use of autologous or allogenic bone graft allows better recovery of long-term flexion, possibly due to reduced inflammatory response compared with synthetic bone composites. However, all other parameters, such as maintenance of joint reduction and subjective outcome measures were comparable with the use of hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate bone graft. This study shows that synthetic bone graft may be a suitable alternative in fixation of unstable tibia plateau fractures, avoiding risk of disease transmission with allograft and donor site morbidity associated with autograft.

  8. Preoperative graft assessment in aortocoronary bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tinica, Grigore; Vartic, Cristina Luca; Mocanu, Veronica; Baran, Dana; Butcovan, Doina

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure able to improve the blood supply to the myocardium. In the present study, the distal segments of grafts taken from the internal thoracic artery (ITA), radial artery (RA) and saphenous vein (SV) for use in aortocoronary bypass surgery were examined. The morphologies of the grafts were investigated in order to draw conclusions concerning their patency and viability. In addition, clinical and laboratory risk factors considered to be significant predictors of lesion severity in graft vessels used in CABGs were investigated. In total, 54 distal graft segments of ITAs, RAs and SVs from 20 men and 6 women aged between 42 and 78 years, were evaluated. Histological analyses were used to visualize graft lesions. Morphometrically, the intimal thickness index (ITI) and luminal narrowing were assessed as an indication of graft patency. The histological changes observed in the graft vessel walls included the presence of distinct atheromatous plaques (fatty streaks in 2 cases) or thickening of the intima (20 cases) and media (17 cases). Morphometric analysis showed that the mean ITI of the vessel conduits was 0.37 in the SVs, 0.95 in the RAs, and 1.66 in the ITAs. No patient had >50% conduit stenosis. By assessing the association between risk factors and graft lesions, it was found that all the patients showed risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as age (61.54%), arterial hypertension (65.38%), hyperlipidemia (65.38%), smoking (34.61%), diabetes mellitus (38.46%) and obesity (15.38%). The presence of pre-existing lesions in bypass grafts may contribute to a reduction in their viability, particularly in the case of venous grafts. Further long-term follow-ups are mandatory to evaluate the consequences of such lesions upon the patency of the grafts. PMID:27446279

  9. Decellularized bone matrix grafts for calvaria regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Joon; Diachina, Shannon; Lee, Yan Ting; Zhao, Lixing; Zou, Rui; Tang, Na; Han, Han; Chen, Xin; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Decellularization is a promising new method to prepare natural matrices for tissue regeneration. Successful decellularization has been reported using various tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage, though studies using hard tissue such as bone are lacking. In this study, we aimed to define the optimal experimental parameters to decellularize natural bone matrix using 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.1% NH4OH. Then, the effects of decellularized bone matrix on rat mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, osteogenic gene expression, and osteogenic differentiations in a two-dimensional culture system were investigated. Decellularized bone was also evaluated with regard to cytotoxicity, biochemical, and mechanical characteristics in vitro. Evidence of complete decellularization was shown through hematoxylin and eosin staining and DNA measurements. Decellularized bone matrix displayed a cytocompatible property, conserved structure, mechanical strength, and mineral content comparable to natural bone. To study new bone formation, implantation of decellularized bone matrix particles seeded with rat mesenchymal stem cells was conducted using an orthotopic in vivo model. After 3 months post-implantation into a critical-sized defect in rat calvaria, new bone was formed around decellularized bone matrix particles and also merged with new bone between decellularized bone matrix particles. New bone formation was analyzed with micro computed tomography, mineral apposition rate, and histomorphometry. Decellularized bone matrix stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, achieving effective bone regeneration and thereby serving as a promising biological bone graft. PMID:28228929

  10. Secondary alveolar bone grafting (CLEFTSiS) 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Grant T; Devlin, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether alveolar bone graft outcomes improved with reorganization of Scottish cleft services following the Clinical Services Advisory Group United Kingdom finding of 58% success and to determine the accuracy of results from CLEFTSiS (national managed clinical network for Scottish cleft services) annual audits. Retrospective random analysis of electronic radiographs by two observers. Surgical-orthodontic care provided through National Health Service. Sixty-three of 261 patients eligible for alveolar bone grafting by cleft type did not undergo surgery. Nine surgeons operated on 198 patients (2 regrafts). Radiographs were available for 115 subjects (one was excluded). A standard protocol involved presurgical maxillary expansion (where necessary) and bone harvesting from the iliac crest. The Kindelan Bone-Fill Index evaluated radiographic success with weighted kappa statistics for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Two-sample t-tests were used to determine whether outcomes for ilateral and unilateral cleft lip and palate patients differed and to examine the effects of operator volume, presurgical expansion, and age at the time of grafting. Intraobserver (0.93 to 0.97) and interobserver (0.83 to 0.85) reproducibility were almost perfect. Grafts were successful in 76% of patients, while 23% were partial failures and 1% of cases were total failures. Patients who underwent presurgical expansion (n = 64) had statistically significantly better results (p = .046). However, there was no statistically significant effect for unilateral versus bilateral patients (p = .77), patients treated by the highest volume operator (p = .78), and patients under 11 years of age (p = .29). CLEFTSiS alveolar bone graft results between 2000 and 2004 were improved on the Clinical Services Advisory Group study and annual CLEFTSiS audits. Patients who underwent maxillary expansion prior to surgery were more successful.

  11. Bone-Grafting in Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leet, Arabella I.; Boyce, Alison M.; Ibrahim, Khalda A.; Wientroub, Shlomo; Kushner, Harvey; Collins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal disease that results from somatic activating mutations in the gene GNAS in skeletal stem cells, leading to proliferation of immature osteogenic cells with replacement of normal marrow and bone with fibro-osseous tissue. Lesions may cause bone deformity or fracture. In the surgical care of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, the role of grafting and the optimal grafting material are not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival of bone-grafting procedures in subjects with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia over time. Methods: The operative reports and radiographs of a cohort of subjects with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia followed in a natural history study were reviewed. Twenty-three subjects (mean age at the time of enrollment, thirteen years [range, two to forty years]) with fifty-two bone-grafting procedures had a mean follow-up time of 19.6 years (range, twenty-nine months to forty-seven years). Kaplan-Meier life table estimates, Cox proportional hazard models, and t tests comparing means were performed to assess various aspects of graft survival. Results: Kaplan-Meier curves showed a 50% estimate of survival of 14.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models showed no advantage comparing allograft with autograft or structural with nonstructural graft materials. The mean age of the patients was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the subgroup of subjects in whom grafts were maintained over time (20.9 years) compared with the subgroup of patients whose grafts were resorbed over time (9.8 years). Conclusions: Bone-grafting, including both allograft and autograft, is of limited value in ablating the lesions of fibrous dysplasia. The expectations of patients and surgeons should include the high probability of graft resorption over time with return of bone characteristics of fibrous dysplasia, particularly in younger patients. This suggests the maintenance of normal bone mechanics with implant

  12. Early bone resorption of free microvascular reanastomized bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction--a comparison of iliac crest and fibula grafts.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Christian; Decker, Christian; Engel, Michael; Sander, Anja; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freier, Kolja

    2014-07-01

    Patients with continuous bone defects of the mandible after ablative tumor surgery need bony reconstruction for proper function and aesthetics. Free microvascular reanastomized bone grafts provide a clinically proven option for such patients, yet the optimal source of donor tissue has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the bone volume stability of vascularized bone grafts, particularly in the early highly resorptive phase, from the iliac crest (DCIA) and the fibula and to assess the implantologic rehabilitations. Thirty-six patients with mandibular continuity defects due to tumor resection were reconstructed by the use of vascularized bone grafts; 21 patients received DCIA flaps and 15 patients received a composite free fibular flap, depending on the size and location of the defect. Bone resorption was assessed using digital panographs. Radiographs were taken immediately after bone reconstruction, 6 months postoperatively, prior to implant surgery, and at prosthetic loading. After a mean observation period of 6 months, vertical bone resorption was 6.79% for the patients of the iliac crest group (DCIA), 10.20% after 11 months, and 12.58% after 17 months. Fibular grafts showed a bone resorption of 5.30% after a mean observation time of 6 months, 8.26% after 11 months, and 16.95% after 17 months. Eighteen patients received 71 implants for implant-retained dental reconstructions. Microvascular reanastomized bone grafts represent a reliable treatment option for reconstruction in cases of large defects of the mandible, with low graft resorption in the early healing phase. Additionally, the compared grafts provide sufficient bone volume to permit implant rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical properties of radiation-sterilised human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, A; Gut, G; Marowska, J; Lada-Kozłowska, M; Biwejnis, W; Zasacka, M

    2009-08-01

    Patellar tendon auto- and allo-grafts are commonly used in orthopedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation supposedly decreases the mechanical strength of tendon it is important to establish methods of allograft preservation and sterilisation assuring the best quality of grafts and their safety at the same time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the tensile strength of human patellar tendon (cut out as for ACL reconstruction), preserved by various methods (deep fresh freezing, glycerolisation, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0, 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolisation or lyophilisation and were subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. All samples were subjected to mechanical failure tensile tests with the use of Instron system in order to estimate their mechanical properties. All lyophilised grafts were rehydrated before performing of those tests. Obtained mechanical tests results of examined grafts suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not exclude their clinical application.

  14. Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Schuepbach, Jonas; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Demard, Francois

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. Methods In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. Results In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the bone with high accuracy (p < 10-6) and a sensitivity that was superior to the sensitivity of clinical monitoring (92% and 75% respectively). Conclusion When performing bone scintigraphy during the first three postoperative days, it not only helps to detect complications with high accuracy, as described in earlier studies, but it is also an additional reliable monitoring tool to decide whether or not microvascular revision surgery should be performed. Bone scans were especially useful in buried free flaps where early postoperative monitoring depended exclusively on scans. According to our experience, we recommend bone scans as soon as possible after surgery and immediately in cases suspicious of vascularized bone graft failure. PMID:17448223

  15. Secondary alveolar bone grafting: An outcome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ananth S; Lehman, James A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate. DESIGN A surgeon’s experience, by retrospective chart review, of 70 consecutive patients at a tertiary care centre. OUTCOME MEASURE Periapical radiographs were taken at least six months after secondary alveolar bone grafting. The Enemark grading system was used to stratify graft-take. RESULTS In unilateral clefts, 33% were level 1, 36% were level 2, 20% were level 3 and 11% were level 4. In bilateral clefts, 29% were level 1, 50% were level 2, 14% were level 3 and 7% were level 4. There was no statistically significant difference between the level of take and the type of cleft. Complications encountered were infection (n=3), fistula (n=3), pain (n=4) and bone graft exposure that led to failure (n=2). Two patients required reoperation for bone grafting. CONCLUSIONS The iliac crest is a good donor site with excellent results and minimal morbidity. PMID:19554111

  16. Nonvascularized Bone Grafting Defers Joint Arthroplasty in Hip Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Thorsten M.; Marker, David R.; Ulrich, Slif D.; Fatscher, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    A variety of nonvascularized bone grafting techniques have been proposed with varying degrees of success as treatment alternatives for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The success of these procedures may be enhanced using ancillary growth and differentiation factors. We retrospectively reviewed 33 patients (39 hips) with osteonecrosis of the hip who had nonvascularized bone grafting procedures with supplemental OP-1. We compared the outcomes in this cohort to similar patients treated nonoperatively or with other nonvascularized bone grafting procedures. We used a trapdoor to make a window at the head-neck junction to remove necrotic bone and packed the excavated area with autogenous cancellous bone graft, marrow, and OP-1. The minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 36 months; range, 24–50 months). We performed no further surgery in 25 of 30 small- and medium-sized lesions (80%) but did in two of nine large lesions. Hips with Ficat Stage II disease were not reoperated in 18 of 22 cases during the followup periods. Our short-term results compare similarly to nonoperative treatment and other reports of nonvascularized bone grafting. With the addition of ancillary growth factors, these procedures effectively reduce donor site morbidity and may defer joint arthroplasty in selected patients. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0211-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18351424

  17. A 10-year follow-up of transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or intervertebral B-Twin system in failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The spine surgeons have been combining anterior and posterolateral fusion (circumferential fusion) as the final solution to treat spinal disorders and many have been using it to treat failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). In present study, we analyzed and compared the clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral B-Twin system for FBSS with a follow-up period of 10 years after the surgery. This study was a retrospective case study performed on 55 patients with FBSS. Clinical and radiological changes were compared between the two groups of patients on the basis of improvement of back pain, radicular pain, and work capacity. Outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year from before surgery until 2012. We analyzed the evolution of 55 cases of FBSS those underwent segmental circumferential posterior fusions from June 2001 to February 2003, operated by a single surgeon and followed up during 10 years until February 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: In 25 patients, posterolateral fusions with Legacy™ (Medtronic, Inc. NYSE: MDT) screws and intersomatic autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft was performed, and, in 30 patients, posterolateral fusions with the same screws and intersomatic fusion B-Twin (Biomet Spain Orthopaedics, S.L.) system was performed. In all cases, we used posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for intervertebral graft, and the artrodesis was supplemented at intertransverse level with Autologus Growth Factor (AGF-MBA INCORPORADO, S.A.). The outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year and compared from before surgery to the final

  18. A 10-year follow-up of transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or intervertebral B-Twin system in failed back surgery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The spine surgeons have been combining anterior and posterolateral fusion (circumferential fusion) as the final solution to treat spinal disorders and many have been using it to treat failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). In present study, we analyzed and compared the clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral B-Twin system for FBSS with a follow-up period of 10 years after the surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective case study performed on 55 patients with FBSS. Clinical and radiological changes were compared between the two groups of patients on the basis of improvement of back pain, radicular pain, and work capacity. Outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year from before surgery until 2012. We analyzed the evolution of 55 cases of FBSS those underwent segmental circumferential posterior fusions from June 2001 to February 2003, operated by a single surgeon and followed up during 10 years until February 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: In 25 patients, posterolateral fusions with Legacy™ (Medtronic, Inc. NYSE: MDT) screws and intersomatic autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft was performed, and, in 30 patients, posterolateral fusions with the same screws and intersomatic fusion B-Twin (Biomet Spain Orthopaedics, S.L.) system was performed. In all cases, we used posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for intervertebral graft, and the artrodesis was supplemented at intertransverse level with Autologus Growth Factor (AGF-MBA INCORPORADO, S.A.). The outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year and compared

  19. Autologus parietal grafts in preprosthethic surgery

    PubMed Central

    GHERLONE, E.F.; VINCI, R.; D’AVERSA, L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Edentulous patients usually request implant supported/fixed rehabilitation. Ridge resorption after teeth loss usually affect three-dimensional implant position. Vertical and/or horizontal bone augmentation procedures are often the only choice the clinician has to deliver prosthetic guided restoration. Gold standard for augmentation procedures such as sinus lift, onlay or inlay grafts, is still autologous bone. The patient in this report underwent a pre-prosthetic reconstruction of the jaws with parietal bone, followed by fixtures insertion and fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This clinical report aims to underline the importance of multidisciplinary treatment to optimize the results of the rehabilitation. PMID:23285358

  20. Tooth-derived bone graft material

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Junho; Kim, Kyung-Wook; Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    With successful extraction of growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) from mammalian teeth, many researchers have supported development of a bone substitute using tooth-derived substances. Some studies have also expanded the potential use of teeth as a carrier for growth factors and stem cells. A broad overview of the published findings with regard to tooth-derived regenerative tissue engineering technique is outlined. Considering more than 100 published papers, our team has developed the protocols and techniques for processing of bone graft material using extracted teeth. Based on current studies and studies that will be needed in the future, we can anticipate development of scaffolds, homogenous and xenogenous tooth bone grafts, and dental restorative materials using extracted teeth. PMID:24471027

  1. Comparative Evalution of G bone (Hydroxyapatite) and G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) as Bone Graft Material in Mandibular III Molar Extraction Socket.

    PubMed

    Panday, Vijayendra; Upadhyaya, Vivekananda; Berwal, Vikas; Jain, Kapil; Sah, Nupur; Sarathi, Partha; Swami, Pushp Chander

    2015-03-01

    Bone grafting is a dynamic phenomenon. It is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material either from patient's own body, or, an artificial, synthetic or natural substitute. A successful bone graft when applied, heals, becomes incorporated, re-vascularises and eventually assumes the form desired. The main purpose of this present study was to radiologically assess and compare the regenerative potential of hydroxyapatite with Collagen (G-Graft) and hydroxyapatite (G-Bone) and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of these materials to enhance bone healing in third molar extraction sites through bone formation. The study was carried out in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacilal Surgery, patients were divided into three groups. The rationale for assigning the patients to the groups was strictly random: Group I - G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) was used as Bone graft material, Group II - Bone graft material used was G-Bone (Hydroxyapatite), Group III-control group (no grafts was used). Orthopentomogram(OPG) images were taken intra-operatively, just after extraction in the Group III (control), after extraction but before graft placement in Group I & II (study groups) and post-operatively at the end of first month and third month. Bone density of the post-extraction sockets was measured at four random areas through 'densitometric analysis' software in the OPG program (Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic System, Eastman Kodak Company) and an average value was recorded at each review. The percentage increase in bone density between 1(st) month & 3(rd) month was 7.55± 12.43 in Group I (G Graft), 4.41± 5.4859 in Group II (G Bone), while that Group III (control) was found to be -0.82 ± 3.96. The bone density increase was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.01)) between all groups. The present study concluded that G-Graft has a definite regenerative potential and is better than G-bone and can be used in bony defects to enhance the bone healing

  2. Comparative Evalution of G bone (Hydroxyapatite) and G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) as Bone Graft Material in Mandibular III Molar Extraction Socket

    PubMed Central

    Panday, Vijayendra; Upadhyaya, Vivekananda; Jain, Kapil; Sah, Nupur; Sarathi, Partha; Swami, Pushp Chander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone grafting is a dynamic phenomenon. It is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material either from patient’s own body, or, an artificial, synthetic or natural substitute. A successful bone graft when applied, heals, becomes incorporated, re-vascularises and eventually assumes the form desired. Aims and Objective: The main purpose of this present study was to radiologically assess and compare the regenerative potential of hydroxyapatite with Collagen (G-Graft) and hydroxyapatite (G-Bone) and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of these materials to enhance bone healing in third molar extraction sites through bone formation. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacilal Surgery, patients were divided into three groups. The rationale for assigning the patients to the groups was strictly random: Group I – G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) was used as Bone graft material, Group II – Bone graft material used was G-Bone (Hydroxyapatite), Group III—control group (no grafts was used). Orthopentomogram(OPG) images were taken intra-operatively, just after extraction in the Group III (control), after extraction but before graft placement in Group I & II (study groups) and post-operatively at the end of first month and third month. Bone density of the post-extraction sockets was measured at four random areas through ‘densitometric analysis’ software in the OPG program (Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic System, Eastman Kodak Company) and an average value was recorded at each review. Results: The percentage increase in bone density between 1st month & 3rd month was 7.55± 12.43 in Group I (G Graft), 4.41± 5.4859 in Group II (G Bone), while that Group III (control) was found to be -0.82 ± 3.96. The bone density increase was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.01)) between all groups. Conclusion: The present study concluded that G-Graft has a definite regenerative potential

  3. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone grafting material. 872.3930 Section 872.3930...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3930 Bone grafting material. (a) Identification. Bone grafting material is a material such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone grafting material. 872.3930 Section 872.3930...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3930 Bone grafting material. (a) Identification. Bone grafting material is a material such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone grafting material. 872.3930 Section 872.3930...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3930 Bone grafting material. (a) Identification. Bone grafting material is a material such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and...

  6. Bone Grafting for Avulsive Jaw Injuries and Augmentation Grafts to the Mandible.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    autogenous bone, freeze-dried bone, autogenous bone in a vitallium tray, and composite bone (freeze-dried allogeneic bone with autogenous hematopoetic marrow...inpregnated). All materials healed as bone grafts in the dog mandible. Composite bone and autogenous bone placed in a vitallium tray healed more

  7. Clinical evaluation of ridge augmentation using autogenous tooth bone graft material: case series study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Choi, Joon-Ho

    2013-08-01

    Interest in bone graft material has increased with regard to restoration in cases of bone defect around the implant. Autogenous tooth bone graft material was developed and commercialized in 2008. In this study, we evaluated the results of vertical and horizontal ridge augmentation with autogenous tooth bone graft material. This study targeted patients who had vertical or horizontal ridge augmentation using AutoBT from March 2009 to April 2010. We evaluated the age and gender of the subject patients, implant stability, adjunctive surgery, additional bone graft material and barrier membrane, post-operative complication, implant survival rate, and crestal bone loss. We performed vertical and horizontal ridge augmentation using powder- or block-type autogenous tooth bone graft material, and implant placement was performed on nine patients (male: 7, female: 2). The average age of patients was 49.88±12.98 years, and the post-operative follow-up period was 35±5.31 months. Post-operative complications included wound dehiscence (one case), hematoma (one case), and implant osseointegration failure (one case; survival rate: 96%); however, there were no complications related to bone graft material, such as infection. Average marginal bone loss after one-year loading was 0.12±0.19 mm. Therefore, excellent clinical results can be said to have been obtained. Excellent clinical results can be said to have been obtained with vertical and horizontal ridge augmentation using autogenous tooth bone graft material.

  8. SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR INFECTED LONG BONE DEFECTS AFTER LIMB-THREATENING TRAUMA: APPLICATION OF LOCKED PLATE AND AUTOGENOUS CANCELLOUS BONE GRAFT

    PubMed Central

    KAWAKAMI, RYOICHI; KONNO, SHIN-ICHI; EJIRI, SOICHI; HATASHITA, SATOSHI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Treatment strategies for bone defects include free bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, and vascularized bone grafting. Because bone defect morphology is often irregular, selecting treatment strategies may be difficult. With the Masquelet technique, a fracture site is bridged and fixed with a locking plate after treating deep infection with antibiotic-containing cement, and a free cancellous bone-graft is concomitantly placed into the defects. This procedure avoids excessive bone resection. Methods:We studied 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for deep infection occurring after extremity trauma (2004 through 2009). Ages at surgery ranged from 29 to 59 years (largest age group: 30 s). Mean follow-up was 50.7 months (minimum/maximum: 36/72 months). One patient had complete amputation of the upper extremity, 3 open forearm fractures, 1 closed supracondylar femur fracture, and 1 open tibia fracture. In all patients, bone defects were filled with antibiotic-containing cement beads after infected site debridement. If bacterial culture of infected sites during curettage was positive, surgery was repeated to refill bone defects with antibiotic-containing cement beads. After confirmation of negative bacterial culture, osteosynthesis was performed, in which bone defects were bridged and fixed with locking plates. Concomitantly, crushed cancellous bone grafts harvested from the autogenous ilium was placed in the bone defects. Results: Time from bone grafting and plate fixation to bone union was at least 3 and at most 6 months, 4 months on average. Infection relapsed in one patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, necessitating vascularized fibular grafting which achieved bone union. No patients showed implant loosening or breakage or infection relapse after the last surgery during follow-up. Conclusion: The advantage of cancellous bone grafting include applicability to relatively large bone defects, simple surgical procedure

  9. Bone graft healing in alveolar osteoplasty in patients with unilateral lip, alveolar process, and palate clefts.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Dariusz; Wójcicki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Secondary osteoplasty by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting is the most common procedure used in the reconstruction of the continuity of the maxillary alveolar process. The aim of the study was to analyze retrospectively the effect of certain factors on the course of the bone graft healing process in patients with unilateral complete clefts of the lip, alveolar process, and palate. The investigations involved 62 children aged 8 to 14 years (mean age, 11 years) with unilateral complete cleft of the lip, alveolar process, and palate operated on at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Polanica Zdrój from November 2007 to April 2009. All the procedures consisted in the reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar process by means of autogenic spongy bone grafting from the iliac bone. The analysis was performed on the basis of computed tomography scans presenting maxillary alveolar processes in the horizontal cross-sectional planes performed on the second or third postoperative day and after 6 months. They were used as the basis for the measurement of the volume and density (condensation) of the bone graft, the surface of its adhesion to the maxillary alveolar bone, and the volume and density of the healed bone. The following correlation coefficients were determined: between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the volume of the healed bone, between the adhesion surface of the bone to the alveolar bone and the density of the healed bone, and between the density of the graft and the volume of the healed bone. Increasing the surface of the graft adhesion to the bone ridges of the alveolar cleft contributes to increased volume of the healed bone and slows down the increase in its density (on 6-month follow-up). Crushing of the bone graft increases its resorption and reduces volume of the healed bone.

  10. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-07-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking skeletal bones. The osteoconductive properties of the composite might be improved by adding bone marrow aspirate (BMA), which can be harvested during surgery. Other alternatives to bone graft are demineralised bone matrix (DBM) and human cancellous bone (CB). DBM is prepared by acid extraction of human bone and includes bone collagen, morphogenetic proteins and growth factors. The combination of DBM with CB and with allograft might improve the healing potential of these grafts around non-cemented orthopaedic implants and thereby the implant fixation. Study I investigates the effect of HA/Collagen composite alone and in combination with BMA on the early fixation of porous coated titanium implants. In addition, the study compares also the effect of autograft with the gold standard allograft. By using a sheep model, the implants were inserted in the trabecular bone of femoral condyles. The test biomaterials were placed in a well defined peri-implant gap. After the observation period, the bone-implant specimens were harvested and evaluated mechanically by a destructive push

  11. Vascularized bone graft from the supracondylar region of the femur.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Free vascularized thin corticoperiosteal grafts and small periosteal bone grafts harvested from the supracondylar region of the femur are described. These grafts are nourished from the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and vein. Unlike currently used vascularized bone grafts, this graft can be successfully harvested with disturbing the vascularity. Thin corticoperiosteal grafts consist of periosteum with a thin layer of outer cortical bone and include the cambium layer, which has a better osteogenic capacity. This graft is elastic and readily conforms to the recipient bed configuration. Thin corticoperiosteal grafts were used for fracture nonunion of the long bone with smaller bone defect and to treat forty-six patients with avascular necrosis of the body of the talus, scaphoid, and lunate bone.

  12. Eggshell Derived Hydroxyapatite as Bone Graft Substitute in the Healing of Maxillary Cystic Bone Defects: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kanumuru, Narasimha Reddy; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Sidharthan, A; Kumar, T S Sampath; Prasad, L Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, use of graft materials to promote healing of defects of bone is wellknown. Traditionally, missing bone is replaced with material from either patient or donor. Multiple sources of bone grafts have been used to graft bone defects to stimulate bone healing. Hydroxyapatite is naturally occurring mineral component of bone, which is osteoconductive. This versatile biomaterial is derived from many sources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) in the bone regeneration of human maxillary cystic bone defects secondary to cystic removal/apicoectomy and compare the material properties of EHA in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of eight maxillary bone defects were grafted after cystic enucleation and/or apicoectomy in the year 2008 and completed the study at 1 year. The patients were followed-up 2 weeks after surgery for signs and symptoms of infection or any other complications that may have been related to surgical procedure. Follow-up radiographs were obtained immediately after surgery followed by 1, 2, and 3 months to assess the efficacy of EHA in bone healing. Physicochemical characterization of the EHA was carried out in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), also compared the biocompatibility of EHA using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Results: By the end of the 8th week, the defects grafted with EHA showed complete bone formation. However, bone formation in non-grafted sites was insignificant. The values of density measurements were equal or more than that of surrounding normal bone. These results indicate that the osseous regeneration of the bone defect filled with EHA is significant. EHA showed the superior material properties in comparison with SHA. Conclusion: EHA is a versatile novel bone graft substitute that yielded promising results. Because of its biocompatibility, lack of disease transfer risks, ease of use and unlimited availability, EHA remains a viable choice

  13. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, see Cancer Surgery . Written by References The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team Our team is ... of use state fundraising notices Site Comments © 2017 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. The American Cancer Society ...

  14. Influence of the volume of bone defect, bone grafting methods, and hook fixation on stress on the Kerboull-type plate and screw in total hip arthroplasty: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Hara, Katsutoshi; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    For total hip arthroplasty or revision surgery using acetabular reinforcement cross-plates, choosing between bulk and morselized bone grafts for filling acetabular defects is challenging. We used finite element model (FEM) analysis to clarify various stresses on the cross-plate based on bone defect size, bone graft type, and presence or absence of hook fixation to the bone. We constructed 12-pattern FEMs and calculated the maximum stress generated on the Kerboull-type (KT) plate and screw. Bone defects were classified into four patterns according to the volume. Regarding the bone graft type, bulk bone grafts were considered as cortical bone, and morselized bone grafts were considered to consist of cancellous bone. Models were compared based on whether hook fixation was used and whether a gap was present behind the plate. The upper surface of the host bone was fixed, and a 1,000-N load was imposed on the horizontal axis at 71°. Larger bone defects increased the stress on the KT plate and screws. This stress increased when no bone was grafted; it was lower when bulk cortical bone grafts were used for filling than when morselized cancellous bone grafts were used. For cortical bone grafts, the increased stress on the KT plate and screws was lowered with hook removal. Attaching the hook to the bone and filling the gap behind the KT plate with an adequate bone graft reduced the stress on the KT plate and screws, particularly for large bone defects filled by bulk bone grafting.

  15. Sequential harvesting of bone graft from the intramedullary canal of the femur.

    PubMed

    Conway, Janet D; Shabtai, Lior; Specht, Stacy C; Herzenberg, John E

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of using the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) System (Synthes, Inc, West Chester, Pennsylvania) to obtain bone graft from the intramedullary canal of long bones for the treatment of bone defects and nonunions has been previously documented. However, there is nothing in the literature discussing the potential for reaming the same canal at subsequent surgeries. The authors detail their experience of 8 instances of sequential reaming in 7 patients. Six patients were harvested twice, and 1 patient was harvested 3 times. In each patient, the bone graft was obtained from the same canal. The main outcome measurements were time interval between reamings, reamer head size, indication for reaming, volume of harvested bone graft, and complications. Average volume of graft obtained in the first reaming procedure was 34 mL (range, 25-50 mL). After an average of 9 months (range, 3-16 months), the subsequent reaming was performed. Average volume of graft obtained in the second procedure was 45 mL (range, 28-65 mL). In the authors' series, no reaming-related complications were observed. The graft volume was the same or increased during the subsequent intramedullary reaming in all but 1 case, suggesting that the intramedullary canal is a potentially renewable source for bone graft. There were no complications related to the sequential reaming procedure. Overall, the authors' data suggest that sequential reaming with the RIA has the potential to safely and effectively provide a large quantity of bone graft on multiple occasions.

  16. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  17. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    PubMed

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons.

  18. Autologous cranial bone graft use for trepanation reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Finger, Guilherme; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins

    2015-11-01

    Esthetic deformities in the human skull are a subject of concern among neurosurgical patients and neurosurgeons; they can be disfiguring and harm the patient's social relationships. To access inner structures, neurosurgical operations require skull trepanation, a process that frequently involves loss of bone tissue and leads to esthetic problems. Satisfactory reconstruction is a challenge, and neurosurgeons search for an implant which ideally is organic and low cost and does not cause an immunological or allergic reaction. Therefore, autologous bone tissue remains the gold standard for reconstruction. To develop a technique that allows neurosurgeons to rebuild the trepanation hole with a better esthetic outcome. Craniotomy orifices in 108 patients were closed with a graft obtained from the cranial bone inner layer. In order to remove the graft a specially made trephine was used. No grafts dislocated during follow-up. Cosmetic outcomes and results seen on image examinations were favorable for this new technique when compared with others previously described in medical literature. The authors present a new and feasible trepanation reconstruction technique that allows a better esthetic outcome without increasing the surgical risk for the patient, or making the surgical procedure longer or more expensive. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Graft preservation solutions in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernhard; Reineke, David; Heinisch, Paul Philip; Schönhoff, Florian; Huber, Christoph; Kadner, Alexander; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Vein grafts are still the most commonly used graft material in cardiovascular surgery and much effort has been spent in recent years on investigating the optimal harvesting technique. One other related topic of similar importance remained more or less an incidental one. The storage solutions of vein grafts following procurement and prior to implantation are, despite their assumed impact, a relatively neglected theme. There is no doubt that the endothelium plays a key role in long-term patency of vein grafts, but the effects of the different storage solutions on the endothelium remain unclear : In a review of the literature, we could find 20 specific papers that addressed the question, of which the currently available preservation solutions are superior, harmless, damaging or ineffective. The focus lies on saline and autologous whole blood. Besides these two storage media, novel or alternative solutions have been investigated with surprising findings. In addition, a few words will be spent on potential alternatives and novel solutions on the market. As there is currently no randomized clinical trial regarding saline versus autologous whole blood available, this review compares all previous studies and methods of analysis to provide a certain level of evidence on this topic. In summary, saline has negative effects on the endothelial layers and therefore may compromise graft patency. Related factors, such as distension pressure, may outbalance the initial benefit of autologous whole blood or storage solutions and intensify the harmful effects of warm saline. In addition, there is no uniform consent on the superiority of autologous whole blood for vein graft storage. This may open the door to alternatives such as the University of Wisconsin solution or one of the specific designed storage solutions like TiProtec™ or Somaluthion™. Whether these preservation solutions are superior or advantageous remains the subject of further studies.

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  1. Bone Metabolism after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Elaine W.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277

  2. A prospective study on the effectiveness of newly developed autogenous tooth bone graft material for sinus bone graft procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Lee, Jae-Il; Ahn, Kyo-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of newly developed autogenous tooth bone graft material (AutoBT)application for sinus bone graft procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS The patients with less than 5.0 mm of residual bone height in maxillary posterior area were enrolled. For the sinus bone graft procedure, Bio-Oss was grafted in control group and AutoBT powder was grafted in experimental group. Clinical and radiographic examination were done for the comparison of grafted materials in sinus cavity between groups. At 4 months after sinus bone graft procedure, biopsy specimens were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric examination for the evaluation of healing state of bone graft site. RESULTS In CT evaluation, there was no difference in bone density, bone height and sinus membrane thickness between groups. In microCT analysis, there was no difference in total bone volume, new bone volume, bone mineral density of new bone between groups. There was significant difference trabecular thickness (0.07 µm in Bio-Oss group Vs. 0.08 µm in AutoBT group) (P=.006). In histomorphometric analysis, there was no difference in new bone formation, residual graft material, bone marrow space between groups. There was significant difference osteoid thickness (8.35 µm in Bio-Oss group Vs. 13.12 µm in AutoBT group) (P=.025). CONCLUSION AutoBT could be considered a viable alternative to the autogenous bone or other bone graft materials in sinus bone graft procedure. PMID:25551014

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment as an alternative to vascular bone graft surgery for a 5-year-long ulnar non-union in a patient with haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, Sebastian Daniel; Povlsen, Bo

    2015-11-03

    We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with haemochromatosis who developed a 5-year-long right ulnar non-union after a shortening osteotomy to correct a malunited Colles' fracture. Standard surgical treatment for ulnar non-unions was attempted on 19 March 2008 and again on 20 April 2009, but the non-union persisted on 8 May 2012, as confirmed by CT scan. Vascular bone grafting and refixation was then considered, but the patient declined this extensive operation, instead choosing to try non-invasive low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment with an Exogen device. Just 4 months later, complete union as confirmed by CT scan was achieved. This is the first case demonstrating the efficacy of ultrasound treatment for long-standing non-unions resistant to surgery in patients with haemochromatosis, a disorder where iron deposition can provide suboptimal circumstances for bone healing. Our finding suggests that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound devices could be used as a first-line treatment for stable non-unions instead of revision surgery.

  4. The Effect of Perioperative Radiation Therapy on Spinal Bone Fusion Following Spine Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Kyum; Youn, Sang Min; Chang, Ung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative irradiation is often combined with spine tumor surgery. Radiation is known to be detrimental to healing process of bone fusion. We tried to investigate bone fusion rate in spine tumor surgery cases with perioperative radiation therapy (RT) and to analyze significant factors affecting successful bone fusion. Methods Study cohort was 33 patients who underwent spinal tumor resection and bone graft surgery combined with perioperative RT. Their medical records and radiological data were analyzed retrospectively. The analyzed factors were surgical approach, location of bone graft (anterior vs. posterior), kind of graft (autologous graft vs. allograft), timing of RT (preoperative vs. postoperative), interval of RT from operation in cases of postoperative RT (within 1 month vs. after 1 month) radiation dose (above 38 Gy vs. below 38 Gy) and type of radiation therapy (conventional RT vs. stereotactic radiosurgery). The bone fusion was determined on computed tomography images. Result Bone fusion was identified in 19 cases (57%). The only significant factors to affect bony fusion was the kind of graft (75% in autograft vs. 41 in allograft, p=0.049). Other factors proved to be insignificant relating to postoperative bone fusion. Regarding time interval of RT and operation in cases of postoperative RT, the time interval was not significant (p=0.101). Conclusion Spinal fusion surgery which was combined with perioperative RT showed relatively low bone fusion rate (57%). For successful bone fusion, the selection of bone graft was the most important. PMID:27847573

  5. Role of Bone Graft in Reconstruction of Skull Base Defect

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuhei; Minakawa, Hidehiko; Yoshida, Tetsunori; Igawa, Hiroharu; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Ohura, Takehiko; Nohira, Kunihiko

    1993-01-01

    Ten patients underwent reconstruction of skull base defects between 1989 and 1992. In this series, the maximum size of the skull base defect was 6 × 5 cm. Three patients underwent bone grafts to reinforce the skull base. The postoperative course of seven patients without bone grafts was uneventful. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, extradural abscess, on brain herniation. On the other hand, two of the three patients with bone grafts developed extradural abseesses requiring the bone grafts to be removed. Although the number of patients in this series is not large, this study demonstrates that the use of bone grafts in reconstruction of skull base detects could be one of the factors in increasing the chances of infectious complications. We think that a bone graft is not necessary to reconstruct moderate-sized skull base defects. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4p228-aFigure 4Figure 4 PMID:17170915

  6. Bone grafting, corticotomy, and orthodontics: treatment of cleft alveolus in a chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li-Xia; Shen, Guo-Fang; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Ma, Xu-Hui; Wang, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Objective : A multimodal therapy was applied to solve a set of related problems including collapse of the posterior segment, high level gingival margin of canine, and resorption of grafted bone in a cohort of Chinese youngsters with cleft lip and palate. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of this treatment procedure. Methods : Thirty patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in this prospective study. All patients had previously undergone only cleft lip and palate repair and presented with alveolar cleft and an obvious step in the gingival margin between the canine tooth and the teeth beside it. A multimodal therapy that included bone grafting, corticotomy, and orthodontics was applied to solve these problems. Grafted bone volume, parallelism of the roots, root resorption, gingival margin, and mobility of the canine on the cleft side were established before surgery, 1 week after surgery, and after straightening of the canine. Results : Less than 25% of the grafted bone was reabsorbed in 25 of the 30 patients, while less than 50% was resorbed in the remaining five. The roots of the canines on the cleft side were mostly parallel to the adjacent teeth. Root resorption and mobility of the canines were slight. The difference in the gingival margin between the canines on the cleft side and the other side was small. Conclusions : Canines moved into the grafted bone safely and effectively, thus achieving a normal gingival margin and retaining grafted bone volume in one operation.

  7. Osseous and dental outcomes of primary gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft: A radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Touzet-Roumazeille, Sandrine; Vi-Fane, Brigitte; Kadlub, Natacha; Genin, Michaël; Dissaux, Caroline; Raoul, Gwenaël; Ferri, Joël; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    Primary alveolar cleft repair has two main purposes: to restore normal morphology and normal function. Gingivoperiosteoplasty with bone grafting in mixed dentition has been a well-established procedure. We hypothesized that 1) performance of this surgery in deciduous dentition would provide favorable bone graft osseointegration, and 2) would improve the support of incisor teeth eruption, thereby avoiding maxillary growth disturbances. We conducted a retrospective study of clinical and tridimensional radiological data for 73 patients with alveolar clefts (with or without lip and palate clefts) who underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft in deciduous dentition. Pre- and post-operative Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) comparison allowed evaluation of the ratio between bone graft volume and initial cleft volume (BGV/ICV ratio), and measurement of central incisor teeth movements. This series of 73 patients included 44 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 5.5 years. Few complications were observed. Post-operative CBCT was performed at 7.4 months. The mean BGV/ICV ratio was 0.62. Axial rotation was significantly improved post-operatively (p = 0.004). Gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft is safe when performed in deciduous dentition and results in a sufficient bone graft volume to support lateral incisor eruption and upper central incisor tooth position improvement. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds.

  9. Vestibuloplasty after secondary alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Iino, M; Fukuda, M; Murakami, K; Horiuchi, T; Niitsu, K; Seto, K

    2001-11-01

    This paper introduces a surgical technique for vestibuloplasty after secondary alveolar bone grafting of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This paper also reports on the patients who underwent this modified vestibuloplasty. The vestibuloplasty technique described in this paper consists of: (1) reduction of submucosal scar tissue of the upper lip, (2) V-Y plasty of the superficial mucosa, (3) placement of horizontal mattress sutures between nostril floor skin and freed marginal mucosa, (4) application of artificial skin to cover the exposed periosteal surface, and (5) use of a removable retention splint. This surgical procedure appears to be very useful for patients with CLP. The technique enables the surgeon to obtain an adequate sulcus depth around the graft area. In addition, this technique releases the mucosal scar contraction and improves the shape and mobility of the upper lip.

  10. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Anna Louise; Nowak, Madeleine; Bidstrup, Benjamin; Speare, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This review article summarizes the major studies that have investigated the outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The article includes a review of the literature in the areas of: history of CABG; indications for CABG; and measurement of quality of life following CABG, including prolongation of life, physical functioning (ie, relief from angina and dyspnea, physical activity, as well as complications of surgery and re-hospitalization), psychological functioning, and social functioning. Overall, the literature demonstrates that the outcomes of CABG have historically been measured in terms of mortality and morbidity; however, it has now been well recognized that adjustment to CABG is a multidimensional phenomenon that is not fully explained by medical factors. Therefore, in addition to studying mortality and morbidity outcomes following CABG, many recent studies have identified that it is important to investigate various physical, psychological, and social variables that have a significant impact on post-operative adjustment to CABG. PMID:17323602

  11. Donor Site Evaluation: Anterior Iliac Crest Following Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Vura, Nandagopal; Reddy K., Rajiv; R., Sudhir; G., Rajasekhar; Kaluvala, Varun Raja

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The use of autogenous bone graft for Secondary alveolar bone grafting is well established in the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate post-operative morbidity of anterior iliac crest graft after secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients. Material and Methods: Forty patients during the period from July 2008 to March 2013, who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting by harvesting graft from anterior iliac crest in Mamata Dental Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India are included in the present study. Unilateral and bilateral cleft patients who had undergone secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with anterior iliac crest as their donor site have been selected and post- operative complications from the surgery were evaluated with the help of a questionnaire which included pain, gait disturbances, numbness and scar problems (infection, irritation). Results: Patients who were operated gave maximum score for pain as 8 on visual analogue scale. No pain was observed in any of the cases after 8 days, gait disturbances were seen in all patients (limping) for 2-6 days, there was no post-operative numbness with all the patients returning to their routine in 6- 15 days and 90% of the patients gave a satisfied response towards scar. Conclusion: From the results in our study the morbidity after harvesting bone from iliac crest was found to be moderate to low, which had minimal complications and were well tolerated and greater acceptance from the patient. PMID:24392424

  12. The effects of early postoperative radiation on vascularized bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.B.; Brown, S.; Hurst, L.N. )

    1991-06-01

    The effects of early postoperative radiation were assessed in free nonvascularized and free vascularized rib grafts in the canine model. The mandibles of one-half of the dogs were exposed to a cobalt 60 radiation dose of 4080 cGy over a 4-week period, starting 2 weeks postoperatively. The patency of vascularized grafts was confirmed with bone scintigraphy. Histological studies, including ultraviolet microscopy with trifluorochrome labeling, and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Osteocytes persist within the cortex of the vascularized nonradiated grafts to a much greater extent than in nonvascularized, nonradiated grafts. Cortical osteocytes do not persist in either vascularized or nonvascularized grafts subjected to radiation. New bone formation is significantly retarded in radiated grafts compared with nonradiated grafts. Periosteum and endosteum remained viable in the radiated vascularized grafts, producing both bone union and increased bone turnover, neither of which were evident to any significant extent in nonvascularized grafts. Bone union was achieved in vascularized and non-vascularized nonradiated bone. In the radiated group of dogs, union was only seen in the vascularized bone grafts.

  13. Repair of orbital bone defects in canines using grafts of enriched autologous bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Bone tissue engineering is a new approach for the repair of orbital defects. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that were rapidly isolated and concentrated from bone marrow (BM) by the red cell lysis method, then combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to create grafts used to restore orbital bone defects in canines. Methods In the experimental group, grafts were constructed using BMSCs obtained by red cell lysis from 20 ml bone marrow, combined with β-TCP and BM via the custom-made stem cell-scaffold device, then used to repair 10 mm diameter medial orbital wall bony defects in canines. Results were compared with those in groups grafted with BM/β-TCP or β-TCP alone, or with defects left untreated as controls. The enrichment of BMSCs and nucleated cells (NCs) in the graft was calculated from the number in untreated bone marrow and in suspensions after red cell lysis. Spiral computed tomography (CT) scans were performed 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation in all groups. Gross examination, micro-CT and histological measurements were performed 24 weeks after surgery. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of bone repair. Results The number of NCs and of colony-forming units within the scaffolds were increased 54.8 times and 53.4 times, respectively, compared with untreated bone marrow. In the BMSC-BM/β-TCP group, CT examination revealed that the scaffolds were gradually absorbed and the bony defects were restored. Micro-CT and histological examination confirmed that the implantations led to good repair of the defects, with 6 out 8 orbital defects completely restored in the experimental group, while by contrast, the grafts in the control groups did not fully repair the bony defects, a difference which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions Tissue-engineered bone, constructed using BMSCs isolated by red cell

  14. Autologous bone marrow graft and treatment of delayed and non-unions of long bones: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Galois, Laurent; Bensoussan, Danièle; Diligent, Jérôme; Pinzano, Astrid; Henrionnet, Cristel; Choufani, Elie; Stoltz, Jean-François; Mainard, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the technique of percutaneous autologous bone marrow injection as a minimally invasive method alternative to open grafting techniques in the treatment of delayed unions and non-unions. Despite continuous advances in the treatment of long bone fractures, disturbances of healing processes remain a difficult challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Percutaneous administration of substances with osteoinductive and osteogenic properties offers the advantage of decreased morbidity associated with the classic open grafting techniques. This makes it worth exploring before embarking on more extensive open surgery. The authors present the main technical stages of the percutaneous bone marrow grafting (bone marrow aspiration, concentration, intra-osseous re-injection and post-operative protocol) with a short literature review about this topic.

  15. Secondary skull reconstruction with autogenous split calvarial bone grafts versus nonautogenous materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jong; Choi, Jong Woo; Chung, In Wook

    2014-07-01

    Skull reconstructions, which can be required for various reasons, including decompressive craniectomy, trauma, and tumors, are challenging issues in plastic surgery. Moreover, obtaining a low complication ratio in secondary skull reconstructions is more difficult than in primary skull reconstructions. Because standardized protocols have not been established, we here compare cranioplasty performance using fresh autogenous split calvarial bone grafts and allogenic or alloplastic materials in secondary revisional cases. Surgical correction of skull defects was performed in 25 patients in our center between 2005 and 2012. Only secondary cranioplasty cases were reviewed retrospectively. There were 17 men and 8 women, with ages ranging from 8 to 62 years at the time of surgery. The mean follow-up was 55.6 months. The surgical procedure in each case was a routine cranioplasty. In most of the cases, a 1-piece split calvarial bone graft was used while minimizing the separation of the bone flap into multiple pieces. In comparison with the skull reconstructional approach using nonautogenous materials, the functional and esthetic results of skull reconstruction using autogenous calvarial bone grafts were better and more consistent in secondary revisional cases. The group that received autogenous calvarial bone grafts showed a reconstruction success rate of 80% without esthetic and functional complications. In contrast, the group that received nonautogenous materials had a 30% success rate. Secondary cranial defect reconstructions with autogenous calvarial bone grafts showed better functional and esthetic results than skull reconstructions with nonautogenous materials.

  16. Porous ceramics as bone graft substitutes in long bone defects: a biomechanical, histological, and radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K D; Frierson, K E; Keller, T S; Cook, C; Scheinberg, R; Zerwekh, J; Meyers, L; Sciadini, M F

    1996-05-01

    Three porous ceramic bone graft materials were compared with regard to their ability to heal a 2.5 cm defect created surgically in a bilateral canine radius model. The ceramic materials were analyzed at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery and included tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and collagen hydroxyapatite, which contained a mixture of 35% tricalcium phosphate and 65% hydroxyapatite with added collagen. Each material was evaluated alone and with added bone marrow aspirate. All the implants were compared with a graft of autogenous cancellous bone in the contralateral radius. Biomechanical testing and radiographic evaluation revealed that the addition of bone marrow aspirate was essential for tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite to achieve results comparable with those of cancellous bone. Collagen hydroxyapatite performed well without the addition of bone marrow, although the addition of marrow did have a positive effect. Further qualitative radiographic and histological analysis demonstrated that tricalcium phosphate was the only ceramic that showed any sign of degradation at 24 weeks. This observed degradation proved to be an important factor in evaluating radiographs because the radiodensity of collagen hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite interfered with the determination of radiographic union. At 24 weeks, tricalcium phosphate with bone marrow was the material that performed most like cancellous bone. In this study, the biomechanical and radiographic parameters of tricalcium phosphate with bone marrow were roughly comparable with those of cancellous bone at 12 and 24 weeks. Tricalcium phosphate was the only implant that showed significant evidence of degradation at 24 weeks by both histological and radiographic evaluations, and this degradation took place only after a degree of mechanical competence necessary for weight-bearing was achieved.

  17. Novel approaches to bone grafting: porosity, bone morphogenetic proteins, stem cells, and the periosteum.

    PubMed

    Petrochenko, Peter; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    The disadvantages involving the use of a patient's own bone as graft material have led surgeons to search for alternative materials. In this review, several characteristics of a successful bone graft material are discussed. In addition, novel synthetic materials and natural bone graft materials are being considered. Various factors can determine the success of a bone graft substitute. For example, design considerations such as porosity, pore shape, and interconnection play significant roles in determining graft performance. The effective delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins and the ability to restore vascularization also play significant roles in determining the success of a bone graft material. Among current approaches, shorter bone morphogenetic protein sequences, more efficient delivery methods, and periosteal graft supplements have shown significant promise for use in autograft substitutes or autograft extenders.

  18. Bone turnover after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Melo, Thalita Lima; Froeder, Leila; Baia, Leandro da Cunha; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of bone and mineral metabolism after bariatric surgery. This sectional study included data from medical records from 61 bariatric surgery (BS) patients (minimum period of 6 months after the procedure) and from 30 class II and III obese patients as a control group (Cont), consisting of daily dietary intake of macronutrients, calcium and sodium, serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical serum and urinary parameters. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), leptin, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYD) were determined from available banked serum and urinary samples. Mean body mass index (BMI), median energy, carbohydrate, protein and sodium chloride consumption were significantly lower in the BS versus Cont, but calcium and lipids were not. No significant differences were found in ionized calcium, 25(OH)D, PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) between groups. Mean serum BAP was significantly higher for BS versus Cont and had a positive correlation with time after the surgical procedure. Mean serum leptin was significantly lower and median urinary DPYD higher in BS versus Cont. The present study showed an increase in bone markers of both bone formation and resorption among bariatric patients up to more than 7 years after the surgical procedure, suggesting that an increased bone turnover persists even at a very long-term follow-up in such patients.

  19. Results of Wagner SL revision stem with impaction bone grafting in revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Somesh P; Bhalodiya, Haresh P

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed increases, so do the number of required revisions. Impaction bone grafting with Wagner SL Revision stem is a good option for managing bone deficiencies arising from aseptic osteolysis. We studied the results of cementless diaphyseal fixation in femoral revision after total hip arthroplasty and whether there was spontaneous regeneration of bone stock in the proximal femur after the use of Wagner SL Revision stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) with impaction bone grafting. Materials and Methods: We performed 53 hip revisions using impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL Revision stems in 48 patients; (5 cases were bilateral) for variety of indications ranging from aseptic osteolysis to preiprosthetic fractures. The average age was 59 years (range 44-68 years). There were 42 male and 6 female patients. Four patients died after surgery for reasons unrelated to surgery. 44 patients were available for complete analysis. Results: The mean Harris Hip Score was 42 before surgery and improved to 86 by the final followup evaluation at a mean point of 5.5 years. Of the 44 patients, 87% (n=39) had excellent results and 10% (n=5) had good results. The stem survival rate was 98% (n=43). Conclusion: Short term results for revision THA with impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL revision stems are encouraging. However, it is necessary to obtain long term results through periodic followup evaluation, as rate of complications may increase in future. PMID:23960279

  20. [Transfusion associated graft versus host disease following cardiovascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Aybey, Bekir; Coşkun, Diler; Aytaç, Jale

    2006-01-01

    In this report, a case of transfusion-associated graft versus host disease that developed following coronary arter bypass grafting and mitral annuloplasty operations, has been presented. The diagnosis of 62 year-old male patient was based on the presence of typical findings as fever, liver function disorders, skin rash and hypoplastic bone marrow findings that began ten days after the operation; with the exclusion of other pathologies (e.g. drug eruptions, viral infections, septicemia, scalded skin syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) and histopathological findings of skin biopsy. There was a history of five units of blood transfusion of which one was from a close relative. The blood from the relative was thought to be responsible for the disease. With this case, we wanted to emphasize once more that transfusion of the blood of a relative must be avoided in patients who have undergone major operations such as cardiovascular surgery. The irradiation of these bloods before transfusion may be effective to prevent graft versus host disease.

  1. Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) as a Bone Void Filler in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Pilot Study of Simultaneous DBM and Autologous Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Haebin; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hyung; Jin, Sung-Won

    2017-01-01

    Objective Solid bone fusion is an essential process in spinal stabilization surgery. Recently, as several minimally invasive spinal surgeries have developed, a need of artificial bone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM), has arisen. We investigated the in vivo bone growth rate of DBM as a bone void filler compared to a local autologous bone grafts. Methods From April 2014 to August 2015, 20 patients with a one or two-level spinal stenosis were included. A posterior lumbar interbody fusion using two cages and pedicle screw fixation was performed for every patient, and each cage was packed with autologous local bone and DBM. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of leg pain and back pain and the Korean Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI). Clinical outcome parameters and range of motion (ROM) of the operated level were collected preoperatively and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Computed tomography was performed 1 year after fusion surgery and bone growth of the autologous bone grafts and DBM were analyzed by ImageJ software. Results Eighteen patients completed 1 year of follow-up, including 10 men and 8 women, and the mean age was 56.4 (32–71). The operated level ranged from L3/4 to L5/S1. Eleven patients had single level and 7 patients had two-level repairs. The mean back pain NRS improved from 4.61 to 2.78 (p=0.003) and the leg pain NRS improved from 6.89 to 2.39 (p<0.001). The mean K-ODI score also improved from 27.33 to 13.83 (p<0.001). The ROM decreased below 2.0 degrees at the 3-month assessment, and remained less than 2 degrees through the 1 year postoperative assessment. Every local autologous bone graft and DBM packed cage showed bone bridge formation. On the quantitative analysis of bone growth, the autologous bone grafts showed significantly higher bone growth compared to DBM on both coronal and sagittal images (p<0.001 and p=0.028, respectively). Osteoporotic patients showed less bone

  2. Bone Graft Harvest Using a New Intramedullary System

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Jindal, Gaurav; Ranade, Ashish; Herzenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining autogenous bone graft from the iliac crest can entail substantial morbidity. Alternatively, bone graft can be harvested from long bones using an intramedullary (IM) harvesting system. We measured bone graft volume obtained from the IM canals of the femur and tibia and documented the complications of the harvesting technique. Donor site pain and the union rate were compared between the IM and the traditional iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) harvest. Forty-one patients (23 male, 18 female) with an average age of 44.9 years (range, 15–78 years) had graft harvested from long bones using an IM harvest system (femoral donor site, 37 patients; tibial donor site, four patients). Forty patients (23 male, 17 female; average age, 46.4 years; range, 15–77 years) underwent anterior ICBG harvest. We administered patient surveys to both groups to determine pain intensity and frequency. IM group reported lower pain scores than the ICBG group during all postoperative periods. Mean graft volume for the IM harvest group was 40.3 mL (range, 25–75 mL) (graft volume was not obtained for the ICBG group). Using an intramedullary system to harvest autogenous bone graft from the long bones is safe provided a meticulous technique is used. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18841433

  3. [Bio-Oss collagen bone grafting in the treatment of endodontic-periodontic lesion].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang; Liu, Qiong

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of Bio-Oss collagen for bone grafting in the treatment of endodontic-periodontic lesion. Thirty patients (37 teeth) with endodontic-periodontic lesions received root canal therapy and periodontal treatment. Four weeks after the treatment, Bio-Oss collagen was grafted in these teeth. Clinical examinations were performed 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the surgery. The mobility of these teeth improved 1 month after the surgery. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the surgery, the pocket depth reduced obviously good attachment and further improvement of the tooth mobility. Bio-Oss collagen for bone grafting can achieve good therapeutic effect for endodontic-periodontic lesions.

  4. A comparison of osteocyte bioactivity in fine particulate bone powder grafts vs larger bone grafts in a rat bone repair model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Sun, Cheng-Li; Tian, Ye; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Zhou, Chang-Long; Xi, Chun-Yang; Yan, Jing-Long; Wang, Xin-Tao

    2014-07-01

    The osteogenic potential for bone grafts is based on numbers and activities of cells that survive transplantation. In this study, we compared the bioactivity of osteocytes in 300-500 μm fine particulate bone powder grafts to 2 mm larger bone grafts in a rat radial defect model. Expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen I were semi-quantified by both immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR at days 1 and 4, as well as weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 post-transplantation. Within two weeks post-transplantation, more cells stained positively for BMP-2, TGF-β1, ALP, and collagen I within the bone grafts and in the surrounding tissues in the group transplanted with the fine particulate bone powder grafts than in those with larger bone grafts (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of all four markers in the group transplanted with fine particulate bone powder graft peaked earlier and were expressed more highly than in the larger bone graft group, suggesting that fine particulate bone powder grafts provide more viable and active osteocytes to accelerate bone defect healing than larger bone grafts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-silicate hydrogel as resorbable vehicle for bonelike-bone graft.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Yuki; Botelho, Cláudia M; Lopes, Maria A; Santos, José D

    2009-06-01

    The use of bone grafts is required to restore skeletal integrity and enhance bone healing of large defects in several areas of regenerative medicine, such as: orthopedic and maxillofacial procedures. Some of these bone grafts can be resorbed in a time controlled way, in order to allow the correct process of natural re-construction of the involved bone tissue to occur. The Bonelike graft is a bone substitute that mimics the inorganic composition of bone; this biomaterial was developed and characterized over the last decade. In a granular form, Bonelike has proved its highly bioactive behavior in medical applications, such as; maxillofacial and orthopedics surgery. The clinical applications in maxillary bone defects indicated a good bone bonding between new formed bone and the Bonelike granules. The purpose of this study was to develop a new injectable system for the application of Bonelike using a resorbable vehicle which may be used in minimal invasive surgery. A new hydrogel derived from chitosan and y-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) was synthesized and characterized. The mixture derived from chitosan and GPTMS existed in sol state at room temperature and formed a hydrogel at 37 degrees C. The degradability of the hydrogel could be controlled by the concentration of chitosan and GPTMS, and the presence the presence of Bonelike did not affect its degradability. The pH changes caused by the degradation of this hydrogel were small, so it is not expected to cause any deleterious effect in vivo conditions.

  6. Treatment of Periradicular Bone Defect by Periosteal Pedicle Graft as a Barrier Membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the usefulness of Periosteal Pedicle Graft (PPG) as a barrier membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA) for bone regeneration in periradicular bone defect. A patient with intraoral discharging sinus due to carious exposed pulp involvement was treated by PPG and DFDBA. Clinical and radiological evaluations were done immediately prior to surgery, three months, six months and one year after surgery. Patient was treated using split-thickness flap, PPG, apicoectomy, defect fill with DFDBA and lateral displacement along with suturing of the PPG prior to suturing the flap, in order to close the communication between the oral and the periapical surroundings through sinus tract opening. After one year, successful healing of periradicular bone defect was achieved. Thus, PPG as a barrier membrane and DFDBA have been shown to have the potential to stimulate bone formation when used in periradicular bone defect. PMID:28274066

  7. Clinical Application of Antimicrobial Bone Graft Substitute in Osteomyelitis Treatment: A Systematic Review of Different Bone Graft Substitutes Available in Clinical Treatment of Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, T A G; Geurts, J; Arts, J J

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a common occurrence in orthopaedic surgery, which is caused by different bacteria. Treatment of osteomyelitis patients aims to eradicate infection by debridement surgery and local and systemic antibiotic therapy. Local treatment increases success rates and can be performed with different antimicrobial bone graft substitutes. This review is performed to assess the level of evidence of synthetic bone graft substitutes in osteomyelitis treatment. According to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews, different types of clinical studies concerning treatment of osteomyelitis with bone graft substitutes are included. These studies are assessed on their methodological quality as level of evidence and bias and their clinical outcomes as eradication of infection. In the fifteen included studies, the levels of evidence were weak and in ten out of the fifteen studies there was a moderate to high risk of bias. However, first results of the eradication of infection in these studies showed promising results with their relatively high success rates and low complication rates. Due to the low levels of evidence and high risks of bias of the included studies, these results are inconclusive and no conclusions regarding the performed clinical studies of osteomyelitis treatment with antimicrobial bone graft substitutes can be drawn.

  8. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy for assessing progress of bone-graft incorporation in bone reconstruction and repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okagbare, Paul I.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2011-03-01

    Allografts and other bone-grafts are frequently used for a variety of reconstructive approaches in orthopaedic surgery. However, successful allograft incorporation remains uncertain. Consequently, there is significant need for methods to monitor the fate of these constructs. Only few noninvasive methods can fully assess the progress of graft incorporation and to provide information on the metabolic status of the graft, such as the mineral and matrix composition of the regenerated-tissue that may provide early indications of graft success or failure. For example, Computed-tomography and MRI provide information on the morphology of the graft/host interface. Limited information is also available from DXA. To address this challenge, we present here the implementation of a noninvasive Raman spectroscopy technique for in-vivo assessment of allograft incorporation in animal-model. In an animal use committee approved osseointegration experiment, a 3mm defect is created in rat's tibia. The defect is reconstructed using auto or allograft and Raman spectra are collected at several time-points during healing using an array of optical-fibers in contact with the skin of the rat over the tibia while the rat is anaesthetized. The array allows excitation and collection of Raman spectra through the skin at various positions around the tibia. Raman parameters such as mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and cross-linking are recovered and monitored. The system is calibrated against locally-constructed phantoms that mimic the morphology, optics and spectroscopy of the rat. This new technology provides a non-invasive method for in-vivo assessment of bone-graft incorporation in animal-models and can be adapted for similar study in human subjects.

  9. [Alloplastic cancellous bone replacement and fibrin glue in hand surgery].

    PubMed

    Wolter, T P; Fuchs, P; Pallua, N

    2010-10-01

    Alloplastic replacement of cancellous bone is being increasingly used in the clinical setting. The use in hand surgery, however, is only sparsely documented. We report about the use of micro- and macroporous biphasic calicium phosphate granulate (Tricos (®)) in combination with fibrin sealant (Tissucol (®)) in six patients undergoing surgery of the hand involving cancellous bone deficits. The indications ranged from carpal stabilisation to DIP athrodesis. Follow-up time was up to 15 months. Because cancellous bone harvesting could be avoided, morbidity and the extent of surgery could be reduced in all patients. Healing was uneventful and the clinical course as documented by X-ray controls, toleration of physiotherapeutic exercises and stability was analogous to that of conventional surgery involving cancellous bone grafting. These first results indicate that alloplastic replacement of spongiosa grafts, especially by micro- and macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate granulate can possibly be successfully used in surgery of the hand. The extent of bony remodelling still needs to be determined by further examination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Bone grafts utilized in dentistry: an analysis of patients' preferences.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Bucchi, Cristina; Navarro, Pablo; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-10-20

    Many procedures currently require the use of bone grafts to replace or recover bone volume that has been resorbed. However, the patient's opinion and preferences must be taken into account before implementing any treatment. Researchers have focused primarily on assessing the effectiveness of bone grafts rather than on patients' perceptions. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore patients' opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments. One hundred patients were randomly chosen participated in the study. A standardized survey of 10 questions was used to investigate their opinions regarding the different types of bone grafts used in dental treatments. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the different variables, and absolute frequencies and percentages were used as summary measures. A value of p <0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance. The highest rate of refusal was observed for allografts and xenografts. The grafts with the lowest rates of refusal were autologous grafts (3 %) and alloplastics (2 %). No significant differences were found between the various types of bone grafts in the sociodemographic variables or the refusal/acceptance variable. Similarly, no significant relations were observed between a specific religious affiliation and the acceptance/refusal rates of the various types of graft. Allografts and xenografts elicited the highest refusal rates among the surveyed patients, and autologous bone and alloplastics were the most accepted bone grafts. Moreover, no differences were found in the sociodemographic variables or religious affiliations in terms of the acceptance/refusal rates of the different bone grafts.

  11. Does PRP enhance bone integration with grafts, graft substitutes, or implants? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several bone implants are applied in clinical practice, but none meets the requirements of an ideal implant. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an easy and inexpensive way to obtain growth factors in physiologic proportions that might favour the regenerative process. The aim of this review is to analyse clinical studies in order to investigate the role of PRP in favouring bone integration of graft, graft substitutes, or implants, and to identify the materials for which the additional use of PRP might be associated with superior osseo- and soft tissues integration. Methods A search on PubMed database was performed considering the literature from 2000 to 2012, using the following string: ("Bone Substitutes"[Mesh] OR "Bone Transplantation"[Mesh] OR "Bone Regeneration"[Mesh] OR "Osseointegration"[Mesh]) AND ("Blood Platelets"[Mesh] OR "Platelet-Rich Plasma"[Mesh]). After abstracts screening, the full-texts of selected papers were analyzed and the papers found from the reference lists were also considered. The search focused on clinical applications documented in studies in the English language: levels of evidence included in the literature analysis were I, II and III. Results Literature analysis showed 83 papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 26 randomized controlled trials (RCT), 14 comparative studies, 29 case series, and 14 case reports. Several implant materials were identified: 24 papers on autologous bone, 6 on freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), 16 on bovine porous bone mineral (BPBM), 9 on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), 4 on hydroxyapatite (HA), 2 on titanium (Ti), 1 on natural coral, 1 on collagen sponge, 1 on medical-grade calcium sulphate hemihydrate (MGCSH), 1 on bioactive glass (BG) and 18 on a combination of biomaterials. Only 4 papers were related to the orthopaedic field, whereas the majority belonged to clinical applications in oral/maxillofacial surgery. Conclusions The systematic research showed a growing interest in this approach

  12. The bone-grafting decision tree: a systematic methodology for achieving new bone.

    PubMed

    Smiler, Dennis; Soltan, Muna

    2006-06-01

    Successful bone grafting requires that the clinician select the optimal bone grafting material and surgical technique from among a number of alternatives. This article reviews the biology of bone growth and repair, and presents a decision-making protocol in which the clinician first evaluates the bone quality at the surgical site to determine which graft material should be used. Bone quantity is then evaluated to determine the optimal surgical technique. Choices among graft stabilization techniques are also reviewed, and cases are presented to illustrate the use of this decision tree.

  13. Periosteal BMP2 activity drives bone graft healing.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, Vivianne; Gamer, Laura; Cox, Karen; Lowery, Jonathan W; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Rosen, Vicki

    2012-10-01

    Bone graft incorporation depends on the orchestrated activation of numerous growth factors and cytokines in both the host and the graft. Prominent in this signaling cascade is BMP2. Although BMP2 is dispensable for bone formation, it is required for the initiation of bone repair; thus understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying bone regeneration driven by BMP2 is essential for improving bone graft therapies. In the present study, we assessed the role of Bmp2 in bone graft incorporation using mice in which Bmp2 has been removed from the limb prior to skeletal formation (Bmp2(cKO)). When autograft transplantations were performed in Bmp2cKO mice, callus formation and bone healing were absent. Transplantation of either a vital wild type (WT) bone graft into a Bmp2(cKO) host or a vital Bmp2(cKO) graft into a WT host also resulted in the inhibition of bone graft incorporation. Histological analyses of these transplants show that in the absence of BMP2, periosteal progenitors remain quiescent and healing is not initiated. When we analyzed the expression of Sox9, a marker of chondrogenesis, on the graft surface, we found it significantly reduced when BMP2 was absent in either the graft itself or the host, suggesting that local BMP2 levels drive periosteal cell condensation and subsequent callus cell differentiation. The lack of integrated healing in the absence of BMP2 was not due to the inability of periosteal cells to respond to BMP2. Healing was achieved when grafts were pre-soaked in rhBMP2 protein, indicating that periosteal progenitors remain responsive in the absence of BMP2. In contrast to the requirement for BMP2 in periosteal progenitor activation in vital bone grafts, we found that bone matrix-derived BMP2 does not significantly enhance bone graft incorporation. Taken together, our data show that BMP2 signaling is not essential for the maintenance of periosteal progenitors, but is required for the activation of these progenitors and their subsequent

  14. Bone graft and mesenchimal stem cells: clinical observations and histological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bertolai, Roberto; Catelani, Carlo; Aversa, Alessandro; Rossi, Alessandro; Giannini, Domenico; Bani, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Autologous bone, for its osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenetic properties, has been considered to be the gold standard for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. Autograft procedures bring also some disadvantages: sometimes the limited amount of available intraoral bone makes necessary to obtain bone from an extraoral site, and this carries an associated morbidity. To overcome this problem we started using homologous freeze-dried bone in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. This bone is industrially processed with γ-irradiation to eliminate its disease transmission potential and it’s considered safe, but this treatment also eliminates the osteoinductive and osteogenetic properties, making it just an inert scaffold for regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells are successfully used in and orthopedic surgery for their amplification potential of healing mechanisms. We assumed that mesenchymal stem cells can restore the osteogenetic and osteoinductive properties in homologous bone grafts. The aim of this study was an histological evaluation of bone regeneration in maxillary sinus elevation using: 1) mesenchymal stem cells engineered freeze-dried bone allografts; 2) freeze-dried bone allografts. Twenty patients (10M, 10F) with a mean age of 55.2 years affected by severe maxillary atrophy were treated with bilateral maxillary sinus floor elevation. For each patient were randomly assigned a “test” side and a “control” side, different from each other exclusively in the composition of the graft material. The “control” sides were composed by corticocancellous freeze-dried bone chips and the “test” sides were composed by corticocancellous freeze-dried bone chips engineered in a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells concentrate. After three months bone biopsies were performed on the grafts and histological specimens were made in order to evaluate the healed bone from an histological point of view. Histologically all the specimens showed

  15. Texture analysis of computed tomographic images in osteoporotic patients with sinus lift bone graft reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Libouban, Hélène; Guillaume, Bernard; Bellaiche, Norbert; Chappard, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Bone implants are now widely used to replace missing teeth. Bone grafting (sinus lift) is a very useful way to increase the bone volume of the maxilla in patients with bone atrophy. There is a 6- to 9-month delay for the receiver grafted site to heal before the implants can be placed. Computed tomography is a useful method to measure the amount of remaining bone before implantation and to evaluate the quality of the receiver bone at the end of the healing period. Texture analysis is a non-invasive method useful to characterize bone microarchitecture on X-ray images. Ten patients in which a sinus lift surgery was necessary before implantation were analyzed in the present study. All had a bone reconstruction with a combination of a biomaterial (beta tricalcium phosphate) and autograft bone harvested at the chin. Computed tomographic images were obtained before grafting (t0), at mid-interval (t1, 4.2 ± 0.7 months) and before implant placement (t2, 9.2 ± 0.6 months). Texture analysis was done with the run-length method. A significant increase of texture parameters at t1 reflected a gain of homogeneity due to the graft and the beginning of bone remodeling. At t2, some parameters remained high and corresponded to the persistence of bone trabeculae while the resorption of biomaterials was identified by other parameters which tended to return to pregraft values. Texture analysis identified changes during the healing of the receiver site. The method is known to correlate with microarchitectural changes in bone and could be a useful approach to characterized osseointegrated grafts.

  16. Arthroscopic Curettage and Bone Grafting of Bone Cysts of the Talar Body.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2017-02-01

    Talar bone cysts can develop as a result of osteochondral lesions of the talus. This can be a source of deep ankle pain. Open debridement and bone grafting of the bone cysts requires extensive soft tissue dissection and malleolar osteotomy. Removal of normal cartilage of the talus is frequently required to approach the bone cysts. Alternatively, the cysts can be grafted arthroscopically with minimal disruption of the normal cartilage surface. The key to success is careful preoperative planning with a computed tomogram of the ankle. Bone cyst of the posterior half of the talar body can be grafted via posterior ankle endoscopy. Bone cyst of the anterior half of the talar body can be debrided and grafted via anterior talar osseous portals. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a minimally invasive approach of curettage and bone grafting of the talar bone cysts with preservation of the articular surfaces.

  17. Simultaneous maxillary sinus lifting and implant placement with autogenous parietal bone graft: outcome of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Salah; Krenkel, Christian

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the surgical technique of sinus floor elevation with autogenous parietal bone grafting in conjunction with immediate dental implants for the reconstruction of the maxilla in deficient maxillary alveolar ridges. Seventeen patients who underwent sinus floor elevation with bone graft from the parietal bone between 2005 and 2007 were included in the study. Cases of extremely deficient bone level in the alveolar ridge<4mm were included in the study. Seventy-seven implants (49 Staumann®, 24 Replace® and 4 Ankylos®) with different length and diameter were placed immediately after the graft was placed. Strict oral hygiene was required for the patients. Presurgical and postsurgical panoramic radiographs were taken. A high-quality reconstruction with an increase in lifted sinus bone height was achieved with parietal bone particulates. Seventy-three implants were clinically osseointegrated and four implants were lost giving a success rate 94.8%. No correlation was found between failure and the surgery. The encouraging results of this study suggest that the technique of reconstruction of the sinus floor and the resorbed alveolar ridge using an autogenous parietal bone graft is reliable, giving the surgeon the opportunity to successfully perform immediate implant placement in more difficult and deficient maxillary alveolar bone height. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Facial growth and development in unilateral cleft lip and palate: comparison between secondary alveolar bone grafting and primary periosteoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cagáňová, Veronika; Borský, Jiří; Smahel, Zbyněk; Velemínská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effect of secondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate by comparison with a sample of patients who have undergone primary periosteoplasty. Cephalometric analysis of lateral x-ray films in a retrospective semilongitudinal study. Lateral x-ray films of 18 secondary alveolar bone grafting patients and 48 primary periosteoplasty patients at 10 years of age and again at 15 years of age. The treatment of secondary alveolar bone grafting patients included lip repair according to Tennison, palatoplasty including retropositioning, pharyngeal flap surgery, and secondary alveolar bone grafting. The lips of primary periosteoplasty patient were repaired using the methods of Tennison and Veau, followed by primary periosteoplasty, palatoplasty including retropositioning, and pharyngeal flap surgery. Lateral radiographs were assessed using classical morphometry. There were few significant differences at 10 years of age between the secondary alveolar bone grafting and primary periosteoplasty patients. At 15 years of age, there were several significant differences. Compared with primary periosteoplasty patients, subsequent development in patients who had undergone secondary alveolar bone grafting was characterized by a significantly better position of the upper and lower dentoalveolar components in relation to the facial plane, a higher increase in the global convexity of the soft profile, a significantly better maxillary inclination, and a more favorable development of vertical intermaxillary relationships. Craniofacial development in secondary alveolar bone grafting patients was better than that in primary periosteoplasty patients due to the more marked facial convexity, the increased prominence of the nose, and better vertical intermaxillary relationships.

  19. Bone grafting simultaneous to implant placement. Presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Gómez-Adrián, Maria Dolores; García-Mira, Berta; Ivorra-Sais, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Bone defects at mandibular alveolar crest level complicate the placement of dental implants in the ideal location. Surgical reconstruction using autologous bone grafts allows implant fixation in an esthetic and functional manner. We describe a patient with large mandibular bone loss secondary to periodontal inflammatory processes. Reconstruction of the mandibular alveolar process was carried out using onlay block bone grafts harvested from the mandible. The grafts were stabilized by positioning the dental implants through them--a procedure that moreover afforded good primary implant fixation. After two years of follow-up the clinical and radiological outcome is good. In the lower jaw, where bone regeneration is complicated, we were able to achieve good results in this patient--minimizing the corresponding waiting time by grafting and placing the implants in the same surgical step.

  20. Efficacy of a Cellular Allogeneic Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Arthrodesis Procedures.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Travis J; White, Peter; Adams, Samuel B

    2016-12-01

    A cellular allogeneic bone graft can be used in patients at high risk for nonunion after arthrodesis surgery. This study explores the utility and efficacy of MAP3 in foot and ankle arthrodesis procedures. Map3 is a cellular allogeneic bone graft that contains osteogenic, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and angiogenic properties. A total of 23 mostly high-risk patients were included in this study. The overall fusion rate was 83%. Univariate analysis demonstrated diabetic patients remain at risk of recurrent nonunion (P<.001) despite supplementation with MAP3. These data demonstrate successful fusion in high-risk patients when MAP3 is used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascularized bone grafting fixed by biodegradable magnesium screw for treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dewei; Huang, Shibo; Lu, Faqiang; Wang, Benjie; Yang, Lei; Qin, Ling; Yang, Ke; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Wang, Wei; Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Gao, Wenbin; Wang, Zongpu; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Xinhui; Wang, Jiali; Li, Junlei

    2016-03-01

    Hip-preserving surgery with vascularized bone graft implantation has been widely practiced in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). However, the current approach presents a drawback, in which the implanted bone graft without screw fixation may slip or exhibit a certain degree of displacement postoperatively. This study was designed to investigate the application potential of biodegradable magnesium (Mg) screws for the fixation of vascularized bone graft in ONFH patients. Forty-eight patients were randomly divided into two groups: the Mg screw group (vascularized bone grafting fixed by Mg screws) and the control group (vascularized bone grafting without fixation). During 12 month follow-up period after surgery, treatment outcomes in patients were assessed by multiple imaging techniques including x-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as functional recovery Harris hip score (HHS). The temporal changes in serum levels of Mg, Ca, and P as well as in vivo degradation rate of Mg screws were determined. The absence of potential adverse effects induced by degradation products from Mg screws on surrounding bone tissue was validated via CT imaging analysis. HHS was significantly improved in the Mg screw group when compared to the control group. X-ray imaging analysis showed that the screw shape did not show significant alteration due to the diameter of Mg screws measured with approximate 25% reduction within 12 months post-surgically. The postoperative serum levels of Ca, Mg, and P, which are relevant for liver and kidney function, were all within normal physiological range in all patients of both groups. The use of biodegradable Mg screws may provide a promising bone graft-screw fixation route in treating ONFH and present considerable potential for orthopedic applications.

  2. Radiopacity of alloplastic bone grafts measured with cone beam computed tomography: An analysis in rabbit calvaria

    PubMed Central

    Bucchi, Cristina; Borie, Eduardo; Arias, Alain; Dias, Fernando José; Fuentes, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Availability of adequate bone structure for dental implants is still a problem in dentistry. Alloplastic grafts, which promote bone regeneration, are used as bone substitutes in orthopedic and oral surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of three different synthetic bone grafts in rabbit calvaria, over 3 months, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Four critical-size defects were made on the calvaria of 11 rabbits. The lesions were classified into three groups according to the alloplastic grafts they received: Osteon® 70/30, Osteon collagen®, and Osteon II® groups. The fourth group received blood clot, and served as a control. The bone samples were collected and analyzed with CBCT after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month. One month after surgery, the lesions that received Osteon® 70/30 and Osteon collagen® grafts showed the highest radiopacity compared to the lesions with Osteon II® and blood clot. After the 2nd month, the radiopacity values between the three groups that received the grafts were more similar compared to the group with blood clot. After the 3rd month, the lesions with Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values, followed by Osteon collagen® and Osteon II® groups. The group that received blood clot showed the lowest radiopacity values. In conclusion, the grafts used in this study had higher radiopacity values compared to blood clot. Among the grafts used, the Osteon® 70/30 graft showed the highest radiopacity values in the 3-month period. PMID:27968706

  3. Characterization of bone repair in rat femur after treatment with calcium phosphate cement and autogenous bone graft

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study, the biocompatibility, stability and osteotransductivity of a new cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) were investigated in a bone repair model using a rat model. Methods The potential of alpha-TCP on bone repair was compared to autogenous bone grafting, and unfilled cavities were used as negative control. Surgical cavities were prepared and designated as test (T), implanted with alpha-TCP blocks; negative control (C - ), unfilled; and positive control (C + ), implanted with autogenous bone graft. Results were analyzed on postoperative days three, seven, 14, 21 and 60. Results The histological analyses showed the following results. Postoperative day three: presence of inflammatory infiltrate, erythrocytes and proliferating fibroblasts in T, C - and C + samples. Day seven: extensive bone neoformation in groups T and C + , and beginning of alpha-TCP resorption by phagocytic cells. Days 14 and 21: osteoblastic activity in the three types of cavities. Day 60: In all samples, neoformed bone similar to surrounding bone. Moderate interruption on the ostectomized cortical bone. Conclusions Bone neoformation is seen seven days after implantation of alpha-TCP and autogenous bone. Comparison of C - with T and C + samples showed that repair is faster in implanted cavities; on day 60, control groups presented almost complete bone repair. Alpha-TCP cement presents biocompatibility and osteotransductivity, besides stability, but 60 days after surgery the cavities were not closed. PMID:20579394

  4. Guided Bone Regeneration in Long-Bone Defects with a Structural Hydroxyapatite Graft and Collagen Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    compared as experimental treatment groups to an empty untreated defect as a negative control or a defect filled with autologous bone grafts as a positive...defect site in rabbits and was a comparable synthetic alternative to autologous bone grafts in all metrics measured in this study. Acknowledgments...regeneration and repair as compared to grafting materials alone.9 Guided bone regen- eration (GBR), which refers to using barrier membrane guides, has been

  5. Outcome of subtalar fusion using bovine cancellous bone graft: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunit; Auyeung, Jeff; Gower, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Solvent preserved bovine cancellous bone graft (Tutobone(®)) has been promoted as an alternative to autologous bone graft. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of subtalar fusion in patients in whom Tutobone(®) was used with the outcomes in patients in whom it was not used. This was a retrospective comparative study. Tutobone(®) was used in 9 patients in the test group. Of these repairs, 6 were isolated subtalar fusions, and 3 were performed as a part of triple arthrodesis. A total of 17 patients were included in the control group; 4 underwent autologous iliac crest grafting and 13 received a local bone graft from excised joint surfaces. At 12 months after surgery, 8 of the 9 in the Tutobone(®) group had persistent pain and radiologic signs of nonunion confirmed on computed tomography scan. All 17 in the other group had successful clinical and radiologic fusion at 12 months. We believe this is sufficient evidence to advise against the use of bovine cancellous bone graft material for subtalar fusion surgery.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Demineralized Bone Matrix and Collagenated Heterologous Bone Grafts Used Alone or in Combination with Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Bone Healing in Sinus Floor Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Peker, Elif; Karaca, Inci Rana; Yildirim, Benay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and collagenated heterologous bone graft (CHBG) used alone or in combination with platelet-rich fibrin on bone healing in sinus floor augmentation procedures. In this study, 36 New Zealand rabbits were used. The bilateral sinus elevation was performed, and 72 defects were obtained. The rabbit maxillary sinuses were divided into four groups according to the augmentation biomaterials obtained: demineralized bone matrix (Grafton DBM Putty, Osteotech; DBM group), DBM combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF; DBM + PRF group), collagenated heterologous bone graft (CHBG; Apatos Mix, OsteoBiol, Tecnoss; CHBG group), CHBG combined with PRF (CHBG + PRF group). All groups were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery for histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The inflammatory reaction was moderate to intense at the second week in all groups and declined from 2 to 8 weeks. New bone formation was started at the second week and increased from 2 to 8 weeks in all groups. There was no significant difference in bone formation between the experimental groups that used PRF mixed graft material and control groups that used only graft material. The percentage of new bone formation showed a significant difference in DBM groups and DBM + PRF groups compared with other groups. There were osteoclasts around all the bone graft materials used, but the percentage of residual graft particles was significantly higher in CHBG groups and CHBG + PRF groups at the eighth week. There is no beneficial effect of the application of PRF in combination with demineralized bone matrix or collagenated heterologous bone graft on bone formation in sinus floor augmentation. The results of this study showed that both collagenated heterologous bone graft and demineralized bone matrix have osteoconductive properties, but demineralized bone matrix showed more bone formation

  7. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  8. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones.

    PubMed

    Pieske, Oliver; Wittmann, Alexandra; Zaspel, Johannes; Löffler, Thomas; Rubenbauer, Bianka; Trentzsch, Heiko; Piltz, Stefan

    2009-12-15

    Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160 euro/case). Nevertheless, this study demonstrated that the

  9. The Volume Behavior of Autogenous Iliac Bone Grafts After Sinus Floor Elevation: A Clinical Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gerressen, Marcus; Riediger, Dieter; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Hölzle, Frank; Noroozi, Nelson; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    Iliac crest is still regarded as one of the most viable source of autogenous graft materials for extensive sinus floor elevation. Three-dimensional resorption behavior has to be taken into account in anticipation of the subsequent insertion of dental implants. We performed 3-dimensional volume measurements of the inserted bone transplants in 11 patients (6 women and 5 men; mean age = 2.3 years) who underwent bilateral sinus floor elevation with autogenous iliac crest grafts. In order to determine the respective bone graft volumes, cone-beam computerized tomography studies of the maxillary sinuses were carried out directly after the operation (T0), as well as 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) postoperatively. The acquired DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) data sets were evaluated using suitable analysis software. We evaluated statistical significance of graft volumes changes using a linear mixed model with the grouping factors for time, age, side, and sex with a significance level of P = .05. 38.9% of the initial bone graft volume, which amounted to 4.2 cm(3), was resorbed until T1. At T2, the average volume again decreased significantly by 18.9 % to finally reach 1.8 cm(3). The results show neither age nor side dependency and apply equally to both sexes. Without functional load, iliac bone grafts feature low-volume stability in sinus-augmentation surgery. Further clinical and animal studies should be done to detect the optimal timing for implant placement.

  10. Fixation of nasal bone grafts with interosseous wire: our technique.

    PubMed

    Sathe, N; Gaikwad, N; Wadkar, G; Thakare, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of interosseous wire to fix bone grafts is well known. Herein, we describe a technique for fixation of an iliac crest bone graft for nasal augmentation, using a stainless steel wire. A hole in the cancellous part of the graft guides the wire exactly into a groove in the cortical part, preventing slippage and ensuring rigid fixation. The wire is then threaded through a hollow spinal needle passed underneath the skin envelope; this avoids a dorsal incision and thus minimises scarring, reduces the risk of graft exposure and improves the aesthetic result. This technique has two distinct advantages: prevention of wire slippage and avoidance of a dorsal nasal incision. The described method uses an interosseous wire for rigid bone graft fixation, without a dorsal incision. This prevents wire slippage; it also achieves a good cosmetic result by improving the nasal contour via a cantilever effect which raises the nasal tip.

  11. Bioreactor cultivation of anatomically shaped human bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Temple, Joshua P; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes.

  12. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  13. Alveolar ridge augmentation using a resorbable copolymer membrane and autogenous bone grafts. An experimental study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the result of maxillary alveolar ridge augmentation by the combined use of mandibular bone grafts and resorbable membranes (Resolut), with that achieved by the use of the same type of bone graft combined with the placement of e-PTFE membranes (Gore-Tex). The experiment was carried out in 30 rats. In one side of the maxillary jaw, the edentulous alveolar ridge between the incisor and the first molar was augmented by means of an autogenous mandibular bone graft that was fixed with a titanium microimplant and covered with a resorbable membrane. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated in the same way, with the difference that an e-PTFE membrane was placed over the bone graft. Histological analysis at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days after surgery demonstrated that, in both test and control sites where the membrane was properly adapted and not exposed, the bone grafts presented no resorption and were integrated into the maxillary bone at the recipient site. In cases where the membrane was exposed, however, the bone grafts presented extensive resorption and lack of continuity between the graft and the recipient bed. At 60-180 days after surgery, the exposure of both types of membrane had frequently led to complete resorption of the grafts, encapsulation of the titanium microimplant by fibrous connective tissue, or exfoliation of the microimplant. It is concluded that alveolar ridge augmentation can be predictably accomplished by combining mandibular bone grafting with the placement of resorbable or non-resorbable membranes according to the GTR principle, provided that the membrane is properly adapted over the graft and complete closure of the treated area is maintained during healing.

  14. Iliac Bone Grafting of the Intact Glenoid Improves Shoulder Stability with Optimal Graft Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Willemot, Laurent B.; Eby, Sarah F.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Debeer, Phillipe; Victor, Jan; An, Kai-Nan; Verborgt, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone grafting procedures are increasingly popular for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. In cases with high risk of recurrence, open coracoid transplantation is preferred but can be technically demanding. Free bone graft glenoid augmentation may be an alternative strategy for high-risk patients without significant glenoid bone loss. This biomechanical cadaver study aims to assess the stabilizing effect of free iliac crest bone grafting of the intact glenoid and the importance of sagittal graft position. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders were tested. The bone graft was fixed on the glenoid neck at three sagittal positions (50%, 75% and 100% below the glenoid equator). Displacement and reaction force were monitored with a custom device while translating the humeral head over the glenoid surface in both anterior and antero-inferior direction. Results Peak force (PF) increased significantly from the standard labral repair to the grafted conditions in both anterior (14.7 (±5.5 N) vs. 27.3 (±6.9 N)) and antero-inferior translation (22.0 (±5.3 N) vs. 29.3 (±6.9 N)). PF was significantly higher for the grafts at the 50% and 75% positions, compared to the grafts 100% below the equator with anterior translation. Antero-inferior translation resulted in significantly higher values for the 100% and 75% positions compared to the 50% position. Conclusions This biomechanical study confirms improved anterior glenohumeral stability after iliac crest bone graft augmentation of the anterior glenoid. The results also demonstrate the importance of bone graft position in the sagittal plane, with the ideal position determined by the direction of dislocation. PMID:25457786

  15. Native multipotential stromal cell colonization and graft expander potential of a bovine natural bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kouroupis, Dimitrios; Baboolal, Thomas G; Jones, Elena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-12-01

    Graft expanders are bone scaffolds used, in combination with autografts, to fill large bone defects in trauma surgery. This study investigates the graft expander potential of a natural bone substitute Orthoss by studying its ability to support attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring multipotential stromal cells (MSCs). Material consisting of bone marrow (BM) aspirate and reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA)-harvested autograft bone was co-cultured with commercially available Orthoss granules. Native MSCs attached to Orthoss were expanded and phenotypically characterized. MSCs egress from neighboring cancelous bone was assessed in 3D Matrigel co-cultures. MSC differentiation was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity per cell. CD45(+) hematopoietic lineage cells and highly proliferative CD90(+) CD73(+) CD105(+) MSCs preferentially colonized Orthoss granules, over RIA bone chips. MSC colonization was followed by their intrinsic osteogenic differentiation, assessed as mineral deposition and gradual rise in ALP activity, even in the absence of osteogenic stimuli. When in contact with mixed cell populations and RIA chips, Orthoss granules support the attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring MSCs. Therefore, natural bone substitutes similar to Orthoss can be used as void fillers and graft expanders for repairing large bone defects in conjunction with autologous BM aspirates and autografts.

  16. Calvarial Bone Grafting for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Severe Maxillary Defects: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Restoy-Lozano, Andres; Dominguez-Mompell, Jose-Luis; Infante-Cossio, Pedro; Lara-Chao, Juan; Lopez-Pizarro, Victor

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, associated morbidity, and results of a three-dimensional reconstruction technique for repairing severe defects of the maxilla using a calvarial autogenous bone graft and a soft tissue double-layered surgical approach in preparation for placing dental implants. Bone defects of the maxilla consecutively reconstructed with calvarial autologous graft in the authors' institution were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with combined maxilla alveolar ridge defects with a width less than 4 mm and a height less than 7 mm (to the level of the maxillary sinus or the nostril), with at least three teeth involved, were included in the study. Calvarial bone blocks were sagittally sectioned in fine layers and fixed three-dimensionally in a boxlike structure with particulate bone inside. The purpose was to obtain an adequate amount of vertical and horizontal alveolar bone to enable restoration with dental implants at least 3.4 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length. Eleven reconstructive procedures were performed in 10 patients. Bone graft integration was successful in all of them. No major complications were observed in the donor cranial site. A mean bone gain of 5.04 mm (range, 3.4 to 7.8 mm) in height was obtained (standard deviation [SD], 1.69). The implant surgery was performed between the 15th and 19th weeks. A total of 28 implants were placed, and the mean follow-up time was 45 months (range, 23 to 65 months; SD, 12). The mean graft vertical resorption was 0.78 mm (range, 0.50-1.50 mm; SD, 0.00) 41 months after implant fixation. Three-dimensional reconstruction technique using calvarial bone grafts to restore severe segmental or crestal bone defects in the maxilla is an effective and predictable procedure that can increase the horizontal and vertical bone volume in preparation for the successful placement of dental implants.

  17. Autogenous bone graft: basic science and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Gary F; Greene, Arin K

    2012-01-01

    No single biomaterial is optimum for every craniomaxillofacial application. Instead, surgeons should consider the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative in a given clinical situation, and select the material with lowest overall cost and morbidity, and the highest likelihood of success. Autogenous bone is still considered the gold standard for most applications; it becomes vascularized and osseointegrates with surrounding bone, thus minimizing the risk of infection, dislodgement, or break-down. Limitations include added operative time for graft harvest, donor site morbidity, graft resorption, molding challenges, and limited availability, especially in the pediatric population. Numerous alternatives to bone graft have become available to address these limitations; unfortunately, most of these products are expensive, do not osseointegrate, and have unpredictable biologic activity. Understanding the physiologic behavior of autogenous bone graft can help clarify the indications for its use and provide a conceptual framework for achieving the best possible outcome when this alternative is chosen.

  18. [Calvarial bone grafting in augmentation rhinoplasty. Long-term results].

    PubMed

    Himy, S; Zink, S; Bodin, F; Bruant-Rodier, C; Wilk, A; Meyer, C

    2009-11-01

    Various clinical situations may require an important increase of the size of the nose. The aim of our work was to analyze long-term results of calvarial bone grafts used in rhinoplasties. We retrospectively studied the files of 20 patients having undergone a calvarial bone graft. Photogrammetry was used to determine morphological modifications and the stability of results. The average follow-up was 8 years. The parietal donor site morbidity was low. All nose sizes were dramatically augmented and the stability of results ranged between 74.5 and 95%. The calvarial bone graft can be used for important nose augmentation with a good stability. There are few alternative techniques. This method is only limited by available skin and endonasal lining. Calvarial bone graft in rhinoplasty is not frequent but it is our first choice for the correction of important hypoplasia or saddling of the nose.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Bone grafting material is a material such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and polyglycolic acids, or collagen, that is intended to fill, augment, or reconstruct periodontal or bony defects...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3930 - Bone grafting material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Bone grafting material is a material such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and polyglycolic acids, or collagen, that is intended to fill, augment, or reconstruct periodontal or bony defects...

  1. Incorrect radiographic evaluation after vascularized bone grafting for scaphoid fracture or nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Paul; Reindl, Rudy; Berry, Gregory K; Harvey, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study is a review of patients with scaphoid non-unions treated with a dorsal vascularized bone graft. The study highlights a subset of patients incorrectly diagnosed as graft failures. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who received vascularized grafts for scaphoid nonunions was performed over a four-year period. The vascularized graft of choice for this group was the dorsal radial extensor compartment artery. RESULTS: Five patients from a scaphoid fracture group who were treated with vascularized grafts were diagnosed as being failures (average of five months). None of these patients had tenderness on palpation of the scaphoid, and they were scheduled for revised vascularized grafts. All patients at the time of surgery were found to have healed. These patients were treated with arthrolysis, resulting in healing and full range of motion. CONCLUSIONS: Scaphoid vascularized grafts may have a markedly delayed radiographic healing time. Reoperation to perform secondary vascularized procedures may result in unnecessary surgery. Early imaging following a scaphoid vascularized graft may be inaccurate and may demonstrate a continued nonunion. PMID:22379374

  2. Morbidity of graft harvesting versus bone marrow aspiration in cell regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Desroches, Asuka; Queinnec, Steffen; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Poignard, Alexandre; Allain, Jerome; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2014-09-01

    Using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with aspiration from the iliac crest is commonly used in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. Because bone marrow aspiration is a percutaneous technique, the morbidity as compared with the classical bone graft should be decreased. Therefore in a retrospective review of 523 consecutive cases of bone marrow aspiration performed at the Henri Mondor Hospital from 1990 to 2006 for the treatment of fractures, minor and major complications were identified and compared to the number of complications observed during the same period with 435 classical iliac crest bone graft procedures performed for the same indications of treatment of fractures. Minor complications included superficial infections, superficial seromas, and minor haematomas. Major complications included herniation of abdominal contents through massive bone graft donor sites, vascular injuries, deep infections at the donor site, neurologic injuries, deep haematoma formation requiring surgical intervention or transfusion, and iliac wing fractures. Bone marrow aspiration decreased significantly the number of complications as compared with harvesting classical iliac crest bone graft that was associated with significant morbidity. Adverse events were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the 523 procedures with bone marrow aspiration as compared with the 435 bone iliac crest piece harvesting. This was true for anaemia (16 cases versus 87 cases), for early pain (six versus 152), persistent pain (two versus 21), neuralgia (three versus 11), minor complications (ten versus 56), and major complications (three cases versus 22 cases). In our series the number of complications with bone marrow aspiration was ten times less than the complications observed with the classical technique of bone piece harvesting from the iliac crest, and the complications were clearly less severe.

  3. New bone formation in bone defects after melatonin and porcine bone grafts: experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Maté-Sánchez, José-Eduardo; López-Marí, Laura; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of melatonin compared with collagenized porcine bone grafts to accelerate bone formation 2 months after their insertion in tibiae rabbits. Twenty New Zealand rabbits weighing 3,900-4,500 g were used. Twenty collagenized porcine bone (MP3) grafts, twenty melatonin-impregnated bone grafts, and twenty control areas were placed in the proximal metaphyseal area of both rear tibias. Four groups were formed according to the moment in which animal killing was carried out: Group I (15 days), Group II (30 days), Group III (45 days) and Group IV (60 days). Cortical width and cortical length of bone formation was measured. Following implantation, an anteroposterior and lateral radiological study was carried out. Samples were sectioned at 5 μm and stained using hematoxylin-Eeosin, Masson's trichromic, and Gordon-Switt reticulin stains. After 60 days of treatment period, melatonin increased the length of cortical bone formation 99.03 ± 0.61% like control 98.90 ± 3.82% compared with porcine bone 92.73 ± 1.08%. Related to perimeter of cortical bone of the tibiae melatonin new bone was 98.35 ± 1.14% like control 98.0 ± 1.43% more than porcine bone 92.05 ± 1.03%. Histomorphometric values related to porcine bone were connective tissue 49.16 ± 2.4%, graft material (MP3) 23.52 ± 2.3%, and new bone formation 27.32 ± 1.4% compared with test group with melatonin 24.5 ± 1.2%, connective tissue 45.1 ± 1.2%, and new bone formation of 30.4 ± 1.0%. Melatonin has proven to regenerate the width and length of cortical bone in tibiae rabbits more quickly than collagenized porcine bone. Melatonin acts as a bone stimulator compared with porcine bone and control sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bone Grafting Severe Glenoid Defects in Revision Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    During revision total shoulder arthroplasty, bone grafting severe glenoid defects without concomitant reinsertion of a glenoid prosthesis may be the only viable reconstructive option. However, the fate of these grafts is unknown. We questioned the durability and subsidence of the graft and the associated clinical outcomes in patients who have this procedure. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients with severe glenoid deficiencies from aseptic loosening of a glenoid component who underwent conversion of a total shoulder arthroplasty to a humeral head replacement and glenoid bone grafting. Large cavitary defects were grafted with either allograft cancellous chips or bulk structural allograft, depending on the presence or absence of glenoid vault wall defects, without prosthetic glenoid resurfacing. Clinical outcomes (Penn Shoulder Score, maximum 100 points) improved from 23 to 57 at a minimum 2-year followup (mean, 38 months; range, 24–73 months). However, we observed substantial graft subsidence in all patients, with eight of 11 patients having subsidence greater than 5 mm; the magnitude of graft resorption did not correlate with clinical outcome scores. Greater subsidence was seen with structural than cancellous chip allografts. Bone grafting large glenoid defects during revision shoulder arthroplasty can improve clinical outcome scores, but the substantial resorption of the graft material remains a concern. Level of Evidence: Level III Prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196386

  5. Thumb proximal phalanx reconstruction with nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft.

    PubMed

    Soong, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Large segmental bone defects of the phalanges reportedly have been treated with free vascularized grafts from the hand, foot, or knee, or with nonvascularized grafts from the iliac crest. A nonvascularized structural corticocancellous graft from a local site would be advantageous. The olecranon has been used as a source of both cancellous and corticocancellous graft. The authors describe a unique case of the use of nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft for structural purposes in a mutilating thumb injury. The patient injured the left thumb with a miter saw, resulting in a large degloving wound over a severely comminuted fracture of the proximal phalanx, with segmental bone loss between a base fragment and displaced condylar fragments. Provisional pin fixation was performed at the time of initial emergent irrigation and debridement, along with repairs of the extensor pollicis longus, radial digital nerve, and dorsal digital nerve. This was followed 3 weeks later by non-vascularized corticocancellous bone grafting from the olecranon to the proximal phalanx under regional anesthesia. The thumb was mobilized at 11 weeks, and solid union was radiographically confirmed at 6 months. The patient achieved moderate active range of motion and was able to return to work as a physical therapist. The elbow healed uneventfully and without pain or fracture at the donor site. This case shows that robust structural bone graft for the phalanges may be obtained from the nearby olecranon, under regional anesthesia, without microsurgery, and with potential advantages over the iliac crest. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Healing of onlay mandibular bone grafts covered with collagen membrane or bovine bone substitutes: a microscopical and immunohistochemical study in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, W L; Reuther, T; Bloch, W; Korkmaz, Y; Fischer, J H; Zöller, J E; Kuebler, A C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of collagen membrane and Bio-Oss coverage in healing of an onlay graft to the mandible. Twelve adult sheep each received an onlay bone graft (experiment 1), bone graft+Bio-Gide (experiment 2), and bone graft+Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide (experiment 3) on the lateral surface of the mandible. The animals were euthanized at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after surgery, and findings were analysed by routine microscopy and immunohistochemistry for proliferation (Ki67) and apoptotic (Caspase-3) markers. Grafts were fully incorporated in all specimens. Pronounced resorption was observed in experiment 1. Minimal loss of graft volume was seen in experiment 2 specimens without membrane displacement. A remarkable increase in the augmented region of the mandible was observed in experiment 3. A high number of osteoclasts were expressed within the grafts during the early healing period, and thereafter declined markedly. Osteoblasts within the grafts expressed a moderate level of Ki67 at 8 weeks, which thereafter declined markedly. The strongest expression of Caspase-3 on the bone surface was observed after 16 weeks. In conclusion, the effect of collagen membrane coverage on bone graft volume maintenance was dependent on membrane stability during healing. An autogenous bone graft covered with Bio-Oss particles resulted in a remarkable increase in augmented lateral surface of the mandible. The late stage of bone graft healing was associated with a high apoptotic induction pathway of osteoblasts lining the surfaces of the new bone, demonstrated by strong positive Caspase-3 immunoreactivity.

  7. Fibrin Adhesive: Clinical Application in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fundaró, Pino; Velardi, Antonio R.; Santoli, Carmine

    1985-01-01

    Fibrin adhesive was used 72 times in a group of 67 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The indications were prophylactic sealing of potential sources of bleeding, topical hemostasis (control of bleeding sites dangerous or difficult to suture), and fixation of the graft in the optimal position. The method of glue application under varying circumstances is described and the results are reported. This experience suggests that in some cases the glue expedites the operation and makes it safer. We conclude that the fibrin sealing represents a valid aid in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:15227018

  8. Fusion rates after thoracoscopic release and bone graft substitutes in idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Weinzapfel, Brett; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Armstrong, Douglas G; Blakemore, Laurel C; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Thompson, George H

    2008-05-01

    A retrospective assessment of fusion rates using either morselized allograft bone or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in idiopathic scoliosis. To compare fusion rates between allograft bone and demineralized bone matrix (Grafton DBM Flex) following VATS using on standard standing lateral spine radiographs. Both VATS and bone graft substitutes are accepted surgical techniques. However, their concomitant use in spinal deformity surgery has not been previously reported. Bone graft substitute has the advantage of decreasing operative time, blood loss, and donor site morbidity associated with autografts. Anterior thoracic discectomies were performed using VATS. Forty patients with 1 year or more follow-up were evaluated-12 with morselized allograft bone (Allograft group) and 28 with folded Grafton DBM Flex (DBM group). Factors analyzed included age, number of anterior levels fused, operative time, anterior perioperative blood loss, curve correction, and fusion rates. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at month, 1 year, and at most recent follow-up. Interbody fusion was assessed on standing lateral radiographs using the Newton et al 4-level grading scale. There were no significant differences in age at surgery, number of anterior vertebral levels fused, anterior operative time per level, anterior intraoperative blood loss, chest tube drainage and duration, or total perioperative anterior blood loss between the 2 groups. Percent curve correction from before surgery to the most recent follow-up were very similar in both Allograft (68%) and DBM groups (67%). At most recent assessment, 60 of 73 disc spaces (82%) in the Allograft group and 100 of 109 disc spaces (92%) in the DBM group were rated as radiographically fused (Newton et al Grade I and II). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.088). No patients were observed to have crankshaft, pseudoarthrosis or

  9. Experimental evaluation of the effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper and collagenated heterologous bone graft on bone healing in sinus floor augmentation.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Merve; Karaca, İnci Rana; Firat, Ayşegül; Kaymaz, Figen; Bozkaya, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagenated heterologous bone graft (CHBG) and Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a plant extract, on bone healing after sinus floor augmentation. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were used. Bilateral sinus augmentation was performed, and 72 bone defects were created. The maxillary sinuses were grafted with four different biomaterials: blood clot (control group), CHBG (Apatos Mix, OsteoBiol, Tecnoss) (graft group), ABS (ABS group), and ABS + CHBG (ABS+graft group). The rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on all samples. Staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome was performed, and bone marker activity was evaluated. Lymphocyte infiltration was high at the first week in all groups and decreased from 1 to 8 weeks. All materials were biocompatible. Osteoclast numbers increased in the control group from 1 to 8 weeks and decreased in the other groups. There was no new bone formation in week 1 in all groups. New bone formation increased in all groups from 1 to 8 weeks, and at the fourth week, new bone formation was greater in the ABS and ABS+graft groups than in the other groups. There were osteoclasts around the bone graft materials, but degeneration of the graft was seen only in the ABS+graft group at week 8. ABS accelerates bone healing in sinus augmentation procedures and can be used alone or with CHBG. CHBG has osteoconductive properties, and ABS can accelerate bone graft degeneration.

  10. Bone grafting for alveolar ridge reconstruction. Review of 166 cases.

    PubMed

    Salmen, Fued Samir; Oliveira, Marina Reis; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Piveta, Ana Cláudia Gabrielli; Pereira, Valfrido Antonio; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the predictive factors of failure in bone grafts for alveolar ridge augmentation and implant surgery. we reviewed the charts of 166 patients operated between 1995 and 2014. A total of 248 grafting procedures were performed. We submitted the data to the binomial test at 5% significance. grafts to gain width of the alveolar ridge (65.32%) were more frequent than sinus lifting (p<0.0001) and the number of grafts to the posterior maxilla (48.8%) was greater than in other regions (p<0.01); 6.04% of the grafts were lost. The losses in anterior (p<0.0309) and posterior (p<0.0132) maxilla were higher than in the mandible. There were 269 ​​implants installed in the grafted areas, of which only 4.83% were lost. The number of implants lost (4.51%) in areas of onlay grafts was not statistically higher than those placed after sinus lifting (2.63%, p<0.2424). Losses were greater in the anterior (53.85%) and posterior (38.46%) maxilla than in the mandible (p<0.031). Regarding patients' age, 76.92% of the lost grafts (p<0.006) and 80% of the lost implants (p<0.001) were installed in patients over 40 years. failure rate was higher both for grafts and dental implants in the maxilla and in patients over 40 years of age. investigar os fatores preditivos de falhas em enxertos ósseos para aumento do rebordo alveolar e cirurgia de implantes. os prontuários de 166 pacientes, operados entre 1995 e 2014, foram revistos. Um total de 248 enxertos foi realizado. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste binomial a 5% de significância. os enxertos para ganho em espessura do rebordo alveolar (65,32%) foram mais frequentes do que levantamentos de seio maxilar (p<0,0001) e o número de enxertos para a região posterior da maxila (48,8%) foi maior do que em outras regiões (p<0,01). Foram perdidos 6,04% dos enxertos. As perdas em maxila anterior (p<0,0132) e posterior (p<0,0309) foram maiores do que na mandíbula. Foram instalados 269 implantes nas áreas enxertadas e apenas 4

  11. Tobramycin exposure from active calcium sulfate bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Livio, Françoise; Wahl, Peter; Csajka, Chantal; Gautier, Emanuel; Buclin, Thierry

    2014-03-04

    Bone graft substitute such as calcium sulfate are frequently used as carrier material for local antimicrobial therapy in orthopedic surgery. This study aimed to assess the systemic absorption and disposition of tobramycin in patients treated with a tobramycin-laden bone graft substitute (Osteoset® T). Nine blood samples were taken from 12 patients over 10 days after Osteoset® T surgical implantation. Tobramycin concentration was measured by fluorescence polarization. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM to assess the average value and variability (CV) of pharmacokinetic parameters. Bioavailability (F) was assessed by equating clearance (CL) with creatinine clearance (Cockcroft CLCr). Based on the final model, simulations with various doses and renal function levels were performed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01938417). The patients were 52 +/- 20 years old, their mean body weight was 73 +/- 17 kg and their mean CLCr was 119 +/- 55 mL/min. Either 10 g or 20 g Osteoset® T with 4% tobramycin sulfate was implanted in various sites. Concentration profiles remained low and consistent with absorption rate-limited first-order release, while showing important variability. With CL equated to CLCr, mean absorption rate constant (ka) was 0.06 h-1, F was 63% or 32% (CV 74%) for 10 and 20 g Osteoset® T respectively, and volume of distribution (V) was 16.6 L (CV 89%). Simulations predicted sustained high, potentially toxic concentrations with 10 g, 30 g and 50 g Osteoset® T for CLCr values below 10, 20 and 30 mL/min, respectively. Osteoset® T does not raise toxicity concerns in subjects without significant renal failure. The risk/benefit ratio might turn unfavorable in case of severe renal failure, even after standard dose implantation.

  12. Tobramycin exposure from active calcium sulfate bone graft substitute

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone graft substitute such as calcium sulfate are frequently used as carrier material for local antimicrobial therapy in orthopedic surgery. This study aimed to assess the systemic absorption and disposition of tobramycin in patients treated with a tobramycin-laden bone graft substitute (Osteoset® T). Methods Nine blood samples were taken from 12 patients over 10 days after Osteoset® T surgical implantation. Tobramycin concentration was measured by fluorescence polarization. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM to assess the average value and variability (CV) of pharmacokinetic parameters. Bioavailability (F) was assessed by equating clearance (CL) with creatinine clearance (Cockcroft CLCr). Based on the final model, simulations with various doses and renal function levels were performed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01938417). Results The patients were 52 +/− 20 years old, their mean body weight was 73 +/− 17 kg and their mean CLCr was 119 +/− 55 mL/min. Either 10 g or 20 g Osteoset® T with 4% tobramycin sulfate was implanted in various sites. Concentration profiles remained low and consistent with absorption rate-limited first-order release, while showing important variability. With CL equated to CLCr, mean absorption rate constant (ka) was 0.06 h-1, F was 63% or 32% (CV 74%) for 10 and 20 g Osteoset® T respectively, and volume of distribution (V) was 16.6 L (CV 89%). Simulations predicted sustained high, potentially toxic concentrations with 10 g, 30 g and 50 g Osteoset® T for CLCr values below 10, 20 and 30 mL/min, respectively. Conclusions Osteoset® T does not raise toxicity concerns in subjects without significant renal failure. The risk/benefit ratio might turn unfavorable in case of severe renal failure, even after standard dose implantation. PMID:24593819

  13. Arthroscopic autologous bone graft with arthroscopic Bankart repair for a large bony defect lesion caused by recurrent shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yu; Hachisuka, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Oomae, Hiromichi; Yokoya, Shin; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2007-06-01

    Many clinicians believe that a large bony defect of the glenoid must be treated with bone grafting when a Bankart procedure is performed. Various types of bone graft, such as open bone graft, Eden-Hybinnette, J-bone graft, coracoid transfer, and Latarjet, have been used. These require open procedures that are difficult to perform arthroscopically. We performed an arthroscopic autologous bone graft and an arthroscopic Bankart repair at the same time to treat a patient with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion. We harvested from the lateral site of the acromion 2 bones that were 2.7 mm in cylindrical diameter. We transplanted these bones to the large bony defect of the anteroinferior area of the glenoid and placed anchors between the 2 plugs. During the 30 months since the surgery was performed, the patient has not experienced dislocation or apprehension about the shoulder. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan showed enlargement of the glenoid surface. Our surgical procedure offers promise for treatment of patients with recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint and a large bony Bankart lesion because it allows the surgeon to alter the size and the grafted site of the cylindrical bone according to the size of the defect.

  14. Clinical Outcomes of Radial Shortening Osteotomy and Vascularized Bone Graft in Kienböck's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mohammad; Moshgelani, Mohammad Ali; Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi; Dehghani, Shaghayegh; Gholshahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two surgery methods including radial shortening and radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft for treatment of stage II or IIIa of Kienböck's disease. It is a randomized, controlled clinical trial, which was carried out in 2011-2013. Twenty-four patients were assigned equally to radial shortening group (A) or radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft group (B). The outcome was assessed by Mayo Wrist score before and 9 months after surgery. The mean Mayo Wrist score (SD) was 27.1 (15.4) and 32.5 (18.3) before surgery and 74.6 (5.4) and 85.8 (5.1) after surgery for groups A and B, respectively. The mean score increased in both groups, and it was higher in group B significantly. Radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft is a valuable method which can be more effective than radial shortening alone, in early stages of Kienböck's disease. This trial is registered with IRCT201404127841N5.

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Radial Shortening Osteotomy and Vascularized Bone Graft in Kienböck's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad; Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi; Dehghani, Shaghayegh; Gholshahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two surgery methods including radial shortening and radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft for treatment of stage II or IIIa of Kienböck's disease. It is a randomized, controlled clinical trial, which was carried out in 2011–2013. Twenty-four patients were assigned equally to radial shortening group (A) or radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft group (B). The outcome was assessed by Mayo Wrist score before and 9 months after surgery. The mean Mayo Wrist score (SD) was 27.1 (15.4) and 32.5 (18.3) before surgery and 74.6 (5.4) and 85.8 (5.1) after surgery for groups A and B, respectively. The mean score increased in both groups, and it was higher in group B significantly. Radial shortening combined with vascularized bone graft is a valuable method which can be more effective than radial shortening alone, in early stages of Kienböck's disease. This trial is registered with IRCT201404127841N5. PMID:27382615

  16. Rib Bone Graft Adjusted to Fit the Facial Asymmetry: A Frame Structure Graft.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Ho; Choi, Jong Hwan; Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-10-01

    The authors introduce the concept of a "frame structure graft" in which a harvested rib bone was adjusted to fit facial asymmetry. On the costochondral junction of the sixth or seventh rib, a 5 cm incision was made. Through a subperiosteal dissection, the rib bone was harvested. Using a reciprocating saw, the harvested rib was scored on its anterior surface as well as its posterior surface with a partial depth at different intervals. The harvested rib bone was placed on the skin surface of the unaffected side of the face and a curvature was created exactly matching that of the unaffected side by bending the bone using a greenstick fracture. Thereafter, the graft was adjusted to conceal the asymmetry of the deficient side. The adjusted "frame structure" was transferred to the defect through the incisions on the affected side, and the "frame structure" graft was placed on the mandible or zygoma. The graft fixation was done externally with at least 2 Kirschner wires (K-wires). From January 2005 to August 2013, a total of 30 patients (13 men, 17 women, mean age 25.6 years) received a frame structure graft. All 30 patients achieved good healing at the operation site without complications. Donor-site morbidity as pneumothorax from the rib bone harvest was not found. Merits of this frame structure graft, the authors think, are that this method could allow a similar curvature to the normal side. In addition, the procedure itself is easy.

  17. Bone Forming Potential of An-Organic Bovine Bone Graft: A Cone Beam CT study.

    PubMed

    Uzbek, Usman Haider; Rahman, Shaifulizan Ab; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Gillani, Syed Wasif

    2014-12-01

    An-organic bovine bone graft is a xenograft with the potential of bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone density using cone beam computed tomography scans around functional endosseous implant in the region of both augmented maxillary sinus with the an-organic bovine bone graft and the alveolar bone over which the graft was placed to provide space for the implants. Sterile freeze dried bovine bone graft produced by National Tissue Bank, University Sains, Malaysia was used for stage-1 implant placement with maxillary sinus augmentation in a total of 19 subjects with 19 implants. The age of all subjects ranged between 40-60 years with a mean age 51±4.70. All subjects underwent a follow up CT scan using PlanmecaPromax 3D(®) Cone beam computed tomography scanner at the Radiology department, Hospital University Sains, Malaysia. The collected data was then analysed to evaluate bone density in Hounsfield Units using PlanmecaRomexis" Imaging Software 2.2(®) which is specialized accompanying software of the cone beam computed tomography machine. There was bone formation seen at the site of the augmented sinus. A significant increase (p<0.005) in bone density was reported at the augmented site compared to the bone density of the existing alveolar bone. An-organic bovine bone graft is an osteoconductive material that can be used for the purpose of maxillary sinus augmentation.

  18. Bone Forming Potential of An-Organic Bovine Bone Graft: A Cone Beam CT study

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaifulizan AB.; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Gillani, Syed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An-organic bovine bone graft is a xenograft with the potential of bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone density using cone beam computed tomography scans around functional endosseous implant in the region of both augmented maxillary sinus with the an-organic bovine bone graft and the alveolar bone over which the graft was placed to provide space for the implants. Materials and Methods: Sterile freeze dried bovine bone graft produced by National Tissue Bank, University Sains, Malaysia was used for stage-1 implant placement with maxillary sinus augmentation in a total of 19 subjects with 19 implants. The age of all subjects ranged between 40-60 years with a mean age 51±4.70. All subjects underwent a follow up CT scan using PlanmecaPromax 3D® Cone beam computed tomography scanner at the Radiology department, Hospital University Sains, Malaysia. The collected data was then analysed to evaluate bone density in Hounsfield Units using PlanmecaRomexis” Imaging Software 2.2® which is specialized accompanying software of the cone beam computed tomography machine. Results: There was bone formation seen at the site of the augmented sinus. A significant increase (p<0.005) in bone density was reported at the augmented site compared to the bone density of the existing alveolar bone. Conclusion: An-organic bovine bone graft is an osteoconductive material that can be used for the purpose of maxillary sinus augmentation. PMID:25654037

  19. Cranial particulate bone graft ossifies calvarial defects by osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Arany, Praveen R; Couto, Rafael A; Clune, James E; Glowacki, Julie; Rogers, Gary F; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2012-05-01

    Cranial particulate bone graft heals inlay calvarial defects and can be harvested as early as infancy. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that particulate bone promotes ossification primarily by osteogenesis. Freshly harvested particulate bone, devitalized particulate bone, and high-speed drilled bone dust from rabbit calvaria were assayed for metabolic activity (resazurin) and viable osteoblasts (alkaline phosphatase). A rabbit cranial defect model was used to test the effect of devitalizing particulate bone on in vivo ossification. A parietal critical-size defect was created and managed in three ways: (1) no implant (n = 6); (2) particulate bone implant (n = 6); and (3) devitalized particulate bone implant (n = 6). Micro-computed tomographic scanning was used to measure ossification 16 weeks later; histology also was studied. Particulate bone contained more viable cells (0.94 percent transmittance per milligram) compared with devitalized particulate bone (0.007 percent) or bone dust (0.21 percent) (p = 0.01). Particulate bone had greater alkaline phosphatase activity (0.13 μU/μg) than devitalized particulate bone (0.000) or bone dust (0.06) (p = 0.01). Critical-size defects treated with particulate bone had more ossification (99.7 percent) compared with devitalized particulate bone implants (42.2 percent) (p = 0.01); no difference was found between devitalized particulate bone and the control (40.8 percent) (p = 0.9). Particulate bone graft contains living cells, including osteoblasts, that are required to heal critical-size cranial defects. These data support the hypothesis that particulate bone promotes ossification primarily by osteogenesis.

  20. Endoscopically and Fluoroscopically Assisted Curettage and Bone Grafting of the Navicular Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Simple bone cyst is a common tumorlike lesion of the bone and can involve the bones of the foot. It is usually asymptomatic but can also present with pain or pathologic fracture. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the uni-osseous portal approach of endoscopic curettage and bone grafting of simple bone cyst of the navicular bone. The single-portal approach reduces the risk of iatrogenic fracture of the navicular bone. This is indicated for painful bone cyst of the navicular bone resistant to conservative treatment. It is contraindicated in multiple septated cysts, the presence of pathologic fracture, or the presence of aggressive cystic lesions.

  1. Single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine with a local bone graft versus an iliac crest bone graft: a prospective, randomized study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Koshi, Takana; Takaso, Masashi; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2011-04-01

    The iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) technique for lumbar posterolateral fusion surgery is widely used; however, donor site problems such as pain and sensory disturbance have been reported. Local bone is available for fusion surgery, but its reliability as a graft has not been fully reported. In the current study, we examined single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft versus an ICBG in a prospective randomized study. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with L4 degenerated spondylolisthesis were divided into two groups at random. Forty-two patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft (L4-L5 level), and 40 patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with an ICBG (L4-L5 level). Rate and duration of bone union, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Japanese orthopedic association score (JOAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and complications were evaluated before and 2 years after therapy. VAS score, JOAS, and ODI were not significantly different between the two groups before and after surgery (P > 0.05). Rate and average duration of bone union were 90% and 8.5 months in the local bone graft group, and 85% and 7.7 months in the ICBG group, but without significant difference (P > 0.05). Prolonged surgical time and complications such as donor site pain (8 patients) and sensory disturbance (6 patients) were observed in the ICBG group. If single-level posterolateral fusion was performed, local bone graft technique has the same bone union rate compared with ICBG, requires less surgical time, and has fewer complications.

  2. Does the presence of glenoid bone loss influence coracoid bone graft osteolysis after the Latarjet procedure? A computed tomography scan study in 2 groups of patients with and without glenoid bone loss.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Giovanni; de Gasperis, Nicola; Costantini, Alberto; De Vita, Andrea; Beccaglia, Mario A Rojas; Pouliart, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Coracoid bone graft osteolysis and fibrous union are the principal causes of failure in patients treated with the Latarjet procedure. This study aims to investigate the hypothesis that coracoid bone graft osteolysis is more pronounced in cases without glenoid bone loss, which may be due to a diminished mechanotransduction effect at the bone healing site. We prospectively followed up 34 patients, treated with a mini-plate Latarjet procedure, divided into 2 groups (group A patients had glenoid bone loss >15% and group B patients had no glenoid bone loss). A computed tomography scan evaluation with 3-dimensional reconstruction was then performed on all patients to evaluate coracoid bone graft osteolysis according to our coracoid bone graft osteolysis classification. The computed tomography scan analysis showed a different distribution of osteolysis between group A and group B. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P < .01, Bonferroni test) between groups A and B for the following sections: proximal/lateral/superficial, proximal/medial/deep, distal/lateral/superficial, and distal/lateral/deep. On average, the coracoid grafts in group A patients showed less osteolysis than the coracoid grafts in group B patients (39.6% vs 65.1%). The coracoid bone graft underwent much less osteolysis in patients with significant glenoid bone loss (>15%) than in those without it. Because factors of blood supply, compression, and surgical technique were the same for both groups, we believe that the mechanotransduction effect from the humeral head on the graft influences its remodeling. The results of this study suggest that the bone graft part of the Latarjet procedure plays a role in patients with significant coracoid bone loss but much less so when there is no bone loss. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergency Metacarpophalangeal Arthroplastywith Bone Grafting for Traumatic Joint Destruction.

    PubMed

    Pomares, G; Calafat, V; Montoya-Faivre, D; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2017-08-05

    Emergency arthroplasty of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) remains a valuable treatment option in patients with MCPJ destruction but may raise challenges in the event of substantial metacarpal and/or phalangeal bone defects. We report three cases ofMCPJdestruction with bone defects at the proximal first phalanx treated with emergency silicone implant arthroplasty combined with bone grafting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects Using Nonvascularized Autogenous Bone Graft in Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Aregbesola, Stephen Babatunde; Ikem, Innocent Chinedu; Ugboko, Vincent I; Adebiyi, Kehinde Emmanuel; Fatusi, Olawunmi Adedoyin; Owotade, Foluso John; Braimah, Ramat Oyebunmi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the success rate and complications of mandibular reconstruction with nonvascularized bone graft in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A total of 25 patients who underwent reconstruction of mandibular discontinuity defects between January 2003 and February 2012, at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife constituted the study sample. Relevant information was retrieved from the patients’ records. This information include patients’ demographics (age and sex) as well as the type of mandibular defect, cause of the defect, type of mandibular resection done, source of the bone graft used, and the method of graft immobilization. Morbidity associated with the graft procedures were assessed by retrieving information on graft failures, length of hospital stay following surgery, rehabilitation device used and associated graft donor and recipient site complications. Result: There were 12 males and 13 females with a male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The age of the patients ranged from 13 to 73 years with a mean age for males 32.7 ± standard deviation (SD) 12.9 and for females 35.0 ± SD 17.1. Jaw defect was caused by resection for tumours and other jaw pathologies in 92% of cases. Complete symphyseal involvement defect was the most common defect recorded 11 (44%). Reconstruction with nonvascularized rib graft accounted for 68% of cases while iliac crest graft was used in 32% of the patients. Successful take of the grafts was recorded in 22 patients while three cases failed. Wound dehiscence (two patients) and postoperative wound infection (eight patients) were the most common complications recorded. Conclusion: The use of nonvascularized graft is still relevant in the reconstruction of large mandibular defects caused by surgical ablation of benign conditions in Nigerians. Precise surgical planning and execution, extended antibiotic therapy, and meticulous postoperative care contributed to the good

  5. The Radial Aspect of the Distal Radial Metaphysis/Diaphysis as a Source of Cortical Bone Graft.

    PubMed

    Regal, Steven; Chauhan, Aakash; Tang, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Cortical bone grafting is commonly required in the finger, hand, and carpus when managing bony trauma. A donor site that can provide a small or large amount of cortical bone graft that is easily accessible and within the same surgical field would be the ideal donor site. In high-energy injuries, a long cortical graft may be needed to reconstruct massive bony defects. In low-energy injuries such as scaphoid nonunions in which a wedge graft is needed, a reliable and easily accessible source of bone grafting would be beneficial. Although the traditional iliac bone grafting can be used, this option requires a separate sterile field to be prepared and may lead to donor site pain and morbidity. We propose an option that places the donor source close to the hand and wrist. The radial aspect of the distal radius metaphysis/diaphysis is superficial, which makes access and closure simpler than other alternatives. Furthermore, the technique only partly violates 1 of the 3 surfaces of the radius so that there is minimal weakening of the integrity of the bone and the likelihood of fracture is low. In this article, we describe the indications, contraindications, surgical technique, and postoperative management of the radial aspect of the distal radius metaphysis/diaphysis as a source of bone grafting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit.

  7. A Perspective: Engineering Periosteum for Structural Bone Graft Healing

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Hani A.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Guldberg, Robert E.; Schwarz, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Autograft is superior to both allograft and synthetic bone graft in repair of large structural bone defect largely due to the presence of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in periosteum. Recent studies have provided further evidence that activation, expansion and differentiation of the donor periosteal progenitor cells are essential for the initiation of osteogenesis and angiogenesis of donor bone graft healing. The formation of donor cell-derived periosteal callus enables efficient host-dependent graft repair and remodeling at the later stage of healing. Removal of periosteum from bone autograft markedly impairs healing whereas engraftment of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells on bone allograft improves healing and graft incorporation. These studies provide rationale for fabrication of a biomimetic periosteum substitute that could fit bone of any size and shape for enhanced allograft healing and repair. The success of such an approach will depend on further understanding of the molecular signals that control inflammation, cellular recruitment as well as mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and expansion during the early phase of the repair process. It will also depend on multidisciplinary collaborations between biologists, material scientists and bioengineers to address issues of material selection and modification, biological and biomechanical parameters for functional evaluation of bone allograft healing. PMID:18509709

  8. Exchange hybrid cranioplasty using particulate bone graft and demineralized bone matrix: the best of both worlds.

    PubMed

    Beederman, Maureen; Alkureishi, Lee W T; Lam, Sandi; Warnke, Peter; Reid, Russell R

    2014-03-01

    Reconstruction of craniofacial defects in children presents several challenges that are not encountered in the adult population. Autologous bone grafts have long been the criterion standard for repairing these defects. Recently, several new materials and techniques have expanded our arsenal of reconstructive options. In this clinical report, we describe the use of both particulate bone grafting and demineralized bone matrix together to repair craniofacial defects encountered in pediatric patients.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of regenerated bone following poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/hydroxyapatite and deproteinized bovine bone graft in sinus lifting.

    PubMed

    Y Baena, Ruggero Rodriguez; Lupi, Saturnino Marco; Pastorino, Roberta; Maiorana, Carlo; Lucchese, Alessandra; Rizzo, Silvana

    2013-05-01

    Although numerous biomaterials are used for maxillary sinus-lift surgery, the ideal material for such procedures has not yet been identified. Both heterologous and alloplastic bone substitutes have a solely osteoconductive effect and lack the osteoinductive properties of the bone morphogenetic proteins typical of autologous bone. Our group assessed a new alloplastic graft material, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA), implanted in a human model of maxillary sinus-lift surgery. For this prospective, random, double-blind trial, we used deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) as the comparison material. Radiographic bone vertical height and density were assessed at approximately 28 weeks after grafting using cone-beam computed tomography. The vertical dimension of the regenerated bone was equivalent between the 2 groups. The density of the bone regenerated using PLGA/HA was significantly lower than that obtained with DBB. Despite clinical assessments demonstrating that PLGA/HA has sufficient characteristics for use in sinus-lift surgery, DBB provided greater bone density and an equivalent vertical dimension of grafted bone. Further studies are needed to supplement the radiologic findings with histologic and micromorphometric examinations.

  10. Guided bone regeneration using bone grafts and collagen membranes.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Carroll, M J

    2001-01-01

    When nonabsorbable membranes are used for guided bone regeneration (GBR), second surgeries are required for membrane retrieval. In addition, these types of membranes show a high incidence of flap sloughing and membrane exposure that often lead to infection and unfavorable results. Absorbable barriers such as collagen membranes were developed to overcome these drawbacks. This article presents the principles and the clinical procedure of using barrier membranes composed of absorbable collagen in GBR aimed at the repair and regeneration of ridge dehiscence defects around implants. The unique properties of collagen membranes that make them ideally suited to GBR procedures are reviewed. In addition, the indications and contraindications for using collagen membranes for GBR procedures are examined. Finally, cases are presented to demonstrate details of surgical principles and techniques.

  11. Bone Loss in Adolescents After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Judy A.; Inge, Thomas H.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone loss in adolescents after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and to determine the extent to which bone loss was related to weight loss. We hypothesized that adolescents would lose bone mass after surgery and that it would be associated with weight loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case review of 61 adolescents after bariatric surgery. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry, and age- and gender-specific BMD z scores were calculated. Measurements were obtained when possible before surgery and then every 3 to months after surgery for up to 2 years. Data were analyzed by using a mixed-models approach, and regression models were adjusted for age, gender, and height. RESULTS: Whole-body BMC, BMD z score, and weight decreased significantly over time after surgery (P < .0001 for all). In the first 2 years after surgery, predicted values on the basis of regression modeling for BMC decreased by 7.4%, and BMD z score decreased from 1.5 to 0.1. During the first 12 months after surgery, change in weight was correlated with change in BMC (r = 0.31; P = .02). Weight loss accounted for 14% of the decrease in BMC in the first year after surgery. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery is associated with significant bone loss in adolescents. Although the predicted bone density was appropriate for age 2 years after surgery, longer follow-up is warranted to determine whether bone mass continues to change or stabilizes. PMID:21444596

  12. The current status of free vascularized bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G I

    1983-01-01

    In the last decade, free vascularized bone transfer has become an established technique, with success rates above 90 per cent reported in most series. These operations have special application for those situations in which the bone defect is large, the recipient bed is poorly vascularized, and there is an associated soft tissue deficiency. The donor sites now include the fibula, iliac crest, rib, metatarsal, radius, and scapula. Because this is a rapidly expanding field of surgical endeavor, much of the work is unpublished and information in some instances has been obtained necessarily from recent clinical meetings and by personal communication with surgeons. Our experience of 41 bone transfers, using the fibula and the iliac crest as the donor grafts, over a 9-year period has been presented. In general, the fibula is recommended for the reconstruction of a long bone. In the lower extremity it should be placed within the medullary cavity of the recipient bone ends so as to be sited in the line of the weight-bearing stress. The iliac osteocutaneous graft is ideal for reconstructing the mandible and other curved bones but can be used also for shorter defects of the tibia. With appropriate osteotomies the curvature of this bone can be increased or straightened to satisfy the requirements of the recipient site. Stress fracture of a long graft is not uncommon in the lower extremity, especially in adults. Nevertheless, this is followed usually by rapid formation of callus at the fracture site and hypertrophy of the bone. The use of angiography, replica bone models, and trial operations on cadavers is recommended in planning. Operative refinements include a simpler dissection of the fibula with a thinner sleeve of muscle; shaping the iliac bone graft while it is still attached at the donor site; and the suture of vein grafts to the bone graft on a side table when the pedicle is too short. Finally, it must be remembered that these are still relatively sophisticated

  13. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Noriega, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. Materials and Methods One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. Results In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Conclusion Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor. PMID:25279342

  14. Vascularized versus Nonvascularized Bone Grafts: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Bradley J; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rozen, Warren M

    2016-05-01

    There is a general perception in practice that a vascular supply should be used when large pieces of bone graft are used, particularly those greater than 6 cm in length for long-bone and large-joint reconstructions. However, the scientific source of this recommendation is not clear. We wished to perform a systematic review to (1) investigate the origin of evidence for this 6-cm rule, and (2) to identify whether there is strong evidence to support the importance of vascularization for longer grafts and/or the lack of vascularization for shorter grafts. Two systematic reviews were performed using SCOPUS and Medline, one for each research question. For the first research purpose, a review of studies from 1975 to 1983 matching article title ("bone" and "graft") revealed 725 articles, none of which compared graft length. To address the second purpose, a review of articles before 2014 that matched "bone graft" AND ("vascularised" OR "vascularized") AND ("non-vascularised" OR "non-vascularized") revealed 633 articles, four met prespecified inclusion criteria and were evaluated qualitatively. MINORS ratings ranged from 16 to 18 of 24, and National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC] Evidence Hierarchy ratings ranged from III-2 (comparative studies without concurrent controls) to III-3 (comparative studies with concurrent controls). No evidence was found that clarified grafts longer than 6 cm should be vascularized. The first reference to the 6-cm rule cites articles that do not provide strong evidence for the rule. Of the four articles found in the second systematic review, none examined osseous union of vascularized and nonvascularized grafts with respect to length. One study (III-3, MINORS 18 of 24) of fibular grafts to various limb defects found that vascularization made no difference to union rate or time to union. Vascularized grafts were more likely to require surgical revision for wound breakdown, nonunion, graft fracture, or mechanical problems (hazard

  15. Smashed skin grafting or smash grafting - a novel method of vitiligo surgery.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ajay; Kar, Sumit

    2012-10-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired progressive disorder characterized by destruction of melanocytes in the lesion and the lesional hair follicles. A number of new therapeutic options for vitiligo have become available over the last decade or so both on the medical as well as surgical side. One among them is the smashed skin grafting or simply smash grafting, which is a modification of split-thickness grafting. In this method, the graft undergoes "smashing" before being applied to the recipient site. Though a simple and effective procedure, very few people are doing the procedure either due to lack of awareness or due to lack of published data. Smash skin grafting was performed in 26 patients with vitiligo in Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sewagram, Maharashtra, India. Smashed skin grafting helped to achieve more than 90% repigmentation of the vitiligo patches in our patients. Smashed skin grafting is a simple procedure with fewer side effects, better outcome, and high patient satisfaction or, in simple words, it can be considered as an alternative to various conventional surgical modalities like punch grafting and melanocyte cell culture methods. This article deals with the steps of the procedure, results of the surgery in a small group of patients, and the necessity of increasing the awareness of smash grafting. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Evaluation of OSSIFI® as Alloplastic Bone Graft Material in Treatment of Periodontal Infrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Sumit; Kapoor, Anoop; Singh, Preetinder; Kochhar, Gulsheen; Khuller, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The shift in therapeutic concepts from resection to regeneration has significantly impacted the practice of periodontology. Human studies have revealed that hydroxyapatite bone cement holds great promise as a grafting alloplastic material. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of OSSIFI® (combined beta tricalcium phosphate plus hydroxyapatite) in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Ten study subjects were selected and divided into two groups. Group I (PD>7mm) and Group II (PD≤ 7mm). Both Groups I and II were treated by regenerative periodontal surgery using OSSIFI® as graft material. Plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, clinical attachment levels were recorded clinically and bone fill, radiographically, at baseline, three months and six months. Results and Conclusion: Statistically significant reduction in pocket depth, plaque index, gingival index was seen after six months. There was significant bone fill seen from 3-6months with significant gain in clinical attachment levels. PMID:25478450

  17. Experimental study of the participation of the vertebral endplate in the integration of bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Porto Filho, M R; Pastorello, M T; Defino, H L A

    2005-12-01

    The surgical technique of anterior vertebral arthrodesis has been modified by the introduction of cages in spinal surgery. The classical technique recommends removal of the vertebral endplate and exposure of bleeding cancellous bone. However, after the observation of cage subsidence during postoperative follow-up, the vertebral endplate is no longer removed, due to its greater mechanical resistance which can prevent cage subsidence. The mechanical characteristics of the vertebral endplate are well known, in contrast to its osteogenic potential, which was investigated in the present experimental study. The study was conducted on mongrel dogs of both sexes, which were submitted to anterior corpectomy at the cervical spine level. A cortico-cancellous bone graft removed from the tibia was used for the reconstruction of the vertebral segment, which was used with osteosynthesis plates. At the site of contact between the surface of the vertebral body and the bone graft, the vertebral endplate was completely removed and cancellous bone was exposed in the inferior vertebra, whereas in the superior vertebra of the arthrodesed vertebral segment only curettage was performed, and the vertebral endplate was preserved, as recommended for cage implantation. Twenty adult dogs of both sexes were divided into four experimental groups according to time of sacrifice (15, 30, 90, and 180 days). The consolidation of the bone graft with the vertebral body was evaluated by histology using hematoxilin-eosin and Gomori trichrome staining. In the interface between the bone graft and the vertebral body surface in which the vertebral endplate was not removed, graft consolidation was not observed in any of the group I animals (sacrificed after 15 days), and was observed in 1/5 animals of group II (30 days), in 2/5 animals of group III (90 days), and in 4/5 animals of group IV (180 days). In the interface between the graft and the vertebral body in which the vertebral endplate was removed, bone-graft

  18. Atrophic Mandible Fractures: Are Bone Grafts Necessary? An Update.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime; Cunningham, Larry L; Van Sickels, Joseph E

    2017-06-24

    The management of atrophic mandibular fractures poses a challenge because of anatomic variations and medical comorbidities associated with elderly patients. The purpose of this article is to review and update the literature regarding the management of atrophic mandible fractures using load-bearing reconstruction plates placed without bone grafts. We performed a review of the English-language literature looking for atrophic mandibular fractures with or without continuity defects and reconstruction without bone grafts. Included are 2 new patients from our institution who presented with fractures of their atrophic mandibles and had continuity defects and infections. Both patients underwent reconstruction with a combination of a reconstruction plate, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2, and tricalcium phosphate. This study was approved as an "exempt study" by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Kentucky. This investigation observed the Declaration of Helsinki on medical protocol and ethics. Currently, the standard of care to manage atrophic mandibular fractures with or without a continuity defect is a combination of a reconstruction plate plus autogenous bone graft. However, there is a need for an alternative option for patients with substantial comorbidities. Bone morphogenetic proteins, with or without additional substances, appear to be a choice. In our experience, successful healing occurred in patients with a combination of a reconstruction plate, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2, and tricalcium phosphate. Whereas primary reconstruction of atrophic mandibular fractures with reconstruction plates supplemented with autogenous bone graft is the standard of care, in selected cases in which multiple comorbidities may influence local and/or systemic outcomes, bone morphogenetic proteins and tricalcium phosphate can be used as a predictable alternative to autogenous grafts. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and

  19. Feasibility of the Use of RapiGraft and Skin Grafting in Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In Gook; Kwon, Joon Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin grafting is a relatively simple and thus widely used procedure. However, the elastic and structural quality of grafted skin is poor. Recently, various dermal substitutes have been developed to overcome this disadvantage of split-thickness skin grafts. The present study aims to determine the feasibility of RapiGraft as a new dermal substitute. Methods This prospective study included 20 patients with partial- or full-thickness skin defects; the patients were enrolled between January 2013 and March 2014. After skin defect debridement, the wound was divided into two parts by an imaginary line. Split-thickness skin grafting alone was performed on one side (group A), and RapiGraft and split-thickness skin grafting were used on the other side (group B). All patients were evaluated using photographs and self-questionnaires. The Manchester scar scale (MSS), a chromameter, and a durometer were used for the scar evaluation. The average follow-up period was 6 months. Results The skin graft take rates were 93% in group A and 89% in group B, a non-significant difference (P=0.082). Statistically, group B had significantly lower MSS, vascularity, and pigmentation results than group A (P<0.05 for all). However, the groups did not differ significantly in pliability (P=0.155). Conclusions The present study indicates that a simultaneous application of RapiGraft and a split-thickness skin graft is safe and yields improved results. Therefore, we conclude that the use of RapiGraft along with skin grafting will be beneficial for patients requiring reconstructive surgery. PMID:27689048

  20. Maxillary sinus-floor elevation with nanoporous biphasic bone graft material for early implant placement.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Christian; Wiens, Daniel; Steveling, Helmut G; Sander, Anja; Freier, Kolja

    2014-06-01

    Insufficient bone height in the posterior maxilla is caused by bone atrophy after tooth extraction and continued pneumatization of the maxillary sinus. To allow for implant placement in this area, external sinus-floor elevations are performed. For this indication, the application of various bone graft materials can be a reliable alternative to autologous bone. The aim of this study was to analyze a nanoporous bone graft material under the condition of early implant treatment in sinus floor elevations. Sixty-six patients received 94 individual external sinus-floor elevations as a precondition for implant surgery. As grafting material, a synthetic, nanoporous bone graft material consisting of a mixture of nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-β-tricalciumphosphate crystals, combined with blood from the defect side, was used. Depending on the remaining vertical bone height, implant placement was performed either simultaneously with bone augmentation or consecutively in a delayed approach. After a 4-month healing period, the patients received 218 implants and were followed up clinically, radiographically, and histologically. To quantify the bone situation at implant placement, immunohistochemical analysis using tenascin-C was performed. We achieved an average vertical bone increase of 8.28 mm (SD, 2.59) for the one-stage approach and 10.99 mm (SD, 1.73) for the two-stage approach after sinus-floor elevation. The augmented areas showed mean resorption rates of 10.32% (one stage) and 10.82% (two stages) of vertical graft during the observation period. Immunohistochemical analysis after 4 months of healing showed high tenascin activity, indicating bone growth. Good primary stability was achieved during implant placement. Mean peri-implant marginal bone loss was 0.45 mm (SD, 0.31). After a mean observation time of 21.45 months, the biomaterial showed good osseointegration and bone stability radiographically. Adding to this the positive histological and immunohistochemical findings

  1. Comparison of platelet rich plasma and synthetic graft material for bone regeneration after third molar extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Dipesh B.; Sequeira, Joyce; Rao, B. H. Sripathi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare the efficacy of Platelet rich plasma and synthetic graft material for bone regeneration after bilateral third molar extraction. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in 10 patients visiting the outpatient department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Yenepoya Dental College & Hospital. Patients requiring extraction of bilateral mandibular third molars were taken for the study. Following extraction, PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) was placed in one extraction socket and synthetic graft material in form granules [combination of Hydroxyapatite (HA) and Bioactive glass (BG)] in another extraction socket. The patients were assessed for postoperative pain and soft tissue healing. Radiological assessment of the extraction site was done at 8, 12 and 16 weeks interval to compare the change in bone density in both the sockets. Results: Pain was less on PRP site when compared to HA site. Soft tissue evaluation done using gingival healing index given by Landry et al showed better healing on PRP site when compared to HA site. The evaluation of bone density by radiological assessment showed the grey level values calculated at 4 months at the PRP site were comparatively higher than HA site. Conclusion: The study showed that the platelet rich plasma is a better graft material than synthetic graft material in terms of soft tissue and bone healing. However a more elaborate study with a larger number of clinical cases is very much essential to be more conclusive regarding the efficacy of both the materials. PMID:26981473

  2. Comparison of platelet rich plasma and synthetic graft material for bone regeneration after third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Nathani, Dipesh B; Sequeira, Joyce; Rao, B H Sripathi

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of Platelet rich plasma and synthetic graft material for bone regeneration after bilateral third molar extraction. This study was conducted in 10 patients visiting the outpatient department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Yenepoya Dental College & Hospital. Patients requiring extraction of bilateral mandibular third molars were taken for the study. Following extraction, PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) was placed in one extraction socket and synthetic graft material in form granules [combination of Hydroxyapatite (HA) and Bioactive glass (BG)] in another extraction socket. The patients were assessed for postoperative pain and soft tissue healing. Radiological assessment of the extraction site was done at 8, 12 and 16 weeks interval to compare the change in bone density in both the sockets. Pain was less on PRP site when compared to HA site. Soft tissue evaluation done using gingival healing index given by Landry et al showed better healing on PRP site when compared to HA site. The evaluation of bone density by radiological assessment showed the grey level values calculated at 4 months at the PRP site were comparatively higher than HA site. The study showed that the platelet rich plasma is a better graft material than synthetic graft material in terms of soft tissue and bone healing. However a more elaborate study with a larger number of clinical cases is very much essential to be more conclusive regarding the efficacy of both the materials.

  3. Chronology of the Radiographic Appearances of the Calcium Sulfate-Calcium Phosphate Synthetic Bone Graft Composite Following Resection of Bone Tumors: A Follow-up Study of Postoperative Appearances.

    PubMed

    Tan, Victoria; Evaniew, Nathan; Finlay, Karen; Jurriaans, Erik; Ghert, Michelle; Deheshi, Benjamin; Parasu, Naveen

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the radiographic appearance of graft resorption and new bone incorporation into a postresection defect of the calcium-sulfate calcium-phosphate synthetic bone graft composite following resection of benign bone tumours. Twenty-five patients who underwent treatment with the CaSO4/CaPO4 synthetic graft following bone tumour resection were retrospectively identified from our oncology database. Postoperative radiographs were assessed for: 1) combined partial graft resorption and ingrowth at the graft site; 2) complete graft resorption with complete incorporation of new bone into the defect. After chronologically grouping radiographs, the volume of graft material used to fill bony defects, radiographic evidence of complications, and patterns of resorption were recorded. Partial resorption of graft material/partial ingrowth of new bone was seen in 21 patients at 2.5 months postoperatively. Complete resorption of graft with complete new bone incorporation at the graft site was seen in 94% of cases (15 of 16) by 10 months after surgery. Mean time to complete incorporation of new bone was 6.7 months. Time to resorption of the graft with new bone ingrowth was found to be related to the volume of graft used with smaller volumes showing earlier resorption. For all cases demonstrating resorption (21 of 21), the pattern observed was peripheral to central. Five patients developed complications, including tumour recurrence, cyst formation, and graft site infection. Our study suggests a characteristic time and volume related radiographic pattern of resorption and new bone ingrowth with the CaSO4/CaPO4 synthetic graft. Findings that deviate from this pattern may represent complication and warrant additional follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical Guided Bone Regeneration using Titanium-reinforced d-PTFE Membrane and Prehydrated Corticocancellous Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Cucchi, Alessandro; Ghensi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) standard protocols call for filling the space underneath the membrane with autogenous bone or a mixture composed of autogenous bone particles and allogeneic bone tissue or heterologous biomaterials. This work describes the case of a GBR performed to restore a vertical bone defect with simultaneous placement of a dental implant in the posterior mandible that was carried out using a high density d-PTFE membrane and corticocancellous porcine-derived bone without the addition of any autogenous bone. Bone regeneration was assessed by histological analysis of a biopsy sample collected from the grafted site nine months after the surgery. Intraoral radiographs taken at follow-up visits showed complete maintenance of the peri-implant bone levels for up to two years after prosthesis delivery. The regenerated site successfully supported functional loading of the implant. The present case report suggests that the use of a heterologous bone substitute alone to restore a vertical defect in a GBR procedure can be as effective as the standard protocol, while avoiding the drawbacks associated with a second surgical site opening. PMID:25419250

  5. Expanding the utility of modified vascularized femoral periosteal bone-flaps: An analysis of its form and a comparison with a conventional-bone-graft

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Yoshitaka; Hibino, Naohito; Kobayashi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) corticoperiosteal bone-flap is a well-accepted technique when dealing with tissue defects or infection. Its role in refractory conditions and in the possible use for options concerning modifications of this bone-flap compared to a conventional iliac bone graft (conventional-graft) are rarely discussed. Methods We reviewed 21 consecutive cases concerning alternatives with some modifications of original MFC bone-flap surgery used to treat refractory conditions with bone defects, necrosis, or infection in the extremities. We present our devised approaches for this boneflap, and especially modifications of the grafted bone (including strut bone, perforator to the vastus medialis muscle, and the use of one vascular pedicle for some bone flaps) as well as the combined use of artificial bone as hybrid bone transplantation. We also compared the clinical results of 21 cases that received a conventional-graft. Results and Conclusions Following flap placement, 100% of the nonunion sites healed in an average of 2 months, which was significantly shorter than 5.5 months for the conventional-graft. The results showed the expanding possibility for options with regard to the form and options of this bone-flap as well as the shortening the duration of treatment, especially at the site of an infected distal tibia, insertion of the Achilles tendon on the posterior aspect of calcaneal osteomyelitis, distal end of the clavicle, clavicle or forearm with a bone defect, small bones with refractory conditions, and a femur without implant failure. However, it was not efficient for treating a forearm without bone defect. PMID:25983463

  6. Coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes: preliminary report of radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J; Gershuni, D H; Akeson, W H; Holmes, R E; Resnick, D

    1986-04-01

    A new bone graft substitute made by conversion of the calcium carbonate exoskeleton of reef-building sea coral into hydroxyapatite has recently become clinically available. The normal radiographic appearance of two forms of this material is described. In the immediate postoperative period, the exoskeletal architecture of these implants is readily appreciated. With graft incorporation over the ensuing months, their intrinsic structure is gradually lost in association with poor marginal definition. Evolving radiographic findings reflect the biocompatible nature of these implants, which provides the potential for ingrowth of native bone with preservation of the coralline scaffold, resulting in enhanced biomechanical properties.

  7. Osteofibrous Dysplasia managed with Extraperiosteal excision, Autologous free fibular graft and bone graft substitute

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vineet T; Marimuthu, Chandrasekaran; Subbaraj, Ravichandran; Rengarajan, Nandakumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Osteofibrous Dysplasia is a rare benign self-limiting fibro-osseous lesion most commonly seen in the diaphysis of the tibia. Its incidence is reported to be 0.2% of all primary bone tumors. It occurs in the first two decades of life with a slight male preponderance. Surgical options include extra periosteal resection, autologous graft, limb lengthening procedures etc. There are no case reports mentioning the use of synthetic bone graft to fill the defect following extraperiosteal excision. Case Report: A 13 year old girl presented with pain and swelling of the (R) leg since 2 months following a trivial injury at school. Examination revealed a 5×3cm tender swelling on the anteromedial aspect of the middle third tibia. Radiographs and MRI, revealed an eccentric expansile lytic lesion, which was multilocular and was present at the junction of the metaphysis and diaphysis on the antero -medial aspect of tibia. The cortex had ballooned out and there was a possibility of an impending fracture. Biopsy was done which revealed osteofibrous dysplasia. We did an extraperiosteal excision of the lesion. To fill the cavity we harvested 10 cm of the contralateral fibula and since there was still space in the cavity, we packed bone graft substitute (hydroxyapatite crystals) into the defect. The surgical management of osteofibrous dysplasia is controversial. Various methods of treatment of such cases have been described in literature. The use of synthetic graft is an option in these patients as it reduces morbidity; and in our case we had good graft incorporation with this method. Conclusion: Extraperiosteal Excision of Osteofibrous dysplasia combined with autologous free fibular graft and bone graft substitute is a good surgical option to prevent recurrence and mange bone defects in this rare lesion. PMID:27299018

  8. Treatment of large segmental bone defects with reamer-irrigator-aspirator bone graft: technique and case series.

    PubMed

    McCall, Todd A; Brokaw, David S; Jelen, Bradley A; Scheid, D Kevin; Scharfenberger, Angela V; Maar, Dean C; Green, James M; Shipps, Melanie R; Stone, Marcus B; Musapatika, Dana; Weber, Timothy G

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of large segmental defects using conventional autogenous iliac crest bone graft can be limited by volume of cancellous bone and donor site morbidity. The reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) technique allows access to a large volume of cancellous bone graft containing growth factors with potency equal to or greater than autograft material from the iliac crest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of RIA-harvested autogenous bone graft for treating large segmental defects of long bones.

  9. Autogenous bone harvesting and grafting in advanced jaw resorption: morbidity, resorption and implant survival.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich W

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the morbidity arising from autogenous bone graft harvesting, graft resorption and implant survival in grafted sites. Only comparative clinical trials on the harvest of autogenous bone grafts were selected. Studies were excluded if they compared autogenous bone grafts to bone substitutes or vascularised free bone grafts. A total of 24 studies were included in the review. Six intraoral or distant donor sites were identified. The highest level of evidence was reached by a randomised controlled trial. The mandibular ramus was the source of bone that was preferred by the patients. From this intraoral donor site bone was harvested under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis. Patients' acceptance of chin bone harvesting was low. It led to a considerable morbidity that included pain, superficial skin sensitivity disorders and wound healing problems at the donor site. Patients even preferred iliac crest bone harvesting over bone harvesting from the chin, although this distant donor site required general anaesthesia and a hospital stay. The harvest of posterior iliac crest block led to less morbidity than the harvest of anterior iliac crest block grafts. When only cancellous bone was needed, percutaneous bone harvesting from the iliac crest led to less morbidity than an open approach to the iliac crest. Dependent on the required graft structure and amount of bone needed, ramus grafts, block bone grafts from the posterior iliac crest and cancellous bone grafts harvested with a trephine from the anterior iliac crest should be chosen.

  10. A bioactive and bioresorbable porous cubic composite scaffold loaded with bone marrow aspirate: a potential alternative to autogenous bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kojiro; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Shikinami, Yasuo; Nakamura, Takashi

    2011-03-15

    Experimental animal study. To investigate the osteogenic properties of a particulate uncalcined, unsintered hydroxyapatite/polydllactide (u-HA/PdlLA) composite scaffold loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA). Because of the high morbidity associated with bone graft harvesting, current research in spine surgery has largely focused on bone graft alternatives involving a combination of scaffolds and osteogenic substances. BMA is obtained by a simple and relatively noninvasive method and can easily be clinically applied as an osteogenic material. However, few studies have reported successful posterolateral spinal fusion (PLF) with BMA-loaded synthetic materials. Porous u-HA/PdlLA composites loaded with BMA were used as bone graft substitutes. In experiment 1, porous u-HA/PdlLA cylinders containing or lacking BMA were implanted in rabbit muscles. They were retrieved 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation, and ectopic bone formation was histologically evaluated. In experiment 2, 48 rabbits underwent PLF with 1 of 4 bone grafts: autogenous bone (group 1); single-strip u-HA/PdlLA alone (group 2); morselized u-HA/PdlLA + BMA (group 3); or single-strip u-HA/PdlLA + BMA (group 4). After 12 weeks, fusion was assessed by manual palpation, microcomputed tomography, mechanical tests, and histologic examination. In experiment 1, ectopic bone formation was observed in BMA-loaded u-HA/PdlLA, and the new bone area increased until 12 weeks after implantation. In experiment 2, the fusion rates in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 58.3%, 16.7%, 66.7%, and 91.7%, respectively, as determined by manual palpation, and 66.7%, 16.7%, 75.0%, and 91.7%, respectively, as determined by microcomputed tomography. The mechanical strength was significantly greater in group 4 than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our results indicate that BMA-loaded porous μ-HA/PdlLA is an effective alternative to autogenous bone grafts. The structure and composition of porous u-HA/PdlLA render it an effective

  11. Critical Size Bone Defect Healing Using Collagen–Calcium Phosphate Bone Graft Materials

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, William Robert; Oliver, Rema A.; Christou, Chris; Lovric, Vedran; Walsh, Emma Rose; Prado, Gustavo R.; Haider, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The need for bone graft materials to fill bony voids or gaps that are not related to the intrinsic stability of the bone that arise due to trauma, tumors or osteolysis remains a clinically relevant and significant issue. The in vivo response of collagen–tricalcium phosphate bone graft substitutes was evaluated in a critical size cancellous defect model in skeletally mature rabbits. While the materials were chemically virtually identical, new bone formation, implant resorption and local in vivo responses were significantly different. Differences in the in vivo response may be due, in part, collagen source and processing which influences resorption profiles. Continued improvements in processing and manufacturing techniques of collagen—tricalcium phosphate bone graft substitutes can result in osteoconductive materials that support healing of critical size bone defects even in challenging pre-clinical models. PMID:28045946

  12. Onlay bone graft maintenance using guided bone regeneration, platelet rich plasma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mohammed; Elshahat, Ahmed; Elhabbaa, Gamal; Fareed, Ahmed; Safe, Ikram

    2014-11-01

    Onlay bone grafts have a bad reputation of resorption with loss of contour and volume. Rigid fixation reduces the incidence of resorption but does not prevent it. Literature shows reduction of resorption by applying guided bone regeneration (GBR) barriers and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Investigating the effect of combining them together to reduce resorption was the aim of this study. This study included 4 groups: control group, GBR group, PRP group, and GBR + PRP group. Twenty rabbits were used (40 mandibular halves). Onlay bone grafts were fixed by titanium miniscrews in all groups. Computed tomography scans of harvested mandibles after euthanasia allowed calculations of bone graft volume and density. Onlay bone graft volumes in all experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group. Volume maintenance in the GBR group was significantly higher than in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the volume of onlay bone grafts between the group of combined GBR + PRP and GBR alone. It was concluded that, to maintain the volume of onlay bone grafts, either GBR or PRP can be added. Combining them did not add any advantage over the GBR alone.

  13. Early volumetric changes after vertical augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with interpositional block graft versus onlay bone graft: A retrospective radiological study.

    PubMed

    Barone, Antonio; Toti, Paolo; Menchini-Fabris, Giovan-Battista; Felice, Pietro; Marchionni, Saverio; Covani, Ugo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and clinical outcomes of atrophic posterior mandibles treated with inlay or onlay bone grafting techniques. In posterior mandibles, alveolar ridges were treated either with interpositional equine cancellous bone block (inlay group) or with onlay autogenous bone block (onlay group). Bone volumes at baseline and at 4 months after surgery were measured by computed tomography. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled in the present study: 10 in the inlay group and 10 in the onlay group. After surgery, atrophic posterior mandibles showed a mean vertical augmentation height of 6.0 mm in the inlay group and 7.4 mm in the onlay group. No significant differences were recorded between the two groups regarding volume loss of the grafted bone or decrease in vertical bone height of the augmented site (29% and 1.9 mm for the onlay group, and 35% and 1.7 mm for the inlay group) during healing. Two complications (1 wound dehiscence and 1 mandibular fracture) occurred postoperatively in the inlay group; on the other hand, the onlay group had three complications (wound dehiscence). A total of 80 dental implants were placed in augmented areas: 46 in the inlay group with a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 0.8 mm, and 34 in the onlay group with a peri-implant marginal bone loss of 1.3 mm (p = 0.0006). Inlay xenogeneic grafts showed volumetric bone remodeling similar to that recorded for onlay autogenous bone. The success of the autogenous onlay blocks (82.4%) appeared to be lower than that registered for the inlay group (93.8%), but the difference was not significant. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful treatment of a humeral capitulum osteonecrosis with bone morphogenetic protein-7 combined with autologous bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Marsell, Richard; Hailer, Nils P

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 27-year-old female with subcortical osteonecrosis of the humeral capitulum. Percutaneous retrograde drilling of the lesion and application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 were combined with autologous bone grafting. At follow-up the patient was almost pain-free, had normalized her range of motion, and radiography showed consolidation of the lesion without any heterotopic bone formation. By timing surgery prior to subchondral collapse, biomechanical stability of the subchondral bone was maintained. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of an osteonecrosis in this location with a BMP, and this strategy could potentially be applied in other locations with juxta-articular osteonecrosis.

  15. Osteoconduction in keratin-hydroxyapatite composite bone-graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Dias, George Jayantha; Mahoney, Patricia; Hung, Noelyn Anne; Sharma, Lavanya Ajay; Kalita, Priyakshi; Smith, Robert Allen; Kelly, Robert James; Ali, Azam

    2017-10-01

    Reconstituted keratin-hydroxyapatite (K-HA) composites have shown potential as nonload-bearing bone graft substitute material. This in vivo study investigated the bone regeneration response of keratin plus 40% HA composite materials in comparison to collagen counterparts and an unfilled defect site. The implantation site was a noncritical size defect created in the long bones (tibia) of sheep, with observations made at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Porous K-HA materials displayed an excellent biocompatibility similar to collagen counterparts; however, the rate of bone regeneration at K-HA implantation sites was markedly slower than that of the collagen or unfilled defect sites. While collagen materials were undetectable by 4 weeks implantation, K-HA composite remnants were present at 12 weeks. However, there is evidence that K-HA implants participated in the natural remodelling process of bone, with bone regeneration occurring via a creeping substitution mechanism. Observations imply that the rate of bone ingrowth into the K-HA defect site was matched with the rate of K-HA resorption. These results suggest that K-HA materials may offer significant benefits as nonload-bearing bone graft substitutes where it is desirable that the degradation of the scaffolding material be well matched with the rate of bone regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2034-2044, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heterotopic implantation of autologous bone marrow in rock pigeons (Columba livia): possible applications in avian bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Sanaei, M Reza; Abu, Jalila; Nazari, Mojgan; Faiz, Nik Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Zuki Abu; Allaudin, Zeenathul N

    2011-12-01

    Autologous bone marrow, alone or as a composite marrow graft, has received much attention in various species. To assess the potential osteogenicity of autologous, extramedullary bone marrow implants in an avian model, 24 adult pigeons (Columba livia) were given intramuscular implantations of autologous marrow aspirated from the medial tibiotarsus. Birds were euthanatized at 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after surgery to evaluate whether ectopic bone had formed at the implant sites. Primary evaluations by in situ radiography and postmortem histologic examinations showed no evidence of bone formation. Further evaluation with histologic scores and histomorphometry revealed a significantly increased rate of angiogenesis at the implant sites by the sixth and tenth week postimplantation (P < .05). No significant differences between the treatment and control sites were present at any other endpoints. Results of this study show that, although autologous bone marrow lacks heterotopic osteogenic potentials in this avian model, it could still function as a useful adjunct to routine bone grafting techniques because of its unique capabilities to promote early angiogenesis.

  17. The fusion rate of calcium sulfate with local autograft bone compared with autologous iliac bone graft for instrumented short-segment spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jer; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Lih-Huei; Niu, Chi-Chien; Lai, Po-Liang; Fu, Tsai-Sheng; McCarthy, Kevin

    2005-10-15

    A prospective study. To compare the efficacy of calcium sulfate pellets plus laminectomy bone chips with a fresh autologous iliac bone graft for short-segment lumbar fusion. Bone graft substitute material can be used to expand an existing quantity of available laminectomy bone chips. Seventy-four patients underwent surgery for instrumented one- or two-segment fusion with decompression. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was placed in one posterolateral gutter, while on the other side, an equal quantity of autogenous laminectomy bone supplemented with calcium sulfate was placed. Radiographic assessment included radiographs alone; this was performed every 3 months (3 months to 12 months), then annually. The status of fusion and the relative size of the fusion bone mass on either side of the vertebra were compared. Using iliac crest bone graft (control side) versus autograft laminectomy bone with calcium sulfate (test side), there was no significant difference between the fusion rate and sizes of the fusion bone mass (P > 0.05). Follow-up periods ranged from 30 months to 34 months, averaging 32.5 months. For the 39 patients who received single-segment fusion, 34 patients (87.2%) exhibited bone fusion on the test side, and 35 patients (89.7%) had evidence of fusion on the control side. For the 35 patients who received two-segment fusion, 29 patients (82.9%) exhibited bone fusion on the test side and 30 patients (85.7%) demonstrated complete fusion on the control side. The fusion rate and fusion size between the two groups are similar. Calcium sulfate pellets may play a role as a bone graft extender in short-segment spinal fusion.

  18. One, two-, and three-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine with a local bone graft: a prospective study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Inage, Kazuhide; Ohtori, Seiji; Koshi, Takana; Suzuki, Munetaka; Takaso, Masashi; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Takane; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2011-08-01

    Prospective trial. To examine the difference in bone union and clinical results after one-, two-, and three-level instrumented posterolateral fusion surgery using a local bone graft. The iliac crest bone graft technique for lumbar posterolateral fusion surgery is widely used; however, donor site problems such as pain and sensory disturbance have been reported. Local bone has been used for fusion surgery; however, its reliability as a graft for multiple segments has not been fully reported. One hundred twenty-two patients diagnosed with degenerated spondylolisthesis were divided into three groups [spondylolisthesis at 1 level (n = 42), at 2 levels (n = 40), and at 3 levels (n = 40)]. All patients underwent decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft. The amount of bone graft, proportion of patients with (rate) and duration of bone union, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, Japanese Orthopedic Association Score (JOAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before and 2 years after therapy. VAS score, JOA score, and ODI were not significantly different among the three groups before and after surgery (P > 0.05). Average amount of local bone graft used for one segment significantly decreased in proportion to the number of fusion levels (P < 0.05). The rate of bone union was 88% in the one-level group, 85% in the two-level group, and 62.5% in the three-level group, which was significantly lower than that in the one- and two-level groups (P < 0.05). If one- and two-level posterolateral fusion were performed, the local bone graft technique provides a good and uniform bone union rate; however, for three-level fusion poor results were obtained because of an insufficient amount of local bone.

  19. Osteointegration of autogenous bone graft associated with osteoblastic cells under treatment with caffeine.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rander Moreira; Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Bombonato-Prado, Karina Fittipaldi; Prata, Celina Antonio

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated osteointegration of autogenous bone (AB) from calvaria graft associated with osteoblastic cells (OC) in bone defects in rats subjected to daily administration of caffeine. Male rats received daily intraperitoneal injection of 1.5% caffeine (0.2 mL/100 g body weight) or saline solution for 30 days. Then they were anesthetized, submitted to the extraction of the upper right incisor, and implanted with AB only and AB + OC. The animals were killed on 7th, 21st, and 42nd days after surgery, and their maxilla were processed for obtaining semiserial sections (5 μm) stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Through image analysis system, the bone volume and the quality of graft in adjacent areas were estimated. The results showed that in caffeine treatment, the AB + OC graft showed no foreign body and acute inflammatory reactions inside the defect when compared to AB. The histometric results revealed that the association AB + OC produced significant increase (10%-15%) in bone volume in later experimental period (42 days) when compared with saline solution group (P ≤ 0.01). It was concluded that the association of AB from calvaria + OC demonstrated progressive osteointegration and accelerated the repair of bone defects in animals treated with daily caffeine.

  20. Characterisation of osteophytes as an autologous bone graft source

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K.; Akiyama, T.; Akasaki, Y.; Nakashima, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Osteophytes are products of active endochondral and intramembranous ossification, and therefore could theoretically provide significant efficacy as bone grafts. In this study, we compared the bone mineralisation effectiveness of osteophytes and cancellous bone, including their effects on secretion of growth factors and anabolic effects on osteoblasts. Methods Osteophytes and cancellous bone obtained from human patients were transplanted onto the calvaria of severe combined immunodeficient mice, with Calcein administered intra-peritoneally for fluorescent labelling of bone mineralisation. Conditioned media were prepared using osteophytes and cancellous bone, and growth factor concentration and effects of each graft on proliferation, differentiation and migration of osteoblastic cells were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, MTS ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium)) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and migration assays. Results After six weeks, the area of mineralisation was significantly higher for the transplanted osteophytes than for the cancellous bone (43803 μm2, sd 14660 versus 9421 μm2, sd 5032, p = 0.0184, one-way analysis of variance). Compared with cancellous bone, the conditioned medium prepared using osteophytes contained a significantly higher amounts of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (471 pg/ml versus 333 pg/ml, p = 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (47.75 pg/ml versus 32 pg/ml, p = 0.0214, Wilcoxon rank sum test) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 (314.5 pg/ml versus 191 pg/ml, p = 0.0418, Wilcoxon rank sum test). The stronger effects of osteophytes towards osteoblasts in terms of a higher proliferation rate, upregulation of gene expression of differentiation markers such as alpha-1 type-1 collagen and alkaline phosphate, and higher migration, compared with cancellous bone, was confirmed. Conclusion We

  1. Use of bone graft substitutes in the management of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Goff, Thomas; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    The current available evidence for the use of bone graft substitutes in the management of subchondral bone defects associated with tibial plateau fractures as to their efficiency and safety has been collected following a literature review of the Ovid MEDLINE (1948-Present) and EMBASE (1980-Present). Nineteen studies were analysed reporting on 672 patients (674 fractures), with a mean age of 50.35 years (range 15-89), and a gender ratio of 3/2 males/females. The graft substitutes evaluated in the included studies were calcium phosphate cement, hydroxyapatite granules, calcium sulphate, bioactive glass, tricalcium phosphate, demineralised bone matrix, allografts, and xenograft. Fracture healing was uneventful in over 90% of the cases over a variant period of time. Besides two studies reporting on injectable calcium phosphate cement excellent incorporation was reported within 6 to 36 months post-surgery. No correlation was made by any of the authors between poor incorporation/resorption and adverse functional or radiological outcome. Secondary collapse of the knee joint surface ≥ 2 mm was reported in 8.6% in the biological substitutes (allograft, DBM, and xenograft), 5.4% in the hydroxyapatite, 3.7% in the calcium phosphate cement, and 11.1% in the calcium sulphate cases. The recorded incidence of primary surgical site and donor site infection (3.6%) was not statistically significant different, however donor site-related pain was reported up to 12 months following autologous iliac bone graft (AIBG) harvest. Shorter total operative time, greater tolerance of early weight bearing, improved early functional outcomes within the first year post-surgery was also recorded in the studies reporting on the use of injectable calcium phosphate cement (Norian SRS). Despite a lack of good quality randomised control trials, there is arguably sufficient evidence supporting the use of bone graft substitutes at the clinical setting of depressed plateau fractures.

  2. Reconstructive surgery with chin block graft and esthetic rehabilitation of missing anterior tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preetika; Bansal, Pardeep

    2014-01-01

    The complete and predictable restoration of the periodontium following infection or trauma remains a critical objective in regenerative therapy. Bone grafts remain among the most widely used therapeutic strategies for the correction of periodontal osseous defects. For periodontally compromised anterior teeth, reconstruction of the ridge along with natural tooth pontic serves both the purpose of regeneration and esthetics. The right lower central incisor of a 28-year-old male that was periodontally compromised was extracted. Autogenous chin grafting followed by retrograde surgery of the extracted tooth and replacement by natural tooth pontic was done. After 6 months, there was significant improvement in clinical picture and bone fill. This procedure provided excellent regenerative and esthetic results for the periodontally compromised lost anterior tooth. PMID:24872642

  3. Application of ultrasound in bone surgery: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Escoda-Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Araceli; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2010-11-01

    The present study describes some of the applications of ultrasound in bone surgery, based on the presentation of two clinical cases. The Piezosurgery® ultrasound device was used (Tecnología Mectron Medical, Carasco, Italy). In one case the instrument was used to harvest a chin bone graft for placement in a bone defect at level 1.2, while in the other case a bony window osteotomy was made in the external wall of the maxillary sinus, in the context of a sinus membrane lift procedure. The Piezosurgery® device produces specific ultrasound frequency modulation (25-29 kHz), and has been designed to secure increased precision in application to bone surgery. This instrument produces selective sectioning of the mineralized bone structures, and causes less intra- and postoperative bleeding. One of the advantages of the Piezosurgery® device is that it can be used for maxillary sinus lift procedures in dental implant placement. In this context it considerably lessens the risk of sinus mucosa laceration by preparing the bony window in the external wall of the upper maxilla, and can be used to complete the lifting maneuver. The use of ultrasound in application to hard tissues can be regarded as a slow technique compared with the conventional rotary instruments, since it requires special surgical skill and involves a certain learning curve.

  4. Use of autologous bone graft in anterior cervical decompression: morbidity & quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Autologous iliac crest graft has long been the gold standard graft material used in cervical fusion. However its harvest has significant associated morbidity, including protracted postoperative pain scores at the harvest site. Thus its continued practice warrants scrutiny, particularly now that alternatives are available. Our aims were to assess incidence and nature of complications associated with iliac crest harvest when performed in the setting of Anterior Cervical Decompression (ACD). Also, to perform a comparative analysis of patient satisfaction and quality of life scores after ACD surgeries, when performed with and without iliac graft harvest. Methods All patients who underwent consecutive ACD procedures, with and without the use of autologous iliac crest graft, over a 48 month period were included (n = 53). Patients were assessed clinically at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively and administered 2 validated quality of life questionnaires: the SF-36 and Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaires (Response rate 96%). Primary composite endpoints included incidence of bone graft donor site morbidity, pain scores, operative duration, and quality of life scores. Results Patients who underwent iliac graft harvest experienced significant peri-operative donor site specific morbidity, including a high incidence of pain at the iliac crest (90%), iliac wound infection (7%), a jejunal perforation, and longer operative duration (285 minutes vs. 238 minutes, p = 0.026). Longer term follow-up demonstrated protracted postoperative pain at the harvest site and significantly lower mental health scores on both quality of life instruments, for those patients who underwent autologous graft harvest Conclusion ACD with iliac crest graft harvest is associated with significant iliac crest donor site morbidity and lower quality of life at greater than 12 months post operatively. This is now avoidable by using alternatives to autologous bone without compromising clinical or

  5. Effects of low-level laser therapy on autogenous bone graft stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Jéssica Barbosa; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; de Souza Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo; Pomini, Karina Torres; Barraviera, Benedito; Júnior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; de Castro Rodrigues, Antonio; Cestari, Tania Mary; Buchaim, Rogério Leone

    2016-09-01

    Autogenous bone grafts are used to repair bone defects, and the stabilization is needed for bone regeneration. Laser photobiomodulation is a modality of treatment in clinical practice for tissue regeneration, and it has therapeutic effects as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and modulating cellular activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on an autogenous bone graft integration process stabilized with a new heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty rats were divided into two groups: Autogenous Fibrin Graft (AFG, n=20), in which a 5mm dome osteotomy was conducted in the right parietal bone and the graft was adhered to the left side using fibrin sealant; and Autogenous Fibrin Graft Laser (AFGL, n=20), which was subjected to the same procedures as AFG with the addition of LLLT. The treatment was performed immediately following surgery and then three times a week until euthanasia, using an 830nm laser (30mW, 6J/cm(2), 0.116cm(2), 258.6mW/cm(2), 2.9J). Five animals from each group were euthanized at 10, 20, 30 and 40days postoperative, and the samples were submitted to histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis. Partial bone regeneration occurred, with new bone tissue integrating the graft to the recipient bed and small areas of connective tissue. Comparative analysis of the groups at the same intervals revealed minor interfaces in group AFGL, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) at all of the analyzed intervals (10days p=0.0087, 20days p=0.0012, 30days p<0.0001, 40days p=0.0142). In conclusion, low-level laser therapy stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated the process of integration of autogenous bone grafts.

  6. Facial surface changes after cleft alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Krimmel, Michael; Schuck, Nils; Bacher, Margit; Reinert, Siegmar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 3-dimensional facial surface changes after cleft alveolar bone grafting with digital surface photogrammetry. In a prospective study, 22 patients with cleft lip and palate underwent alveolar bone grafting. Before the procedure and 6 weeks postoperatively and before the continuation of orthodontic treatment, 3-dimensional images were taken with digital surface photogrammetry. Seven standard craniofacial landmarks on the nose and the upper lip were identified. Their spatial change because of bone grafting was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and t test. A significant increase in anterior projection on the operative side (P < .05) was found for the labial insertion points of the alar base (subalare). No significant changes were detected for the position of the labial landmarks. Our results show 3-dimensionally that there is a positive influence of the alveolar bone graft on the projection of the alar base on the cleft side. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Osteoinductive ceramics as a synthetic alternative to autologous bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huipin; Fernandes, Hugo; Habibovic, Pamela; de Boer, Jan; Barradas, Ana M. C.; de Ruiter, Ad; Walsh, William R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; de Bruijn, Joost D.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials can be endowed with biologically instructive properties by changing basic parameters such as elasticity and surface texture. However, translation from in vitro proof of concept to clinical application is largely missing. Porous calcium phosphate ceramics are used to treat small bone defects but in general do not induce stem cell differentiation, which is essential for regenerating large bone defects. Here, we prepared calcium phosphate ceramics with varying physicochemical and structural characteristics. Microporosity correlated to their propensity to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone induction in vivo. Implantation in a large bone defect in sheep unequivocally demonstrated that osteoinductive ceramics are equally efficient in bone repair as autologous bone grafts. Our results provide proof of concept for the clinical application of “smart” biomaterials. PMID:20643969

  8. Influence of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the jaws of systemically nicotine-modified rats: A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; de Moraes, Ricardo Oliveira; Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Faleiros, Paula Lazilha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Bosco, Alvaro Francisco

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the bone healing process of autogenous bone block grafts installed in nicotine systemically modified rats. Seventy-two rats (Wistar) were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=18). SS-BG: saline application+bone graft. SS-BG/LLLT: saline application+bone graft+LLLT. NIC-BG: nicotine application+bone graft. NIC-BG/LLLT: nicotine application+bone graft+LLLT. After 30days of application of solutions, all animals received autogenous bone block graft in the jaw, with the donation from the parietal bone's calvarial area. Treatment with LLLT was in bed-graft interface, after accommodation of the graft. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28days after graft surgery. The histologic analyses of NIC-BG group depicted a delay of osteogenic activity in the recipient bed-graft interface and the irradiation of tissue with LLLT provided better bone healing. The histometric analysis revealed that SS-BG/LLLT and NIC-BG/LLLT groups showed increased bone formation compared to BG-SS and NIC-BG groups, after 14days (SS-BG 24.94%±13.06% versus SS-BG/LLLT 27.53%±19.07% and NIC-BG 14.27%±2.22% versus NIC-BG/LLLT 24.37%±11.93%) and 28days (SS-BG 50.31%±2.69% versus SS-BG/LLLT 58 19%±12.32% and NIC-BG 36.89%±8.40% versus NIC-BG/LLLT 45.81%±6.03%). Nicotine harms bone formation in the bed-graft interface and LLLT action can mitigate this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of premaxilla repositioned during secondary bone grafting in complete bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Hossein; Mesgarzadeh, Abolhasan; Tehranchi, Azita; Morad, Golnaz; Samieerad, Sahand; Younessian, Farnaz

    2014-07-01

    Secondary bone grafting simultaneous to premaxillary repositioning is a well-recognized surgical procedure for the management of bilateral cleft lip and palate patients. Proper stabilization of the repositioned premaxilla is considered as a key factor for the success of secondary bone grafting because the mobility of the premaxillary segment jeopardizes graft integration. This case series reports a reliable method of premaxillary stabilization that incorporated the intrasurgical application of resin bone cement to cover and reinforce the arch bars or orthodontic brackets applied on the maxillary teeth. Occlusal loads were reduced by application of posterior bite blocks on the mandibular teeth. The stabilization method was performed on 7 patients (5 women and 2 men) with a mean age of 12.4 years. During postsurgery follow-ups, the repositioned premaxillary segments did not show mobility in any of the patients. The palatal fistulae were completely closed. Panoramic radiographies taken 2 months after surgery demonstrated acceptable graft integration. The patients have now been followed up to 5 years. No evidence of relapse has been observed. This technique seemed to be undemanding, included minimal laboratory procedure, and maintained the labial mucosa overlying the repositioned segment intact.

  10. Microcomputed and histologic evaluation of calvarial bone grafts: a pilot study in humans.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Raffaele; Rebaudi, Alberto; Capparè, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Two evaluation techniques (histology and microcomputed tomography [micro-CT]) were synergistically applied to calvarial bone graft to verify whether additional bone information can be obtained for the assessment of bone grafts. Ten extensive bone defects in the anterior and posterior maxilla or mandible involving crestal bone were treated by grafted blocks and chips of autogenous calvarial bone. The grafts were fixed with lag screws and left to heal for 4 months. No complications were observed. At surgical reentry for implant placement, a cylindric bone biopsy of both graft and native bone was retrieved and analyzed with both micro-CT and standard histology. Two- and three-dimensional (2D, 3D) micro-CT analyses allowed bone connectivity indices to be evaluated. This is useful for estimating bone strength and observing bone structure. The integration of the grafted calvarial bone with the residual bone of the recipient site was considered satisfactory. Histologic analysis allowed observations to be made at a higher resolution. Calvarial bone grafts seem to have positive effects when used as grafting materials. The application of both histologic and micro-CT techniques allows a better evaluation of grafted bone by concurrently allowing 2D and 3D visual and morphometric analysis of bone vitality, structure, turnover, and strength.

  11. Rib cartilage grafting in upper limb surgery: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Loisel, François; Gindraux, Florelle; Tropet, Yves; Lepage, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Used routinely in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, the chondrocostal graft is also used in hand surgery. The purpose of this overview was to analyze at long follow-up the radiological and histological evolution of this autograft, in the hand and wrist surgery. Materials and methods: Since 1992, 144 patients have benefitted from a chondrocostal autograft: 116 osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint, 18 radioscaphoid arthritis, six articular malunions of the distal radius, four kienbock, and four traumatic loss of cartilage of the PIP joint. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was performed in 19 patients and histological study in 12 patients with a mean follow-up of 68 months (4–159). Results: Whatever the indication, the reconstruction by a chondrocostal or ostochondrocostal graft has allowed us to obtain satisfactory clinical results at long follow-up. The main question was the viability of the graft. The radiological study has shown the non-wear of the graft and a certain degree of ossification. The MRI confirmed a very small degree of osseous metaplasia but its viability. The biopsies showed a neo-vascularization of the cartilage. Conclusion: Despite the strong mechanical strain in the hand and wrist, the chondrocostal graft is a biological arthroplasty, trustworthy and secure at long time even if it can cause infrequent complications inherent to this type of surgery. Despite the inevitable histological modification, the cartilage remains alive and is of satisfactory quality at long term follow-up and fulfilling the requirements for interposition and reconstruction of an articular surface. PMID:27163069

  12. External fixation and cancellous bone grafting for Kienböck's disease: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zelouf, D S; Ruby, L K

    1996-09-01

    Between 1985 and 1990, 17 patients with histologically proven Kienböck's disease (Lichtman stages I, II, and III) underwent a combination of cancellous bone grafting to the lunate and external fixation across the wrist. All 17 patients were available for review with a minimum follow-up of 2 years (average, 47 years). Based on pain, functional status, range of motion, and grip strength (Mayo wrist score), there were 6 excellent, 6 good, 2 fair, and 3 poor results (2 of whom required further surgery). An overall success rate of 71% (12 of 17) was achieved. Ten patients underwent postoperative magnetic resonance scanning, and in 5, some improvement in signal intensity was demonstrated. The combination of cancellous bone grafting and external fixation is an alternative treatment for Kienböck's disease.

  13. Comparing alveolar bone regeneration using Bio-Oss and autogenous bone grafts in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Dehghani, Azam; Ghanavati, Farzin; Zayeri, Farid; Ghanavati, Farzam

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bone regeneration grafts (BRG) are widely used in the treatment of osseous defects and oral surgery. The various techniques and associated success rates of bone augmentation require evaluation by systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible studies. The aim of this systematic review was to compare alveolar bone regeneration in humans using Bio-Oss and autogenous bone graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The computerized bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Google, ScienceDirect and Cochrane were searched for randomized and cohort studies in which autogenous grafts were compared to Bio-Oss in the treatment of periodontal defects. The inclusion criteria were human studies in English that were published 1998-2009. Exclusion criteria included non randomized observation and cohort studies, papers which provided summary statistics without the variance estimates, and studies that did not use BRG intervention alone, were excluded. The screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were collected by two observers independently. For comparing autogenous grafts used alone against Bio-Oss used alone 5 situations were investigated. Thirteen studies were included in the review which compared autogenous against Bio-Oss, autogenous combined with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) against GTR, Bio-Oss combined with GTR versus GTR, autogenous alone versus Open Flap Debridement (OFD), Bio-Oss versus OFD. In meta-analysis, changes in bone level (bone fill) was used as the measure. Data were analyzed using Bayesian meta-analysis by WinBUGS and Boa software. RESULTS: Only one comparison demonstrated that the difference in bone augmentation between Bio-Oss and OFD was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to show that Bio-Oss is superior to autogenous grafts in bone augmentation techniques however autogenous bone involves donor site surgery and thus donor site morbidity, so we can

  14. Comparing alveolar bone regeneration using Bio-Oss and autogenous bone grafts in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Dehghani, Azam; Ghanavati, Farzin; Zayeri, Farid; Ghanavati, Farzam

    2009-01-01

    Bone regeneration grafts (BRG) are widely used in the treatment of osseous defects and oral surgery. The various techniques and associated success rates of bone augmentation require evaluation by systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible studies. The aim of this systematic review was to compare alveolar bone regeneration in humans using Bio-Oss and autogenous bone graft. The computerized bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Google, ScienceDirect and Cochrane were searched for randomized and cohort studies in which autogenous grafts were compared to Bio-Oss in the treatment of periodontal defects. The inclusion criteria were human studies in English that were published 1998-2009. Exclusion criteria included non randomized observation and cohort studies, papers which provided summary statistics without the variance estimates, and studies that did not use BRG intervention alone, were excluded. The screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were collected by two observers independently. For comparing autogenous grafts used alone against Bio-Oss used alone 5 situations were investigated. Thirteen studies were included in the review which compared autogenous against Bio-Oss, autogenous combined with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) against GTR, Bio-Oss combined with GTR versus GTR, autogenous alone versus Open Flap Debridement (OFD), Bio-Oss versus OFD. In meta-analysis, changes in bone level (bone fill) was used as the measure. Data were analyzed using Bayesian meta-analysis by WinBUGS and Boa software. Only one comparison demonstrated that the difference in bone augmentation between Bio-Oss and OFD was statistically significant. There is insufficient evidence to show that Bio-Oss is superior to autogenous grafts in bone augmentation techniques however autogenous bone involves donor site surgery and thus donor site morbidity, so we can conclude that Bio-Oss is better than autogenous for alveolar

  15. Bone suture and lateral sinus lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Bone suture in lateral sinus lift has four indications. Three of them depend on creating a hole in the lateral maxillary sinus wall above the antrostomy window for securing the elevated medial maxillary sinus membrane to manage perforated Schneiderian membrane. Covering the buccal antrostomy window with the buccal fat pad (BFP) for better nourishment of the inserted graft and as an alternative for bone tags in fixation of collagen membrane has been reported previously. A new indication for firmly anchoring the BFP to the medial maxillary sinus wall as the last resort for the management of perforated Schneiderian membrane is explained in this article.

  16. Volume changes of autogenous bone after sinus lifting and grafting procedures: a 6-year computerized tomographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sbordone, Carolina; Toti, Paolo; Guidetti, Franco; Califano, Luigi; Bufo, Pantaleo; Sbordone, Ludovico

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate long-term bone remodelling of autografts over time (annually, for 6 years), comparing the block and particulate bone procedures for sinus floor elevation, as well as to evaluate the survival of positioned dental implants. Twenty-three sinus lift procedures with autogenous bone were performed: seven sinus lift procedures using particulate graft and 10 with block autogenous bone were performed in 17 patients. Employing a software program, pre- and post-surgical computerized tomography (CT) scans were used to compare the volume (V) and density (D) of inlay grafts over time (up to 6 years), and to determine the percentage of remaining bone (%R). All variable (V, D and %R) measurements were then compared statistically. At the 6-year survey for block form, a resorption of 21.5% was seen, whereas for particulate grafts there was a resorption of 39.2%. Both groups exhibited bone remodelling between the first and second follow-up which was significant regarding volume for the block form and regarding density for the particulate group. During the initial period of healing, the cortico-cancellous block bone grafted into the maxillary sinus underwent a negative remodelling of the volume, which is most probably due to graft cortex resorption, coupled with, primarily, an increase in density in the spongious area; for the particulate grafts, significant augmentations in density were obtained. The lack of significant differences among volumes was due to the wide degree of dispersion of the data. The rough data presented in this paper seem to support the use of a bone-block grafting procedure in maxillary sinus augmentation. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Secondary alveolar bone grafting using milled cranial bone graft: a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Denny, A D; Talisman, R; Bonawitz, S C

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of secondary bone grafting of alveolar clefts using milled cranial bone graft. The study included a consecutive series of 100 patients who were operated on between 1986 and 1995 by a single senior surgeon. The patients were divided into four groups; (1) unilateral alveolar cleft or (2) bilateral alveolar cleft, (3) before eruption of the canine teeth or (4) after eruption. Follow-up ranged from a minimum of 12 months to 10 years, and evaluation included a physical examination, medical photography, orthodontic reports, and a panorex X-ray and/or a three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the maxilla produced using Denta-scan software. Patient outcomes were judged to be good, acceptable, or poor. Patients who developed any fistula or required regrafting were defined as poor outcomes. The combined good and acceptable outcomes represented 83% of the entire consecutive series. These two groups were defined as successful outcomes. In patients with unilateral and bilateral clefts who were under 12 years old, the success rate was 90% and 88%, respectively. In patients grafted following full canine eruption (>12 years old), success rate decreased to 83% in patients with unilateral and 66% in bilateral clefts, respectively. Our results support the use of milled cranial bone graft, which produces a stable closure of the alveolar cleft with good contour and support for adjacent tooth eruption. Our data further support the conclusion by others that outcomes of early secondary grafting are superior to delayed grafting. The experience presented here, including the success rate, ease of harvesting, and minimal morbidity, makes the cranium our preferred donor site for alveolar cleft grafting.

  18. Estimation of drug absorption in antibiotic soaked bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish Ramesh; Patel, Rukesh R; Solanki, Randhirsinh V; Gupta, Shailendra H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is paucity of literature about antibiotic uptake in bone grafts soaked in antibiotic solutions at room temperature in the operation theatre. We hypothesized that if bone grafts are dipped in different strengths of antibiotic solutions for sufficient period, their utilization at the target site helps in localized release of antibiotics in adequate inhibitory concentration to achieve the bacterial regression. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) Optimum duration, strength, and volume of antibiotic solution required for dipping bone grafts at room temperature prior to the use. (2) What could be the clinical implications of the results obtained? Materials and Methods: Bone shavings from total knee replacements were processed, frozen and transported to bio-analytical laboratory. The bone fragments were then impregnated with different volume and different strength of gentamicin and vancomycin over different time periods. The soaked bone samples underwent further processing for analysis on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. Results: After series of bio-analytical estimation for the soaked drug concentration among bone fragments; the optimal estimation was found with 0.2 mL of 2% strength of gentamicin and vancomycin, the optimal time was found with soakage up to 30 min. These estimated values of soaked antibiotics were five 5 times higher than required minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial regression. Conclusion: Use of antibiotic soaked bone allografts at target sites as potential drug carrier can be a hassle- free yet cost- effective and safe process for achieving maximum bacterial regression. PMID:27904224

  19. [Palliative surgery for bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Oetiker, R F; Meier, G; Hefti, F; Bereiter, H

    2001-12-01

    Advances in the treatment of patients who have bone metastases are an issue of high importance to the orthopaedic surgeon. Early diagnosis requires knowledge of the pathogenesis of bone metastases. A primary route of metastatic cells is via Batson's vertebral vein plexus. An understanding of the pathophysiology enables the surgeon to plan effective treatment. As many patients continue to survive for prolonged periods following the detection of bone metastases, it is important to plan treatment that relieves pain and is functional. In long bones non-operative treatment with radiotherapy, patient education to avoid excessive torsional loads and systemic chemotherapy or hormonal therapy as well as diphosphonates are utilized for small lesions with less than 25 percent of the cortical diameter. The indications for surgical treatment include lesions with elevated fracture risk according to Mirels score. Special emphasis is led on the surgical treatment of spinal metastasis. Early and effective treatment improves the remaining quality of life in patients with metastatic bone disease. However a firm knowledge of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology helps the clinician in making an early diagnosis. Nevertheless the orthopaedic surgeon must recognize the need to approach management of these patients from a multidisciplinary perspective in cooperation with the oncologist, radiotherapist, rehabilitation medicine specialist, radiologist, and pathologist. The cooperation among all members of the team will assure the best possible care for the patient who has metastatic bone disease.

  20. Alveolar bone grafting: results of a national outcome study.

    PubMed

    Revington, Peter J; McNamara, Clare; Mukarram, Shumaila; Perera, Esther; Shah, Hemendranath V; Deacon, Scott A

    2010-11-01

    In 1998, the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report demonstrated a successful radiographic outcome of 58%, for alveolar bone grafting, from 157 cases of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in children aged 12 years. No further national studies have assessed the current level of radiographic outcome following the re-organisation of cleft services since the recommendations from the CSAG report. In 2008, radiographic images were requested for alveolar bone grafts performed in calendar year 2006 from each of the now established UK cleft centres. A sample of 206 patients with 235 grafted sites was scored by a panel of trained assessors, following a calibration exercise, using a modified Kindelan index. Inter- and intra-observer variation was assessed. The overall radiographic success rate for the 2006 images assessed was 85%. There was no statistical difference for radiographic success between centres or surgeons or cleft type when defined as either a bilateral or unilateral alveolar defect for a patient. Alveolar bone grafting appears to have improved radiographic outcomes when compared with the CSAG report following the re-organisation of surgical services for children with cleft lip and/or palate.

  1. Alveolar bone grafting: results of a national outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Revington, Peter J; McNamara, Clare; Mukarram, Shumaila; Perera, Esther; Shah, Hemendranath V; Deacon, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1998, the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report demonstrated a successful radiographic outcome of 58%, for alveolar bone grafting, from 157 cases of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in children aged 12 years. No further national studies have assessed the current level of radiographic outcome following the re-organisation of cleft services since the recommendations from the CSAG report. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 2008, radiographic images were requested for alveolar bone grafts performed in calendar year 2006 from each of the now established UK cleft centres. A sample of 206 patients with 235 grafted sites was scored by a panel of trained assessors, following a calibration exercise, using a modified Kindelan index. Inter- and intra-observer variation was assessed. RESULTS The overall radiographic success rate for the 2006 images assessed was 85%. There was no statistical difference for radiographic success between centres or surgeons or cleft type when defined as either a bilateral or unilateral alveolar defect for a patient. CONCLUSIONS Alveolar bone grafting appears to have improved radiographic outcomes when compared with the CSAG report following the re-organisation of surgical services for children with cleft lip and/or palate. PMID:20615302

  2. Interaction of platelet-rich concentrate with bone graft materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Andrew; Milner, Richard; Ellis, Keith; Watson, J Tracy; Horner, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Platelet-rich concentrate (PRC) is in routine use for orthopaedic and maxilofacial surgery and is frequently combined with bone graft materials to fill bony defects and enhance healing. Numerous studies have been performed investigating the efficacy of PRC to enhance bone healing in which a variety of graft materials have been combined with varying degrees of success. Here, we sought to determine the effect of combining PRC with different graft materials on human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and bone formation. Our central hypothesis is that PRC is not a true osteogenic agent but rather is osteopromotive, with cell fate determination being dependent on additional signals derived from the microenvironment. Experiments were performed with low passage (maximum 3) hBMSCs that were maintained in the presence of ascorbic acid-2-phosphate and beta-glycerol phosphate. Dexamethasone was excluded from these studies. PRC and graft materials were retained within well inserts and clotted by addition of bovine thrombin. Cell proliferation was determined by DNA content, osteoblastic commitment, and differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Combining PRC with the graft materials increased proliferation above that seen with the graft materials alone; however, only demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and allograft were capable of increasing proliferation above that seen with PRC alone. The increased proliferation observed in the presence of PRC coincided with decreased normalized alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting decreased osteoblastic differentiation. However, at later time points, PRC increased mineralization compared with DBM, collagen, or beta tricalcium phosphate alone. When compared with PRC alone, addition of DBM or allograft decreased mineralization. Collagen gave rise to a small increase in mineralization, whereas beta tricalcium phosphate yielded the same level of mineralization as PRC

  3. Adjuvant therapies of bone graft around non-cemented experimental orthopedic implants stereological methods and experiments in dogs.

    PubMed

    Baas, Jørgen

    2008-08-01

    Revision arthroplasty is a challenging aspect of the otherwise quite successful area of joint replacement surgery. The instable interaction between implant and host bone has often initiated a destructive process of inflammation and osteolysis, rendering the revision site sclerotic and with insufficient bone stock. One way of dealing with this is to build up a bed of tightly packed morselized bone graft to support the revision implant in a procedure often referred to as impaction grafting. Fresh frozen morselized femoral head allograft is the gold standard material for impaction grafting of the large defects usually involved in revision arthroplasty. The clinical outcome does not match that of primary arthroplasties. Implant subsidence is greater, implant survival shorter, and the bone graft is often not incorporated into living bone. The studies constituting this thesis have investigated ways of improving early implant fixation and bone graft incorporation. All studies used the same experimental canine model of early fixation and osseointegration of uncemented implant components inserted into a bed of impacted bone graft. Study I compared bone grafted implants where the morselized allograft was used alone or had been added rhBMP-2, the bisphosphonate pamidronate or a combination of the two. The main object was to see wether the previously observed growth factor related accelerated allograft resorption could be counteracted by the addition of an anti-catabolic drug. The study also compared HA-coated and non-coated porous Ti implants. The untreated control implants had better mechanical fixation than all other treatment groups. RhBMP-2 raised the total metabolic turnover of bone within the allograft with a net negative result on implant fixation. Pamidronate virtually blocked bone metabolism, also when combined with rhBMP-2. The HA-coated implants had more than twice as good mechanical fixation and improved osseointegration compared to the corresponding Ti implants

  4. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects grafted with bovine bone in diabetic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; da Costa Lino, Maíra Doria Martinez; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Cangussu, Maria Cristina; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there is a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder such as Diabetes Mellitus, a systemic disorder associated to impair of the repair of different tissues. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic rats treated or not with LLLT (λ780nm, 70mW, CW, o/˜0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) associated or not to the use of a biomaterial. Surgical tibial bone defects were created in 60 animals that were divided into 4 groups: Group B (non-diabetic + biomaterial); Group BL (non-diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT); Group BD (diabetic + biomaterial); Group BDL (diabetic + biomaterial + LLLT). The irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into 4 points around the defect, being the first irradiation carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The specimens underwent a semi-quantitative analysis. The results showed inflammation more intense in the BD and BDL groups than in the B and BL groups in the period of 15 days (p = 0.02), however the cortical repair in the BDL group was below 25% in more than half of the specimens, while in the BD group, the repair was more than to 25% in all specimens. At 30 days, both osteoblastic activity and collagen deposition were significantly higher in the B group when compared to the BD group (p=0.04). Bone deposition was significantly higher in the BL group (p=0.023) than in BDL group. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect in the early stages of the healing process of bone defects grafted with biomaterial in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  5. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  6. Treatment of delayed/nonunion of scaphoid waist with Synthes cannulated scaphoid screw and bone graft.

    PubMed

    Inaparthy, P K; Nicholl, J E

    2008-12-01

    Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpus, and frequently, diagnosis is delayed. The unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to delayed union or nonunion. The Synthes scaphoid screw is a cannulated headed screw, which provides superior compression compared with some other devices used to internally fix scaphoid nonunions. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective study looking at the union rate, time to union, and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment against the delay between injury and surgery and location of the fracture within the bone. This study is a review of a cohort of 30 patients treated with a cannulated Synthes scaphoid screw and corticocancellous bone grafting for scaphoid waist delayed union and nonunion at our center. We achieved 86% overall union rate. The patients with delayed union achieved a 100% union rate. Three out of four patients with persistent nonunion after surgery reported no pain and improved function. The failure rate was 75% in patients who had sustained their fracture more than 5 years previously. Our study demonstrates that delayed union of scaphoid waist fractures and scaphoid waist nonunions present for less than 5 years can be successfully treated by fracture compression and bone grafting.

  7. Treatment of Delayed/Nonunion of Scaphoid Waist with Synthes Cannulated Scaphoid Screw and Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpus, and frequently, diagnosis is delayed. The unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to delayed union or nonunion. The Synthes scaphoid screw is a cannulated headed screw, which provides superior compression compared with some other devices used to internally fix scaphoid nonunions. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective study looking at the union rate, time to union, and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment against the delay between injury and surgery and location of the fracture within the bone. This study is a review of a cohort of 30 patients treated with a cannulated Synthes scaphoid screw and corticocancellous bone grafting for scaphoid waist delayed union and nonunion at our center. We achieved 86% overall union rate. The patients with delayed union achieved a 100% union rate. Three out of four patients with persistent nonunion after surgery reported no pain and improved function. The failure rate was 75% in patients who had sustained their fracture more than 5 years previously. Our study demonstrates that delayed union of scaphoid waist fractures and scaphoid waist nonunions present for less than 5 years can be successfully treated by fracture compression and bone grafting. PMID:18780015

  8. Scaphoid Plate Fixation and Volar Carpal Artery Vascularized Bone Graft for Recalcitrant Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Halim, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes after treatment of symptomatic, recalcitrant scaphoid nonunions using a novel combination of volar scaphoid buttress plating with a pedicled vascularized bone graft. We retrospectively followed 9 patients with recalcitrant scaphoid waist nonunions, characterized by failed prior surgery, long duration of nonunion, avascular necrosis of the proximal pole, or considerable bone loss at the nonunion site. We treated these persistent nonunions through a single volar incision with a pedicled vascularized bone graft, based on the volar carpal artery, and a 1.5-mm precontoured, scaphoid-specific, volar buttress plate. Postoperatively, we assessed objective and subjective outcomes as well as radiographs and computed tomography scans. The median duration of nonunion was 15 months, ranging from 6 to 96 months. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 11 to 19 months. Computed tomography scans demonstrated union in 8 of 9 cases. Complications included 1 minor hematoma that spontaneously resolved. One scaphoid failed to unite, requiring revision surgery. Three patients experienced problems with the plate. One plate was removed from a patient who noted persistent clicking, and 2 plates have caused symptomatic clicking, likely requiring future removal. Eight of nine patients reported satisfaction with the procedure, with QuickDash scores averaging 8.2. We present a series of recalcitrant scaphoid nonunions treated with a novel technique of volar buttress plating and vascularized bone graft. In this series, we found a high rate of union, with consistent radiographic improvement and symptomatic relief. This procedure can be performed using a single incision and with minimal donor site morbidity. Volar plating of a scaphoid nonunion comes with the risk of articular prominence, but offers a new alternative to headless screw fixation. Our early results from this series are promising and support this protocol as a viable

  9. Management of scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis using 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular arterial bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohamad; Soltanmohamadi, Mohamad; Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Moezi, Mehdi; Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz; Zarezadeh, Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    Background: 1,2 ICSRA, introduced by Aidembery et al., is a well-established technique, with up to 100% union rate among different studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of scaphoid nonunion undergoing 1,2 ICSRA bone graft in Iran. Materials and Methods: All participants who presented sequentially over a period of 24 months between 2010 and 2013 with nonunion scaphoid fracture with AVN in proximal pole were included in the study. Anteroposterior and lateral view plain radiographs of carpal bones were obtained for diagnosis of nonunion, and a diagnosis of avascular necrosis was made by MRI of the scaphoid. Subjects underwent 1,2 ICSRA bone graft surgery. Patients were assessed based on radiographs and the Mayo Wrist Score (MWS) questionnaire on before and after surgery. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 18 by paired t test. Results: Overall, 16 patients (100% male) were included in the study. Mean age of subjects was 27.50 ± 5.86 (18 to 38). Mean Mayo score was 36.63 ± 8.92 and 83.75 ± 9.22 before and 6 month after surgery, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). after 8 weeks, 10 (62.5%) had union, and after 12 weeks, all subjects had union. Nine (56.25%) of our patients had excellent functional outcome, 5 (31.25%) had good and 2 (12.5%) had satisfactory functional outcome. Conclusion: 1,2 ICSRA is a proper pedicle of vascularized bone graft due to the ease of visibility and dissection. The functional results and union rates were satisfactory in our study. PMID:25250299

  10. Aesthetic recovery of alveolar atrophy following autogenous onlay bone grafting using interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) and resorbable poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid screws: case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Onlay bone grafting techniques have some problems related to the limited volume of autogenous grafted bone and need for surgery to remove bone fixing screws. Here, we report a case of horizontal alveolar ridge atrophy following resection of a maxillary bone cyst, in which autogenous onlay bone grafting with interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) and bioresorbable poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid (PLLA-PGA) screws was utilized. Case presentation A 51-year-old man had aesthetic complications related to alveolar atrophy following maxillary bone cyst extraction. We performed onlay grafting for aesthetic alveolar bone recovery using IP-CHA to provide adequate horizontal bone volume and PLLA-PGA screws for bone fixing to avoid later damage to host bone during surgical removal. During the operation, an autogenous cortical bone block was collected from the ramus mandibular and fixed to the alveolar ridge with PLLA-PGA screws, then the gap between the bone block and recipient bone was filled with a granular type of IP-CHA. Post-surgery orthopantomograph and CT scan findings showed no abnormal resorption of the grafted bone, and increased radiopacity, which indicated new bone formation in the area implanted with IP-CHA. Conclusion Our results show that IP-CHA and resorbable PLLA-PGA screws are useful materials for autogenous onlay bone grafting. PMID:24889647

  11. The Effect of Locally Administered Pamidronate on Autogenous Bone Graft in Maxillofacial Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, M.; Garajei, A.; Afshari Pour, E.; Hasheminasab, M.; Ghorbani, Y.; Kalantar Motamedi, M. H.; Bahrami, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although bone grafts are commonly used in reconstructive surgeries, they are sensitive to local perfusion and are thus prone to severe resorption. Biphosphonates can inactivate osteoclasts and can be used to control the undesirable bone resorption. Objective: To assess the effect of administration of biphosphonates on bone resorption. Methods: 20 patients with bony defects who were candidates for free autogenous grafts were randomized into “pamidronate” and “control” groups. Bone segments were soaked in either pamidronate solution or normal saline and were inserted into the area of the surgery. Bone densities were measured post-surgery and in 6-month follow-up. Data were obtained via Digora software and analyzed. Results: The mean±SD bone density in pamidronate group changed from 93.4±14.6 to 93.6±17.5 (p<0.05); in the control group the density decreased from 89.7±13.2 to 78.9±11.4 (p<0.05). The mean difference of bone density in anterior areas of the jaws showed higher DXA in comparison to posterior regions (p=0.002). Conclusion: Locally administered pamidronate affects reduction in bone resorption. PMID:28299027

  12. Efficacy of tissue engineered bone grafts containing mesenchymal stromal cells for cleft alveolar osteoplasty in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Korn, P; Schulz, M C; Range, U; Lauer, G; Pradel, W

    2014-10-01

    The development of sufficient tissue engineered bone grafts for alveolar cleft osteoplasty could reduce the necessity of autogenous bone grafts and its donor site morbidity. The aim of the study was to evaluate tissue engineered bone grafts in an artificially created bone defect. Bone grafts were created in vitro colonizing a synthetic hydroxyapatite-tricalciumphosphate scaffold (BONITmatrix(®)) with either undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (group 1) or osteogenic differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (group 2). Cells were multiplied from bone marrow of donor rats. Unmodified scaffolds (group 3) and the tissue engineered bone grafts were inserted into artificial maxillary defects of 54 Lewis rats. In 18 animals the defects remained unfilled (control). After one, three and six weeks the rats were sacrificed. The defect was evaluated radiologically and histologically with regard to the remaining defect volume and diameter. Statistical analysis followed. The bone grafts led to a specific bone formation at the defect margin. No complete reunion of any defect was observed within the healing time. After six weeks, the remaining defect volume was 6.86 ± 3.21 mm(3) (control), 4.08 ± 1.36 mm(3) (group 1), 5.00 ± 0.84 mm(3) (group 2) 5.50 ± 1.05 mm(3) (group 3). The remaining defect diameter measured 2.63 ± 0.52 mm (control), 2.39 ± 0.23 mm (group 1), 2.53 ± 0.22 mm (group 2) and 2.70 ± 0.66 mm (group 3). In all experimental groups the defect volume and diameter decreased over time, which was significant for group 1 (p = 0.014), group 2 (p = 0.025) and group 3 (p = 0.048). The defect volume and width was significantly reduced for bone grafts containing undifferentiated cells compared to control (p = 0.035) or scaffolds only (p = 0.05). Tissue engineered bone grafts induce a pronounced bone formation in artificial bone defects compared to unfilled controls or scaffolds only. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery

  13. Effects of pre- and postoperative irradiation on the healing of bone grafts in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, M.J.; Marx, R.E.; Gottlieb, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Healing of cellular bone grafts irradiated at various times in the postsurgical course was compared to the healing characteristics of bone grafts placed into already irradiated tissue and to controls of irradiated host mandible in a rabbit model. Physical graft consolidation was assessed by load stress characteristics and serial histologic examination. Results indicated that grafts placed into already irradiated tissues failed to form bone in both phases of expected regeneration resulting in structurally weakened and histologically deficient ossicles. Bone grafts irradiated after placement were tolerant of irradiation. Bone grafts irradiated after four weeks were found to be less affected by irradiation than those irradiated within the first four weeks, forming an ossicle structurally and histologically superior to that of bone ossicles developed from grafts placed into irradiated tissues.

  14. Tissue Engineered Bone Grafts: Biological Requirements, Tissue Culture and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Mirjam; Grayson, Warren L.; Wan, Leo Q.; Marolt, Darja; Drobnic, Matej; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The tremendous need for bone tissue in numerous clinical situations and the limited availability of suitable bone grafts are driving the development of tissue engineering approaches to bone repair. In order to engineer viable bone grafts, one needs to understand the mechanisms of native bone development and fracture healing, as these processes should ideally guide the selection of optimal conditions for tissue culture and implantation. Engineered bone grafts have been shown to have capacity for osteogenesis, osteoconduction, osteoinduction and osteointegration - functional connection between the host bone and the graft. Cells from various anatomical sources in conjunction with scaffolds and osteogenic factors have been shown to form bone tissue in vitro. The use of bioreactor systems to culture cells on scaffolds before implantation further improved the quality of the resulting bone grafts. Animal studies confirmed the capability of engineered grafts to form bone and integrate with the host tissues. However, the vascularization of bone remains one of the hurdles that need to be overcome if clinically sized, fully viable bone grafts are to be engineered and implanted. We discuss here the biological guidelines for tissue engineering of bone, the bioreactor cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells on three-dimensional scaffolds, and the need for vascularization and functional integration of bone grafts following implantation. PMID:19075755

  15. Tomographic evaluation of iliac crest bone grafting and the use of immediate temporary implants to the atrophic maxilla.

    PubMed

    Castagna, L; Polido, W D; Soares, L G; Tinoco, E M B

    2013-09-01

    Sixteen consecutive patients with atrophic maxillae, who had been referred for bone augmentation using iliac bone grafting before the placement of dental implants, received a full clinical examination and underwent a CT scan before and after surgery. Linear vertical and horizontal measurements were made before and 6 months after surgery. Differences in mean bone gain or loss for each area were compared between a group that received an immediate total provisional prosthesis on temporary immediate implants (test group, 12 patients) and a control group (four patients). Both groups showed significant horizontal bone gain in all regions and vertical bone augmentation in the posterior regions. The test group showed no significant difference for bone gain compared to the control group, but half the test group had problems during treatment. Bone augmentation of the atrophic maxilla with iliac crest bone grafting resulted in sufficient vertical and horizontal bone augmentation to install six or eight implants in all patients and successfully rehabilitate them. The results suggest that the use of total provisional prostheses on temporary immediate implants meets the aesthetic demands required, but should be used with care and in special cases. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximal Femoral Reconstructions with Bone Impaction Grafting and Metal Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Fernando; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Extensive circumferential proximal cortical bone loss is considered by some a contraindication for impaction bone grafting in the femur. We asked whether reconstruction with a circumferential metal mesh, impacted bone allografts, and a cemented stem would lead to acceptable survival in these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients (15 hips) with severe proximal femoral bone defects (average, 12 cm long; 14 type IV and one type IIIB using the classification of Della Valle and Paprosky) reconstructed with this method. The minimum followup was 20 months (average, 43.2 months; range, 20–72 months). Preoperative Merle D’Aubigné and Postel score averaged 4.8 points. With revision of the stem as the end point, the survivorship of the implant was 100% at one year and 86.6% at 72 months. The mean functional score at last followup was 14.4 points. We observed two fractures of the metal mesh at 31 and 48 months in cases reconstructed with a stem that did not bypass the mesh. Dislocation (3 cases) and acute deep infection (3 cases) were the most frequent complications. Patients with complete absence of the proximal femur may be candidates for biological proximal femoral reconstructions using this salvage procedure. Bone impaction grafting must be a routine technique if this method is selected. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19294476

  17. A New Option for the Reconstruction of Orbital Floor Defects: The Olecranon Bone Graft.

    PubMed

    Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Şirinoğlu, Hakan; Sarici, Murat; Temiz, Gökhan; Filinte, Gaye Taylan

    2015-10-01

    Orbital floor fractures are one of the most commonly encountered maxillofacial fractures due to its weak anatomic structure. Autogenous bone is a commonly used option for the reconstruction of orbital floor defects by many authors and institutions. This article introduces the olecranon bone graft as a new option for orbital floor reconstruction. The study is based on the analysis of 13 patients with orbital floor fracture operated on by using the olecranon bone graft. The mean age of the patients was 34 years 6 months. The physical examination of 5 (38.5%) patients revealed diplopia, 3 (23%) patients gaze restriction, 3 (23%) patients infraorbital nerve paresthesia, and 7 (53.8%) patients enophthalmos with various degrees. The mean defect size was 21.15 × 14.08 mm and the mean defect field was 2.98 cm2. All patients were operated on under general anesthesia and the orbital floor defect was exposed subperiosteally. The olecranon bone graft was harvested in 10 cases using a 3-cm incision over the olecranon and in 3 cases using the bone biopsy trephine and placed to the orbital floor defect after shaping with cottle cartilage crusher. Both clinical and radiological follow-up examinations were carried out in the postoperative period. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 7.92 months. The mean size of the grafts was 24.85 × 17.54 mL. The mean field of the grafts was 4.26 cm2. Among the 7 patients who had enophthalmos before the surgery, complete resolution was observed in 6 (85.7%) patients and in the remaining 1 (14.3%) patient, the degree of enophthalmos was found to be significantly reduced at the postoperative sixth month examination. All patients with preoperative diplopia and gaze restriction showed complete healing in the postoperative period. Eleven (84.6%) patients showed mild pain at the olecranon donor area with complete relief in the postoperative 3 days and the remaining 2 (15.4%) patients had moderate pain sensation which completely passed away

  18. A comparison of autogenous bone graft combined with deproteinized bovine bone and autogenous bone graft alone for treatment of alveolar cleft.

    PubMed

    Thuaksuban, N; Nuntanaranont, T; Pripatnanont, P

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed the use of composite autogenous bone and deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) for repairing alveolar cleft compared with autogenous bone alone in terms of clinical outcomes and patient morbidity. 30 patients with a mean age of 10.2±1.7 years were randomly divided into two groups. Group I used autogenous cancellous bone graft harvested from the anterior iliac crests by the conventional trapdoor approach. Group II used a composite of DBB and autogenous cancellous bone harvested by a trephine bone collector; the proportion of 1:1 by volume was used. The bone graft quantities of both groups decreased with time. Their average changes were not statistically different over 24 months after grafting. The canines of both groups could spontaneously or orthodontically erupt through the grafting areas. Patients in group II recovered from uncomfortable walking significantly faster than those in group I (p<0.05) and their duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter than those in group I (p<0.05). The average operation time, intra-operative blood loss and postoperative pain were less in group II than in group I (p>0.05). Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive clinical review of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (INFUSE® Bone Graft)

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Steven M.; Badura, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier has been shown to induce bone formation in a number of preclinical and clinical investigations. In 2002, rhBMP-2/ACS at a 1.5-mg/cc concentration (INFUSE® Bone Graft, Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Memphis, TN) was FDA-approved as an autograft replacement for certain interbody spinal fusion procedures. In 2004, INFUSE® Bone Graft was approved for open tibial fractures with an intermedullary (IM) nail fixation. Most recently, in March 2007, INFUSE® Bone Graft was approved as an alternative to autogenous bone grafts for sinus augmentations, and for localised alveolar ridge augmentations for defects associated with extraction sockets. The culmination of extensive preclinical and clinical research and three FDA approvals makes rhBMP-2 one of the most studied, published and significant advances in orthopaedics. This review article summarises a number of clinical findings of rhBMP-2/ACS, including the FDA-approved investigational device exemption (IDE) studies used in gaining the aforementioned approvals. PMID:17639384

  20. Quantitative Comparison of Volume Maintenance between Inlay and Onlay Bone Grafts in the Craniofacial Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Rosenthal, Andrew H.; Ozaki, Wayne; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonvascularized autologous bone grafts are the criterion standard in craniofacial reconstruction for bony defects involving the craniofacial skeleton. The authors have previously demonstrated that graft microarchitecture is the major determinant of volume maintenance for both inlay and onlay bone grafts following transplantation. This study performs a head-to-head quantitative analysis of volume maintenance between inlay and onlay bone grafts in the craniofacial skeleton using a rabbit model to comparatively determine their resorptive kinetics over time. Methods Fifty rabbits were divided randomly into six experimental groups: 3-week inlay, 3-week onlay, 8-week inlay, 8-week onlay, 16-week inlay, and 16-week onlay. Cortical bone from the lateral mandible and both cortical and cancellous bone from the ilium were harvested from each animal and placed either in or on the cranium. All bone grafts underwent micro–computed tomographic analysis at 3, 8, and 16 weeks. Results All bone graft types in the inlay position increased their volume over time, with the greatest increase in endochondral cancellous bone. All bone graft types in the onlay position decreased their volume over time, with the greatest decrease in endochondral cancellous bone. Inlay bone grafts demonstrated increased volume compared with onlay bone grafts of identical embryologic origin and microarchitecture at all time points (p < 0.05). Conclusions Inlay bone grafts, irrespective of their embryologic origin, consistently display less resorption over time compared with onlay bone grafts in the craniofacial skeleton. Both inlay and onlay bone grafts are driven by the local mechanical environment to recapitulate the recipient bed. PMID:23629083

  1. Anterior debridement and bone grafting of spinal tuberculosis with one-stage instrumentation anteriorly or posteriorly.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Lian, Xiao Feng; Hou, Tie Sheng; Ma, Hui; Chen, Zhi Ming

    2007-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, 40 cases (average age 38, range 16-65 years) of spinal tuberculosis were treated with anterior debridement and iliac bone graft with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation in our unit. All patients received at least 2 weeks of regular antituberculous chemotherapy before surgery. We followed up all patients for 12-48 months (mean 22 months). Local symptoms of all patients were relieved significantly 1-3 weeks postoperatively; 23 of 25 cases (92%) with neurogical deficit had excellent or good clinical results. Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) returned from 51 mm/h to 32 mm/h (average) two weeks postoperatively. Kyphosis degrees were corrected by a mean of 16 degrees . Fusion rate of the grafting bone was 72.5% one year postoperatively and 90% two years postoperatively. Severe complications did not occur. We therefore believe that patients undergoing anterior debridement and iliac bone grafting with one-stage anterior or posterior instrumentation achieve satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes.

  2. Meralgia paresthetica occurring 40 years after iliac bone graft harvesting: case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Nagira, K; Kurosaka, M

    2001-12-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is an entrapment neuropathy involving the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. We describe an unusual case in which meralgia paresthetica occurred many years after iliac bone graft harvesting. An 81-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of pain, dysesthesia, and hypesthesia in the anterolateral aspect of the right thigh. This patient had undergone iliac bone grafting when he sustained a calcaneal fracture 40 years previously. Radiographs and computed tomographic scans of the pelvis revealed a bony excrescence in the anterosuperior iliac spine. The patient underwent neurolysis of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and excision of the bony excrescence. At surgery, the nerve was densely adherent to the bony excrescence. The etiology of meralgia paresthetica in this patient is considered to be heterotopic ossification on the anterosuperior iliac spine and pubic symphysis degeneration. A significant relationship between pubic symphysis degeneration with increasing age and meralgia paresthetica has been reported. One should be aware of meralgia paresthetica as a late complication of iliac bone graft harvesting.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin eluted from a regenerating bone graft substitute

    PubMed Central

    Stravinskas, M.; Horstmann, P.; Ferguson, J.; Hettwer, W.; Tarasevicius, S.; Petersen, M. M.; McNally, M. A.; Lidgren, L.

    2016-01-01

    bone graft substitute: In vitro and clinical release studies. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:427–435. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0108.R1. PMID:27678329

  4. Bone Formation Following Sinus Augmentation with an Equine-Derived Bone Graft: A Retrospective Histologic and Histomorphometric Study with 36-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Vinci, Raffaele; Polizzi, Elisabetta Maria; Cinci, Lorenzo; Pieri, Laura; Gherlone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bone formation over time following maxillary sinus augmentation with an enzyme-deantigenic, bone collagen-preserving equine bone graft by retrospective assessment of histomorphometric data. Records of patients with atrophic ridges who underwent maxillary sinus augmentation with the enzyme-deantigenic equine bone graft and two-step implant placement between 3 and 12 months after the sinus-augmentation surgery were assessed retrospectively. The histomorphometric data were clustered in three classes according to time of collection from the augmentation surgery and analyzed to assess newly formed bone deposition and residual biomaterial degradation rates. Data concerning the 36-month clinical follow-up were also assessed. Records of 77 patients and 115 biopsy specimens were retrieved, and histomorphometric data were clustered (3 to 5 months, n = 33; 6 to 8 months, n = 57; 9 to 12 months, n = 25). Mean minimum atrophic ridge thickness was 4.9 ± 0.5 mm (range, 4.0 to 7.1 mm). The amount of newly formed bone and residual biomaterial did not significantly differ among the three clusters. Qualitative analysis showed a denser trabecular structure in late (> 8 months) samples. At the 36-month clinical follow-up, no differences were found among the implant success rates in the three groups, according to the Albrektsson and Zarb criteria for success. The overall implant success rate was 98.3%. Based upon this retrospective human study of 77 patients with 4 to 7 mm of residual bone, when enzyme-deantigenic equine bone is used for sinus augmentation, new bone formation occurs at an early time (< 3 months) after the grafting, and implant placement can be safely carried out as soon as 3 to 5 months after the augmentation surgery.

  5. Limitation of the antibiotic-eluting bone graft substitute: An example of gentamycin-impregnated calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Huang, Yang-Kai; Chang, Wei-Jen; Wu, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chen-Chie; Yang, Kai-Chiang

    2016-11-18

    Patients with inadequate volume of alveolar processes or bone defects commonly require graft substitutes in oral, maxillofacial or orthopedic surgery. Ridge augmentation and reconstruction of facial bony defects with bone graft materials achieve better outcomes in functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. The injectable calcium sulfate filler is used widely in intra-operative applications. Calcium sulfate bone filler has been shown to upregulate bone formation-related mRNA genes in vitro and improve osseointegration in vivo. In addition, the bone graft substitute can be used as a drug delivery system for antibiotics to treat or prevent infections based on the clinical experiences. However, the influences of antibiotics addition on the calcium sulfate are not fully understood. In this study, calcium sulfate impregnated with gentamycin in different weight ratios was characterized. The results showed that gentamycin prolonged the hydration process and extended initial/final setting times of calcium sulfate. The addition of gentamycin slowed the conversion from calcium sulfate hemihydrate to dihydrate and changed the crystalline phase and microstructure. Higher amounts of gentamycin added resulted in faster degradation and lower mechanical strength of calcium sulfate. This study reveals that the extended setting time, decreased compressive strength, and the accelerated degradation of the gentamycin-impregnated calcium sulfate bone graft substitutes should be considered during intra-operative applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Use of mineralized collagen bone graft substitutes and dorsal locking plate in treatment of elder metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke-Bin; Huang, Kui; Teng, Yu; Qu, Yan-Zheng; Cui, Wei; Huang, Zhen-Fei; Sun, Ting-Fang; Guo, Xiao-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Bone graft may be needed to fill bone defect in elderly patients with a metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture. In this retrospective, nonrandomized, single-surgeon study, we evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes of using both dorsal locking plates with or without augmentation with mineralized collagen (MC) bone graft for elderly patients with dorsally metaphyseal comminuted radius fractures. Patients in group 1 ( n = 12) were treated with dorsal locking plates with MC bone graft application into the metaphyseal bone defect, and those in group 2 ( n = 12) only with dorsal locking plates. Clinical and radiologic parameters were determined at three and 12 months after surgery. At final follow-up, no significant difference was noted between the 2 groups in terms of palmar tilt and radial inclination ( p = 0.80); however, ulnar variance increased significantly in the group 2 treated with dorsal locking plates without augmentation ( p < 0.05). Functionally, there was no significant difference between the groups. Our preliminary study suggests that combination of MC as bone-graft substitutes and dorsal locking plates may be a usefully alternative for elderly patients with metaphyseal comminuted distal radius fracture.

  7. Deep vein thrombosis due to migrated graft bone after posterior lumbosacral interbody fusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Sato, Shigenobu; Nakagawa, Izumi; Hyakumachi, Takahiko; Yanagibashi, Yasushi; Nitta, Fumihito; Masuda, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the case of an 83-year-old woman with refractory sciatica attributable to isthmic spondylolisthesis at L-5. Her symptoms were successfully improved after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) at L5-S1; however, notable swelling in her left leg suddenly developed 2 days postoperatively. Anterior migration of a fragment of bone graft was demonstrated on computed tomography scanning, and there was obvious occlusion of the left common iliac vein (CIV) on magnetic resonance venography. Ultrasonography revealed a thrombus in the left CIV at the site of compression. To prevent a pulmonary embolism during manipulation of the affected vein, an inferior vena cava filter was placed just before excision of the migrated bone fragment. The swelling in the patient's leg subsided quickly after the surgery, and she was treated with heparin and warfarin to prevent recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Six months after the second surgery, complete restoration of blood flow to the left CIV and no recurrence of DVT were demonstrated on magnetic resonance venography. Especially in elderly patients with degenerative disc disease, excessive curettage and impaction of disc materials during the PLIF procedure may cause migration of bone graft fragments. Surgeons should be aware of the possible vascular complications of PLIF.

  8. Implant Site Under-Preparation to Compensate the Remodeling of an Autologous Bone Block Graft.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Murias-Freijo, Alia; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan

    2015-07-01

    Autologous bone block grafting is an efficient technique to thicken an atrophied residual alveolar ridge. A variable degree of resorption, however, occurs due to graft remodeling. In this study, we hypothesize that under-preparation of implant socket would permit the dental implant to act as a bone expansor and thus compensate for the contraction in the augmented ridge width. For that reason, 10 patients received an autologous bone block graft that was obtained from the ramus of the mandible. Residual alveolar ridge width was measured on CBCT scans obtained before surgery (T0), after 2 months of healing (T1), after 4 months of healing just before implant placement (T2), and after 4 months of implant placement (T3). The thickness of the alveolar ridge was initially increased from 2.5 ± 1.4 to 6.1 ± 2.0 mm. Before implant insertion, this width was decreased to 5.6 ± 2.1 mm. The last measurement after implant insertion indicated an increase to 7.3 ± 1.8 mm. In comparison to the measurements at T1, a loss of about 0.5 mm of the augmented width occurred. But, this loss was compensated by an increment of 1.2 mm at T3 (after implant insertion) if related to the measurement at T1. Neither gingival dehiscence nor block exposure was observed. Within the limitations of this study, under-preparation of implant socket could make the ridge expansion possible during implant insertion and thus to compensate the remodeling of autologous bone block graft.

  9. Femoral impaction bone grafting in revision hip arthroplasty: 705 cases from the originating centre.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M J; Hook, S; Whitehouse, S L; Timperley, A J; Gie, G A

    2016-12-01

    Femoral impaction bone grafting was first developed in 1987 using morselised cancellous bone graft impacted into the femoral canal in combination with a cemented, tapered, polished stem. We describe the evolution of this technique and instrumentation since that time. Between 1987 and 2005, 705 revision total hip arthroplasties (56 bilateral) were performed with femoral impaction grafting using a cemented femoral stem. All surviving patients were prospectively followed for a mean of 14.7 years (9.8 to 28.3) with no loss to follow-up. By the time of the final review, 404 patients had died. There were 76 further revisions (10.8%) involving the stem; seven for aseptic loosening, 23 for periprosthetic fracture, 24 for infection, one for malposition, one for fracture of the stem and 19 cement-in-cement exchanges of the stem during acetabular revision. The 20-year survival rate for the entire series was 98.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 97.8 to 99.8) with aseptic loosening as the endpoint, and 87.7% (95% CI 82.8 to 92.6) for revision for any reason. Survival improved with the evolution of the technique, although this was not statistically significant due to the overall low rate of further revision. This is the largest series of revision total hip arthroplasties with femoral impaction grafting, and the results support the continued use of this technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1611-19. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Circulation, bone scans, and tetracycline labeling in microvascularized and vascular bundle implanted rib grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, D.H.; Williams, H.B.; Rosenthall, L.; Viloria, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    The circulation in microvascularized rib grafts has been compared with that in conventional rib grafts and in those augmented by a direct vascular bundle implantation into the bone grafts. A new experimental model has been designed to correlate vascular perfusion, bone scan patterns, tetracycline labeling, and histological findings in these bone grafts. Posterior microvascularized rib grafts were found to have a circulatory pattern identical to that of the normal rib. Failed microvascularized rib grafts were revascularized more slowly than conventional rib grafts. Vascular bundles implanted into rib grafts remained patent and increased the rate of revascularization. The stripping or preservation of periosteum had no observable effects on the rate or pattern of conventional rib graft revascularization. The circulation in rib grafts was accurately reflected in technetium 99 bone scans, as was the patency of the anastomoses of microvascularized rib grafts and of implanted vascular bundles. In contrast, tetracycline labeling was repeatedly observed in avascular areas of bone grafts and, therefore, is not a reliable indicator of bone graft circulation.

  11. Risk Factors for Chronic Saphenous Neuralgia Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Utilizing Saphenous Vein Grafts.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Sameh M; Narouze, Samer N

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine risk factors for chronic saphenous neuralgia (SN) following harvesting of the great saphenous vein (GSV) for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In a prospective observational trial, 526 patients with no history of chronic painful disorders or surgery in the lower limbs were followed up for 13 weeks after undergoing CABG surgery in which GSV grafts were used. The primary outcome measure was persistence of clinically significant pain of neuropathic type in the territory supplied by the saphenous nerve beyond 12 weeks after surgery. Eighty-one (15.4%) patients consistently had probable neuropathic pain of clinically significant severity throughout the follow-up period and were labeled as suffering from chronic SN. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis showed that younger age (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P-value, < 0.0001), female gender (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.21-4.29; P-value, 0.011), higher body mass index (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35; P-value, < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.13-4.01; P-value, 0.020), distal-to-proximal dissection of the GSV (OR, 7.28; 95% CI, 3.62-14.66; P-value, < 0.0001), and closure of the leg wound in two layers (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.81-5.95; P-value, 0.0001) were independent risk factors for chronic SN. Chronic SN after CABG surgery utilizing GSV grafts is not uncommon. Risk factors identified in this trial are younger age, female gender, higher body mass index, diabetes mellitus, distal-to-proximal dissection of the GSV, and closure of the leg wound in two layers. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  12. Impaction bone grafting and cemented stem revision in periprosthetic hip fractures: a novel surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Paul M; Bobak, Peter P; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    With an ageing population, and increasing longevity of hip arthroplasty prostheses, the incidence of periprosthetic femoral fractures is rising. We present a simple and easily reproducible technique for reduction of any periprosthetic fracture that requires bone graft augmentation. This method facilitates impaction bone grafting to reconstitute lost bone stock and revision using a cemented implant.

  13. Calvarial versus iliac crest for autologous bone graft material for a sinus lift procedure: a histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Roberto; Vinci, Raffaele; Capparè, Paoli; Gherlone, Enrico; Romanos, George E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, through histomorphometric analysis, the use of donor autogenous bone graft from calvarial or iliac sources for maxillary sinus lift procedures. Sixteen patients requiring maxillary sinus augmentation were included in this study. One group of 10 patients was alternatively selected to receive autologous calvarial bone particles, and another group of 6 patients received autologous iliac bone particles. Five months after surgery, bone biopsy specimens were obtained at the time of implant procedure and analyzed through histomorphometry. To compare mean values between the calvarial and iliac crest groups, the Student t test was performed. The level for statistical significance was set at P < .05. All patients completed the healing period following sinus augmentation procedure without complications. In the calvarial group, an average total bone volume (BV) of 73.4% +/- 13.1% was found. Nonvital bone constituted an average of 5.5% +/- 6.3% of the total tissue volume. The percentage of vital bone (VB) showed an average of 67.9% +/- 16.1%. In the iliac group, the average total bone volume was 46.6% +/- 17.4%, with an average of 12.6% +/- 7.7% of NVB and an average of 34.0% +/- 21.5% of VB. A significant difference was observed between calvarial and iliac bone grafts with respect to BV, VB, and NVB (P < .05). From this present histomorphologic study, it might be concluded that grafted bone obtained from calvarial sources for sinus lift procedure presented a significantly higher degree of bone volume and vital bone volume in contrast to bone harvested from the iliac crest.

  14. Comparison of donor-site engraftment after harvesting vascularized and nonvascularized iliac bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Alireza; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Riediger, Dieter; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Gerressen, Marcus

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the donor-site morbidity after harvesting of nonvascularized and vascularized iliac bone grafts. Clinical data of 353 patients were collected for analysis. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to all patients asking about their perceptions of different parameters. In an individual age-matched layout, we compared 34 patients with nonvascularized iliac bone grafts with 34 patients with vascularized iliac bone grafts. Transplantation of vascularized bone grafts has been increasingly performed at our institution. The mean age was 41.5 years in the nonvascularized group and 48.6 years in the vascularized group. The main reason for the bony defect in the vascularized group was malignancy. The majority of postoperative functional problems were observed in obese patients. No patient had serious or long-term complications at the donor site. The amount of bone graft taken affected postoperative sensitivity disturbance and caused postoperative functional problems and pain. We conclude that the iliac crest is a suitable site for harvesting both vascularized and nonvascularized bone grafts measuring up to 10 x 3 cm. For larger defects that require a larger bone graft, a vascularized bone graft is more suitable with a better predictable healing capability. No significant differences in donor-site morbidity were found between the vascularized and nonvascularized bone grafts if a similar amount of bone was taken for transplant.

  15. Bone morphogenic protein: an elixir for bone grafting--a review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prasun; Keppler, Louis; Rutkowski, James

    2012-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. This literature review focuses on the molecular biology of BMPs, their mechanism of action, and subsequent applications. It also discusses uses of BMPs in the fields of dentistry and orthopedics, research on methods of delivering BMPs, and their role in tissue regeneration. BMP has positive effects on bone grafts, and their calculated and timely use with other growth factors can provide extraordinary results in fractured or nonhealing bones. Use of BMP introduces new applications in the field of implantology and bone grafting. This review touches on a few unknown facts about BMP and this ever-changing field of research to improve human life.

  16. COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES' POTENTIAL TO CREATE Graft Storage Solutions for Bypass Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the optimal storage conditions for vascular grafts during bypass surgery. These studies have repeatedly shown that placing vascular graft conduits in isotonic saline solutions, and to a lesser extent in heparinized autologous blood, leads to a profound decline in endothelial cell viability. Endothelial damage to vein grafts can occur at multiple points during a coronary artery bypass graft surgery procedure: graft harvesting, handling, flushing, storage, anastomosis, and arterialization (e.g., damage caused by exposure to arterial blood pressure). This damage to endothelial cells causes the release of pro-inflammatory chemical signals that trigger thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and accelerated graft atherosclerosis, all of which ultimately contribute to graft failure. Cardiothoracic surgeons performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and vascular surgeons performing peripheral artery bypass graft surgery have attempted to overcome the damage to the vascular grafts by using buffers to maintain the physiological pH of the storage solution. However, the endothelial layers in the grafts would benefit from having proper oxygenation and antioxidants added to the storage solution. Compounding pharmacies can perform a vital role in ensuring the patency of the vascular grafts by creating compounded flushing and storage solutions that have an optimal mix of nitric oxide substrates, antioxidants, and other nutrients for the endothelium. Maintaining structural and functional viability of the endothelia in grafts by using an appropriate vessel storage medium would lead to improved long-term graft patency.

  17. CSF–Related Complications After Intradural Spinal Tumor Surgery: Utility of an Autologous Fat Graft

    PubMed Central

    Arnautovic, Kenan I.; Kovacevic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Object: The incidence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-related complications after intradural spinal tumor (IST) surgery is high and reported in up to 18% of patients. However, no efficient way to prevent those complications has been reported so far. Treating these complications may require prolonged bed rest, re-exploration, external lumbar drain, use of antibiotics, and possible precipitation of other complications. To alleviate the risk of CSF-related complications, we prospectively adopted the intraoperative use of autologous fat grafting after IST surgery. Methods: This is a perspective analysis of 37 cases (out of 40 cases series) that a prospective use of abdominal fat autograft was applied during dural closure. After the tumor was resected and the dura closed, we used the Valsalva maneuver to ensure watertight closure. CSF leak was prevented with the enforcement of suture with a fat autograft as necessary. In addition a thin layer of fat tissue was then placed over the dura to obliterate any dead space. Fibrin glue was then applied over the graft. Filling the dead space with the fat graft prevented a low-pressure space in which CSF could pool and form a pseudomeningocele. Results: After adopting the fat autograft technique, we did not observe any post-surgery CSF-related complications in any of these patients. Conclusions: The prospective use of autologous fat grafting can ensure watertight dural closure and obliterate the dead space created during surgical exposure and bone removal. This technique significantly reduces, and may completely eliminate, postoperative CSF-related complications in patients with ISTs. PMID:28210022

  18. Local autogenous bone mixed with bone expander: an optimal option of bone graft in single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Mou-Zen; Chen, Yen-Jen; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Chen, Hsien-Te

    2008-12-01

    This was a retrospective study of clinical results for single-segment posterolateral lumbar fusion using local autograft bone with bone expander. Sixty-six patients underwent single-segment decompression with instrumented posterolateral fusion. Locally harvested morselized bone from the decompressive site mixed with 2 mL calcium sulfate (OSTEOSET, Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) was used for the fusion at the posterolateral aspect of the lumbar spine. The minimum follow-up period was 15 months. The status of the fusion was evaluated by plain film, flexion-extension view, and fine-cut computed tomography (CT) with coronal reconstruction. Radiographic fusion criteria included less than 5 degrees of angular motion, less than 2 mm of translation, and evidence of bridging bone in the posterolateral lumbar area on the CT scan. The clinical outcome was recorded using VAS score and the ODI. The results were then compared with the result of the other group who had received the same procedure except that a pure autogenous bone graft harvested from the PSIS was used. In the group using local bone and OSTEOSET, the fusion rate was 92.3% by the strict criteria. The VAS scores for leg pain and back pain were decreased in the 2 groups, but there was no significant difference between them. The improvement in the ODI was also similar between the 2 groups. Intraoperative blood loss and the time needed for the operation were significantly decreased in the group using local bone and OSTEOSET as the bone graft. In the group using autogenous bone graft, donor site morbidity was still encountered. Using local laminectomy bone with calcium sulfate as bone graft is a practical option in posterolateral lumbar fusion with the advantages of less operative time, less blood loss, and avoidance of donor site morbidity.

  19. Augmentation of the rat jaw with autogeneic cortico-cancellous bone grafts and guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of augmenting the maxillary alveolar ridge and the lateral aspect of the mandible with onlay autogeneic cortico-cancellous bone grafts that were covered with e-PTFE membranes. The experiment was carried out in 51 rats. In 15 rats, the edentulous maxillary jaw between the incisor and the first molar was augmented by means of an autogeneic ischiac bone graft that was fixed with a gold-coated microimplant. In one side, the graft was covered with an e-PTFE membrane, while the other side, which served as control, was treated without a membrane. In the other 36 rats, the lateral aspect of the mandible was augmented in both sides by means of an autogeneic ischiac bone graft that was fixed with a gold-coated or a titanium microimplant. In one side, the augmented area was covered with an e-PTFE membrane, while the contralateral side was treated without a membrane. Histological analysis at 60, 120 and 180 days after augmentation of the maxilla showed that, in the case of the test sites (where most of the membranes were either exposed or lost), the bone grafts presented extensive resorption and there was a lack of bone continuity between the graft and the recipient site. Similar findings were made at the non-membrane-treated control sides. In the case of augmentation of the mandible with membranes, the bone grafts were not resorbed, but were integrated into newly formed bone at the recipient site. In the control sides, the grafts presented varying degrees of resorption and integration into the recipient bone. It is concluded that, in comparison to bone grafting alone, onlay ischiac bone grafting combined with guided tissue regeneration eliminates the risk of bone graft resorption and ensures integration of the graft into newly formed bone at the recipient site, provided that closure of the operated area can be maintained during healing.

  20. The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting on Allograft Union and Incorporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-09

    Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 RE: Grant no. N00014-93-1-0745; The effect of cementation and autogenous bone grafting on allograft union...of Wisconsin System Title of Project: The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting on Allograft Union and Incorporation Grant Number...cantilever bending, and torsion tests. 94-05018 94 2 1 5 004 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII The Effect of Cementation and Autogenous Bone Grafting

  1. Specific biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanotopographies enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone graft osteointegration.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Alayna E; Wei, Lai; Faryad, Muhammad; Paul, Emmanuel M; Lewis, Gregory S; Gao, Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-08-01

    Impaired healing of cortical bone grafts represents a significant clinical problem. Cadaveric bone grafts undergo extensive chemical processing to decrease the risk of disease transmission; however, these processing techniques alter the bone surface and decrease the osteogenic potential of cells at the healing site. Extensive work has been done to optimize the surface of bone grafts, and hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanotopography both increase osteoblastic differentiation. HAP is the main mineral component of bone and can enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone implant healing in vivo, while nanotopography can enhance osteoblastic differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation. This is the first study to test the combined effects of HAP and nanotopographies on bone graft healing. With the goal of identifying the optimized surface features to improve bone graft healing, we tested the hypothesis that HAP-based nanotopographic resurfacing of bone grafts improves integration of cortical bone grafts by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. Here we show that osteoblastic cells cultured on processed bones coated with specific-scale (50-60 nm) HAP nanotopographies display increased osteoblastic differentiation compared to cells on uncoated bone, bones coated with poly-l-lactic acid nanotopographies, or other HAP nanotopographies. Further, bone grafts coated with 50-60-nm HAP exhibited increased formation of new bone and improved healing, with mechanical properties equivalent to live autografts. These data indicate the potential for specific HAP nanotopographies to not only increase osteoblastic differentiation but also improve bone graft incorporation, which could significantly increase patient quality of life after traumatic bone injuries or resection of an osteosarcoma.

  2. Specific Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Nanotopographies Enhance Osteoblastic Differentiation and Bone Graft Osteointegration

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Wei, Lai; Faryad, Muhammad; Paul, Emmanuel M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Gao, Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    Impaired healing of cortical bone grafts represents a significant clinical problem. Cadaveric bone grafts undergo extensive chemical processing to decrease the risk of disease transmission; however, these processing techniques alter the bone surface and decrease the osteogenic potential of cells at the healing site. Extensive work has been done to optimize the surface of bone grafts, and hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanotopography both increase osteoblastic differentiation. HAP is the main mineral component of bone and can enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone implant healing in vivo, while nanotopography can enhance osteoblastic differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation. This is the first study to test the combined effects of HAP and nanotopographies on bone graft healing. With the goal of identifying the optimized surface features to improve bone graft healing, we tested the hypothesis that HAP-based nanotopographic resurfacing of bone grafts improves integration of cortical bone grafts by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. Here we show that osteoblastic cells cultured on processed bones coated with specific-scale (50–60 nm) HAP nanotopographies display increased osteoblastic differentiation compared to cells on uncoated bone, bones coated with poly-l-lactic acid nanotopographies, or other HAP nanotopographies. Further, bone grafts coated with 50–60-nm HAP exhibited increased formation of new bone and improved healing, with mechanical properties equivalent to live autografts. These data indicate the potential for specific HAP nanotopographies to not only increase osteoblastic differentiation but also improve bone graft incorporation, which could significantly increase patient quality of life after traumatic bone injuries or resection of an osteosarcoma. PMID:23510012

  3. Assessment of bone repair following the use of anorganic bone graft and membrane associated or not to 830-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis Limeira, Francisco, Jr.; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antônio L.; Marquez de Martinez Gerbi, Marleny E.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana Maria; Marzola, Clovis; Carneiro Ponzi, Elizabeth A.; Soares, Andre O.; Bandeira de Carvalho, Lívia C.; Vieira Lima, Helena Cristina; Oliveira Gonçalves, Thais; Silva Meireles, Gyselle C.; Possa, Thaise R.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LLLT (λ830nm, Thera lase, DMC Equipmentos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, 40mW, CW, spot size 0.60mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of bone defects on the femur of Wistar albinus rats which were grafted with anorganic bovine bone associated or not to bovine bone membrane. Five randomized groups were studied: I (Control); II (anorganic bovine bone); III (anorganic bovine bone + LLLT); IV (anorganic bovine bone + bovine bone membrane) and V (anorganic bovine bone + bovine bone membrane + LLLT). The animals were irradiated at every 48h during 15 days, the first irradiation was performed immediately after the procedure. The animals were irradiated transcutaneuosly in four points around the defect. At each point a dose of 4J/cm2 was given (f~0,60mm, 40mW) totaling 16J/cm2 per session. The animals were sacrificed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The specimens were routinely processed to wax and stained with H&E and Picrosírius stains and analyzed under light microscopy. The results showed evidence of a more advanced repair on the irradiated groups when compared to non-irradiated ones. The repair of irradiated groups was characterized by both increased bone formation and amount of collagen fibers around the graft within the cavity early, considering the osteoconductive capacity of the anorganic bovine bone and the increment of the cortical repair in specimens with membrane. It is concluded that LLLT had a positive effect on the repair of bone defect submitted the implantation of graft associated or not to the use of biological membrane.

  4. Autogenous bone graft harvest using reamer irrigator aspirator (RIA) technique for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Cuttica, Daniel J; DeVries, J George; Hyer, Christopher F

    2010-01-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a technically demanding procedure that can be associated with a high number of complications, including nonunion. Bone grafting is commonly used in arthrodesis procedures to decrease the risk of nonunion. In this article, we describe a technique that uses a reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) method for procurement of autogenous bone graft for use in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis fixated with a retrograde intramedullary nail. Using the RIA technique, autogenous bone graft can be readily obtained without the need for additional incisions and dissection, thereby minimizing the need for additional sources of bone graft.

  5. Vertical Bone Grafting and Periosteal Vertical Mattress Suture for the Fixation of Resorbable Membranes and Stabilization of Particulate Grafts in Horizontal Guided Bone Regeneration to Achieve More Predictable Results: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Urban, Istvan A; Lozada, Jaime L; Wessing, Bastian; Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    Osteosynthesis screws and titanium or resorbable pins have been recommended for fixing guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes and stabilizing the graft. However, the removal of fixation screws or pins often requires an additional surgical procedure. This article presents a periosteal suturing technique with resorbable sutures for the fixation of grafts and membranes in GBR in single implant sites. This technique avoids potential complications of using fixation screws or pins, such as perforation of the roots when inserting the pins, and eliminates the need for a second retrieval surgery.

  6. Peyronie's graft surgery-tips and tricks from the masters in andrologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios; Tsambarlis, Peter; Kübler, Hubert; Levine, Laurence A

    2017-08-01

    Grafting techniques in the surgical management of Peyronie's disease (PD) are challenging, especially in inexperienced hands. In order to improve surgical outcomes the urologist should follow a standard surgical approach, preferably of an established and reliable grafting technique. The aim of this study is to provide tips and tricks for graft surgery for PD. This report offers a step-by-step tutorial for grafting techniques in PD, especially for the Sealing technique and the partial plaque excision and grafting (PEG) procedure. Two senior surgeons (GH, LAL) describe their surgical technique in detail, and provide important aspects and tips one has to be aware of when performing a grafting technique in patients with PD. Special attention is also paid to preoperative considerations and adequate patient counseling. Moreover, postoperative penile rehabilitation programs are discussed. Adequate preoperative counseling of patients is crucial, and should include possible adverse effects and negative outcomes, such as persistent or recurrent curvature, diminished sensation at the glans penis, diminished erectile function, or penile shortening. The correct indication for a grafting technique is imperative. There are many surgical details during grafting techniques, which have to be considered in order to achieve the best result possible. These include the correct preparation of the neurovascular bundle, the following partial plaque excision without damaging the underlying erectile tissue, and the sufficient closure of the resulting tunica albuginea defect. Defect closure can be done by grafts like pericardial graft (PEG procedure) or the collagen fleece (Sealing technique). Postoperatively, the patient should refrain from sexual activities for at least 6 weeks, and follow a penile rehabilitation program with Phoshodiesterase-Type-5 inhibitors, manual stretch, penile massage, and penile traction therapy. The present paper offers a step-by-step tutorial for grafting

  7. A comparison of bone reconstruction following application of bone matrix gelatin and autogenous bone grafts to alveolar defects: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mohammad; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Marjani, Mehdi; Motahhary, Pouria

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of osseous healing of bone matrix gelatin (BMG) with autogenous bone graft (ABG) in cat models. Osseous defects (5 x 5mm) were made through upper alveolar bone distal to the canines in the left and right quadrants (maxilla) in each of twelve Persian male cats and filled randomly with BMG and ABG. The repair response was examined on days 14, 28, and 56 after surgery (n=4 per bone substitute per time point). Qualitative histological and quantitative histometric analysis including percentage of new formed bone fill (BF) and density were done. The inter-treatment comparison of mean levels of BF at specific time points showed consistently greater levels within BMG treated defects and reached significance on days 14, 28, and 56 (P<0.05). Regarding bone density (BD), there was no significant difference between BMG and ABG on days 14 and 28 (P>0.05). On day 56, BD was significantly higher within BMG group (P<0.05). Intra-treatment evaluation of bone formation in each group showed that BD significantly increased during treatment (P<0.05), and BF in BMG group reached significance at every time point but in ABG group only increase from day 28 to 56 reached significance (P<0. 05). Our results support the use of BMG to treat bone defects. Clinicians might expect better clinical outcomes without the possibility of side effects and morbidity associated with the harvest of autogenous bone. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solitary haemangioma of the shaft of long bones: resection and reconstruction with autologous bone graft.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxu; Tang, Jicun; Ye, Zhaoming

    2013-04-01

    Bone haemangiomas are uncommon lesions, occurring in the skull or spine. A solitary haemangioma in the diaphysis of a long bone is rare. We retrospectively investigated six patients who presented with a solitary haemangioma in a long bone diaphysis. After segmental bone resection, the bone defect was replaced by a bone autograft. Patients were reviewed clinically and with radiographs. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range : 1-20 years). At the time of latest follow-up, no patient had a recurrence. Postoperative complications were one wound necrosis and one superficial wound infection. Union of the gap filling graft with the host bone was achieved in all patients at an average of 4 months (range: 3-8 months). The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score was 77% (range: 53%-90%) of normal at 6 months postoperatively, and 97% (range: 95%-99%) at the last follow-up evaluation. Segmental resection for solitary haemangioma and reconstruction with autologous bone graft can be considered as a suitable treatment option.

  9. Configurations and classifications of composite arterial grafts in coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Shinfeld, Amihay; Raanani, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the configurations and classifications of composite arterial grafts in coronary bypass surgery. Articles were collected by tracking references cited in the literature with regard to the configurations of composite arterial grafts in coronary bypass surgery. Figures of the configurations were drawn in accordance to the schematic drawings, angiograms, photographs, table contents or written captions of the literature. According to their structural nature, composite arterial grafts can be classified as: (i) alphabetical (Y, T, I, U, K, X and H) and (ii) complex grafts (TY, loop, pi and sling grafts). According to the conduits that form the composite graft, they can be classified as: (i) definite (all standard alphabetical grafts, classic pi and sling grafts); (ii) varying [internal mammary artery (IMA) loop, modified pi graft]; and (iii) indefinite conduit graft (TY graft). According to their application in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), they can be divided into complete arterial revascularization for: (i) triple vessel disease (T, Y, K, X, TY, pi and sling grafts); (ii) two vessel disease (U, right Y, and two-thirds right IMA T grafts); and (iii) single vessel disease, mainly the left anterior descending artery with or without the diagonal branch (H, I, IMA loop and left IMA T grafts). According to the CABG method, they can be classified as: (i) for conventional CABG (sling graft); (ii) for minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (H graft); and (iii) for both conventional CABG and off-pump coronary artery bypass (T, Y, U, K, I, TY, IMA loop, and pi grafts). Standard Y and T grafts have been accepted as the common figurations of composite arterial grafts to maximum graft length for the bypass of triple vessel disease. Composite arterial grafts overcome the limited availability of arterial conduits for performing total arterial myocardial revascularization, allow a gain in conduit length, and minimize the ascending

  10. Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications.

    PubMed

    Oteyaka, Mustafa Ozgür; Unal, Hasan Hüseyin; Bilici, Namık; Taşçı, Eda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. Two sizes of powder were prepared by different grinding methods; Powder A (coarse, d50=68.5 µm) and Powder B (fine, d50=19.1 µm). Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The powder was mainly composed of aragonite (CaCO3) and calcite (CaCO3). The XRD pattern of Powder A and B matched standard aragonite and calcite patterns. In addition, the calcium oxide (CaO) phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of 43.6% and 47.3% in Powders A and B, respectively. The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase.

  11. Endoscopic curettage and bone grafting of huge talar bone cyst with preservation of cartilaginous surfaces: surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-12-01

    Open curettage and bone grafting of the huge talar cysts may need extensive soft tissue dissection or even different types of malleolar osteotomy to access the lesion. Arthroscopic approach can minimize soft tissue dissection or the need for malleolar osteotomy. Careful pre-operative planning of the portal sites allows endoscopic curettage and bone grafting of the lesions with preservation of the articular surfaces.

  12. A different approach to the reconstruction of the stubborn crooked nose with a different spreader graft: nasal bone grafts harvested from the removed nasal hump.

    PubMed

    Emsen, I M

    2008-03-01

    Correction of a crooked or deviated nose is a complex cosmetic and functional problem as well as a big challenge for the rhinoplasty surgeon. Although corrections using a wide range of surgical techniques to straighten the nose and maximize nasal function have been proposed, recurrence is very common because of cartilage memory and scar contracture. Therefore, to prevent recurrence and maintain the correction of the septum, a permanent support that is stable and strong with the ability to maintain its given shape after placement on one or both sides of the septum is needed. The author used a nasal bone graft. In this study, the concept and technique for correction of the crooked nose and the author's experience using it are presented. This graft material was used for 12 patients with crooked noses (8 with C-type and 4 with S-type noses). During a mean follow-up period of 20 months (range, 12-36 months), there were no complications, recurrences, or extrusions. Functional evaluations were performed using a visual analog scale before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Patients were asked to score their nasal breathing on a scale ranging from 0 to 100. The mean preoperative value was 17.67% +/- 1.22% (range, 15-25%), and the postoperative value was 89.88% +/- 1.24% (range, 85-95%). Use of nasal bone grafts as the spreader graft is a safe, effective, reliable, and permanent method for correction of the crooked nose. The author advises using this technique with nasal bone grafts for functional recovery and increased strength against further trauma or forces of scar contracture. This technique may prevent recurrence attributable to cartilage memory.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BONE NEOFORMATION USING AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTING AND THREE REPLACEMENTS: BONE DEFECTS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Rodrigo Steffen; Silva, Jefferson Braga; Silva, Vinicius Duval da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compare the percentage of bone neoformation promoted by autologous bone grafting and three kinds of replacement materials with different characteristics in rats' femoral holes. Methods: Two holes measuring 5.4×2.7mm, were produced on each femur (right and left) of 14 isogenic Wistar rats. Each of the four defects produced was filled by autologous bone or by one of three tested materials-hydroxyapatite (HA), Genphos® (HA+ β-TCP) and GenMix® (a combined bovine bone graft). In the end of the 6-week (n = 6) and 12-week (n = 8) periods, the animals were sacrificed. The sections (stained with Picro-Sirius) were assessed by optical microscopy and specific software. Results: The groups with autologous bone were shown to be significantly superior to the others at both assessed times, showing a mean bone formation rate ± SD of 90.6 ± 10.8% in six weeks, and 98 ± 9.2% in 12 weeks (p > 0.0001 for both assessed times). In six weeks, the results for the other groups were the following: Genphos®, 46 ± 7.1%; HA, 43.1 ± 8.4%; and GenMix®, 57.3 ± 4.5%. In 12 weeks: Genphos®, 47.8 ± 11.1%; HA, 39.9 ± 5.4%; GenMix®, 59.7 ± 4.8%, significant (p = 0.007). Conclusions: In both assessed times, the three bone replacement materials tested in the study showed to be inferior to autologous bone graft for bone neoformation percentage. PMID:27022515

  14. Analysis of relevant proteins from bone graft harvested using the reamer irrigator and aspirator system (RIA) versus iliac crest (IC) bone graft and RIA waste water.

    PubMed

    Crist, Brett D; Stoker, Aaron M; Stannard, James P; Cook, James L

    2016-08-01

    Femoral reaming using a Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA) can produce greater than three liters of waste water per procedure, which contains cells and proteins that could promote bone healing. This purpose of this study was to determine the protein profile of RIA waste water and compare protein synthesis by cells harvested via RIA versus iliac crest (IC) bone graft. Bone graft was collected from 30 patients-15 using RIA from the femur and 15 harvested from the iliac crest. Waste water collected during the RIA procedure was analyzed in 12 patients. Cells from each graft were cultured in monolayer using growth media for 14days and inductive media for the next 14days. Media samples were collected on days 14, 21, and 28. Proteins for analysis were chosen based on their potential in bone healing, pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory processes. Proteins present in RIA waste water indicate the potential for clinical use of this filtrate as an adjunct for enhancing bone production, healing, and remodeling. Similarly, cells cultured from RIA bone graft harvests compared favorably to those from iliac crest bone grafts with respect to their potential to aid in bone healing. RIA waste water has potential to serve as an autogenic and allogenic enhancer for bone healing. Continued development of processing protocols for viable commercial use of the waste water and pre-clinical studies designed to evaluate RIA waste water products for bone healing are ongoing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascularized pedicle bone grafting for nonunions of the tarsal navicular.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Felicity G; Adams, Samuel B; Easley, Mark E; Nunley, James A

    2012-09-01

    Osteonecrosis and nonunions of the tarsal navicular remain a challenging clinical problem. This article presents a series of patients treated with local vascularized pedicle bone grafting to the navicular. The purpose of this study was to determine the early clinical and radiographic outcomes of this technique. Patients who underwent local vascularized pedicle bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the navicular from 2002 to 2007 were included in this study. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS), the Revised Foot Function Index (FFI-R), and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) outcomes questionnaires were administered at most recent followup. Postoperative imaging was reviewed for evidence of healing. Eight patients with a mean age of 47.5 (range, 18 to 68) years were included in this study. The mean followup time was 61 (range, 32 to 72) months. Two patients underwent concomitant talonavicular arthrodesis. Two patients underwent additional procedures to address continued nonunion of the navicular. Neither patient elected to complete the outcomes questionnaires. The mean postoperative FFI score was 35.2 (range, 16.6 to 59). SF-36 subscales were as follows: bodily pain, 53; general health, 55; mental health, 75; physical function, 56; role emotional, 61; role physical, 37.5; social function, 71; and vitality, 56. The mean postoperative AOS pain score was 27.9 (range, 0 to 46.2) and the average disability score was 31.4 (range, 0 to 78.2). Postoperative imaging revealed consolidation and full healing in six of eight patients. Vascularized pedicle bone grafting is a treatment option for patients with chronic nonunion or osteonecrosis of the navicular. Additionally, it may serve as an adjunct procedure to provide increased vascularity to talonavicular arthrodesis in cases of navicular osteonecrosis and talonavicular arthritis.

  16. Histological Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Granules with and without Platelet-Rich Plasma versus an Autologous Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zamzuri; Seman, Che N. Z. C.; Buyong, Zunariah; Sharifudin, Mohd A.; Zulkifly, Ahmad H.; Khalid, Kamarul A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hydroxyapatite (HA) has osteoconductive properties and is widely used as a bone graft substitute. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product with osteoinductive effects. Hypothetically, a combination of both would augment the bone formation effect of HA and widen its application in spinal fusion surgeries. This study aimed to compare new bone formation with HA granules alone and in combination with PRP versus an autologous bone graft during a lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion. Methods A total of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent single-level bilateral intertransverse process fusion at the L5–L6 vertebrae. One side of the spine received either HA granules alone or a combination of HA granules and PRP, while the contralateral side received an autologous bone graft. Four animals each from the HA group and the HA plus PRP group versus the autograft group were assessed either at six or 16 weeks by undecalcified histology and histomorphometry. The mean percentage of new bone areas over the corresponding fusion masses were compared between groups. Results No significant difference in new bone formation was observed between the HA and HA plus PRP groups at six or 16 weeks. The autograft group had significantly more new bone formation at six and 16 weeks (P = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion An autologous bone graft remains superior to HA granules, with or without PRP. HA granules demonstrated an excellent osteoconductive scaffold but had poor biodegradability. While PRP enhances the properties of HA granules, these biomaterials do not have a synergistic effect. PMID:28003887

  17. In vivo bone tunnel evaluation of nanoparticle-grafts using an ACL reconstruction rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sheila A; Smith, Sarah E; Schmidt, Hilary; Pfeiffer, Ferris; Kuroki, Kei; Sherman, Seth; White, Richard; Grant, David A

    2017-04-01

    Acellular human gracilis tendons conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAp) were used as a graft in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rabbit model. The ACLs of 11 New Zealand rabbits were reconstructed using grafts conjugated without nanoparticles, with AuNP only, and with both AuNP and nano-HAp. Semi-quantitative histological scoring of bone tunnel portion of grafts was performed after 14 weeks. Bone tunnels were scored for graft degeneration, graft remodeling, percentage of new host fibrous connective, collateral connection, head-to-head connection, graft collagen fiber organization, new host fibrous connective tissue organization, and graft and interface vascularity. All grafts were intact at 14 weeks. Results of bone tunnel scoring indicate remodeling in all graft types with new organized host fibrous connective tissue, head-to-head connection to bone and mild inflammation associated with remodeling. Components of the 20 nm AuNP grafts have significantly more graft degeneration, more new host fibrous connective tissue, and more vascularity compared to crosslinked grafts. Comparison between femoral and tibial tunnel scores indicate more degeneration in femoral tunnels compared to tibial tunnels. Overall results indicated potentially enhanced remodeling from the use of 20 nm AuNP grafts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1071-1082, 2017.

  18. Treatment of the femoral shaft nonunion with double plate fixation and bone grafting: A case series of 14 patients.

    PubMed

    Maimaitiyiming, Asihaerjiang; Amat, Abdusami; Rehei, Aili; Tusongjiang, Mamatkeremula; Li, Cao

    2015-01-01

    The management of femoral shaft nonunion still remains a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. It represents a serious postoperative problem for the patient, associated with plate breakage and loosening, bone defect, shortening deformity and infection. A double plate fixation combined with bone grafting may become a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with femoral shaft nonunion. In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical outcome of a novel approach for 14 consecutive patients with femoral shaft nonunion using double plate fixation with bone grafting. Retrospective data from June 2010 to August 2012 were obtained from records for 14 consecutive femoral shaft aseptic nonunion patients treated with double plate fixation combined with bone grafting. Nine patients were men and five patients were woman and average age of the patients was 26 years (range from 22 to 32 years). The mean time since injury was 26.2 months. The nonunion had resulted from repeated internal fixation failure (including plate or intramedullary nail fixation) in nine cases and primary internal fixation in five cases. All the 14 patients were followed up for an average of 14.8 (10-25) months. All cases achieved bony union without wound infection or fixation failure and the mean time to union was 5.2 months (range 4-7 months). Double plate fixation and bone grafting are a promising method for femoral shaft nonunion. In addition, this strategy is useful for such a nonunion caused by a repeated plate or intramedullary nail fixation failure with bone defect due to its strong stability with three-dimensional fixation and fully bone graft availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Cranial and Iliac Autologus Bone Grafts and Their Effects on the Success Rates of Subsequent Osseointegrated Intra/Extraoral Implant Application in the Miniature Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-31

    ORGANIZATION: William Beaumont Army Medical Center Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Pathology and Bio Research El Paso, Texas 79920-5001 DTIC REPORT...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION William Beaumont Army Medical Center REPORT NUMBER Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Oral...and Iliac Onlay Bone Grafts in Miniature Swine To be published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 12a_ DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY

  20. Clinical application of subdermal areolar tissue and superficial fascia graft as a new material for coverage of small exposure of bone cortex or orthopaedic fixation device.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Masahide; Matsumura, Hajime; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2017-08-01

    The presence of cortical bone, tendon that has been exposed by defects, may result in infection or osteomyelitis. In such cases, perifascial areolar tissue grafting (PATG) may be performed as a minimally invasive surgical procedure. However, perifascial areolar tissue (PAT) is located deep in the subcutaneous layer. It was considered that grafting of the superficial vascular network might enable less invasive surgery. This study reports use of subdermal areolar tissue (SAT) and superficial fascia (SF) to close avascular areas. This study treated eight areas of exposed bone, tendon, or orthopaedic fixation device in seven patients treated in the department between 2010-2013. The patients included five men and two women aged 15-80 years. Subdermal areolar tissue grafting (SATG) was performed on four areas, and superficial fascia grafting (SFG) on the remaining four areas. In all cases, split thickness skin graft (STSG) was used to cover the grafted tissue in a single procedure. The tissue grafted successfully in seven areas, and primary engraftment of the skin grafts was also achieved in three areas treated with SATG and one area treated with SFG. Additional skin grafting was performed to achieve closure in one site treated with SATG and two sites treated with SFG. The tissue graft became necrotic in one site treated with SFG. There were no problems at any donor sites and no graft site infections or other complications. SATG and SFG achieved good clinical results for the closure of exposed avascular tissue or artifacts.

  1. Histomorhological and clinical evaluation of maxillary alveolar ridge reconstruction after craniofacial trauma by applying combination of allogeneic and autogenous bone graft.

    PubMed

    De Ponte, Francesco Saverio; Falzea, Roberto; Runci, Michele; Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Lauritano, Floriana; Bramanti, Ennio; Cervino, Gabriele; Cicciu, Marco

    2017-02-01

    A variety of techniques and materials for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of traumatized maxillary ridges prior to dental implants placement have been described in literature. Autogenous bone grafting is considered ideal by many researchers and it still remains the most predictable and documented method. The aim of this report is to underline the effectiveness of using allogeneic bone graft for managing maxillofacial trauma. A case of a 30-year-old male with severely atrophic maxillary ridge as a consequence of complex craniofacial injury is presented here. Augmentation procedure in two stages was performed using allogeneic and autogenous bone grafts in different areas of the osseous defect. Four months after grafting, during the implants placement surgery, samples of both sectors were withdrawn and submitted to histological evaluation. On the examination of the specimens, treated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, the morphology of integrated allogeneic bone grafts was revealed to be similar to the autologous bone. Our clinical experience shows how the allogeneic bone graft presented normal bone tissue architecture and is highly vascularized, and it can be used for reconstruction of severe trauma of the maxilla.

  2. Combination of negative pressure wound therapy with open bone grafting for bone and soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Yu, Ai-Xi; Xia, Cheng-Yan; Li, Zong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Yang

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) combined with open bone graft (OBG; NPWT-OBG) for the treatment of bone and soft tissue defects with polluted wounds in an animal model. All rabbits with bone and soft tissue defects and polluted wounds were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group (NPWT with bone graft) and the control group (OBG). The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by the wound conditions and healing time. Bacterial bioburdens and bony calluses were evaluated by bacteria counting and X-rays, respectively. Furthermore, granulation tissue samples from the wounds on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of healing were evaluated for blood vessels and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Wounds in the experimental group tended to have a shorter healing time, healthier wound conditions, lower bacterial bioburden, improvement of the bony calluses and an increased blood supply compared with those in the control group. With NPWT, wound infection was effectively controlled. For wounds with osseous and soft tissue defects, NPWT combined with bone grafting was demonstrated to be more effective than an OBG.

  3. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable. PMID:27867255

  4. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student's t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable.

  5. Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Patients from Bone Defect to Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Vuletić, Marko; Jokić, Dražen; Rebić, Jerko; Žabarović, Domagoj; Macan, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital deformity affecting craniofacial structures. Orofacial clefts have great impact on the quality of life which includes aesthetics, function, psychological impact, dental development and facial growth. Incomplete fusion of facial prominences during the fourth to tenth week of gestation is the main cause. Cleft gaps are closed with alveolar bone grafts in surgical procedure called osteoplasty. Autogenic bone is taken from the iliac crest as the gold standard. The time of grafting can be divided into two stages: primary and secondary. The alveolar defect is usually reconstructured between 7 and 11 years and is often related to the development of the maxillary canine root. After successful osteoplasty, cleft defect is closed but there is still a lack of tooth. The space closure with orthodontic treatment has 50-75% success. If the orthodontic treatment is not possible, in order to replace the missing tooth there are three possibilities: adhesive bridgework, tooth transplantation and implants. Dental implant has the role of holding dental prosthesis, prevents pronounced bone atrophy and loads the augmentation material in the cleft area. Despite the fact that autologous bone from iliac crest is the gold standard, it is not a perfect source for reconstruction of the alveolar cleft. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is appropriate as an alternative graft material. The purpose of this review is to explain morphology of cleft defects, historical perspective, surgical techniques and possibilities of implant and prosthodontic rehabilitation. PMID:27688373

  6. Axial load-bearing capacity of an osteochondral autograft stabilized with a resorbable osteoconductive bone cement compared with a press-fit graft in a bovine model.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Marc-Olivier; Levasseur, Annie; Petit, Yvan; Lavigne, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Osteochondral autografts in mosaicplasty are inserted in a press-fit fashion, and hence, patients are kept nonweightbearing for up to 2 months after surgery to allow bone healing and prevent complications. Very little has been published regarding alternative fixation techniques of those grafts. Osteochondral autografts stabilized with a resorbable osteoconductive bone cement would have a greater load-bearing capacity than standard press-fit grafts. Controlled laboratory study. Biomechanical testing was conducted on 8 pairs of cadaveric bovine distal femurs. For the first 4 pairs, 6 single osteochondral autografts were inserted in a press-fit fashion on one femur. On the contralateral femur, 6 grafts were stabilized with a calcium triglyceride osteoconductive bone cement. For the 4 remaining pairs of femurs, 4 groups of 3 adjacent press-fit grafts were inserted on one femur, whereas on the contralateral femur, grafts were cemented. After a maturation period of 48 hours, axial loading was applied on all single grafts and on the middle graft of each 3-in-a-row series. For the single-graft configuration, median loads required to sink the press-fit and cemented grafts by 2 and 3 mm were 281.87 N versus 345.56 N (P = .015) and 336.29 N versus 454.08 N (P = .018), respectively. For the 3-in-a-row configuration, median loads required to sink the press-fit and cemented grafts by 2 and 3 mm were 260.31 N versus 353.47 N (P = .035) and 384.83 N versus 455.68 N (P = .029), respectively. Fixation of osteochondral grafts using bone cement appears to improve immediate stability over the original mosaicplasty technique for both single- and multiple-graft configurations. Achieving greater primary stability of osteochondral grafts could potentially accelerate postoperative recovery, allowing early weightbearing and physical therapy.

  7. The effect of platelet concentrates on graft maturation and graft-bone interface healing in ACL reconstruction in human patients

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Sadoghi, Patrick; Murray, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the current evidence for effects of platelet concentrates on (1) graft maturation and (2) graft-bone interface healing in ACL reconstruction in human, controlled trials, and for ensuing differences in clinical outcomes. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, CCTR and CDSR was performed for controlled trials of human ACL reconstruction with and without platelet concentrates. Data validity was assessed and data were collected on graft maturation, graft-bone interface healing and clinical outcome. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies reported on graft maturation with significantly better outcomes in the platelet groups in four, and large differences in means in two (underpowered) studies. Five studies report on tunnel healing, but four found no difference between groups. Three studies assessed clinical outcome but found no differences, regardless whether they had shown a benefical (1/3) or no effect (2/3) of platelets on graft and tunnel healing. Conclusion The current best evidence suggests that the addition of platelet concentrates to ACL reconstruction may have a beneficial effect on graft maturation and could improve it by 20–30% on average, but with substantial variability. The most likely mode of action is that treatment with platelets accelerates graft repopulation and remodeling, and this interpretation is supported by the existing data and biologically plausible. However, the current evidence also shows only a very limited influence of platelet concentrates on graft-bone interface healing and no significant difference in clinical outcomes. Clinical Relevance This systematic review collected evidence that the use of platelet concentrates may be a safe and inexpensive way to optimize graft maturation after ACL reconstruction, but there is no evidence for improved graft-bone interface healing or a significant difference in clinical outcomes. Level of Evidence Level IV, systematic

  8. Reinforcing the Mucoperiosteal Pocket with the Scarpa Fascia Graft in Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting: A Retrospective Controlled Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Lonic, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chien-Jung Pai, Betty; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2017-10-01

    Secondary alveolar bone grafting is the gold standard for the treatment of alveolar clefts in cleft lip and palate patients. The authors present a modified method using a Scarpa fascia graft that is placed deep into the mucoperiosteal pocket for watertight sealing of the bone graft chamber and limiting the graft position to the alveolar region for bony stability and tooth support. The outcome was assessed for clinical success in terms of bone graft stability and infection rate. Seventy-four unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients were enrolled in this retrospective study consisting of equal-size Scarpa fascia and control groups of consecutive unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients undergoing secondary alveolar bone grafting. Occlusal radiographs of the alveolar cleft taken at least 1 year postoperatively were evaluated for Spearman correlated Bergland and Witherow scales. Statistical evaluation was conducted using t test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. The clinical success rate (Bergland types I and II) of the Scarpa fascia procedure was significantly higher (67.6 versus 94.6 percent, respectively), with a significantly lower infection rate (16.2 versus 2.7 percent, respectively) and a high correlation of Bergland and Witherow scales (0.964; p < 0.001). There was no wound dehiscence, fistula, bone graft exposure, or additional donor-site morbidity in the Scarpa fascia group. The authors' new method of alveolar bone grafting with the Scarpa fascia graft is safe and effective, and has one of the highest documented success rates. Therapeutic, III.

  9. Tibial tunnel bone grafting: a new technique for dealing with graft-tunnel mismatch in endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fowler, B L; DiStefano, V J

    1998-03-01

    A problem that is frequently encountered during endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft is that the graft is often too long and protrudes from the tibial tunnel. If less than 20 mm of the bone plug remains in the tibial tunnel, interference screw fixation cannot safely be used, and an alternate form of fixation may have to be employed. A simple technique has been developed to deal with this problem. The technique involves bone-grafting the tibial tunnel with a cancellous core of bone that is removed while creating the tibial tunnel. This not only makes it possible to safely use interference screw fixation in all cases, but it also makes it possible to place the point of graft fixation very near the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament insertion site.

  10. Reconstruction of mandibular defects with autogenous bone and decellularized bovine bone grafts with freeze-dried bone marrow stem cell paracrine factors

    PubMed Central

    Kakabadze, Ann; Mardaleishvili, Konstantine; Loladze, George; Karalashvili, Lia; Chutkerashvili, Gocha; Chakhunashvili, David; Kakabadze, Zurab

    2017-01-01

    The gold standard following segmental mandibulectomy is vascularized autologous bone graft in the form of the fibula flap. However, in bone reconstruction the use of autogenous bone does not always guarantee a successful outcome. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a novel biologically active bone (BAB) graft, and to use it for the reconstruction of large size defects of the mandible bone following tumor resection. In the first part of the present study, biologically active bone graft was developed by using human freeze-dried bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) paracrine factors and three-dimensional bone scaffold derived from cancellous bovine bone following decellularization. In the second part of the research, one male and three female patients with primary tumors of the mandible underwent hemimandibulectomy. The mandibular bone defects following tumor resection were reconstructed with autogenous rib grafts in three patients and BAB graft was used in one patient. The graft-host interfaces were covered with decellularized human amnion/chorion membrane graft. All patients were followed-up every five months following the reconstruction of the mandible, with no complications observed. Preliminary clinical investigations demonstrated that a BAB graft containing freeze-dried BMSC paracrine factors may be used for the reconstruction of large mandibular bone defects following tumor resection. PMID:28454328

  11. Comparison of autogenous cancellous bone grafting and extracorporeal shock wave therapy on osteotomy healing in the tibial tuberosity advancement procedure in dogs. Radiographic densitometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K; Lanz, O; Werre, S; Clapp, K; Gilley, R

    2015-01-01

    To compare optical values in the osteotomy gap created after a tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) treated with autogenous cancellous bone graft, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, a combination of autogenous cancellous bone graft and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, and absence of both autogenous cancellous bone graft and extracorporeal shock wave therapy using densitometry. Dogs that were presented for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture were randomly assigned to one of four groups: TTA with autogenous cancellous bone graft (TTA-G), TTA with autogenous cancellous bone graft and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (TTA-GS), TTA with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (TTA-S), and TTA with no additional therapy (TTA-O). Mediolateral radiographs at zero, four and eight weeks after surgery were evaluated to compare healing of the osteotomy gap via densitometry. An analysis of variance was used to compare the densitometric values between groups. At four weeks after surgery, a significant difference in osteotomy gap density was noted between TTA-GS (8.4 millimetres of aluminium equivalent [mmAleq]) and TTA-S (6.1 mmAleq), and between TTA-GS (8.4 mmAleq) and TTA-O (6.4 mmAleq). There were no significant differences noted between any groups at the eight week re-evaluation. There were no significant differences in the osteotomy gap density at eight weeks after surgery regardless of the treatment modality used. The combination of autogenous cancellous bone graft and extracorporeal shock wave therapy may lead to increased radiographic density of the osteotomy gap in the first four weeks after surgery. Densitometry using an aluminium step wedge is a feasible method for comparison of bone density after TTA in dogs.

  12. The perioperative cost of Infuse bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y; Campbell, Mitchell J; Johnson, John R; Puno, Rolando M; Djurasovic, Mladen; Dimar, John R

    2008-01-01

    There is mounting evidence supporting the efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) for both anterior interbody and posterolateral lumbar fusion. However, the relative cost of BMP remains an important concern for physicians, hospitals, and payers. The purpose of this study is to report on the perioperative costs for patients treated with rhBMP-2 as compared with an iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) supplemented with graft extenders. A prospective randomized controlled trial of rhBMP-2/ACS (Infuse Bone Graft; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) versus ICBG+/-graft extender for lumbar spine fusion in patients over 60 years old. One hundred two patients over 60 years old who required a posterolateral lumbar spine fusion randomized between receiving rhBMP-2/ACS or ICBG. All health-care costs over the first 3 months after surgery. As part of a prospective randomized trial of rhBMP-2/ACS versus ICBG+/-graft extender for lumbar spine fusion, all costs over the first 3 months after surgery were directly recorded by a dedicated coder funded by Norton Healthcare, Louisville, KY. A dedicated research nurse also followed all patients throughout their hospital stay and posthospitalization recovery to identify any adverse events or additional outpatient medical care. Fifty patients received rhBMP-2/ACS and 52 underwent ICBG harvest. The mean hospital cost for the index admission was $24,736 for the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $21,138 for the ICBG group. Mean inpatient physician costs were $5,082 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $5,316 in the ICBG group. Costs associated with posthospital rehabilitation averaged $4,906 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group versus $6,820 in the ICBG group. Total payer expenditure for the 3-month perioperative period averaged $33,860 in the rhBMP-2/ACS group and $37,227 in the ICBG group. The hospital carries the cost burden associated with the utilization of rhBMP-2/ACS. In contrast, the payer in a Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) model achieves a net savings, based

  13. Radially and Axially Graded Multizonal Bone Graft Substitutes Targeting Critical-Sized Bone Defects from Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Asli; Yu, Xiaojun; Valdevit, Antonio; Ritter, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Repair and regeneration of critical sized defects via the utilization of polymeric bone graft substitutes are challenges. Here, we introduce radially and axially graded multizonal bone graft substitutes fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), and PCL biocomposites with osteoconductive particles, that is, hydroxyapatite (HA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The novel bone graft substitutes should provide a greater degree of freedom to the orthopedic surgeon especially for repair of critically sized bone defects. The modulus of the graft substitute could be tailored in the axial direction upon the systematic variation of the HA/TCP concentration, while in the radial direction the bone graft substitute consisted of an outer layer with high stiffness, encapsulating a softer core with greater porosity. The biocompatibility of the bone graft substitutes was investigated using in vitro culturing of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells followed by the analysis of cell proliferation and differentiation rates. The characterization of the tissue constructs included the enzymatic alkaline phosphates (ALP) activity, microcomputed tomography imaging, and polymerase chain reaction analysis involving the expressions of bone markers, that is, Runx2, ALP, collagen type I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, overall demonstrating the differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) via osteogenic lineage and formation of mineralized bone tissue. PMID:22764839

  14. On Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Versus Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Yousuf-ul; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Khan, Asadullah; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham

    2014-01-01

    There are two basic ways of performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG): on pump CABG and off pump CABG. Off pump CABG is relatively a newer procedure to on-pump CABG and does not require the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass machine. On pump CABG is the more traditional method of performing bypass surgery. However its resultant inflammatory effects cause renal dysfunction, gastrointestinal distress and cardiac abnormalities which have forced the surgeons to look for alternatives to the procedure. An extensive literature search revealed that on pump CABG causes better revascularization as compared to off pump CABG while off pump CABG has a much lower post operative morbidity and mortality especially in high risk patients. We suggest that the technique used should depend on the ease of the surgeon doing the operation as both the methods seem almost equally efficient according to the review. PMID:24762361

  15. Fusion in degenerative spondylolisthesis: comparison of osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Mark; Cohick, Sarah; Park, Andrew; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Lee, Joseph; An, Howard

    2015-05-01

    The emergent widespread options of bone graft substitutes for spinal fusion procedures vary in their osteobiologic activity. A majority of current literature focuses on the comparison of osteoinductive (OI) or osteoconductive (OC) bone graft substitutes individually against ICBG. These studies have demonstrated the legitimacy of bone graft substitutes, but despite the widespread use in spinal fusion procedures there is a dearth in the current literature in the direct comparison of OC and OI substitutes. This retrospective comparative analysis compares the efficacy of OI vs. solely OC agents in producing radiographic fusion on patients with DS. Patients, who underwent a lumbar fusion for DS with at least 6 months post-op radiographs, were divided based on whether they received an OC or OI bone graft substitute. The OC groups included allografts, calcium phosphate, ceramics and hydroxyapatite products. The OI group included bone morphogenic protein, demineralized bone matrix, and stem cell-based products. Using a conservative hierarchical approach to determine fusion, fusion criteria included stringent use of multiple measurement methods including flexion/extension x-rays, Lenke and Brantigan CT fusion measurement criteria, and history of revision surgery due to pseudoarthrosis. A total of 126 patients (78 OI, 48 OC) met the studies inclusion criteria for the assessment for fusion. The mean time for flexion-extension radiographic evaluation was 13.1 months for the OI group and 15 months for the OC group. The mean time for CT scan evaluation was 18 months for the OI group and 15.9 months for the OC group. Using the stated hierarchical criteria for fusion stated above, the fusion rate for the OI group was 87.18%, and the fusion rate for the OC group was 93.75%. The difference in OI and OC groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.367). Based on the demographic data collected, there were no statistically significant factors determining fusion. With the vastly

  16. HLA-typing analysis following allogeneic bone grafting for sinus lifting.

    PubMed

    Piaia, Marcelo; Bub, Carolina Bonet; Succi, Guilherme de Menezes; Torres, Margareth; Costa, Thiago Henrique; Pinheiro, Fabricio Costa; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique

    2017-03-01

    According to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplants, in 2015, 19,408 bone transplants were performed in Brazil, over 90% by Dental Surgeons. The surgical technique itself has a respectable number of reports regarding its clinical efficacy, as measured by long-term survival of dental implants in grafted areas. Uncertainty remains, however, as to whether fresh frozen grafts from human bone donors remain immunologically innocuous in the body of the host. Six male with no previous medical history of note, including systemic diseases, surgery or blood transfusion were selected. These patients underwent reconstructive procedures (sinus lifting) using fresh frozen human bone from a tissue bank. All patients had venous blood samples collected prior to surgery and 6 months after the procedure. Anti-HLA analysis for the detection of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) antibodies was performed using methods such as the LABScreen PRA Class I and Class II, LABScreen Single Antigen Class I and Class II, Luminex Platform. Reactive individuals to the screening tests (LABScreen PRA) were further investigated to determine the specificity of the antibodies detected (LABScreen Single Antigen) with a cutoff value of median fluorescence intensity ≥500. As a result, it was observed that two patients (33%) were positive in screening tests, one presenting with anti-HLA Class I and II sensitization and the other with anti-HLA class II. The specificity analysis showed that the patients sensitized to HLA class II presented 4 specificities, 3 of which immunologically relevant. In the second individual, 23 specificities were identified, 6 of which immunologically important for HLA class I and 4 specificities for HLA class II, 3 of these were immunologically important. All specificities detected had average fluorescence. These findings are suggestive that sinus-lifting procedures with allogeneic bone can induce immunological sensitization.

  17. Vascularized Medial Femoral Condyle Bone Graft for Resistant Nonunion of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Nonunion involving the metaphyseal region of the distal radius is exceedingly rare, usually involving co-morbidity. Patients that have failed multiple prior conventional surgical interventions represent an even more difficult subset to treat; this investigation examined the utility of a specially designed free vascularized medial femoral condyle flap consisting of a central structural block graft with an extended corticoperiosteal sleeve to wrap around the junctions. Six patients (5 males, 1 female) with a mean age of 52 years had failed to achieve union involving the distal radius metaphysis after a mean of 3.7 prior surgeries occurring over a mean period of 24 months. Comorbidities included smoking, alcoholism, chronic nutritional deficiency, and prior osteomyelitis. The unique descending genicular artery medial femoral condyle flap designed to address these patients consisted of a central structural block graft in continuity with an extended corticoperiosteal sleeve. The structural block filled the bone defect, and the corticoperiosteal sleeve wrapped around the bone junctions and the neighboring bone margins. The mean flap size was 5.3 (+/- 1.3) cm long by 4.5 (+/- 0.9) cm wide. Pre-operative to post-operative DASH scores were compared using the paired student' s t-test, with p < 0.05. All flaps achieved union at a mean of 6.8 (+/- 2.1) weeks following surgery, using the criteria of bridging trabeculae on all 3 radiographs: coronal, sagittal, and oblique. The mean pre-operative DASH score of 63 (+/- 10) was statistically significantly different compared to the mean post-operative DASH score of 18 (+/- 8). With few alternative solutions able to address this unique and difficult problem, the structural block of vascularized bone with the extended corticoperiosteal sleeve proved able to achieve a union that had failed multiple previous attempts and able to resist reactivation of infection, in a challenging group of patients with comorbidities.

  18. Results of lumbar spondylodeses using different bone grafting materials after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

    PubMed

    vonderHoeh, Nicolas Heinz; Voelker, Anna; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard

    2017-05-25

    Can a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and autologous bone from decompression sites produce similar results when used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)? In the current literature, autologous iliac crest bone grafts (ICBGs) have been reported the gold standard for this procedure. Indeed, to date, no clinical data have confirmed that a mixture of equal volumes of HA and local autologous bone produce similar results in term of fusion as the same volume of autologous ICBG alone. Study design/setting This study was approved by the local ethics committee and completed in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded manner. The results of lumbar fusion using TLIF and different bone grafting materials were compared. Patient sample The patient sample included patients with spinal lumbar degenerative disease. Outcome measures The clinical outcome was determined using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The radiological outcomes and fusion rates were determined with radiographs evaluated using the McAfee criteria and computed tomography (CT) data evaluated by the Williams criteria. Three blinded investigators (one radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons) assessed the data. The secondary variables included donor site morbidity. Methods The patients were admitted to our department for orthopedic surgery with degenerative lumbar pathologies (L2-S1) that required stabilization in one or two segments using a TLIF procedure. The patients were 18-80 years old. Only those patients who had degenerative lumbar pathologies and agreed to be educated about the study were included. The patients were divided into the following two randomized groups: group A: TLIF procedure using autologous ICBGs alone; and group B: TLIF procedure using local bone from decompression site mixed with hydroxyapatite. Each group received equal graft volumes. The mixture in group B consisted of equal volumes of local autograft (5 cc) and synthetic

  19. Composite vascularized skin/bone graft model: a viable source for vascularized bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Maria; Ulusal, Betul G; Ozmen, Selahattin; Ulusal, Ali E; Ozer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we introduce a new model for vascularized skin and bone marrow transplantation. Twenty-five Lewis (RT1(1)) rats were studied. Anatomic dissection studies were performed in 5 animals. In the experimental group, 10 isograft transplantations were performed between Lewis rats. Combined groin skin and femoral bone flaps were transplanted based on the femoral artery and vein. Transplants were evaluated on a daily basis. All flaps survived without problems over 100 days posttransplant. The skin component remained pink and pliable, and grew new hair. Histological examination of the femoral bone (except the femoral head) revealed active hematopoiesis with a viable compact and cancellous bone components on day 100 posttransplant. This model can be applied to tolerance induction studies across the major Histocompatibility (MHC) barrier, where bone will serve as donor of stem and progenitor cells, and the skin flap will serve as a monitor of graft rejection.

  20. Allogenous bone grafts improved by bone marrow stem cells and platelet growth factors: clinical case reports.

    PubMed

    Filho Cerruti, Humberto; Kerkis, Irina; Kerkis, Alexandre; Tatsui, Nelson Hidekazu; da Costa Neves, Adriana; Bueno, Daniela Franco; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2007-04-01

    In order to increase the amount of available bone where dental implants must be placed, the present study has associated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from bone marrow aspirate and bone scaffold (BS) in 32 patients aged between 45 and 75 years old. The MNC attainment and the adherence to the BS were confirmed through histology, cell culture, and scanning electron microscopy. The clinical results, analyzed by computed tomography, have showed that the scaffolds were well integrated and adapted to the cortical bone. We can conclude that the process of healing observed in the patients was due to the presence of mesenchymal stem cell in MNC fraction in the bone grafts.

  1. Autologous bone grafting on steroids: preliminary clinical results. A novel treatment for nonunions and segmental bone defects.

    PubMed

    Miller, Micah A; Ivkovic, Alan; Porter, Ryan; Harris, Mitchel B; Estok, Daniel M; Smith, R Malcolm; Evans, Christopher H; Vrahas, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Clinical management of delayed healing or nonunion of long bone fractures and segmental bone defects poses a substantial orthopaedic challenge. Surgical advances and bone tissue engineering are providing new avenues to stimulate bone growth in cases of bone loss and nonunion. The reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA) device allows surgeons to aspirate the medullary contents of long bones and use the progenitor-rich "flow-through" fraction in autologous bone grafting. Dexamethasone (DEX) is a synthetic steroid that has been shown to induce osteoblastic differentiation. A series of 13 patients treated with RIA bone grafting enhanced with DEX for nonunion or segmental defect was examined retrospectively to assess the quality of bony union and clinical outcomes. Despite the initial poor prognoses, promising results were achieved using this technique; and given the complexity of these cases the observed success is of great value and warrants controlled study into both standardisation of the procedure and concentration of the grafting material.

  2. Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation of Fresh Frozen Bone Allograft in Sinus Lift Surgery.

    PubMed

    de Castilho, Tatiana Regina Ramos Nantes; Tortamano, Pedro; Marotti, Juliana; de Andrade, José Carlos Silva; Chilvarquer, Israel; Ximenez, Michel Eli Lipiec; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical and histomorphometric data of newly formed bone tissue from fresh frozen human allograft in sinus lift surgery. Thirty-three sinus lift procedures were performed in 20 patients, divided into two groups. The control group (n = 8) received autogenous bone from the mandibular ramus, and the experimental group (n = 12) received fresh frozen bone (FFB) allograft in chips. After 6 months, 52 implants were placed and 50 biopsies were collected for histomorphometric analysis. Cone beam computed tomography scans were performed at preoperative, immediate postoperative, and delayed postoperative time intervals to assess the degree of graft volume loss. There was no statistically significant difference between groups as regards degree of graft volume loss (p = .983), total bone area (p = .191), remaining particles (p = .348), and proportion of active osteoblasts (p = .867). There was a statistically significant difference in the vitality rate between the groups (p = .043). In both groups, all implants were clinically osseointegrated after 4 months. FFB allograft was shown to be a feasible substitute for autogenous bone graft in sinus lift surgery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Clopidogrel and bleeding after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jee-Yoong; Baker, Robert A; Shah, Pallav J; Cherian, Vijit K; Knight, John L

    2005-09-01

    There is evidence that clopidogrel (with or without aspirin) confers superior outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to review the effect of preoperative clopidogrel administration on clinical outcome, bleeding complications and resource utilization after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patient data were prospectively collected from 919 patients who had isolated coronary surgery during the period 2000 to 2003. Outcome comparisons were studied, firstly between patients who received preoperative clopidogrel with those who did not, and secondly between patients on clopidogrel only, aspirin only, both or neither medications. Twenty-four patients (2.6%) were on clopidogrel only, 598 (65.1%) were on aspirin only, 61 (6.6%) were on both, and 236 (25.7%) were on neither. Clopidogrel (n = 85) versus no clopidogrel (n = 834): there were no significant differences in the off-pump patients. In the on-pump patients, the clopidogrel group had significantly increased bleeding (p = 0.02), blood transfused (p = 0.01), intensive care (p = 0.03), and hospital stays (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in surgical reexploration, perioperative myocardial infarction, intraoperative balloon pump use, inotropic support or 30-day mortality. Clopidogrel versus aspirin versus both versus neither: patients on both clopidogrel and aspirin had significantly more postoperative bleeding than patients on aspirin alone or on neither medication. The preoperative use of clopidogrel in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery showed limited clinical benefits; however, its use significantly increased the risk of bleeding, blood transfusion, and resource utilization.

  4. Cefazolin and linezolid penetration into sternal cancellous bone during coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus; Wisser, Wilfried; Jaeger, Walter; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Thalhammer, Florian; Kocher, Alfred; Hiesmayr, Joerg-Michael; Laufer, Guenther; Hutschala, Doris

    2015-11-01

    Deep sternal wound infection is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Insufficient antibiotic target site concentrations may account for variable success of perioperative prophylaxis. Therefore, we measured perioperative penetration of cefazolin and of linezolid into sternal cancellous bone after sternotomy in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients by in vivo microdialysis. Nine patients underwent CABG using a skeletonized left internal mammary artery. Standard antibiotic prophylaxis consisted of 4 g cefazolin prior to skin incision and additional 2 g during skin closure. In addition, 600 mg of linezolid were administered prior to skin incision and after 12 h for study purposes. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the sternal cancellous bone (left and right side) after sternotomy. First mean peak cefazolin and linezolid plasma concentrations were 273 ± 92 µg/ml and 22.1 ± 8.9 µg/ml, respectively. Mean peak concentrations of antibiotics in sternal cancellous bone on the left and right sternal side were 112 ± 59 µg/ml and 159 ± 118 µg/ml for cefazolin and 10.9 ± 4.0 µg/ml and 12.6 ± 6.1 µg/ml for linezolid, respectively. Cefazolin exceeded the required tissue concentrations for relevant pathogens by far, but linezolid did not gain effective tissue concentrations in all patients for some relevant pathogens. Mammary artery harvesting had no significant effect on antibiotic tissue penetration. Direct measurement of antibiotic concentration in sternal cancellous bone with in vivo microdialysis is technically demanding but safe and feasible. We could demonstrate sufficient antibiotic coverage with our standard cefazolin-dosing regimen in the sternal cancellous bone during cardiac surgery. Mammary artery harvesting had no clinically relevant effect on tissue penetration. Linezolid concentrations were not sufficient for some relevant pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association

  5. Biological effects of compressive forces exerted on particulate bone grafts during socket preservation: animal study.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Romanos, Georgios E; Alexandre Gerhke, Sergio; Gomez-Moreno, Gerardo; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2016-08-02

    To compare different compressive forces exerted on a particulate graft material during socket preservation and their effects on bone regeneration. Six male dogs were used. The second, third, and fourth premolars, and the first molar were extracted bilaterally at the lower jaws. A particulate synthetic biphasic grafting material (60% HA and 40% β-tricalcium phosphate) was used. Three different standardized compressive forces were applied randomly during the socket preservation. The sample was divided into four experimental groups Test A (10 g), Test B (50 g), Test C (200 g), and Control (empty sockets). Collagen membranes were placed, and primary closure was obtained. Two months after the surgery the animals were sacrificed, and histomorphometric analysis of non-decalcified samples was performed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Grafted sockets resulted in higher bony contour (3 ± 0.43 mm(2) ; P < 0.05). The particles penetrated up to the apical third in the group C but not in the other test groups and controls (P < 0.05). The percentage of new bone were higher at the coronal and apical thirds for Controls and group C compared to A and B groups (P < 0.05). The residual graft was higher for group C (53 ± 1.4%), followed by group B (45 ± 3.1%) and group A (35 ± 1.9%; P < 0.05). The percentages of connective tissue were higher at the middle third without differences between groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this experimental animal study, it might be concluded that grafted sockets compressed with 200 g force will have higher bony contours; higher compressive forces facilitate the penetration of the particulate graft material into the apical area of the socket and results in more bone formation at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Minimal iliac bone harvesting in sinus lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, G; Lari, N; Adam, S; Salles, F

    2013-08-01

    For sinus grafting, the authors propose a minimal posterior iliac bone harvesting, with local anesthesia. Autogenous bone grafting continues to be considered the gold standard for sinus grafting. The classic harvesting sites are calvarial, anterior iliac, and tibial, and harvesting is usually practiced under general anesthesia. We performed this technique in 7 patients under local anesthesia. In the posterior iliac crest, with a specific trocar for bone puncture biopsy, bone was harvested. We performed 1 cm longer for 5-mm diameter of bone. Three bone biopsies were harvested on each side. The harvested cancellous bone (5 cm(3)) was mixed with triphosphocalcic (TCP) material (2 cm(3)), and blood (1 cm(3)). A classic sinus lift was realized. After 6 months, the success rate of bone grafting was 100%. Each of the 7 patients could be implanted by an average of 4 dental implants by superior maxillary. For sinus lift, this simple posterior iliac-bone biopsy harvesting under local anesthesia is very comfortable for the patient and also safe. It provides enough marrow bone to be mixed with TCP for a sinus lift.

  7. Guided Bone Regeneration in Long-Bone Defects with a Structural Hydroxyapatite Graft and Collagen Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Walker, John A.; Singleton, Brian M.; Hernandez, Jesus W.; Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Daniel S.; Appleford, Mark R.; Ong, Joo L.; Wenke, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    There are few synthetic graft alternatives to treat large long-bone defects resulting from trauma or disease that do not incorporate osteogenic or osteoinductive factors. The aim of this study was to test the additional benefit of including a permeable collagen membrane guide in conjunction with a preformed porous hydroxyapatite bone graft to serve as an improved osteoconductive scaffold for bone regeneration. A 10-mm-segmental long-bone defect model in the rabbit radius was used. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds alone or with a collagen wrap were compared as experimental treatment groups to an empty untreated defect as a negative control or a defect filled with autologous bone grafts as a positive control. All groups were evaluated after 4 and 8 weeks of in vivo implantation using microcomputed tomography, mechanical testing in flexure, and histomorphometry. It was observed that the use of the wrap resulted in an increased bone volume regenerated when compared to the scaffold-only group (59% greater at 4 weeks and 27% greater after 8 weeks). Additionally, the increase in density of the regenerated bone from 4 to 8 weeks in the wrap group was threefold than that in the scaffold group. The use of the collagen wrap showed significant benefits of increased interfacial bone in-growth (149% greater) and periosteal remodeling (49%) after 4 weeks compared to the scaffold-alone with the two groups being comparable after 8 weeks, by when the collagen membrane showed close-to-complete resorption. While the autograft and wrap groups showed significantly greater flexural strength than the defect group after 8 weeks, the scaffold-alone group was not significantly different from the other three groups. It is most likely that the wrap shows improvement of function by acting like a scaffold for periosteal callus ossification, maintaining the local bone-healing environment while reducing fibrous infiltration (15% less than scaffold only at 4 weeks). This study indicates that the use of

  8. Novel porous Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 bone grafting materials: formation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Naga, Salma M; El-Kady, Abeer M; El-Maghraby, Hesham F; Awaad, Mohamed; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-02-01

    The present article deals with the development of 3D porous scaffolds for bone grafting. They were prepared based on rapid fluid infiltration of Al2O3-SiO2 sol into a polyethylene non-woven fabric template structure. Titanium dioxide in concentration equal to 5 wt% was added to the Al2O3-SiO2 mixture to produce Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 composite scaffolds. The prepared scaffolds are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and three-point bending test techniques. The bioactivity of the produced bodies is discussed, including the in vitro and in vivo assessments. The produced scaffolds exhibit mean total porosity of 66.0% and three-point bending strength of 7.1 MPa. In vitro studies showed that MG-63 osteoblast-like cells attach and spread on the scaffolds surfaces. Furthermore, cells grew through the scaffolds and start to produce extra-cellular matrix. Additionally, in vivo studies revealed the ability of the porous scaffolds to regenerate bone tissue in femur defects of albino rats 5 months post surgery. Histological analysis showed that the defect is almost entirely filled with new bone. The formed bone is characterized as a mature bone. The produced bone grafts are intended to be used as bone substitute or bone filler as their degradation products caused no inflammatory effects.

  9. Fate of monocortical bone blocks grafted in the human maxilla: a histological and histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Zerbo, Ilara R; de Lange, Gert L; Joldersma, Manon; Bronckers, Antonius L J J; Burger, Elisabeth H

    2003-12-01

    Local bone defects in the anterior maxilla are commonly grafted with monocortical blocks of autologous bone in order to restore the defect site prior to the placement of dental implants. Increasing evidence suggests that osteocytes are involved in the control of bone remodelling and thus may be important for optimalisation of bone structure around implants, and thus for implant osseointegration. However, it is not well known whether osteocytes will survive when bone blocks are grafted into defects. We grafted 19 patients with monocortical bone blocks derived from the symphysis, to the defect site in the maxillary alveolar process. The bone grafts were left to heal for times varying from 2.5 to 7 months. During implant installation, bone biopsies were removed using a trephine burr, and processed for hard tissue histology. Bone histology and histomorphometry were then carried out in order to gain insight into the density, viability and remodelling of the graft. Clinically, all the bone grafts were successful, with no implant failures, and little resorption was seen. Histologically, bone volume expressed as percentage of tissue volume at the implant site varied from 27% to 57% with an overall average of 41%. Bone fields with empty osteocyte lacunae were observed and measured. The amount of this so-called nonvital bone (NVB) varied between 1% and 34% of the total tissue volume. The amount of NVB decreased significantly with the time of healing. The data suggest that the majority of the osteocytes of the monocortical bone do not survive grafting. The results indicate that the NVB is progressively remodelled into new vital bone 7 months after grafting.

  10. Osteoinductive PolyHIPE Foams as Injectable Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer L.; McEnery, Madison A.P.; Pearce, Hannah; Whitely, Michael E.; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J.; Hahn, Mariah S.; Li, Huinan; Sears, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently fabricated biodegradable polyHIPEs as injectable bone grafts and characterized the mechanical properties, pore architecture, and cure rates. In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles were incorporated into injectable polyHIPE foams to promote osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Upon incorporation of each type of particle, stable monoliths were formed with compressive properties comparable to control polyHIPEs. Pore size quantification indicated a negligible effect of all particles on emulsion stability and resulting pore architecture. Alizarin red calcium staining illustrated the incorporation of calcium phosphate particles at the pore surface, while picrosirius red collagen staining illustrated collagen-rich DBM particles within the monoliths. Osteoinductive particles had a negligible effect on the compressive modulus (∼30 MPa), which remained comparable to human cancellous bone values. All polyHIPE compositions promoted human MSC viability (∼90%) through 2 weeks. Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated the ability of all polyHIPE compositions to promote osteogenic differentiation through the upregulation of bone-specific markers compared to a time zero control. These findings illustrate the potential for these osteoinductive polyHIPEs to promote osteogenesis and validate future in vivo evaluation. Overall, this work demonstrates the ability to incorporate a range of bioactive components into propylene fumarate dimethacrylate-based injectable polyHIPEs to increase cellular interactions and direct specific behavior without compromising scaffold architecture and resulting properties for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26739120

  11. Osteoinductive PolyHIPE Foams as Injectable Bone Grafts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; McEnery, Madison A P; Pearce, Hannah; Whitely, Michael E; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Hahn, Mariah S; Li, Huinan; Sears, Nicholas A; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    We have recently fabricated biodegradable polyHIPEs as injectable bone grafts and characterized the mechanical properties, pore architecture, and cure rates. In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles were incorporated into injectable polyHIPE foams to promote osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Upon incorporation of each type of particle, stable monoliths were formed with compressive properties comparable to control polyHIPEs. Pore size quantification indicated a negligible effect of all particles on emulsion stability and resulting pore architecture. Alizarin red calcium staining illustrated the incorporation of calcium phosphate particles at the pore surface, while picrosirius red collagen staining illustrated collagen-rich DBM particles within the monoliths. Osteoinductive particles had a negligible effect on the compressive modulus (∼30 MPa), which remained comparable to human cancellous bone values. All polyHIPE compositions promoted human MSC viability (∼90%) through 2 weeks. Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated the ability of all polyHIPE compositions to promote osteogenic differentiation through the upregulation of bone-specific markers compared to a time zero control. These findings illustrate the potential for these osteoinductive polyHIPEs to promote osteogenesis and validate future in vivo evaluation. Overall, this work demonstrates the ability to incorporate a range of bioactive components into propylene fumarate dimethacrylate-based injectable polyHIPEs to increase cellular interactions and direct specific behavior without compromising scaffold architecture and resulting properties for various tissue engineering applications.

  12. Correlation of fractal dimension with histomorphometry in maxillary sinus lifting using autogenous bone graft.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Paula, Wagner Nunes; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Verzola, Mario Henrique Arruda; Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Scaf, Gulnara; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of bone remodeling after maxillary sinus lifting in humans by means of fractal dimension (FD) and histomorphometric analysis. Therefore, the correlation between FD and the histomorphometric findings was evaluated. Sixteen patients with posterior edentulous maxilla were enrolled in this study. Maxillary sinus lifting was performed using autogenous bone grafted from the mandibular retromolar area. Three direct digital panoramic radiographs were obtained: before surgery (Group 1), immediately postoperatively (Group 2) and after 6 months of healing (Group 3) for FD analysis. Biopsies were taken after 6 months, processed and submitted to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test and ANOVA test followed by a Tukey test (a = 0.05). The bone volume fraction of newly trabecular bone (TB) and medullary area (MA) was measured as 62.75% ± 17.16% and 37.25 ± 17.16%, respectively. Significant difference in FD analysis was measured between Group 1 and Group 3. No significant difference was found in the correlation between FD and histomorphometric analysis for TB and MA (p = 0.84). In conclusion, all performed analyses were effective in assessing the bone-remodeling pattern in the maxillary sinus, offering complementary information about healing and predictable outcomes. There were no correlations between FD and histomorphometric analysis.

  13. The Long-Term Clinical Outcomes Following Autogenous Bone Grafting for Large-Volume Defects of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Delano, Mark; Spector, Myron; Pittsley, Andrew; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who underwent autogenous bone grafting of large-volume osteochondral defects of the knee due to osteochondritis dessicans (OCD) and osteonecrosis (ON). This is the companion report to one previous published on the biological response. We hypothesized that these grafts would integrate with host bone and the articular surface would form fibrocartilage providing an enduring clinical benefit. Design: Three groups (patients/knees) were studied: OCD without a fragment (n = 12/13), OCD with a partial fragment (n = 14/16), and ON (n = 25/26). Twenty-five of 52 patients were available for clinical follow-up between 12 and 21 years. Electronic medical records provided comparison clinical information. In addition, there were plain film radiographs, MRIs, plus repeat arthroscopy and biopsy on 14 patients. Results: Autogenous bone grafts integrated with the host bone. MRI showed soft tissue covering all the grafts at long-term follow-up. Biopsy showed initial surface fibrocartilage that subsequently converted to fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage at 20 years. OCD patients had better clinical outcomes than ON patients. No OCD patients were asymptomatic at anytime following surgery. Half of the ON patients came to total knee replacement within 10 years. Conclusions: Autogenous bone grafting provides an alternative biological matrix to fill large-volume defects in the knee as a singular solution integrating with host bone and providing an enduring articular cartilage surface. The procedure is best suited for those with OCD. The treatment for large-volume articular defects by this method remains salvage in nature and palliative in outcome. PMID:26069688

  14. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting using limited cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Shen, Guofang; Wang, Xudong; Yu, Hongbo; Fan, Linfeng

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone resorption of alveolar bone grafting using LCBCT scan. This was a prospective study. Nineteen patients with alveolar cleft were divided into 2 groups depending on the spontaneous eruption of the permanent tooth. All patients underwent alveolar bone grafting with iliac crest cancellous bone. LCBCT scans were taken 1 month and 6 months postoperatively. LCBCT scans obtained the length, width, and height of the bone grafts. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the bone grafts enabled a valuable objective assessment of the graft volume. The resorption ratio was 10.4% when the permanent tooth erupted spontaneously into the graft. In the group with absence of the permanent tooth, the resorption ratio was 36.6%. LCBCT scan and 3D reconstruction is a promising method for evaluation of the outcome of alveolar bone grafts. Bone grafts showed a high grade of resorption in patients lacking permanent tooth eruption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term follow-up of autogenous tooth bone graft blocks with dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Pang, Kang-Mi; Yun, Pil-Young; Leem, Dae-Ho; Um, In-Woong

    2017-02-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix block (ABTB: Autogenous Tooth Bone Graft Block) is 3-D scaffold with same components and geometry with alveolar bone. ABTB is well incorporated and remodelled into cortico-cancellous bone with dental implant. The shape and volume were maintained with little marginal bone loss after average 44 months of follow-up.

  16. The outcome of intraoral onlay block bone grafts on alveolar ridge augmentations: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining the survival and success rates of implants placed with intraoral onlay autogenous bone grafts to answer the following question: do ridge augmentations procedures with intraoral onlay block bone grafts in conjunction with or prior to implant placement influence implant outcome when compared with a control group (guided bone regeneration, alveolar distraction, native bone or short dental implants.)? Material and Method: An electronic data banks and hand searching were used to find relevant articles on vertical and lateral augmentation procedures performed with intraoral onlay block bone grafts for dental implant therapy published up to October 2013. Publications in English, on human subjects, with a controlled study design –involving at least one group with defects treated with intraoral onlay block bone grafts, more than five patients and a minimum follow-up of 12 months after prosthetic loading were included. Two reviewers extracted the data. Results: A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria: 4 studies on horizontal augmentation and 2 studies on vertical augmentation. Intraoperative complications were not reported. Most common postsurgical complications included mainly mucosal dehiscences (4 studies), bone graft or membrane exposures (3 studies), complete failures of block grafts (2 studies) and neurosensory alterations (4 studies). For lateral augmentation procedures, implant survival rates ranged from 96.9% to 100%, while for vertical augmentation they ranged from 89.5% to 100%. None article studied the soft tissues healing. Conclusions: Survival and success rates of implants placed in horizontally and vertically resorbed edentulous ridges reconstructed with block bone grafts are similar to those of implants placed in native bone, in distracted sites or with guided bone regeneration. More surgical challenges and morbidity arise from vertical augmentations, thus short

  17. [Plea for accelerated rehabilitation after ligament plasty of the knee by a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft].

    PubMed

    Boileau, P; Rémi, M; Lemaire, M; Rousseau, P; Desnuelle, C; Argenson, C

    1999-09-01

    Knee rehabilitation after ACL repair with bone-tendon-bone graft is still controversial. While there was a tendency to protect the graft and the donor site in the eighties, actual tendency is to propose more aggressive, so called accelerated rehabilitation protocol. An extensive analysis of the literature shows that this accelerated rehabilitation is justified because of histologic, biomechanic, surgical and clinical arguments. This accelerated rehabilitation is based on seven reasons, at least: 1) the necrosis of the graft, initially observed in animals, does not seem to be as important in humans as demonstrated by histological studies after in vivo biopsies; 2) the use of solid bone-tendon-bone graft, whose resistance is maximum in the early post-operative period and is superior to the resistance of the ACL; 3) the more precise positioning (more "isometric") because of optic magnification allowed by arthroscopy; 4) the absence of graft impingement, routinely controlled, because of a more posterior tibial placement of the graft and the eventual notch-plasty; 5) the solid and confident fixation of the graft because of interference screws; 6) anterior knee pain are less important when early constraints are applied on the knee; 7) finally, undisciplined and demanding patients who refuse all protection for the graft and the donor site, have good and stable results regarding stability of the knees. Early constraints on the knee after bone-tendon-bone graft and interference fixation give better tolerance on the extension mechanism without compromising integrity of the graft and knee stability. Appropriate level of constraints on the ACL graft and the donor site guides the collagenic reorganisation process. Early restoration of normal hyperextension, decreased knee pain and maintenance of muscular trophicity, allowing patients to go back to sport at 4 months, are the most evident benefits of this accelerated rehabilitation. These considerations cannot be applied to the

  18. Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes.

    PubMed

    Worm, Paulo V; Ferreira, Nelson P; Faria, Mario B; Ferreira, Marcelo P; Kraemer, Jorge L; Collares, Marcus V M

    2010-12-22

    As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines. Twenty-three patients were enrolled for cranial burr hole reconstruction with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 108 burr holes were treated; 36 burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous cortical bone discs (33.3%), and the remaining 72 with autogenous wet bone powder (66.6%). A trephine was specifically designed to produce this coin-shaped bone plug of 14 mm in diameter, which fit perfectly over the burr holes. The reconstructions were studied 12 months after the surgical procedure, using three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography. Additionally, general and plastic surgeons blinded for the study evaluated the cosmetic results of those areas, attributing scores from 0 to 10. The mean bone densities were 987.95 ± 186.83 Hounsfield units (HU) for bone fragment and 473.55 ± 220.34 HU for bone dust (P < 0.001); the mean cosmetic scores were 9.5 for bone fragment and 5.7 for bone dust (P < 0.001). The use of autologous bone discs showed better results than bone dust for the reconstruction of cranial burr holes because of their lower degree of bone resorption and, consequently, better cosmetic results. The lack of donor site morbidity associated with procedural low cost qualifies the cortical autograft as the first choice for correcting cranial defects created by neurosurgical trephines.

  19. Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Paulo V.; Ferreira, Nelson P.; Faria, Mario B.; Ferreira, Marcelo P.; Kraemer, Jorge L.; Collares, Marcus V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines. Methods: Twenty-three patients were enrolled for cranial burr hole reconstruction with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 108 burr holes were treated; 36 burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous cortical bone discs (33.3%), and the remaining 72 with autogenous wet bone powder (66.6%). A trephine was specifically designed to produce this coin-shaped bone plug of 14 mm in diameter, which fit perfectly over the burr holes. The reconstructions were studied 12 months after the surgical procedure, using three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography. Additionally, general and plastic surgeons blinded for the study evaluated the cosmetic results of those areas, attributing scores from 0 to 10. Results: The mean bone densities were 987.95 ± 186.83 Hounsfield units (HU) for bone fragment and 473.55 ± 220.34 HU for bone dust (P < 0.001); the mean cosmetic scores were 9.5 for bone fragment and 5.7 for bone dust (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of autologous bone discs showed better results than bone dust for the reconstruction of cranial burr holes because of their lower degree of bone resorption and, consequently, better cosmetic results. The lack of donor site morbidity associated with procedural low cost qualifies the cortical autograft as the first choice for correcting cranial defects created by neurosurgical trephines. PMID:21206899

  20. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with minimal extracorporeal circulation system.

    PubMed

    Lezama Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; de León Lagunas, Edith; Careaga Reyna, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    For coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is required for many patients. However, this procedure has several risks. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC) is more advantageous than CPB for CABG surgery. We analyzed 17 patients submitted to CABG surgery between April 1, 2006 and August 31, 2009. Patients were divided into two groups. In one group, MECC (n = 8) was used and in the other group the conventional CPB circuit (n = 9). Perioperative bleeding, blood requirements and clinical evolution were compared. We observed a statistically significant difference for postoperative leukocyte count (p <0.05). However, for blood requirements, intraoperative urinary output, and pre- and postsurgical levels of creatinine, we did not find differences. Intraoperative bleeding was lower in the MECC group (p <0.05). Major cardiovascular complications were also lower in this group (p <0.05). MECC reduces the frequency of major cardiovascular complications, intraoperative bleeding and probably a lower inflammatory systemic response compared with conventional CPB.

  1. Alveolar ridge augmentation with autogenous mental block harvested using ultrasonic bone surgery (USBS) and platelet rich plasma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chivte, Pankaj; Patel, Nisha; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-01-01

    Predictable reconstruction of alveolar ridge defects can be obtained by using autogenous bone block. Ultrasonic bone surgery (USBS) is a fast, precise, and simple technique for block graft harvesting. It allows for a clean surgical field with no risk of injury to surrounding neurovascular structures. This article describes a case of horizontal alveolar ridge defect augmented with mental bone block harvested using USBS. The defect was overcorrected using bovine derived xenograft and platelet rich plasma, which is an autologous source of growth factors that helps in early graft consolidation. Platelet poor plasma (PPP) membrane was used for graft containment. After six months, on exposure, it was observed that the block graft was integrated with the alveolar ridge, resulting in increased ridge width. This was confirmed on dentascan and 3D reconstruction images. Implants were placed and restored with satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome.

  2. Non-vascularized bone grafting in scaphoid nonunion: principles and type of fixation.

    PubMed

    Uesato, Ryoko; Toh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Maniwa, Keiichiro; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    In scaphoid fractures, delayed diagnosis and nonunion are fairly common as a result of several factors, including the difficulty of radiographic diagnosis of non-displaced fractures and underestimation of the injury by the patient. Main factors to consider when deciding treatment are the type of fracture and fracture stability. In the stable nonunion (Type D1 according to the Filan and Herbert classification, or linear type of Ikeda's classification), percutaneous screw fixation without bone graft is recommended. The indications of non-vascularized bone grafting are as follows: (1) arthroscopic cancellous bone graft in type D1 and cystic type of Ikeda's classification. (2) tricortical bone graft from the iliac crest in type D2 or D3 if the possibility of avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment is excluded. In this paper, our non-vascularized bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion would like to be described mainly about principles and type of fixation.

  3. Unilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation with Bone Graft vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation with Bone Graft or Cage: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si-Dong; Chen, Qian; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Shen, Yong; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the clinical efficacy of unilateral pedicle screw fixation with bone graft (UPSFB) in treating single-segment lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), as compared to bilateral pedicle screw fixation with bone graft (BPSFB) or with cage (BPSFC). Material/Methods Medical records were retrospectively collected between 01/2010 and 02/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. According to surgical methods used, all patients were divided into 3 groups: UPSFB group, BPSFB group, and BPSFC group. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by blood loss, blood transfusion, duration of operation, hospital stay, postoperative complications, interbody fusion rate, reoperation rate, medical expenses, patient satisfaction survey, and JOA score. Results Ninety-five patients were included and underwent 2.5-year follow-up, with 7 patients lost to regular follow-up. As compared to the BPSFB group and BPSFC group, the UPSFB group had less blood loss and less blood transfusion, as well as shorter hospital stay (p<0.05). Medical expenses were far lower in the UPSFB group (p<0.001). There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in postoperative complications, interbody fusion rate, reoperation rate, JOA score, and patient satisfaction (all p>0.05). Conclusions As compared to BPSFB and BPSFC, UPSFB has the same reliability and effectiveness in treating single-segment LDD with unilateral radicular symptoms in a single lower extremity, with the additional advantage being less expensive. PMID:26988532

  4. Bone substitutes and expanders in Spine Surgery: A review of their fusion efficacies

    PubMed Central

    Millhouse, Paul W; Kepler, Christopher K; Radcliff, Kris E.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Janssen, Michael E.; Sasso, Rick C.; Benedict, James J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A narrative review of literature. Objective This manuscript intends to provide a review of clinically relevant bone substitutes and bone expanders for spinal surgery in terms of efficacy and associated clinical outcomes, as reported in contemporary spine literature. Summary of Background Data Ever since the introduction of allograft as a substitute for autologous bone in spinal surgery, a sea of literature has surfaced, evaluating both established and newly emerging fusion alternatives. An understanding of the available fusion options and an organized evidence-based approach to their use in spine surgery is essential for achieving optimal results. Methods A Medline search of English language literature published through March 2016 discussing bone graft substitutes and fusion extenders was performed. All clinical studies reporting radiological and/or patient outcomes following the use of bone substitutes were reviewed under the broad categories of Allografts, Demineralized Bone Matrices (DBM), Ceramics, Bone Morphogenic proteins (BMPs), Autologous growth factors (AGFs), Stem cell products and Synthetic Peptides. These were further grouped depending on their application in lumbar and cervical spine surgeries, deformity correction or other miscellaneous procedures viz. trauma, infection or tumors; wherever data was forthcoming. Studies in animal populations and experimental in vitro studies were excluded. Primary endpoints were radiological fusion rates and successful clinical outcomes. Results A total of 181 clinical studies were found suitable to be included in the review. More than a third of the published articles (62 studies, 34.25%) focused on BMP. Ceramics (40 studies) and Allografts (39 studies) were the other two highly published groups of bone substitutes. Highest radiographic fusion rates were observed with BMPs, followed by allograft and DBM. There were no significant differences in the reported clinical outcomes across all classes of bone

  5. Treatment methods for neoplastic metastates and tumor-like changes in the bodies and epiphyses of long bones using polymethyl methacrylate cement and bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, Tomasz; Spindel, Jerzy; Miszczyk, Leszek; Koczy, Bogdan; Chrobok, Adam; Pilecki, Bolesław; Tomasik, Patryk; Matysiakiewicz, Jacek

    2005-10-30

    Background. The objective of our study was to evaluate the stabilization of reconstructed long bones after metastatic tumor resection and defect filling with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or bone allograft. Material and methods. We studied a group of 107 patients who underwent surgery between 1996 and 2004 (55 females and 46 males). A primary neoplasmatic focus was found after histopathological examination in 58 cases, in 29 the histopathology was not evident, and in 20 cases no neoplastic tissue was found. Metastases were found within the femur in 73 cases, in the humerus in 19 cases, and in the tibia in 15 cases. Stabilization was performed using the traditional AO method, intramedullary nailing, or DHS/DCS fixation. Results. Taking into consideration clinical and radiological assessment, outcomes varied from fair to good. Better outcome was obtained in cases treated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) filling combined with intramedullary nailing or DCS/DHS than in cases treated with traditional AO plating. For tumor-like lesions, complete bone graft consolidation was found after bone allograft filling in 14 of 20 cases. Conclusions. The 2 methods of long bone stabilization mentioned above, combined with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or bone allograft filling, is the method of choice. Deep frozen bone grafting is possible only in cases of total tumor resection with the possibility of non-malignant tumor. The effect of reconstruction, besides fair or good outcome, included improved quality of life, less consumption of analgesics, and in many cases successful avoidance of pathological fracture.

  6. The Composite of Bone Marrow Concentrate and PRP as an Alternative to Autologous Bone Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Mohssen; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Betsch, Marcel; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Hakimi, Ahmad-Reza; Kröpil, Patric; Sager, Martin; Herten, Monika; Wild, Michael; Windolf, Joachim; Jungbluth, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group). In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG), whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold) compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting. PMID:24950251

  7. "Redo" surgery for late aorto-femoral graft occlusive failures.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Le Thoai, M; Natali, J

    1984-01-01

    Experience of late failures of Dacron aortofemoral grafts is presented; about 70 cases observed during the past eight years on whom 105 subsequent operations were performed. One third of these patients were first operated upon by another surgical team. During the same period, 850 patients were submitted to reconstructive surgery of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries either for atherosclerotic or for aneurysmal disease. It appears that conservative procedures like thrombectomy of the occluded limb are often insufficient, impossible, inappropriate or dangerous, even after restoration of a good deep femoral outflow. On the other hand, aggressive restoration of limbflow is generally necessary, with other various and ingenious direct or indirect reconstructive techniques for restitution of a good inflow and outflow. These techniques are usually successful (85%) and gain time against the major etiology of these late failures viz the development of atherosclerotic disease.

  8. Comparison of bone grafts for posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Price, Charles T; Connolly, John F; Carantzas, Anthony C; Ilyas, Imran

    2003-04-15

    A retrospective comparison of three different types of bone grafts for posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To determine the efficacy of bone marrow and demineralized bone matrix as a bone graft substitute for spinal fusion. Several reports have documented a high morbidity associated with harvesting autologous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) for spinal fusion. Composite bone graft consisting of demineralized bone matrix and aspirated bone marrow may reduce the morbidity and still retain the osteoinductive properties of iliac crest autograft. Three different bone grafting techniques were used by a single surgeon in 88 consecutive patients who had posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Segmental instrumentation with dual-rod fixation was used in all cases. Selection of type of graft was determined historically by the time when the operations were performed. Autologous ICBG was used in Group A, freeze-dried corticocancellous allograft in Group B, and composite graft of autologous bone marrow and demineralized bone matrix in Group C. Seventy-seven patients were reviewed, with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up (mean, 3 years 7 months; range, 2 years-9 years 5 months). Radiographs were assessed for pseudarthrosis and loss of correction of 10 degrees or more. Loss of 10 degrees of correction has been previously identified as an indicator of potential pseudarthrosis or fusion instability. Both of these criteria were used to compare success of fusion. Failure caused by pseudarthroses was seen in two patients (2.6%), one in Group A and one in Group B. Eleven patients lost greater than 10 degrees of correction, but only one demonstrated pseudarthroses. The 13 patients with pseudarthroses or loss of correction constitute the failure group for purposes of graft assessment. The failure rate was 12.5% in Group A (ICBG), 28% in Group B (freeze-dried corticocancellous allograft), and 11.1% in Group C (composite graft of autologous bone

  9. Recent developments in interpositional bone-grafting of the atrophic mandible.

    PubMed

    Moloney, F; Stoelinga, P J; Tideman, H; de Koomen, H A

    1985-02-01

    A clinical study on 54 patients, who underwent augmentation of the atrophic mandible by interposed bone-grafts, but in whom routine follow-up vestibuloplasty was deliberately avoided, is presented. The results show a reduced rate of bone resorption in the anterior region and less interference with lip and chin sensibility. An additional study is included concerning the fate of the elevated ridge and associated bone-graft in the body region posterior to the mental foramen. Results suggest that the resorption pattern in this area is very similar to that of a subperiosteal bone-graft. Modification of surgical technique in this regard has produced encouraging results.

  10. Anatomically safe and minimally invasive transcrestal technique for procurement of autogenous cancellous bone graft from the mid-iliac crest

    PubMed Central

    Missiuna, Paul C.; Gandhi, Harjeet S.; Farrokhyar, Forough; Harnett, Barry E.; Dore, Edward M.G.; Roberts, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background Open iliac bone harvesting techniques can result in significant complications and residual morbidity. In reconstructive procedures where a small volume of autogenous cancellous bone graft is required, a minimally invasive technique for bone harvesting applied at the mid-iliac crest has been deemed satisfactory. We sought to assess the application of a well-established surgical technique to procure adequate volume of autogenous cancellous iliac bone graft with minimal trauma to adjacent structures. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients who underwent a minimally invasive transcrestal mid-iliac bone graft procurement technique between May 2003 and December 2007. The technique was performed using a 3.5-mm Steinmann pin as a trocar and a 4.5-mm AO drill sleeve as a trephine. We administered a questionnaire, either in the clinic or by mail, to assess a number of parameters, including postoperative pain, dysthesia, parasthesia, status of the donor site wound and patient satisfaction. Results Of the 37 consecutive patients who underwent the procedure, data from 26 patients were available for assessment. Donor site pain resolved within a few days of the surgery, and none of the patients experienced symptoms of chronic pain. At the final review, none of the patients reported any unpleasant signs and symptoms related to the residual scar. Conclusion We recommend that the described minimally invasive trephine method be used when a small cancellous bone graft is needed. We found that patient morbidity was significantly lower with the trephine harvest technique than with open bone harvesting methods at the anterior iliac crest. PMID:21933526

  11. Measurement of Gamma-Irradiated Corneal Patch Graft Thickness After Aqueous Drainage Device Surgery.

    PubMed

    de Luna, Regina A; Moledina, Ameera; Wang, Jiangxia; Jampel, Henry D

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of the tube of an aqueous drainage device (ADD) through the conjunctiva is a serious complication of ADD surgery. Although placement of gamma-irradiated sterile cornea (GISC) as a patch graft over the tube is commonly performed, exposures still occur. To measure GISC patch graft thickness as a function of time after surgery, estimate the rate of graft thinning, and determine risk factors for graft thinning. Cross-sectional study of graft thickness using anterior segment optic coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was conducted at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. A total of 107 patients (120 eyes, 120 ADDs) 18 years or older who underwent ADD surgery at Johns Hopkins with GISC patch graft between July 1, 2010, and October 31, 2016, were enrolled. Implantation of ADD with placement of GISC patch graft over the tube. Graft thickness vs time after ADD surgery and risk factors for undetectable graft. Of the 107 patients included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age of the cohort was 64 (16.2) years, 49 (45.8%) were male, and 43 (40.2%) were African American. The mean time of measurement after surgery was 1.7 years (range, 1 day to 6 years). Thinner grafts were observed as the time after surgery lengthened (β regression coefficient, -60 µm per year since surgery; 95% CI, -80 µm to -40 µm). The odds ratio of undetectable grafts per year after ADD surgery was 2.1 (95% CI, 1.5-3.0; P < .001). Age, sex, race, type of ADD, quadrant of ADD placement, diagnosis of uveitis or dry eye, and prior conjunctival surgery were not correlated with the presence or absence of the graft. Gamma-irradiated sterile corneal patch grafts do not always retain their integrity after ADD surgery. Data from this cross-sectional study showed that on average, the longer the time after surgery, the thinner the graft. These findings suggest that placement of a GISC patch graft is no guarantee against tube exposure, and that better strategies are needed for preventing this

  12. Decellularization and Delipidation Protocols of Bovine Bone and Pericardium for Bone Grafting and Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Letizia; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; De Benedictis, Giulia; Finotti, Luca; Isola, Maurizio; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The combination of bone grafting materials with guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes seems to provide promising results to restore bone defects in dental clinical practice. In the first part of this work, a novel protocol for decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone, based on multiple steps of thermal shock, washes with detergent and dehydration with alcohol, is described. This protocol is more effective in removal of cellular materials, and shows superior biocompatibility compared to other three methods tested in this study. Furthermore, histological and morphological analyses confirm the maintenance of an intact bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro and in vivo experiments evidence osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the produced scaffold, respectively. In the second part of this study, two methods of bovine pericardium decellularization are compared. The osmotic shock-based protocol gives better results in terms of removal of cell components, biocompatibility, maintenance of native ECM structure, and host tissue reaction, in respect to the freeze/thaw method. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the characterization of a novel protocol for the decellularization of bovine bone to be used as bone graft, and the acquisition of a method to produce a pericardium membrane suitable for GBR applications. PMID:26191793

  13. Decellularization and Delipidation Protocols of Bovine Bone and Pericardium for Bone Grafting and Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gardin, Chiara; Ricci, Sara; Ferroni, Letizia; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; De Benedictis, Giulia; Finotti, Luca; Isola, Maurizio; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The combination of bone grafting materials with guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes seems to provide promising results to restore bone defects in dental clinical practice. In the first part of this work, a novel protocol for decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone, based on multiple steps of thermal shock, washes with detergent and dehydration with alcohol, is described. This protocol is more effective in removal of cellular materials, and shows superior biocompatibility compared to other three methods tested in this study. Furthermore, histological and morphological analyses confirm the maintenance of an intact bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro and in vivo experiments evidence osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the produced scaffold, respectively. In the second part of this study, two methods of bovine pericardium decellularization are compared. The osmotic shock-based protocol gives better results in terms of removal of cell components, biocompatibility, maintenance of native ECM structure, and host tissue reaction, in respect to the freeze/thaw method. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the characterization of a novel protocol for the decellularization of bovine bone to be used as bone graft, and the acquisition of a method to produce a pericardium membrane suitable for GBR applications.

  14. Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Puricelli, Edela; Dutra, Nardier B; Ponzoni, Deise

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field. PMID:19134221

  15. A combined approach of enamel matrix derivative gel and autogenous bone grafts in treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. A case report.

    PubMed

    Leung, George; Jin, Lijian

    2003-04-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has recently been introduced as a new modality in regenerative periodontal therapy. This case report demonstrates a combined approach in topical application of EMD gel (Emdogain) and autogenous bone grafts for treatment of intrabony defects and furcation involvement defects in a patient with chronic periodontitis. The seven-month post-surgery clinical and radiographic results were presented. The combined application of EMD gel with autogenous bone grafts in intrabony osseous defects resulted in clinically significant gain of attachment on diseased root surfaces and bone fill on radiographs. Further controlled clinical studies are required to confirm the long-term effectiveness of the combination of EMD gel and autogenous bone grafts in treatment of various osseous defects in subjects with chronic periodontitis.

  16. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Songfeng; Hoffman, Michael D; Proctor, Ashley R; Vella, Joseph B; Mannoh, Emmanuel A; Barber, Nathaniel E; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Ki Won; Benoit, Danielle S W; Choe, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10). Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF), a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1-2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2-4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p < 0.05). These spatial and temporal differences in blood flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts.

  17. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Songfeng; Hoffman, Michael D.; Proctor, Ashley R.; Vella, Joseph B.; Mannoh, Emmanuel A.; Barber, Nathaniel E.; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Ki Won; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10). Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF), a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1–2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2–4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p < 0.05). These spatial and temporal differences in blood flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts. PMID:26625352

  18. Delayed Union of a Sacral Fracture: Percutaneous Navigated Autologous Cancellous Bone Grafting and Screw Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Huegli, R. W. Messmer, P.; Jacob, A. L.; Regazzoni, P.; Styger, S.; Gross, T.

    2003-09-15

    Delayed or non-union of a sacral fracture is a serious clinical condition that may include chronic pain, sitting discomfort, gait disturbances, neurological problems, and inability to work. It is also a difficult reconstruction problem. Late correction of the deformity is technically more demanding than the primary treatment of acute pelvic injuries. Open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF), excision of scar tissue, and bone grafting often in a multi-step approach are considered to be the treatment of choice in delayed unions of the pelvic ring. This procedure implies the risk of neurological and vascular injuries, infection, repeated failure of union, incomplete correction of the deformity, and incomplete pain relief as the most important complications. We report a new approach for minimally invasive treatment of a delayed union of the sacrum without vertical displacement. A patient who suffered a Malgaigne fracture (Tile C1.3) was initially treated with closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation (CRPF) of the posterior pelvic ring under CT navigation and plating of the anterior pelvic ring. Three months after surgery he presented with increasing hip pain caused by a delayed union of the sacral fracture. The lesion was successfully treated percutaneously in a single step procedure using CT navigation for drilling of the delayed union, autologous bone grafting, and screw fixation.

  19. Raman study of the effect of LED light on grafted bone defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luiz G. G. P.; Aciole, Jouber M. S.; Aciole, Gilbeth T. S.; Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Silveira-Júnior, Landulfo; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Benefits of the isolated or combined use light and biomaterials on bone healing have been suggested. Our group has used several models to assess the effects of laser on bone. A Raman spectral analysis on surgical bone defects grafted or not with Hydroxyapatite (HA), treated or not with LED was carried out. 40 rats were divided into 4 groups. On Group I the defect was filled with the clot. On Group II, the defect was filled with the HA. On groups III the defect was filled with Clot and further irradiated with LED and on group IV the defects was filled with the HA and further irradiated with LED. LED (λ850 +/- 10nm, 150mW, A= 0.5cm2, 68s, 20 J/cm2 per session, 140 J/cm2 per treatment) was applied at 48 h intervals during 15 days. Specimens were taken after 15 and 30 days after surgery and kept on liquid nitrogen, and underwent Raman analysis. For this, the peak of hydroxyapatite (~960 cm-1) was used as marker of bone mineralization. Significant difference was observed at both times (p<0.05). When the biomaterial was used higher peaks were observed. Association with LED further improved the intensity. Conclusion: It is concluded that LED light improved the effect of the HA.

  20. Efficacy of xenogeneic bone grafting with guided tissue regeneration in the management of bone defects after surgical endodontics.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Testori, Tiziano; Weinstein, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical trial was to monitor the outcomes of periradicular surgery in large periapical lesions with or without guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and anorganic bovine bone. All teeth in the study revealed a periradicular lesion measuring at least 10 mm. A total of 63 teeth in 44 patients were included according to specific selection criteria. In the test group, after root end filling was completed, the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone and was covered with a resorbable collagen membrane. In the control group, neither graft nor membrane was used. A total of 59 teeth in 41 patients were evaluable at 1-year follow-up. Of these, 24 teeth belonged to the test group and 35 to the control group. Overall, 46 teeth (78%) had successfully healed, 10 (16.9%) demonstrated uncertain healing, and 3 exhibited treatment failure. Investigators found no statistically significant differences in outcome between test and control groups. The present study showed that the use of GTR in association with anorganic bovine bone in the treatment of patients with large periradicular lesions of strictly endodontic origin has no beneficial effect on outcome.

  1. Percutaneous autologous concentrated bone marrow grafting in the treatment for nonunion.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Mishima, Hajime; Aoto, Katsuya; Li, Meihua; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Sakai, Shinsuke; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic treatment effects of percutaneous autologous concentrated bone marrow grafting in nonunion cases and to evaluate the effectiveness of this grafting procedure. We enrolled 17 cases those had atrophic changes due to continuous nonunion for over 9 months after injury and had undergone low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment for more than 3 months. The site of nonunion was the femur in 10 cases, the tibia in 5 cases, the humerus in 1 case, and the ulna in 1 case. They underwent percutaneous autologous concentrated bone marrow grafting and continued low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation treatment after grafting. Patients were evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pain at immediately before the procedure, 3, 6, and 12 months after grafting. Plain radiographs of the affected site were taken and evaluated about the healing of the nonunion site at each clinical evaluation. As quantitative assessment, CT scans were undertaken before the procedure and 6 months after grafting. The visual analogue scale pain score was reduced consistently after grafting in all patients. About the healing at the nonunion site, 11 and 13 cases of bone union were observed at 6 and 12 months after grafting. The mean volume of callus formation based on CT images was 4,147 (262-27,392) mm3 total between grafting and 6 months. Percutaneous autologous concentrated bone marrow grafting is an effective procedure for the treatment of patients with nonunion.

  2. Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap for Bone Graft Coverage: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most important step in bone graft management is soft tissue coverage. Dehiscence of the wound leads to graft exposure and subsequent problems. Purpose: This study introduces an axial pattern flap for bone graft coverage in anterior maxilla. Patients and Methods: Use of Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap is presented by the authors. It is a mucoperiosteal flap with axial pattern blood supply, based on nasopalatine artery. It is easy to raise and predictable. Results: Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. PMID:27512552

  3. Effects of palatine bone denudation repair with periosteal graft on maxillary growth: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Barutca, Seda Asfuroğlu; Aksan, Tolga; Usçetin, Ilker; Sahin, Davut; Akan, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    The long-term goal of cleft palate repair is to provide normal maxillary growth and speech capacity. However, most surgical repairs of cleft palate result in areas of bone denudation on lateral aspects of the hard palate. It is widely acknowledged that palatal bone denudation and subsequent scar contracture resulting from cleft palate surgery can inhibit maxillary growth. This study is designed to investigate the effect of the periosteum on growth patterns of the maxilla. A total of 32 three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and three experimental groups: a mucosa excision group, a mucosa-periosteum excision group and a periosteal graft group. Nine weeks postoperatively the skulls were prepared for study and palatal widths and lengths were determined. The experimental groups were investigated for various histological changes. There was no statistically significant difference for the maxillary measurements (palatal width and length) between the mucosa excision group and the periosteal graft group when compared with the control group. However, the mucosa-periosteum excision group compared to the control indicated a statistically significant decrease in the same measurements. There was also a statistically significant difference for the maxillary measurements between the periosteal graft group and the mucosa-periosteum excision group. It was demonstrated histologically that the density of the Sharpey's fibres and periodontal scar tissue showed a slight increase in the mucosa excision group and the periosteal graft group compared with the control group. In the mucosa-periosteum excision group, the density increased significantly as expected. All of these findings testify that retaining the periosteum or replacement with a periosteum graft after surgery can prevent the inhibition of maxillary growth. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell based therapies as compared to autologous bone grafts for spinal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Khashan, Morsi; Inoue, Shinichi; Berven, Sigurd H

    2013-10-01

    Systematic review. To compare the clinical outcome of cell based grafts combined with bone extenders to autologous bone grafts. Alternative graft options that combine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone marrow aspirate (BMA) with synthetic or allograft scaffolds have been recently used in several animal and clinical studies. This systematic review of the literature addresses the following key questions (KQs): (1) Does the use of MSCs or BMA combined with synthetic or allograft extenders contribute to thoracolumbar fusion rates that are comparable with the rates achieved by the use of iliac crest graft? (2) Are these fusion rates comparable with those of local bone graft (LBG)? (3) Does the addition of MSCs or BMA to iliac crest bone graft or LBG contribute to better throracolumbar fusion rates? (4) Are the cervical spine fusion outcomes achieved by the use of SCM or BMA with synthetic or allograft scaffolds comparable with the iliac crest bone graft or LBG outcomes? (5) Was there any difference in terms of fusion rates, when MSCs were compared with BMA? For KQ1, 4 level II, III studies used iliac crest bone graft as control. The results of these studies were inconsistent, and the overall body of evidence was found insufficient. Three, level II, III studies were identified for KQ2. Comparable fusion rates were demonstrated between LBG and BMA combined with calcium phosphate or collagen carrier. The overall body of evidence was found weak. For KQ3, one level III study was found. No significant difference was found in the fusion rates. No studies met the criteria for KQ4, 5. The currently available evidence is insufficient to support the use of MSCs or BMA combined with synthetic or allograft materials as a substitute or supplementary graft to autologous bone graft. 2.

  5. Referral patterns of general dental practitioners for bone grafting and implant placement.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B; Shadbolt, B; Hyam, D

    2017-09-01

    Dental implant rehabilitation is a well-established procedure often conducted in the general dental practise setting. The outcomes for implant placement are reliable when the recipient site is favourable. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy with which general dental practitioners (GDP) assess the bone volume available for implant placement and their referral patterns for implant sites, which may require bone grafting. Fifty-three GDP were surveyed and asked to assess five different scenarios and cone-beam scans for difficulty (0, 'no difficulty'; 5, 'the most difficult'), and bone grafting requirements ('yes'/'no' and 'who to perform'), prior to implant placement. The GDP assessment of difficulty for the cases was: no graft required, 1.88; aesthetic zone involvement, 3.25; vertical deficiency, 2.8; sinus lift required, 3.68; and horizontal deficiency, 4.4. GDP seemed to have some difficulty identifying which cases required a bone graft, occasionally grafting a site with sufficient bone (12.5%), or not grafting a site with insufficient bone (45-75%). These results show that GDP are accurate in assessing the difficulty of an implant case and conservative when it comes to attempting these complex cases. GDP are less confident when it comes to recognizing cases that require bone grafting, and what options are available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Bone Plug Versus Suture-Only Fixation of Meniscal Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongsheng; Gee, Albert O.; Hutchinson, Ian D.; Stoner, Kirsten; Warren, Russell F.; Chen, Tony O.; Maher, Suzanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) is primarily undertaken to relieve the symptoms associated with meniscal deficiencies. However, its ability to restore normal knee joint contact mechanics under physiological loads is still unclear. Purpose To quantify the dynamic contact mechanics associated with 2 commonly used fixation techniques in MAT of the medial compartment: transosseous suture fixation via bone plugs and suture-only fixation at the horns. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Physiological loads to mimic gait were applied across 7 human cadaveric knees on a simulator. A sensor placed on the medial tibial plateau recorded dynamic contact stresses under the following conditions: (1) intact meniscus, (2) MAT using transosseous suture fixation via bone plugs at the anterior and posterior horns, (3) MAT using suture-only fixation, and (4) total medial meniscectomy. A “remove-replace” procedure was performed to place the same autograft for both MAT conditions to minimize the variability in graft size, geometry, and material property and to isolate the effects of the fixation technique. Contact stress, contact area, and weighted center of contact stress (WCoCS) were quantified on the medial plateau throughout the stance phase. Results Knee joint contact mechanics were sensitive to the meniscal condition primarily during the first half of the gait cycle. After meniscectomy, the mean peak contact stress increased from 4.2 ± 1.2 MPa to 6.2 ± 1.0 MPa (P = .04), and the mean contact area decreased from 546 ± 132 mm2 to 192 ± 122 mm2 (P = .01) compared with the intact meniscus during early stance (14% of the gait cycle). After MAT, the mean contact stress significantly decreased with bone plug fixation (5.0 ± 0.7 MPa) but not with suture-only fixation (5.9 ± 0.7 MPa). Both fixation techniques partially restored the contact area, but bone plug fixation restored it closer to the intact condition. The location of WCoCS in the

  7. Recurrent shoulder instability and arthritis treated with graft jacket resurfacing, hemiarthroplasty, and bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Oke A; Huffman, G Russell

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of recurrent shoulder instability in the presence of large bony defects of the glenoid and/or the humeral head is evolving. The young patient with significant glenohumeral arthrosis presents unique challenges in terms of management. In the presence of large glenohumeral bony defects, several authors have reported poor outcomes with attempted soft tissue stabilization only. Therefore, some type of bony reconstruction is generally recommended. Glenohumeral arthrosis is a known complication of recurrent shoulder dislocation. The role of arthroplasty and glenoid resurfacing options in young patients is controversial given the demands in this group. This article presents a case of a 35-year-old patient who presented with coexisting bony defects-an engaging Hill-Sachs defect and a bony Bankart defect causing recurrent shoulder instability-and post-dislocation glenohumeral arthritis with resultant pain. He underwent a humeral hemiarthroplasty, glenoid structural bone grafting, and a glenoid graft jacket. At 2-year follow-up, he reported a favorable outcome. This case represents an encouraging treatment approach for a young patient with recurrent instability caused by coexisting bony defects and significant arthrosis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Advancements in Orthopedic Intervention: Retrograde Drilling and Bone Grafting of Osteochondral Lesions of the Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Seebauer, Christian J.; Bail, Hermann J.; Rump, Jens C. Walter, Thula Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.

    2010-12-15

    Computer-assisted surgery is currently a novel challenge for surgeons and interventional radiologists. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures are still evolving. In this experimental study, we describe and assess an innovative passive-navigation method for MRI-guided treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. A navigation principle using a passive-navigation device was evaluated in six cadaveric knee joint specimens for potential applicability in retrograde drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions using MRI guidance. Feasibility and accuracy were evaluated in an open MRI scanner (1.0 T Philips Panorama HFO MRI System). Interactive MRI navigation allowed precise drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions of the knee. All lesions were hit with an accuracy of 1.86 mm in the coronal plane and 1.4 mm the sagittal plane. Targeting of all lesions was possible with a single drilling. MRI allowed excellent assessment of correct positioning of the cancellous bone cylinder during bone grafting. The navigation device and anatomic structures could be clearly identified and distinguished throughout the entire drilling procedure. MRI-assisted navigation method using a passive navigation device is feasible for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee under MRI guidance and allows precise and safe drilling without exposure to ionizing radiation. This method may be a viable alternative to other navigation principles, especially for pediatric and adolescent patients. This MRI-navigated method is also potentially applicable in many other MRI-guided interventions.

  9. A systematic review on robotic coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Cao, Christopher; Indraratna, Praveen; Doyle, Mathew; Tian, David H; Liou, Kevin; Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Uys, Ciska; Virk, Sohaib

    2016-11-01

    Robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been performed over the past decade. Despite encouraging results from selected centres, there is a paucity of robust clinical data to establish its clinical safety and efficacy. The present systematic review aimed to identify all relevant clinical data on robotic CABG. The primary endpoint was perioperative mortality, and secondary endpoints included perioperative morbidities, anastomotic complications, and long-term survival. Electronic searches were performed using three online databases from their dates of inception to 2016. Relevant studies fulfilling the predefined search criteria were categorized according to surgical techniques as (I) totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass without cardiopulmonary bypass (TECAB off-pump); (II) TECAB on-pump; and robotic-assisted mammary artery harvesting followed by minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (robotic MIDCAB). The present systematic review identified 44 studies that fulfilled the study selection criteria, including nine studies in the TECAB off-pump group and 16 studies in the robotic MIDCAB group. Statistical analysis reported a pooled mortality of 1.7% for the TECAB off-pump group and 1.0% for the robotic MIDCAB group. Intraoperative details such as the number and location of grafts performed, operative times and conversion rates, as well as postoperative secondary endpoints such as morbidities, anastomotic complications and long-term outcomes were also summarized for both techniques. A number of technical, logistic and cost-related issues continue to hinder the popularization of the robotic CABG procedure. Current clinical evidence is limited by a lack of randomized controlled trials, heterogeneous definition of techniques and complications, as well as a lack of robust clinical follow-up with routine angiography. Nonetheless, the present systematic review reported acceptable perioperative mortality rates for selected patients at

  10. A systematic review on robotic coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Indraratna, Praveen; Doyle, Mathew; Tian, David H.; Liou, Kevin; Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Uys, Ciska; Virk, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Background Robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been performed over the past decade. Despite encouraging results from selected centres, there is a paucity of robust clinical data to establish its clinical safety and efficacy. The present systematic review aimed to identify all relevant clinical data on robotic CABG. The primary endpoint was perioperative mortality, and secondary endpoints included perioperative morbidities, anastomotic complications, and long-term survival. Methods Electronic searches were performed using three online databases from their dates of inception to 2016. Relevant studies fulfilling the predefined search criteria were categorized according to surgical techniques as (I) totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass without cardiopulmonary bypass (TECAB off-pump); (II) TECAB on-pump; and robotic-assisted mammary artery harvesting followed by minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (robotic MIDCAB). Results The present systematic review identified 44 studies that fulfilled the study selection criteria, including nine studies in the TECAB off-pump group and 16 studies in the robotic MIDCAB group. Statistical analysis reported a pooled mortality of 1.7% for the TECAB off-pump group and 1.0% for the robotic MIDCAB group. Intraoperative details such as the number and location of grafts performed, operative times and conversion rates, as well as postoperative secondary endpoints such as morbidities, anastomotic complications and long-term outcomes were also summarized for both techniques. Conclusions A number of technical, logistic and cost-related issues continue to hinder the popularization of the robotic CABG procedure. Current clinical evidence is limited by a lack of randomized controlled trials, heterogeneous definition of techniques and complications, as well as a lack of robust clinical follow-up with routine angiography. Nonetheless, the present systematic review reported acceptable perioperative

  11. Simultaneous Phacoemulsification and Graft Refractive Surgery in Penetrating Keratoplasty Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Feizi, Sepehr; Zare, Mohammad; Einollahi, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report outcomes of graft refractive surgery (GRS) along with clear-cornea phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes. Methods. Fourteen eyes of 13 patients who had received PKP underwent simultaneous GRS (relaxing incisions with or without counter-quadrant compression sutures) and clear-cornea phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. To calculate IOL power, preoperative keratometry readings and the SRK-T formula were used. Results. Mean patient age and follow-up period were 50.5 ± 14.4 years and 14.6 ± 7.1 months, respectively. A significant increase was observed in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (from 0.55 ± 0.18 logMAR to 0.33 ± 0.18 logMAR, P = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in vector keratometric astigmatism by 6.22 D (P = 0.03). Spherical equivalent refraction was reduced from −3.31 ± 3.96 D to −1.69 ± 2.38 D (P = 0.02) which did not significantly differ from the target refraction (−0.76 ± 0.14 D, P = 0.20). No complications developed and all the grafts remained clear at the final examination. Conclusion. Simultaneous phacoemulsification and GRS is a safe and effective method to address post-PKP astigmatism and lens opacity. IOL power can be calculated from preoperative keratometry readings with an acceptable accuracy. However, patients should be informed about the possibility of high refractive errors postoperatively. PMID:24527227

  12. Clinical, haematological and radiological evaluation of fragmented autogenous cortical bone grafting of radius in dogs.

    PubMed

    Grover, R K; Sobti, V K

    1998-07-01

    In eight clinically healthy dogs, a midshaft diaphyseal defect of 2 cm was created in the right radius ulna. This gap was maintained by fixing a four hole sherman bone plate on the radius. In four dogs, the gap was filled with autogenous cancellous bone grafts (2-5 mm in diameter) harvested from the proximal end of the tibia (group 1). In the remaining 4 dogs, the fracture gap was filled with autogenous cortical bone fragments (ACBF) of 2-5 mm diameter made from the same 2 cm piece of bone removed from the radius. While comparing various clinical observations, it appeared that healing of the wounds and bearing of the weight on the grafted limb in dogs subjected to ACBF graft were similar to those given autogenous cancellous bone graft. In radiographs, taken on the 30th day in group 1, a fairly good amount of callus was found emerging from fracture ends but the whole of the bone graft area was not covered by bony density even on the 60th day. In group 2 (ACBF), 45th day radiograph revealed that the callus from the fracture end was mixing up with the cortical bone fragments, and at the 60th day, the callus was clearly found invading the cortical bone fragments grafted in the fracture gap.

  13. Osseous integration of hydroxyapatite grafts in metaphyseal bone defects of the proximal tibia (CT-study).

    PubMed

    Khodadadyan-Klostermann, C; Liebig, T; Melcher, I; Raschke, M; Haas, N P

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the examination of the osseous integration of hydroxyapatite grafts used for the filling of metaphyseal bone defects in tibia head fractures. Four patients with lateral tibia plateau fractures AO-type B3 (12) were included in the study. Patients were treated by arthroscopically assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation. The metaphyseal bone defects were filled with prepared solid hydroxyapatite graft blocks (Endobon Fa. Merk Darmstadt, Germany). In all of the patients a CT study for the osseous integration of hydroxyapatite grafts used for the filling of metaphyseal bone defects in tibial head fractures was performed. Measurements of density were performed of the implant region, the periimplant region, the distant periimplant region and the fibula bone. Follow-up CT examinations of these specific regions were performed 6 and 12 months postoperative. In all cases an increase of density of the hydroxyapatite graft after 6 months and 12 months follow-up was detected. The periimplant region showed in all cases a decrease of density. A progressive decrease of the periimplant and the distant cancellous tibial bone region was also detectable after 6 and 12 months post-op. A similar decrease of density was visible in the region of the cancellous bone of the fibula. In the interface region a direct bone formation between the hydroxyapatite graft and the adjected cancellous bone was visible in all cases during follow-up. The increase of density of the hydroxyapatite grafts and the direct bone formation in the interface region between the hydroxyapatite graft and the adjacent cancellous bone are clear radiomorphological signs for an osteointegration of hydroxyapatite grafts in the metaphyseal region.

  14. Effect of Religious Belief on Selecting of Graft Materials Used in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Güngörmüş, Metin

    2017-07-25

    Various graft materials, such as synthetic and biological products, are used routinely in maxillofacial surgery. These materials are usually derived from porcine, bovine, and human tissues; some religious beliefs forbid the dietary use of substances from certain animal sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of religious belief on selecting different graft types used in maxillofacial surgery. In total, 203 participants were included in this survey. Data were collected using a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and different graft types and the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale for religious belief levels of participants. The purpose of the study and the origins of different graft types were explained to participants, and their opinions for the acceptance or rejection of each type were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). The most preferred grafts were autologous grafts (88.7%), followed by alloplastic grafts (65%), bovine-derived xenografts (60.1%), allografts (53.2%), and porcine-derived xenografts (7.4%). One hundred fifty-nine participants (84.6%) rejected the porcine-derived xenografts for religious reasons, and there was a statistical difference in religious belief levels between participants who accepted and those who rejected porcine-derived xenografts. Autogenous grafts were the most preferred grafts and porcine-derived xenografts were the least preferred grafts. Porcine-derived xenografts were refused specifically for religious reasons, and religious belief and dietary restrictions affected graft selection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Alveolar bone grafting in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and bisphosphonate-induced abnormal bone turnover in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Ogose, Akira; Oguri, Yoshimitsu; Ubaidus, Sobhan; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-09-01

    A case is presented of extensive alveolar bone grafting in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient previously underwent bisphosphonate therapy. Because of an abnormal and often decreased bone turnover caused by the fibrous dysplasia and the bisphosphonate therapy, bone grafting in such a patient poses several potential difficulties. In addition, the histomorphometric analysis of the bone grafts showed markedly decreased bone turnover. However, alveolar bone grafting using the iliac crest was performed successfully. Sufficient occlusion was achieved by postoperative low-loading orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Normalization of glenohumeral articular contact pressures after Latarjet or iliac crest bone-grafting.

    PubMed

    Ghodadra, Neil; Gupta, Aman; Romeo, Anthony A; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil; Shewman, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Jordan; Provencher, Matthew T

    2010-06-01

    Multiple bone-grafting procedures have been described for patients with glenoid bone loss and shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in glenohumeral contact pressure associated with the placement and orientation of Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft augmentation and to compare the amount of glenoid bone reconstruction with two coracoid face orientations. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction (30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 60 degrees with 90 degrees of external rotation) with a 440-N compressive load. Glenohumeral contact pressure and area were determined sequentially for (1) the intact glenoid; (2) a glenoid with an anterior bone defect involving 15% or 30% of the glenoid surface area; (3) a 30% glenoid defect treated with a Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft placed 2 mm proud, placed flush, or recessed 2 mm in relation to the level of the glenoid; and (4) a Latarjet bone block placed flush and oriented with either the lateral (Latarjet-LAT) or the inferior (Latarjet-INF) surface of the coracoid as the glenoid face. The amount of glenoid bone reconstructed was compared between the Latarjet-LAT and Latarjet-INF conditions. Bone grafts in the flush position restored the mean peak contact pressure to 116% of normal when the iliac crest bone graft was used (p < 0.03 compared with the pressure with the 30% defect), 120% when the Latarjet-INF bone block was used (p < 0.03), and 137% when the Latarjet-LAT bone block was used (p < 0.04). Use of the Latarjet-LAT bone block resulted in mean peak pressures that were significantly higher than those associated with the iliac crest bone graft (p < 0.02) or the Latarjet-INF bone block (p < 0.03) at 60 degrees of abduction and 90 degrees of external rotation. With the bone grafts placed in a proud position, peak contact pressure increased to 250% of normal (p < 0.01) in the anteroinferior quadrant and there was a concomitant increase

  17. Materials and prognostic factors of bone regeneration in periapical surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sánchez-Garcés, Ma Ángeles; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-07-01

    Analyse the effectiveness of different materials and techniques used in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) applied in periapical surgery, comparing the success rate obtained in 4-wall defects and in through-and-through bone lesions as well as to establish prognostic factors. A Cochrane, PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus database search (October 2012 to March 2013) was conducted with the search terms "periapical surgery", "surgical endodontic treatment", "guided tissue regeneration", "bone regeneration", "bone grafts", "barrier membranes" and "periapical lesions" individually and next, using the Boolean operator "AND". The inclusion criteria were the use of GTR (bone graft and/or membrane barrier), clinical studies including at least 10 patients, 10 years aged articles published in English or French. The exclusion criteria were case reports and nonhuman studies. 34 publications were selected from a total of 483. 9 of the 34 were excluded. Finally, the systematic review included 25 articles: 2 metaanalysis, 8 reviews, 13 prospective studies and 2 retrospective studies. They were stratified according to their level of scientific evidence using the SORT criteria. The 4-wall periapical and through-and-through lesions improve more their prognosis by combining bone grafts and barrier membranes than using these materials exclusively, respect to the control groups. The results show lower failure rates in 4-wall lesions than in through-and-through lesions using GTR. The combined GTR technique (filling material and membranes) obtains a greater success rate both in 4-wall lesions and in through-and-through lesions, respect to the control groups. The use of regeneration materials seems to be more necessary in through-and-through lesions, > 5mm lesions, lower teeth and apicomarginal lesions as they have the worst healing prognosis. In function of the articles scientific quality, a type B recommendation is given in favour to the use of GTR in association of periapical surgery in case of 4

  18. The relationship between particle morphology and rheological properties in injectable nano-hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ryabenkova, Y; Pinnock, A; Quadros, P A; Goodchild, R L; Möbus, G; Crawford, A; Hatton, P V; Miller, C A

    2017-06-01

    Biomaterials composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) are currently used for the treatment of bone defects resulting from trauma or surgery. However, hydroxyapatite supplied in the form of a paste is considered a very convenient medical device compared to the materials where HA powder and liquid need to be mixed immediately prior to the bone treatment during surgery. In this study we have tested a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) pastes with varying microstructure and different rheological behaviour to evaluate their injectability and biocompatibility. The particle morphology and chemical composition were evaluated using HRTEM, XRD and FTIR. Two paste-types were compared, with the HA particles of both types being rod shaped with a range of sizes between 20 and 80nm while differing in the particle aspect ratio and the degree of roundness or sharpness. The pastes were composed of pure HA phase with low crystallinity. The rheological properties were evaluated and it was determined that the pastes behaved as shear-thinning, non-Newtonian liquids. The difference in viscosity and yield stress between the two pastes was investigated. Surprisingly, mixing of these pastes at different ratios did not alter viscosity in a linear manner, providing an opportunity to produce a specific viscosity by mixing the two materials with different characteristics. Biocompatibility studies suggested that there was no difference in vitro cell response to either paste for primary osteoblasts, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, osteoblast-like cells, and fibroblast-like cells. This class of nanostructured biomaterial has significant potential for use as an injectable bone graft substitute where the properties may be tailored for different clinical indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with local bone graft instead of iliac crest bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Daniel K; Kim, Sung S; Thakur, Nikhil; Boden, Scott D

    2013-05-20

    Prospective clinical study. Compare fusion rates between recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) with rhBMP-2 and local bone graft (LBG) (±bone graft extenders) in posterolateral fusion. Previous reports have shown higher fusion rates when adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG in lumbar posterolateral fusion, compared with ICBG alone. We compared the fusion success rates between rhBMP-2 delivered with ICBG versus that with LBG. Fusion rates were compared in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (1-2 levels) with accompanying lumbar stenosis. RhBMP-2 (INFUSE, Medtronic) was delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge (6 mg/side at 1.5 mg/mL) with ICBG alone or with LBG wrapped inside the sponge. Thin slice computed tomographic scans were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months. In a consecutive series, 16 patients (30 levels) received ICBG with rhBMP-2 and 35 patients (49 levels) received LBG with rhBMP-2. For the ICBG cohort, 80.0%, 93.4%, 96.7% of levels were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. In contrast, for the local bone with rhBMP-2 cohort, 87.7%, 98.0%, and 98.0% were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion success rates between the 2 groups at any time point. As for fusion quality, the fusion mass showed superior quality in ICBG group than in the local bone group at each time point. This study validates the high fusion success rates previously reported by adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG and shows that local bone may be safely substituted for ICBG in 1- to 2-level posterolateral fusion. The fusion rates were comparable. The avoidance of ICBG harvest has implications for operative time, blood loss, and morbidity. Lastly, this is the first study that directly compares the fusion success rate and quality using local bone with rhBMP-2 versus ICBG with rhBMP-2 at various times. 4.

  20. A comparison of Shepard's osteotome versus trapdoor flap technique to harvest iliac crest bone for secondary alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, J; Chhabra, P; Turner, P J; Richard, B

    2008-07-01

    To compare the postoperative donor site morbidity and alveolar bone graft results following two different techniques for iliac crest bone graft harvest: a closed (Shepard's osteotome) and an open (trapdoor flap) technique. A retrospective review of two cohorts of alveolar bone grafts performed from 1998 to 2004 in Birmingham Children's Hospital by two surgeons using different harvest techniques. Medical and nursing anesthetic notes and medication charts were reviewed. Alveolar bone graft results were assessed using preoperative and postoperative radiographic studies. A total of 137 patients underwent an operation. Of these, 109 patients were compatible with the inclusion criteria (data available, first operation, no multiple comorbidities). Sixty-four patients had iliac bone harvested using the open trapdoor technique, while 45 had the same procedure using the closed osteotomy technique. Maximum bone graft volumes harvested were similar with both techniques. The mean length of hospital stay was 50.9 hours for the osteotome and 75.5 hours for the open technique group (p < .0001). The postoperative analgesia requirement was higher and the postoperative mobilization was delayed and more difficult for the open technique patients (p < .0005). Kindelan scores performed by two independent orthodontists were similar for both techniques. The findings demonstrate that harvesting bone from the iliac crest using an osteotome technique reduces time in hospital, analgesia requirements, and postoperative donor site morbidity with no detrimental outcome.

  1. Plate augmentation and autologous bone grafting after intramedullary nailing for challenging femoral bone defects: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Won, Yougun; Kim, Sang Bum; Oh, Byung-Hak; Park, Young Chang; Jeong, Sang Jin

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of a large segmental defect of over 6 cm in a long bone is a challenging procedure. Treatment options include cancellous bone graft (e.g., the Masquelet technique), vascularized fibular graft (VFG), and internal bone transport (IBT) with an external fixator. These methods may be performed with intramedullary (IM) nailing or plate fixation to enhance stability or to lessen the time of external fixation. Each method has its own advantages and limitations. This study aimed to describe the advantages of additional plate augmentation and autologous bone grafting after IM nail implantation. Three patients with large segmental femoral bone defects were treated with IM nail implantation; then, one- or two-stage autologous iliac bone grafting with additional plate augmentation was performed. All patients achieved bony union without metal failure. We describe a technique involving additional plate augmentation and autologous iliac bone grafting for treating large femoral defects after restoring the length of the femur using an IM nail implantation and an external fixator.

  2. Histological analysis of calcium phosphate bone grafts for surgically created periodontal bone defects in dogs

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Akiyoshi; FUJIKAWA, Kenji; TAKAGI, Shozo; CHOW, Laurence C.

    2009-01-01

    A calcium phosphate cement (CPC-1), prepared by mixing an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with water, has been shown to be highly biocompatible and osteoconductive. A new type of calcium phosphate cement (CPC-2), prepared by mixing a mixture of α-tricalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate with pH 7.4 sodium phosphate solution, was also reported to be highly biocompatible. The objective of the present study was to compare the osteoconductivities of CPC-1 and CPC-2 when implanted in surgically created defects in the jaw bones of dogs. At 1 month after surgery, implanted CPC-1 was partially replaced by new bone and converted to bone within 6 months. In comparison, at 1 month after surgery, the defect filled with CPC-2 was mostly replaced by new bone. Therefore, bone formation in CPC-2-filled pocket was more rapid than in CPC-1-filled pocket. These findings supported the hypothesis that CPC-2 converted to bone more rapidly than CPC-1. PMID:19241686

  3. Histological analysis of calcium phosphate bone grafts for surgically created periodontal bone defects in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Akiyoshi; Fujikawa, Kenji; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-11-01

    A calcium phosphate cement (CPC-1), prepared by mixing an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with water, has been shown to be highly biocompatible and osteoconductive. A new type of calcium phosphate cement (CPC-2), prepared by mixing a mixture of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and calcium carbonate with pH 7.4 sodium phosphate solution, was also reported to be highly biocompatible. The objective of the present study was to compare the osteoconductivities of CPC-1 and CPC-2 when implanted in surgically created defects in the jaw bones of dogs. At 1 month after surgery, implanted CPC-1 was partially replaced by new bone and converted to bone within 6 months. In comparison, at 1 month after surgery, the defect filled with CPC-2 was mostly replaced by new bone. Therefore, bone formation in CPC-2-filled pocket was more rapid than in CPC-1-filled pocket. These findings supported the hypothesis that CPC-2 converted to bone more rapidly than CPC-1.

  4. Tissue-engineered bone grafts for osteoplasty in patients with cleft alveolus.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Winnie; Lauer, Günter

    2012-11-01

    Alveolar bone grafting is an integral part of the treatment concept in cleft palate patients. As an alternative to autogenous bone, tissue-engineered grafts have found some clinical application. The aim of the present study has been to compare ossification in the cleft area using tissue-engineered grafts in a case series of patients with ossification after transplantation of autogenous spongious bone as the gold standard in alveoloplasty. Eight children with complete cleft lips and cleft palates were included in the study. In four children (group A), the cleft defect was filled with tissue-engineered bone (autogenous osteoblasts cultured on demineralized bone matrix Osteovit(®)); as control in another 4 children (group B), the alveoloplasty was performed using spongious iliac bone. Preoperative and 6 months postoperative cone-beam computed tomography was performed, and volumes of the remaining cleft defects were calculated using 3D navigation software. Wound healing was uneventful in both groups. Six months postoperatively the mean volume of the cleft was 0.55±0.24cm(3) after grafting of tissue-engineered bone (group A) and 0.59±0.23cm(3) after transplantation of autogenous spongiosa. In group A, 40.9% of the cleft defect was ossified; in the control group (group B), 36.6%. Tissue-engineered bone is a promising alternative in alveolar bone grafting and no disadvantages were observed in comparison to the gold standard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction of infraorbital and malar deficiency using costal osteochondral graft along with orthognathic surgery in Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunsuk; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Dong Ha

    2014-09-01

    In syndromic craniosynostosis, such as Crouzon syndrome, midfacial hypoplasia can cause exophthalmos and concave facial profile. Though midfacial hypoplasia in Crouzon syndrome patients can be treated with midface advancement, known as a Le Fort II or Le Fort III osteotomy, such method can change nasal appearance and frequently fails to achieve class I occlusion after surgery. This report presents a case of an aesthetically and functionally successful midfacial augmentation using rib and cartilage graft along with orthognathic surgery (Le fort I and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy) for patients with Crouzon syndrome. The patient was a 21-year-old male with Crouzon syndrome, who had undergone augmentation rhinoplasty 2 years ago. His main issues were midfacial retrusion and mild anterior open bite and cross bite and, furthermore, did not want any change in his nasal appearance. To augment midfacial volume, rib bone graft was inserted on the inferior orbital rim and costal cartilage graft was done on the zygomatic area. The costal osteocartilage was fixed with titanium screws. Additionally, Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were done to treat the anterior open bite and cross bite. The maxillary segment was advanced 2 mm and posteriorly impacted 2.5 mm. Then, 5 mm of mandibular setback was done and the maxillomandibular segment was rotated clockwise. Finally, genioplasty with 5-mm advancement was done to compensate for the chin retrusion after performing the mandibular setback. The operation took 425 minutes and estimated blood loss was 500 mL. After 6 months since surgery, the patient had convex facial profile and class I occlusion. For the patient with mild midface hypoplasia, good nasal profile, and malocclusion, rib bone graft along with Le Fort I and bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy can be a good surgical modality.

  6. MRI appearances of the femur following bone graft harvesting using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator.

    PubMed

    Rankine, James J; Hodgson, Richard J; Tan, Hiang B; Cox, George; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    The reamer-irrigator-aspirator is increasingly being used to harvest autologous bone graft from the femur. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of neo-vascularisation and new bone formation that occurs within the medulla following the procedure, and determine if new bone formation would potentially allow a repeat bone harvest in those individuals subsequently requiring further bone graft. Eleven patients who had undergone femoral bone harvest were examined with MRI. The nature of the tissue within the medulla and the extent of neo-vascularisation were assessed. MRI was performed between 3 months and 28 months following bone graft harvest, mean 14 months. Intense vascularisation of the endostial cortical surface and neo-vascularisation of the haematoma within the canal occurred as soon as 3 months following bone harvest. From as early as 14 months the tissue was replaced by normal intramedullary bone. The formation of new bone within the medullary canal gives the potential for a repeat reaming, should further bone graft be required at a later date.

  7. Effect of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior with enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Miron, Richard J; Caluseru, Oana M; Guillemette, Vincent; Zhang, Yufeng; Buser, Daniel; Chandad, Fatiha; Sculean, Anton

    2015-09-01

    Bone replacement grafting materials play an important role in regenerative dentistry. Despite a large array of tested bone-grafting materials, little information is available comparing the effects of bone graft density on in vitro cell behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to compare the effects of cells seeded on bone grafts at low and high density in vitro for osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The response of osteoblasts to the presence of a growth factor (enamel matrix derivative, (EMD)) in combination with low (8 mg per well) or high (100 mg per well) bone grafts (BG; natural bone mineral, Bio-Oss®) density, was studied and compared for osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as assessed by real-time PCR. Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control with and without EMD. The present study demonstrates that in vitro testing of bone-grafting materials is largely influenced by bone graft seeding density. Osteoblast adhesion was up to 50 % lower when cells were seeded on high-density BG when compared to low-density BG and control tissue culture plastic. Furthermore, proliferation was affected in a similar manner whereby cell proliferation on high-density BG (100 mg/well) was significantly increased when compared to that on low-density BG (8 mg/well). In contrast, cell differentiation was significantly increased on high-density BG as assessed by real-time PCR for markers collagen 1 (Col 1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) as well as alizarin red staining. The effects of EMD on osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation further demonstrated that the bone graft seeding density largely controls in vitro results. EMD significantly increased cell attachment only on high-density BG, whereas EMD was able to further stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on control culture plastic and low-density BG when compared to high-density BG. The results

  8. Self bone graft and simultaneous application of implants in upper jawbone.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, P Vittorini; Falisi, G; Galli, M

    2009-10-01

    The implant supported rehabilitation of upper back sectors, sometimes, is conditioned to the pneumatization of the jawbone and so, reducing the possibility to apply the implants when the bone portion is inferior to 4 mm (important condition for the primary stability).The great rise of the jawbone and the simultaneous application of implants is, surely, the condition to have the best success guarantees compared to the only application of filling material.The surgical technologies used in the self bone grafts are various (Ilium crest, calvaria, fibula) and so also for implant applications.In this article we want to put in evidence a new technology in order to reduce at the minimum the invasive surgery of the removal and the patient morbidity.It has been executed a longitudinal study on 21 consecutive cases and illustrated by a clinical one; the success was of 94.5%. The advantages of this technique are: Functional and anatomical recovery of the jaw cavityImmediate application of implants with a thickness of remaining bone in fervor to 4 mm.Reduction of surgical timesReduced morbidity of the patientLocal an anesthesia.

  9. The use of a Perma-Flow graft for coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmid, C; Weyand, M; Kerber, S; Breithardt, G; Scheld, H H

    1996-01-01

    We report on our first clinical use of a Perma-Flow graft for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). It may well be that repeated successful use of this graft will offer a chance for revascularization