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Sample records for bone metastasis formation

  1. Cancer Cell Expression of Autotaxin Controls Bone Metastasis Formation in Mouse through Lysophosphatidic Acid-Dependent Activation of Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    David, Marion; Wannecq, Estelle; Descotes, Françoise; Jansen, Silvia; Deux, Blandine; Ribeiro, Johnny; Serre, Claire-Marie; Grès, Sandra; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Bollen, Mathieu; Saez, Simone; Aoki, Junken; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone metastases are highly frequent complications of breast cancers. Current bone metastasis treatments using powerful anti-resorbtive agents are only palliative indicating that factors independent of bone resorption control bone metastasis progression. Autotaxin (ATX/NPP2) is a secreted protein with both oncogenic and pro-metastatic properties. Through its lysosphospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, ATX controls the level of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the blood. Platelet-derived LPA promotes the progression of osteolytic bone metastases of breast cancer cells. We asked whether ATX was involved in the bone metastasis process. We characterized the role of ATX in osteolytic bone metastasis formation by using genetically modified breast cancer cells exploited on different osteolytic bone metastasis mouse models. Methodology/Principal Findings Intravenous injection of human breast cancer MDA-B02 cells with forced expression of ATX (MDA-B02/ATX) to inmmunodeficiency BALB/C nude mice enhanced osteolytic bone metastasis formation, as judged by increased bone loss, tumor burden, and a higher number of active osteoclasts at the metastatic site. Mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells induced the formation of osteolytic bone metastases after intracardiac injection in immunocompetent BALB/C mice. These cells expressed active ATX and silencing ATX expression inhibited the extent of osteolytic bone lesions and decreased the number of active osteoclasts at the bone metastatic site. In vitro, osteoclast differentiation was enhanced in presence of MDA-B02/ATX cell conditioned media or recombinant autotaxin that was blocked by the autotaxin inhibitor vpc8a202. In vitro, addition of LPA to active charcoal-treated serum restored the capacity of the serum to support RANK-L/MCSF-induced osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion/Significance Expression of autotaxin by cancer cells controls osteolytic bone metastasis formation. This work demonstrates a new role for LPA as a factor that stimulates

  2. Cancer cell expression of autotaxin controls bone metastasis formation in mouse through lysophosphatidic acid-dependent activation of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Wannecq, Estelle; Descotes, Françoise; Jansen, Silvia; Deux, Blandine; Ribeiro, Johnny; Serre, Claire-Marie; Grès, Sandra; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Bollen, Mathieu; Saez, Simone; Aoki, Junken; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2010-03-17

    Bone metastases are highly frequent complications of breast cancers. Current bone metastasis treatments using powerful anti-resorptive agents are only palliative indicating that factors independent of bone resorption control bone metastasis progression. Autotaxin (ATX/NPP2) is a secreted protein with both oncogenic and pro-metastatic properties. Through its lysosphospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, ATX controls the level of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the blood. Platelet-derived LPA promotes the progression of osteolytic bone metastases of breast cancer cells. We asked whether ATX was involved in the bone metastasis process. We characterized the role of ATX in osteolytic bone metastasis formation by using genetically modified breast cancer cells exploited on different osteolytic bone metastasis mouse models. Intravenous injection of human breast cancer MDA-B02 cells with forced expression of ATX (MDA-B02/ATX) to immunodeficiency BALB/C nude mice enhanced osteolytic bone metastasis formation, as judged by increased bone loss, tumor burden, and a higher number of active osteoclasts at the metastatic site. Mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells induced the formation of osteolytic bone metastases after intracardiac injection in immunocompetent BALB/C mice. These cells expressed active ATX and silencing ATX expression inhibited the extent of osteolytic bone lesions and decreased the number of active osteoclasts at the bone metastatic site. In vitro, osteoclast differentiation was enhanced in presence of MDA-B02/ATX cell conditioned media or recombinant autotaxin that was blocked by the autotaxin inhibitor vpc8a202. In vitro, addition of LPA to active charcoal-treated serum restored the capacity of the serum to support RANK-L/MCSF-induced osteoclastogenesis. Expression of autotaxin by cancer cells controls osteolytic bone metastasis formation. This work demonstrates a new role for LPA as a factor that stimulates directly cancer growth and metastasis, and osteoclast

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of breast and prostate cancer as well as multiple myeloma to the bones represents a significant medical problem. We herein discuss the molecular basis of the creation of pre-metastatic niches, the process of bone metastasis and the phenomenon of tumor dormancy in the bone marrow as well as its regulation. We describe the identification and validation of genes mediating bone metastasis by use of pre-clinical models of bone metastasis. Additionally, we discuss the role of small integrin binding N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGS), the chemokine/chemokine receptor CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway and the role of micro RNAs (miRNAs) as mediators of bone metastasis. Finally, we summarize clinical achievements for the treatment of bone metastases.

  4. Bone metastasis: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Suva, Larry J.; Washam, Charity; Nicholas, Richard W.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common sites for metastatic cancer, and tumors arising from the breast or prostate possess an increased propensity to spread to this site. The growth of disseminated tumor cells in the skeleton requires tumor cells to inhabit the bone marrow, from which they stimulate local bone cell activity. Crosstalk between tumor cells and resident bone and bone marrow cells disrupts normal bone homeostasis, which leads to tumor growth in bone. The metastatic tumor cells have the ability to elicit responses that stimulate bone resorption, bone formation or both. The net result of these activities is profound skeletal destruction that can have dire consequences for patients. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these painful and often incurable consequences of tumor metastasis to bone are beginning to be recognized, and they represent promising new molecular targets for therapy. PMID:21200394

  5. Animal Models of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, J. K.; Hildreth, B. E.; Supsavhad, W.; Elshafae, S. M.; Hassan, B. B.; Dirksen, W. P.; Toribio, R. E.; Rosol, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis in humans and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Bone metastases are considered incurable and result in pain, pathologic fracture, and decreased quality of life. Animal models of skeletal metastases are essential to improve the understanding of the molecular pathways of cancer metastasis and growth in bone and to develop new therapies to inhibit and prevent bone metastases. The ideal animal model should be clinically relevant, reproducible, and representative of human disease. Currently, an ideal model does not exist; however, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the available models will lead to proper study design and successful cancer research. This review provides an overview of the current in vivo animal models used in the study of skeletal metastases or local tumor invasion into bone and focuses on mammary and prostate cancer, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and miscellaneous tumors that metastasize to bone. PMID:26021553

  6. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  7. [Bone metastasis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hideo; Takagi, Yu; Katayanagi, So; Hoshino, Sumito; Suda, Takeshi; Hibi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazushige; Tsutida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2006-08-01

    We evaluated 19 patients with bone metastasis after surgery for gastric cancer. In a number of cases, the located in the tumor was U and M region, of macroscopic 3, and the histological type was poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with high-grade of lymphatic invasion. The major symptom was lumbago and back pain. The serum AFP level was high in 73.7% of the cases, and LDH was high in 47.7%. The metastatic lesion was predominantly seen in the bone with red pulp such as lumbar and thoracic vertebra and rib. The median survival time was 189 days (range: 24-509) with a poor prognosis. However, newly developed anticancer drugs were very effective for some cases, indicating that such chemotherapy should be tried for cases with bone metastasis.

  8. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  9. Expression of CD31, Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor and bone morphogenetic protein in bone metastasis of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arihiro, K; Inai, K

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism of metastasis of osteosarcoma cells to other bones has not yet fully been clarified. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various factors involve the formation of osteosarcoma metastatic foci in other bones. Immunohistochemically, CD31 expression in osteosarcoma with no bone metastasis and osteosarcoma with bone metastasis was noted in 10 and 75% of cases, respectively. Met/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor expression in osteosarcoma with no bone metastasis and osteosarcoma with bone metastasis was noted in 90 and 25% of cases, respectively. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression in osteosarcoma with no bone metastasis and osteosarcoma with bone metastasis was noted in 20 and 75% of cases, respectively. Metastasis of osteosarcoma cells to other bones was significantly correlated with expression of BMP and CD31 and with no expression of Met/HGF receptor protein in osteosarcoma cells. In contrast, expression of insulin-like growth factor receptor in osteosarcoma cells did not correlate significantly with bone metastasis. These results suggest that formation of metastatic foci of osteosarcoma cells in other bones is regulated by CD31, which is associated with migration between endothelial cells, by BMP, which can induce and activate various mesenchymal cells affecting bone formation, and by escape of effect by HGF, which promotes differentiation of osteosarcoma cells.

  10. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  11. Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    08-1-0030 TITLE: Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Clines, M.D., Ph.D...demonstrated that dickkopf homolog 1 ( DKK1 ), a negative canonical Wnt signaling regulator, is reduced by ET-1 resulting in enhanced canonical Wnt...signaling activity and new bone formation (3). Others have shown that DKK1 secretion from prostate cancer cells themselves also contribute to bone

  12. Matricellular proteins as regulators of cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Timothy N.; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of the death in cancer patients, and a frequent site of metastasis for many cancers is the bone marrow. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process is necessary for future prevention and treatment. The tumor microenvironment is now known to play a role in the metastatic cascade, both at the primary tumor and in metastatic sites, and includes both cellular and non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural support and signaling cues to cells. One particular group of molecules associated with the ECM, known as matricellular proteins, modulate multiple aspects of tumor biology, including growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. These proteins are also important for normal function in the bone by regulating bone formation and bone resorption. Recent studies have described a link between some of these proteins and metastasis of various tumors to the bone. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about matricellular protein influence on bone metastasis. Particular attention to the contribution of both tumor cells and non-malignant cells in the bone has been given. PMID:26807761

  13. Imaging of bone metastasis: An update.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Carty, Fiona L; Cronin, Carmel G

    2015-08-28

    Early detection of skeletal metastasis is critical for accurate staging and optimal treatment. This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of the biological mechanisms through which tumours metastasise to bone and describes the available imaging methods to diagnose bone metastasis and monitor response to treatment. Among the various imaging modalities currently available for imaging skeletal metastasis, hybrid techniques which fuse morphological and functional data are the most sensitive and specific, and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and PET/magnetic resonance imaging will almost certainly continue to evolve and become increasingly important in this regard.

  14. Murine models of breast cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Laura E; Ottewell, Penelope D; Rucci, Nadia; Peyruchaud, Olivier; Pagnotti, Gabriel M; Chiechi, Antonella; Buijs, Jeroen T; Sterling, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in late-stage breast cancer patients and are currently considered incurable. Investigators rely on translational models to better understand the pathogenesis of skeletal complications of malignancy in order to identify therapeutic targets that may ultimately prevent and treat solid tumor metastasis to bone. Many experimental models of breast cancer bone metastases are in use today, each with its own caveats. In this methods review, we characterize the bone phenotype of commonly utilized human- and murine-derived breast cell lines that elicit osteoblastic and/or osteolytic destruction of bone in mice and report methods for optimizing tumor-take in murine models of bone metastasis. We then provide protocols for four of the most common xenograft and syngeneic inoculation routes for modeling breast cancer metastasis to the skeleton in mice, including the intra-cardiac, intra-arterial, orthotopic and intra-tibial methods of tumor cell injection. Recommendations for in vivo and ex vivo assessment of tumor progression and bone destruction are provided, followed by discussion of the strengths and limitations of the available tools and translational models that aid investigators in the study of breast cancer metastasis to bone. PMID:27867497

  15. [Sacral metastasis simulating aneurysmal bone cyst].

    PubMed

    Sanromán-Álvarez, Pablo; Simal-Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda-Lloret, Pablo; Pérez-Borredá, Pedro; Botella-Asunción, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Cystic spinal lesions with characteristic patterns, such as the presence of haematic fluid-fluid levels (H-FFL), have been associated with many tumoral lineages, more frequently with aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) and exceptionally with metastasis. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with the finding of a sacral cystic bone lesion with H-FFL, with initial suspicion of ABC and confirmed diagnosis of metastasis. The case presented is, to our knowledge, the second case published of spinal cystic bone metastasis with H-FFL pattern with unknown primary tumour at the time of diagnosis and the only one that received resective surgical treatment, achieving pulmonary and metastatic disease control with good quality of life after 1 year of follow up.

  16. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ai-Min; Tian, Ai-Xian; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Ge, Jie; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  17. Colony-stimulating factor 1 potentiates lung cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jaclyn Y; Horn, Diane; Woodruff, Kathleen; Prihoda, Thomas; LeSaux, Claude; Peters, Jay; Tio, Fermin; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L

    2014-04-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) is essential for osteoclastogenesis that mediates osteolysis in metastatic tumors. Patients with lung cancer have increased CSF1 in serum and high levels are associated with poor survival. Adenocarcinomas metastasize rapidly and many patients suffer from bone metastasis. Lung cancer stem-like cells sustain tumor growth and potentiate metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CSF1 in lung cancer bone metastasis and whether inhibition of CSF1 ameliorates the disease. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined in vitro for CSF1/CSF1R. A549-luc cells were injected intracardiac in NOD/SCID mice and metastasis was assessed. To determine the effect of CSF1 knockdown (KD) in A549 cells on bone metastasis, cells were stably transfected with a retroviral vector containing short-hairpin CSF1 (KD) or empty vector (CT). Results showed that A549 cells express CSF1/CSF1R; CSF1 increased their proliferation and invasion, whereas soluble CSF1R inhibited invasion. Mice injected with A549-luc cells showed osteolytic bone lesions 3.5 weeks after injection and lesions increased over 5 weeks. Tumors recapitulated adenocarcinoma morphology and showed osteoclasts along the tumor/bone interface, trabecular, and cortical bone loss. Analyses of KD cells showed decreased CSF1 protein levels, reduced colony formation in soft agar assay, and decreased fraction of stem-like cells. In CSF1KD mice, the incidence of tumor metastasis was similar to controls, although fewer CSF1KD mice had metastasis in both hind limbs. KD tumors showed reduced CSF1 expression, Ki-67+ cells, and osteoclasts. Importantly, there was a low incidence of large tumors >0.1 mm(2) in CSF1KD mice compared with control mice (10% vs 62.5%). This study established a lung osteolytic bone metastasis model that resembles human disease and suggests that CSF1 is a key determinant of cancer stem cell survival and tumor growth. Results may lead to novel strategies to

  18. Psoralen inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and it frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastatic breast cancer continues to be the primary cause of death for women in East and Southeast Asia. Psoralen is a furocoumarin that can be isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. Psoralen exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has been demonstrated as an antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. Additionally, it is involved in the formation and regulation of bone. This study investigated whether psoralen can inhibit metastasis of breast cancer to bone in vivo. Histological, molecular biological, and imaging analyses revealed that psoralen inhibits bone metastases in mice. Psoralen may function to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment and regulate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in tumor-bearing mice. The results of this study suggest that psoralen is a bone-modifying agent and a potential therapeutic to treat patients with bone metastases. © 2013.

  19. Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases.

  20. Bone Sialoprotein and Osteopontin in Bone Metastasis of Osteotropic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Thomas E.; Miller, Andrew H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Wang, Jinxi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the “osteomimicry” of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the “switch” in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases. PMID:24071501

  1. Bioluminescence imaging of bone metastasis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Snoeks, Thomas J A; van Beek, Ermond; Que, Ivo; Kaijzel, Eric L; Löwik, Clemens W G M

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging is a valuable technique for visualizing and quantifying biological processes in living -organisms. Optical imaging can be divided into two main imaging modalities: bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence imaging. This chapter describes the use of these imaging techniques to image tumour cells in mouse models of cancer and to detect early bone metastasis.

  2. Mouse models for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinlu; Hensel, Janine; Wang, Ning; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna; Shiozawa, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Once tumor cells metastasize to the bone, the prognosis for prostate cancer patients is generally very poor. The mechanisms involved in bone metastasis, however, remain elusive, because of lack of relevant animal models. In this manuscript, we describe step-by-step protocols for the xenograft mouse models that are currently used for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. The different routes of tumor inoculation (intraosseous, intracardiac, intravenous and orthotopic) presented are useful for exploring the biology of bone metastasis. PMID:26916039

  3. P15, MDM2, NF-κB, and Bcl-2 expression in primary bone tumor and correlation with tumor formation and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Guibin; Hao, Songnan; Yang, Dawei; Meng, Qinggang

    2015-01-01

    Primary bone tumor is one of the most common malignant tumors in skeletal system. It seriously affected bone movement and development with unclear pathogenesis. In this paper, rabbit VX-2 malignant bone tumor model was applied to explore apoptotic genes P15, MDM2, NF-κB and Bcl-2 correlation with primary bone tumor occurrence and metastasis. 0.3 ml rabbit VX-2 tumor cell suspension (1×106/ml) was injected to the marrow cavity of the right tibia condyle to establish the rabbit malignant bone tumor model, while equal amount of the saline was injected to the left tibia as control. Real-time PCR was applied to determine P15, MDM2, NF-κB and Bcl-2 expression level. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the abovementioned genes expression in lung, stomach, kidney and bladder. Compared with control, P15 expression level in the inoculation site surrounding tissues decreased obviously following the inoculate time elongation (P<0.05), while Bcl-2, MDM2 and NF-κB expression significantly increased (P<0.05). Bcl-2 showed significant correlation with MDM2 and NF-κB (P<0.05). At the 2, 4, 6 weeks, Bcl-2, MDM2 and NF-κB in lung, Bcl-2 in kidney, and Bcl-2 and MDM2 in bladder positively expressed (P<0.05), whereas P15 gene exhibited no significant positive expression in these tissues (P>0.05). P15, MDM2, NF-κB, and Bcl-2 genes expression levels can effectively reflect malignant bone tumor growth of rabbit tibia. MDM2, NF-κB and Bcl-2 genes involved in primary bone tumors metastasis directly. It has important clinical significance for early diagnosis and treatment of primary bone tumor. PMID:26823818

  4. Bone fracture in breast cancer patients with isolated bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dibekoglu, C; Turanli, S; Karaman, N; Ozcelik, K Caglar; Erdogan, O

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the incidence of bone fracture of breast cancer patients with isolated bone metastasis and its effect on survival. We tried to find an answer to the question of "Can the development of bone fracture be predicted?" Between 1993-2006, 139 breast cancer patients with isolated bone metastasis were examined. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the development of pathologic bone fracture. Fractures were developed in 41 patients (29.5%)within 41 months of follow-up. The locations of pathologic bone fracture were vertebral fracture in 26 patients (63.4%),femur fracture in 11 patients (26.8%), and hip fracture in four patients (9.8%). Fracture rates in hormone sensitive and resistant patients were 31.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The fracture rates in 13 triple negative and non triple negative patients were 7.7% and 31.4%, respectively (p=0.07). High CA 15-3 levels at the time of metastasis in patients with and without fractures were 68.4% and 61.1%, respectively. The risk for fracture was also high in Her2-neu positive patients (38.7% vs. 26.5%). While the incidence of fracture with the presence of one factor mentioned above was 22.2%, it was increased to 36.1% in the presence of two or three factors(p=0.13). Median survivals of the patients with and without fractures were 48 and 39 months, respectively (p= 0.65). Hormone sensitivity, high CA 15-3 levels and positive Her2-neu status are slight risk factors for bone fractures. Survival was not different in patients with or without bone fractures. Celsius.

  5. Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    0030 TITLE: Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Clines, MD, PhD CONTRACTING...of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0030 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Osteoblastic bone metastasis is a common complication of advanced prostate cancer, resulting in pain and pathologic fracture. Dickkopf homolog 1 ( DKK1 ) is a

  6. Enhanced MAF Oncogene Expression and Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Milica; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Rojo, Federico; Bellmunt, Anna; Tarragona, Maria; Guiu, Marc; Planet, Evarist; Garcia-Albéniz, Xabier; Morales, Mónica; Urosevic, Jelena; Gawrzak, Sylwia; Rovira, Ana; Prat, Aleix; Nonell, Lara; Lluch, Ana; Jean-Mairet, Joël; Coleman, Robert; Albanell, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are currently no biomarkers for early breast cancer patient populations at risk of bone metastasis. Identification of mediators of bone metastasis could be of clinical interest. Methods: A de novo unbiased screening approach based on selection of highly bone metastatic breast cancer cells in vivo was used to determine copy number aberrations (CNAs) associated with bone metastasis. The CNAs associated with bone metastasis were examined in independent primary breast cancer datasets with annotated clinical follow-up. The MAF gene encoded within the CNA associated with bone metastasis was subjected to gain and loss of function validation in breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D, ZR-75, and 4T1), its downstream mechanism validated, and tested in clinical samples. A multivariable Cox cause-specific hazard model with competing events (death) was used to test the association between 16q23 or MAF and bone metastasis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: 16q23 gain CNA encoding the transcription factor MAF mediates breast cancer bone metastasis through the control of PTHrP. 16q23 gain (hazard ratio (HR) for bone metastasis = 14.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.4 to 32.9, P < .001) as well as MAF overexpression (HR for bone metastasis = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.8, P < .001) in primary breast tumors were specifically associated with risk of metastasis to bone but not to other organs. Conclusions: These results suggest that MAF is a mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis. 16q23 gain or MAF protein overexpression in tumors may help to select patients at risk of bone relapse. PMID:26376684

  7. Global secretome analysis identifies novel mediators of bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Mario Andres; LeRoy, Gary; Khan, Zia; Alečković, Maša; Zee, Barry M; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin

    2012-01-01

    Bone is the one of the most common sites of distant metastasis of solid tumors. Secreted proteins are known to influence pathological interactions between metastatic cancer cells and the bone stroma. To comprehensively profile secreted proteins associated with bone metastasis, we used quantitative and non-quantitative mass spectrometry to globally analyze the secretomes of nine cell lines of varying bone metastatic ability from multiple species and cancer types. By comparing the secretomes of parental cells and their bone metastatic derivatives, we identified the secreted proteins that were uniquely associated with bone metastasis in these cell lines. We then incorporated bioinformatic analyses of large clinical metastasis datasets to obtain a list of candidate novel bone metastasis proteins of several functional classes that were strongly associated with both clinical and experimental bone metastasis. Functional validation of selected proteins indicated that in vivo bone metastasis can be promoted by high expression of (1) the salivary cystatins CST1, CST2, and CST4; (2) the plasminogen activators PLAT and PLAU; or (3) the collagen functionality proteins PLOD2 and COL6A1. Overall, our study has uncovered several new secreted mediators of bone metastasis and therefore demonstrated that secretome analysis is a powerful method for identification of novel biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets. PMID:22688892

  8. The Science and Practice of Bone Health in Oncology: Managing Bone Loss and Metastasis in Patients With Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Allan; Uzzo, Robert; Amato, Robert J.; Ellis, Georgiana K.; Hakimian, Behrooz; Roodman, G. David; Smith, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can compromise bone health, leading to fracture, pain, loss of mobility, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. Bone metastasis occurs frequently in advanced prostate and breast cancers, and bony manifestations are commonplace in multiple myeloma. Osteoporosis and osteopenia may be consequences of androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, aromatase inhibition for breast cancer, or chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure. Osteoporotic bone loss and bone metastasis ultimately share a pathophysiologic pathway that stimulates bone resorption by increasing the formation and activity of osteoclasts. Important mediators of pathologic bone metabolism include substances produced by osteoblasts, such as RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, which spurs osteoclast differentiation from myeloid cells. Available therapies are targeted to various steps in cascade of bone metastasis. PMID:19878635

  9. [Orthopaedic management of long bones metastasis].

    PubMed

    Fleury, Thierry Rod; Holzer, Nicolas; Fleury, Mapi; Hoffmeyer, Pierre J

    2012-12-19

    The recent progress in oncologic management of patients with metastatic disease has permitted a significant improvement of their life expectancy. Many of these patients will suffer from complications related to bone metastasis. Unfortunately an orthopaedic treatment is seldom offered to them, mainly because of the misconception that this would not bring them any benefice. However these patients are often good candidates for an orthopaedic management, which objectives are to relieve pain and to re-establish their quality of life. The available surgical techniques are well described and the management protocols are clearly defined, as are the expectable complications and the errors that must not be done.

  10. Molecular Pathway for Cancer Metastasis to Bone*

    PubMed Central

    De, Sarmishtha; Chen, Juhua; Narizhneva, Natalya V.; Heston, Warren; Brainard, Jennifer; Sage, E. Helene; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism leading to the cancer metastasis to bone is poorly understood but yet determines prognosis and therapy. Here, we define a new molecular pathway that may account for the extraordinarily high osteotropism of prostate cancer. By using SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine)-deficient mice and recombinant SPARC, we demonstrated that SPARC selectively supports the migration of highly metastatic relative to less metastatic prostate cancer cell lines to bone. Increased migration to SPARC can be traced to the activation of integrins αvβ and αvβ5 on tumor cells. Such activation is induced by an autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 loop on the tumor cells, which also supports the growth and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. A consequence of SPARC recognition by αvβ5 is enhanced VEGF production. Thus, prostate cancer cells expressing VEGF/VEGFR-2 will activate αvβ5 and αvβ5 on their surface and use these integrins to migrate toward SPARC in bone. Within the bone environment, SPARC engagement of these integrins will stimulate growth of the tumor and further production of VEGF to support neoangiogenesis, thereby favoring the development of the metastatic tumor. Supporting this model, activated integrins were found to colocalize with VEGFR-2 in tissue samples of metastatic prostate tumors from patients. PMID:12885781

  11. The Role of Megakaryocytes in Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    and TPO -/- mice, and femurs collected over time. Bone cytokines also will be assessed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Megakaryocytes, breast cancer, bone...conditions of metastasis or non-metastasis. Thrombopoietin ( TPO -/-) knockout mice will be used to test metastasis in mice with a megakaryocyte deficiency...1. Begin the process of creating TPO -/-mice on a Balb/c background. We had received permission from Genentech to obtain frozen embryos of TPO

  12. Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    0030 TITLE: Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Clines, MD, PhD CONTRACTING...AND SUBTITLE Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0030 5b. GRANT NUMBER...metastasis is a common complication of advanced prostate cancer, resulting in pain and pathologic fracture. Dickkopf homolog 1 ( DKK1 ) is a secreted

  13. Metastasis and bone loss: advancing treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert E; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G David; Guise, Theresa A; Boyce, Brendon F; Brufsky, Adam M; Clézardin, Philippe; Croucher, Peter I; Gralow, Julie R; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R; Smith, Matthew R; Suva, Larry J

    2010-12-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced bone loss have recently reported exciting and intriguing results. A multidisciplinary consensus conference convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess gaps in current knowledge and prioritize recommendations to advance research over the next 5 years. The program addressed three topics: advancing understanding of metastasis prevention in the context of bone pathophysiology; developing therapeutic approaches to prevent metastasis and defining strategies to prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss. Several priorities were identified: (1) further investigate the effects of bone-targeted therapies on tumor and immune cell interactions within the bone microenvironment; (2) utilize and further develop preclinical models to study combination therapies; (3) conduct clinical studies of bone-targeted therapies with radiation and chemotherapy across a range of solid tumors; (4) develop biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from bone-targeted therapies; (5) educate physicians on bone loss and fracture risk; (6) define optimal endpoints and new measures of efficacy for future clinical trials; and (7) define the optimum type, dose and schedule of adjuvant bone-targeted therapy.

  14. Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    mice challenged with CAGhep cells. Similarly, significant bone destruction was observed in the spine, particularly the L4 bone of the lumbar region...However, images of bone 3D reconstruction for cohorts treated with OPG therapy showed intact tibia and lumbar spinal bone with bone density and...ological fractures, nerve compression syndromes, and hypercal- cemia (2). Current therapies for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients are limited and are

  15. Factors stimulating bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lind, M; Bünger, C

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this review is to describe major approaches for stimulating bone healing and to review other factors affecting bone healing. Spinal bone fusion after surgery is a demanding process requiring optimal conditions for clinical success. Bone formation and healing can be enhanced through various methods. Experimental studies have revealed an array of stimulative measures. These include biochemical stimulation by use of hormones and growth factors, physical stimulation through mechanical and electromagnetic measures, and bone grafting by use of bone tissue or bone substitutes. Newer biological techniques such as stem cell transplantation and gene therapy can also be used to stimulate bone healing. Apart from bone transplantation, clinical experience with the many stimulation modalities is limited. Possible areas for clinical use of these novel methods are discussed.

  16. Functions and Epigenetic Regulation of Wwox in Bone Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma: Comparison with Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms influence molecular patterns important for the bone-metastatic process, and here we highlight the role of WW-domain containing oxidoreductase (Wwox). The tumor-suppressor Wwox lacks in almost all cancer types; the variable expression in osteosarcomas is related to lung-metastasis formation, and exogenous Wwox destabilizes HIF-1α (subunit of Hypoxia inducible Factor-1, HIF-1) affecting aerobic glycolysis. Our recent studies show critical functions of Wwox present in 1833-osteotropic clone, in the corresponding xenograft model, and in human bone metastasis from breast carcinoma. In hypoxic-bone metastatic cells, Wwox enhances HIF-1α stabilization, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. Consistently, in bone-metastasis specimens Wwox localizes in cytosolic/perinuclear area, while TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) and HIF-1α co-localize in nuclei, playing specific regulatory mechanisms: TAZ is a co-factor of HIF-1, and Wwox regulates HIF-1 activity by controlling HIF-1α. In vitro, DNA methylation affects Wwox-protein synthesis; hypoxia decreases Wwox-protein level; hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) phosphorylates Wwox driving its nuclear shuttle, and counteracting a Twist program important for the epithelial phenotype and metastasis colonization. In agreement, in 1833-xenograft mice under DNA-methyltransferase blockade with decitabine, Wwox increases in nuclei/cytosol counteracting bone metastasis with prolongation of the survival. However, Wwox seems relevant for the autophagic process which sustains metastasis, enhancing more Beclin-1 than p62 protein levels, and p62 accumulates under decitabine consistent with adaptability of metastasis to therapy. In conclusion, Wwox methylation as a bone-metastasis therapeutic target would depend on autophagy conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms regulating Wwox may influence the phenotype of bone metastasis. PMID:28045433

  17. Functions and Epigenetic Regulation of Wwox in Bone Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma: Comparison with Primary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms influence molecular patterns important for the bone-metastatic process, and here we highlight the role of WW-domain containing oxidoreductase (Wwox). The tumor-suppressor Wwox lacks in almost all cancer types; the variable expression in osteosarcomas is related to lung-metastasis formation, and exogenous Wwox destabilizes HIF-1α (subunit of Hypoxia inducible Factor-1, HIF-1) affecting aerobic glycolysis. Our recent studies show critical functions of Wwox present in 1833-osteotropic clone, in the corresponding xenograft model, and in human bone metastasis from breast carcinoma. In hypoxic-bone metastatic cells, Wwox enhances HIF-1α stabilization, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. Consistently, in bone-metastasis specimens Wwox localizes in cytosolic/perinuclear area, while TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) and HIF-1α co-localize in nuclei, playing specific regulatory mechanisms: TAZ is a co-factor of HIF-1, and Wwox regulates HIF-1 activity by controlling HIF-1α. In vitro, DNA methylation affects Wwox-protein synthesis; hypoxia decreases Wwox-protein level; hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) phosphorylates Wwox driving its nuclear shuttle, and counteracting a Twist program important for the epithelial phenotype and metastasis colonization. In agreement, in 1833-xenograft mice under DNA-methyltransferase blockade with decitabine, Wwox increases in nuclei/cytosol counteracting bone metastasis with prolongation of the survival. However, Wwox seems relevant for the autophagic process which sustains metastasis, enhancing more Beclin-1 than p62 protein levels, and p62 accumulates under decitabine consistent with adaptability of metastasis to therapy. In conclusion, Wwox methylation as a bone-metastasis therapeutic target would depend on autophagy conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms regulating Wwox may influence the phenotype of bone metastasis.

  18. The Biological Effects of Dickkopf1 on Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Bone Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hailin; Ma, Ningqiang; Jiao, Mi; Shen, Weiwei; Xin, Bo; Wang, Tongfei; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Helong

    2017-01-02

    The bone is among the most common sites of metastasis in patients with lung cancer. Over 30%-40% of lung cancers can develop bone metastasis, and no effective therapeutic methods exist in clinic cases. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferentially metastasizes to the skeleton. However, the role of DKK1 in osteotropism of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to define the role of DKK1 in SCLC bone metastasis and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the expression level of DKK1 was dramatically higher in bone metastatic SCLC cells (SBC-5 cell line) compared with that in cells without bone metastatic ability (SBC-3 cell line). Therefore, we hypothesized that DKK1 was involved in the bone metastasis of SCLC. We then suppressed the DKK1 expression in SBC-5 cells by RNAi and found that downregulation of DKK1 can inhibit cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration, and invasion, but increase the apoptosis rate. Downregulation of DKK1 did not affect the cell cycle progression of SBC-5 cells in vitro. In vivo, downregulated DKK1 in SBC-5 cells resulted in attenuated bone metastasis. These results indicated that DKK1 may be an important regulator in bone metastases of SCLC, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to prevent and treat skeleton metastases in SCLC cases.

  19. Heterogeneity of tumor cells in the bone microenvironment: Mechanisms and therapeutic targets for bone metastasis of prostate or breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Suzui, Masumi

    2016-04-01

    Bone is the most common target organ of metastasis of prostate and breast cancers. This produces considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events, SREs, including bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic fracture, and compression of the spinal cord. The mechanism of bone metastasis is complex and involves cooperative reciprocal interaction among tumor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and the mineralized bone matrix. The interaction between the metastatic tumor and bone stromal cells has been commonly referred to as the "vicious cycle". Tumor cells stimulate osteoblasts, which in turn stimulate osteoclasts through the secretion of cytokines such as the TNF family member receptor activator of nuclear κB ligand (RANKL). Activated osteoclasts degrade the bone matrix by producing strong acid and proteinases. Bone degradation by osteoclasts releases TGFβ and other growth factors stored in the bone matrix, that further stimulate tumor cells. Bone modifying agents, targeting osteoclast activity, such as bisphosphonate and RANKL antibodies are considered as the standard of care for reducing SREs of patients with bone metastatic diseases. These agents decrease osteoclast activity and delay worsening of skeletal pain and aggravation of bone metastatic diseases. While the management of SREs by these agents may improve patients' lives, this treatment does not address the specific issues of the patients with bone metastasis such as tumor dormancy, drug resistance, or improvement of survival. Here, we review the mechanisms of bone metastasis formation, tumor heterogeneity in the bone microenvironment, and conventional therapy for bone metastatic diseases and discuss the potential development of new therapies targeting tumor heterogeneity in the bone microenvironment.

  20. [Encounter of cancer cells with bone. Therapy for bone metastasis from lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Hideshi

    2011-03-01

    Bone metastasis from lung cancer requires a thorough examination of bones, including axial bones (e.g., spine, pelvis, and proximal femur) . Most patients have multiple bone metastases by the time they are initially diagnosed. In such patients, radiation therapy is often the first choice of treatment. Surgical treatment is indicated for pathological fracture and impending fracture associated with cortical bone invasion in long bone metastasis. Spinal metastasis requires accurate imaging to evaluate the extent of bone metastasis ; surgical treatment is indicated when the spinal cord is compressed. Given reports that bisphosphonates decrease the incidence of pathological fractures, prescribing bisphosphonates at an early stage is likely to be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone metastasis.

  1. Tumor-Host Interaction in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    sites where breast cancer metastases are found include the liver, lungs and brain. However, the most common site of breast cancer metastasis is the...increased expression in lung metastasis derived variants of the GI101A breast cancer cell line 21. Thus, the increased expression of CTGF may be more...therapy exists for bone metastasis , and clinical management is generally palliative. Treatment options include surgery or radiation to prevent or repair

  2. Human fucosyltransferase 6 enables prostate cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Guillebon, A D; Hsu, J-w; Barthel, S R; Dimitroff, C J; Lee, Y-F; King, M R

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interaction between human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and bone marrow (BM) endothelium follows a rolling-and-adhesion cascade mediated by E-selectin ligand (ESL): E-selectin. This adhesion is enabled by elevated expression of α-1,3-fucosyltransferases (FTs), enzymes responsible for ESL-mediated bone metastasis in humans. In contrast, the incidence of bone metastasis in mice is rare. Methods: FT 3, 6 and 7 were overexpressed in mouse PCa cells. The rolling cell number, cell-rolling velocity and transendothelial migration were characterised in vitro. Fucosyltransferases-transduced mouse PCa cells expressing luciferase were inoculated into mice via left ventricle to compare the capability of bone metastasis. Mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation were utilised for identification of ESLs. Results: Overexpression of FT3, FT6 or FT7 restored ESLs and enabled mouse PCa cells to roll and adhere in E-selectin-functionalised microtubes, similar to trafficking of circulating PCa cells in BM vessels. Following intracardiac inoculation, FT6-transduced cells induced robust bone metastasis in mice. Inhibition of FT6 by a fucose mimetic significantly reduced bone metastasis. Importantly, comparison of FT3, FT6 and FT7 gene expression in existing clinical samples showed significant upregulation of FT6 in PCa-distant metastases. Conclusion: FT6 is a key mediator of PCa cells trafficking to the BM. It may serve as a viable drug target in preclinical tests of therapeutics for reduction of PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24178760

  3. A murine model of experimental metastasis to bone and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Arguello, F; Baggs, R B; Frantz, C N

    1988-12-01

    Bone is a common site of metastasis in human cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this paper, we describe an animal model in which B16 melanoma cells injected in the left cardiac ventricle reproducibly colonize specific sites of the skeletal system of mice. Injection of 10(5) cells resulted in melanotic tumor colonies in most organs, including the skeletal system. Injection of 10(4) or fewer cells resulted in experimental metastasis almost entirely restricted to the skeletal system and ovary. In contrast, i.v. injection of 10(5) cells resulted in tumor colonies in the lung only. Left cardiac injection of 10(2) cells caused bone colonization, but the same number of cells injected i.v. did not colonize the lung. The number of bones with tumor colonies increased with increasing number of cells injected. Melanotic tumor colonies in the bone were characteristically distributed in the metaphysis of long bones and in the periphery of flat bones. Most animals developed paraplegia due to spinal cord compression by bony metastasis to the spine. Tumor colonization of bone occurred only in regions of bone containing hematopoietic bone marrow. This suggests that the injected tumor cells lodge, survive in the hematopoietic bone marrow environment, and grow to destroy adjacent bone. This experimental model of metastasis to bone will facilitate future studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of bone and bone marrow metastasis.

  4. Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    TITLE: Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Clines, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Apr 2008 – 31 Mar 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1 5a...resulting in pain and pathologic fracture. Dickkopf homolog 1 ( DKK1 ) is a secreted inhibitor of osteoblast Wnt signaling pathway and hypothesized to

  5. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Novel Targets in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    of invasive BrCa cases with different molecular subtypes, and found a significant inverse association between cytoplasmic DDR1 localization and...further examine the association between DDR expression in primary tumors and development of BrCa bone metastasis. In our experimental studies, we have... associated DDRs on the regulation of pro- and anti-osteolytic genes in vitro. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, bone metastasis, discoidin domain

  6. Targeting Neuropilin-1 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    0156 TITLE: Targeting neuropilin - 1 in prostate cancer bone metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daqing Wu, Ph.D...W81XWH-07- 1 -0156 Targeting neuropilin - 1 in prostate cancer bone metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC060566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... neuropilin - 1 (NRP1) has been implicated with progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and other solid tumors. However, it remains elusive for the role of

  7. Oncostatin M Promotes Mammary Tumor Metastasis to Bone and Osteolytic Bone Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Celeste; Tawara, Ken; Sutherland, Caleb; Redshaw, Jeff; Aranda, Patrick; Moselhy, Jim; Anderson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) is an interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokine that has been implicated in a number of biological processes including inflammation, hematopoiesis, immune responses, development, and bone homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that OSM may promote breast tumor invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of OSM in the formation of bone metastases in vivo using the 4T1.2 mouse mammary tumor model in which OSM expression was knocked down using shRNA (4T1.2-OSM). 4T1.2-OSM cells were injected orthotopically into Balb/c mice, resulting in a greater than 97% decrease in spontaneous metastasis to bone compared to control cells. Intratibial injection of these same 4T1.2-OSM cells also dramatically reduced the osteolytic destruction of trabecular bone volume compared to control cells. Furthermore, in a tumor resection model, mice bearing 4T1.2-OSM tumors showed an increase in survival by a median of 10 days. To investigate the specific cellular mechanisms important for OSM-induced osteolytic metastasis to bone, an in vitro model was developed using the RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cell line co-cultured with 4T1.2 mouse mammary tumor cells. Treatment of co-cultures with OSM resulted in a 3-fold induction of osteoclastogenesis using the TRAP assay. We identified several tumor cell–induced factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and a previously uncharacterized OSM-regulated bone metastasis factor, amphiregulin (AREG), which increased osteoclast differentiation by 4.5-fold. In addition, pretreatment of co-cultures with an anti-AREG neutralizing antibody completely reversed OSM-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results suggest that one mechanism for OSM-induced osteoclast differentiation is via an AREG autocrine loop, resulting in decreased osteoprotegerin secretion by the 4T1.2 cells. These data provide evidence that OSM might be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of breast cancer metastasis to bone. PMID:23050044

  8. Curcumin analogue UBS109 prevents bone loss in breast cancer bone metastasis mouse model: involvement in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Zhu, Shijun; Zhang, Shumin; Wu, Daqing; Moore, Terry M; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru

    2014-07-01

    Bone metastasis of breast cancer typically leads to osteolysis, which causes severe pathological bone fractures and hypercalcemia. Bone homeostasis is skillfully regulated through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone loss with bone metastasis of breast cancer may be due to both activation of osteoclastic bone resorption and suppression of osteoblastic bone formation. This study was undertaken to determine whether the novel curcumin analogue UBS109 has preventive effects on bone loss induced by breast cancer cell bone metastasis. Nude mice were inoculated with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells (10(6) cells/mouse) into the head of the right and left tibia. One week after inoculation, the mice were treated with control (vehicle), oral administration (p.o.) of UBS109 (50 or 150 mg/kg body weight), or intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) of UBS109 (10 or 20 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days per week for 7 weeks. After UBS109 administration for 7 weeks, hind limbs were assessed using an X-ray diagnosis system and hematoxylin and eosion staining to determine osteolytic destruction. Bone marrow cells obtained from the femurs and tibias were cultured to estimate osteoblastic mineralization and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo and in vitro. Remarkable bone loss was demonstrated in the tibias of mice inoculated with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells. This bone loss was prevented by p.o. administration of UBS109 (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight) and i.p. treatment of UBS109 (10 and 20 mg/kg) in vivo. Culture of bone marrow cells obtained from the bone tissues of mice with breast cancer cell bone metastasis showed suppressed osteoblastic mineralization and stimulated osteoclastogenesis ex vivo. These changes were not seen after culture of the bone marrow cells obtained from mice treated with UBS109. Moreover, UBS109 was found to stimulate osteoblastic mineralization and suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow

  9. Cell and Signal Components of the Microenvironment of Bone Metastasis Are Affected by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, Paola; Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastatic cells release bone microenvironment proteins, such as the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), and share a cell signaling typical of the bone metabolism controlled by Runx2. The megakaryocytes in the bone marrow engrafted by the metastases seem to be one of the principal microenvironment sources of the biological stimuli, implicated in the formation of an osteoblastic niche, and affecting metastasis phenotype and colonization. Educated platelets in the circulation might derive from megakaryocytes in bone metastasis. The evaluation of predictive markers in the circulating platelets might be useful for the stratification of patients for therapeutic purposes. The hypoxic environment in bone metastasis is one of the key regulators of the network of the biological soluble and structural components of the matrix. In bone metastatic cells under hypoxia, similar patterns of Runx2 and SPARC are observed, both showing downregulation. Conversely, hypoxia induces Endothelin 1, which upregulates SPARC, and these biological stimuli may be considered prognostic markers of bone metastasis in breast carcinoma patients. PMID:27187355

  10. Cradle of evil: osteogenic niche for early bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hanqiu; Kang, Yibin

    2015-02-09

    Bone metastasis often emerges long after the initial dissemination of cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wang and colleagues demonstrate that disseminated breast cancer cells engage osteogenic niches in the bone through heterotypic adherins junctions. This interaction activates mTOR signaling in cancer cells and supports their expansion to micrometastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Xiao, J; Wu, X; Li, W; Yang, Z; Xie, J; Xu, L; Cai, X; Lin, Z; Guo, W; Luo, J; Liu, M

    2012-09-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious consequence of breast cancer. Bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment drives a so-called 'vicious cycle' that promotes tumor cell malignancy and stimulates osteolysis. Targeting these interactions and pathways in the tumor-bone microenvironment has been an encouraging strategy for bone metastasis therapy. In the present study, we examined the effects of plumbagin on breast cancer bone metastasis. Our data indicated that plumbagin inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, suppressed the expression of osteoclast-activating factors, altered the cancer cell induced RANKL/OPG ratio in osteoblasts, and blocked both cancer cell- and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. In mouse model of bone metastasis, we further demonstrated that plumbagin significantly repressed breast cancer cell metastasis and osteolysis, inhibited cancer cell induced-osteoclastogenesis and the secretion of osteoclast-activating factors in vivo. At the molecular level, we found that plumbagin abrogated RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways by blocking RANK association with TRAF6 in osteoclastogenesis, and by inhibiting the expression of osteoclast-activating factors through the suppression of NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment and that plumbagin may serve as a novel agent in the treatment of tumor bone metastasis.

  12. Bone metastasis from lung cancer identified by genetic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhu-Lin; Wang, Chun; Chen, Hui-Jiao; Li, Xue; Dai, Li-Jun; Ding, Zhen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Cancer metastasis remains responsible for the vast majority of cases of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Metastasis, by its definition, is the spread of cancer from the primary site to the distant tissues. Advancing the scientific and clinical understanding of cancer metastasis is a high priority. The prerequisite requirement for pathological consistency may be compromised during metastasis. The present study reports the case of a cancer patient with different pathological types. The patient presented with pain in the neck and right hip, as well as weight loss. He underwent whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography, which identified a mass in the lung and abnormal metabolism of the bone. Biopsies of the ilium and lung were performed and he was shown to have lung adenocarcinoma and bone squamous carcinoma. The morphology and immunohistochemical patterns were completely different, while each lesion harbored an identical genetic profile. The bone lesion was identified to be a metastasis from the lung cancer. The patient was prescribed an epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, which resulted in a partial response in the lung mass and alleviation of the patient's bone pain. Through this case study, we advocate the importance of using genetic testing in addition to pathological assessment. PMID:28356968

  13. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) (1) increase the level of tumor suppressor protein PTEN, (2) inhibit the activity of PI 3 kinase, thus blocking a potent...15. SUBJECT TERMS Omega 3- fatty acids , bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), breast cancer bone metastasis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...complications must be of highest priority in formulating breast cancer therapy. Fish oil, rich in (o-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) such as

  14. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing the inorganic/organic interface in cancer bone metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Bone metastasis frequently occurs in patients with advanced breast cancer and remains a major source of mortality. At the molecular level, bone is a nanocomposite composed of inorganic bone mineral deposited within an organic extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the exact mechanisms of bone metastasis remain unclear, the nanoscale materials properties of bone mineral have been implicated in this process. Bone apatite is closely related to synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in terms of structural and mechanical properties. Additionally, although the primary protein content of bone is collagen I, the glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is essential in maintaining the overall integrity of the bone matrix. Importantly, in vivo, neither breast cancer cells nor normal bone cells interact directly with the bone mineral but rather with the protein film adsorbed onto the mineral surface. Therefore, we hypothesized that breast cancer cell functions were regulated by differential fibronectin adsorption onto hydroxyapatite, which led to pathological remodeling of the bone matrix and sustained bone metastasis. Three model systems containing HAP and Fn were developed for this thesis. In model system I, a library of synthetic HAP nanoparticles were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral size, shape, and crystallinity on Fn conformation, using Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy. In model system II, Fn-functionalized large geologic HAP crystals were used instead of HAP nanoparticles to avoid cellular uptake when investigating subsequent cell functions. Overall our FRET analysis (models I and II) revealed that Fn conformation depended on size, surface chemistry, and roughness of underlying HAP. When breast cancer cells were seeded on the Fn-coated HAP crystal facets (model II), our data indicated high secretion levels of proangiogenic and proinflammatory factors associated with the presence of unfolded Fn conformations, likely caused by differential

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Megakaryocytes in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    action of numerous factors including cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, and extracellular matrix molecules (ECMs), many of which are produced by...Jeong SS, Chen R, Weilbaecher K 2008 APT102, a novel adpase, cooperates with aspirin to disrupt bone metastasis in mice. J Cell Biochem 104(4):1311-23

  17. Primary Splenic Angiosarcoma Revealed by Bone Marrow Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Anoun, Soumaya; Marouane, Sofia; Quessar, Asmae; Benchekroun, Said

    2014-01-01

    Primary splenic angiosarcomas are the most common malignant non-hematopoietic tumors of the spleen. Metastatic diseases were found in 69% of patients in a reported series but the incidence of bone marrow involvement is unclear. We report a rare case of a 25-years-old Moroccan woman with unsuspected primary splenic angiosarcoma revealed by bone marrow metastasis. She presented with serious anemia and splenomegaly. Bone marrow biopsy revealed proliferating spindle cells. Computed tomography scanning showed an enlarged spleen with heterogeneous lesions. Splenectomy was performed and retrospective histological study of the spleen confirmed the diagnosis. She died 1 year after splenectomy. PMID:25541659

  18. Primary splenic angiosarcoma revealed by bone marrow metastasis.

    PubMed

    Anoun, Soumaya; Marouane, Sofia; Quessar, Asmae; Benchekroun, Said

    2014-12-05

    Primary splenic angiosarcomas are the most common malignant non-hematopoietic tumors of the spleen. Metastatic diseases were found in 69% of patients in a reported series but the incidence of bone marrow involvement is unclear. We report a rare case of a 25-years-old Moroccan woman with unsuspected primary splenic angiosarcoma revealed by bone marrow metastasis. She presented with serious anemia and splenomegaly. Bone marrow biopsy revealed proliferating spindle cells. Computed tomography scanning showed an enlarged spleen with heterogeneous lesions. Splenectomy was performed and retrospective histological study of the spleen confirmed the diagnosis. She died 1 year after splenectomy.

  19. C-met inhibition blocks bone metastasis development induced by renal cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Lucia; Belisario, Dimas; Migliardi, Giorgia; Grange, Cristina; Bussolati, Benedetta; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Perera, Timothy; Dalmasso, Ettore; Carbonare, Luca Dalle; Godio, Laura; Comoglio, Paolo; Trusolino, Livio; Ferracini, Riccardo; Roato, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are key players in bone metastasis. In some renal tumors CSCs overexpress the HGF receptor c-MET, speculating that c-MET targeting could lead to bone metastasis inhibition. To address this hypothesis we isolated renal CD105+/CD24−CSCs, expressing c-MET receptor from a primary renal carcinoma. Then, to study their ability to metastasize to bone, we injected renal CSCs in NOD/SCID mice implanted with a human bone and we tested the effect of a c-MET inhibitor (JNJ-38877605) on bone metastasis development. JNJ-38877605 inhibited the formation of metastases at bone implant site. We showed that JNJ-38877605 inhibited the activation of osteoclasts induced by RCC stem cells and it stimulated osteoblast activity, finally resulting in a reduction of bone turnover consistent with the inhibition of bone metastases. We measured the circulating levels of osteotropic factors induced by RCC stem cells in the sera of mice treated with c-Met inhibitor, showing that IL-11 and CCL20 were reduced in mice treated with JNJ-38877605, strongly supporting the involvement of c-MET in the regulation of this process. To address the clinical relevance of c-MET upregulation during tumor progression, we analysed c-MET in renal cancer patients detecting an increased expression in the bone metastatic lesions by IHC. Then, we dosed CCL20 serum levels resulting significantly increased in patients with bone metastases compared to non-metastatic ones. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of the c-MET pathway in the pathogenesis of bone metastases induced by RCC stem cells in mice and humans. PMID:27322553

  20. The Role of Megakaryocytes in Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Walter; Sosnoski, Donna M; Ohanessian, Sara E; Chandler, Paige; Mobley, Adam W; Meisel, Kacey D; Mastro, Andrea M

    2017-02-15

    Little is known about how megakaryocytes affect metastasis apart from serving as the source of platelets. We noted an increase in the number of megakaryocytes in the femurs of metastases-bearing athymic mice four weeks following intracardiac inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. How did the megakaryocytes relate to the metastases? Did megakaryocytes prepare a niche or did they increase in response to metastases? To test these possibilities, we examined two models of experimental metastasis, intracardiac inoculation of human MDA-MB-231 into athymic mice, and intramammary injection of mouse tumor cells, 4T1.2 (metastatic) or 67NR (non-metastatic) in BALB/c mice. In both models, metastatic, but not primary tumor growth was associated with increased megakaryopoiesis. At 4 weeks post injection, megakaryocytes increased ~ two-fold in the bone marrow of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. BALB/c mice injected orthotopically with murine 4T1.2 cells showed extramedullary hematopoiesis resulting in a four-fold increase in megakaryocytes in the spleen. These findings led us to speculate that a reduction in megakaryocytes would result in reduced metastasis. Thrombopoietin knockout mice exhibited a 90% decrease in megakaryocytes compared to wild type mice. Nonetheless, they developed more aggressive metastasis than wild type. We also found with human clinical samples, an increase in megakaryocytes in the bone marrow of 75% (6/8) of patients with metastatic breast cancer compared to age and gender matched controls. The data suggested that the increase in megakaryocytes occurs in response to metastatic cells in the bone, and that megakaryocytes are in some measure protective against metastases.

  1. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages play a vital role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by clearing apoptotic cells through a specialized form of phagocytosis termed...tumor cells in the context of the bone microenvironment is unexplored. Macrophages play a vital role in maintaining tissue homeostasis , by clearing

  2. Physician preferences for bone metastasis drug therapy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, J.; González, J.M.; Qian, Y.; Habib, M.; Mohamed, A.F.; Gatta, F.; Hauber, A.B.; Posner, J.; Califaretti, N.; Chow, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently in Canada, several bone-targeted agents (btas) with varying characteristics are available for the prevention of skeletal-related events (sres) in patients with bone metastasis secondary to solid tumours. In the present study, we evaluated the preferences of physicians in Canada for the various attributes of the available btas. Methods Physicians treating patients with bone metastasis from solid tumours were invited to complete an online discrete-choice experiment. Respondents were asked to choose between pairs of hypothetical medications for virtual patients. Each hypothetical medication was described based on predefined key attributes: time until first sre, time until worsening of pain, medication-related annual risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (onj), medication-related annual risk of renal impairment, and mode of administration. A random-parameters logit model was used to analyze the choices between hypothetical medications and thus infer physician preferences for medication attributes. Results Responses from the 200 physicians who completed the discrete-choice experiment suggested that months until first sre, risk of renal impairment, and months until worsening of pain were considered the most important attributes affecting choice of bta. The annual risk of onj was considered the least important attribute. Conclusions When making treatment decisions about the choice of bta for patients with bone metastasis from solid tumours, delaying sres and worsening of pain, and reducing the risk of renal impairment are primary considerations for physicians in Canada. PMID:26628874

  3. Engineering a biomimetic three-dimensional nanostructured bone model for breast cancer bone metastasis study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Mian; Fu, Yebo; Castro, Nathan J; Fu, Sidney W; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-03-01

    Traditional breast cancer (BrCa) bone metastasis models contain many limitations with regards to controllability, reproducibility and flexibility of design. In this study, a novel biomimetic bone microenvironment was created by integrating hydroxyapatite (HA) and native bioactive factors deposited by osteogenic induction of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a cytocompatible chitosan hydrogel. It was found that a 10% nanocrystalline HA (nHA) chitosan scaffold exhibited the highest BrCa adhesion and proliferation when compared to chitosan scaffolds with 20% nHA, 10% and 20% microcrystalline HA as well as amorphous HA. This 3-D tunable bone scaffold can provide a biologically relevant environment, increase cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as found in native bone, and retain the behavior of BrCa cells with different metastasis potential (i.e. highly metastatic MDA-MB-231, less metastatic MCF-7 and transfected MDA-MB-231). The co-culture of MSCs and MDA-MB-231 in this bone model illustrated that MSCs have the capacity to upregulate the expression of the well-known metastasis-associated gene metadherin within BrCa cells. In summary, this study illustrates the ability of our 3-D bone model to create a biomimetic environment conducive to recapitulating the behavior of metastatic BrCa cells, making it a promising tool for in vitro BrCa cell bone metastasis study and for the discovery of potential therapeutics.

  4. Med19 promotes bone metastasis and invasiveness of bladder urothelial carcinoma via bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Feng, Chen-chen; Ding, Guan-xiong; Meng, Dong-liang; Ding, Qiang; Fang, Zu-jun; Xia, Guo-wei; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Hao-wen

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) remained a major health problem. Med19 was related to tumor growth of BCa. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were reported to be critical in bone metastasis of cancer. We therefore investigated the relations between Med19 and BMPs in BCa and their effect on bone metastasis of BCa. Bladder cancer cell lines were cultured and interfered with Med19 shRNA and control. Expressions of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-9, and BMP-15 were studied between 2 groups. Fifty-two BCa samples were included for immunohistochemical staining of Med19 and BMP-2. Expressions were scored and studied statistically. Invasiveness was studied with Transwell assay. Silencing or Med19 in BCa cells induced altered expressions of BMPs. Increased expressions of BMP-1, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7, and BMP-15 and decreased expressions of BMP-2, BMP-5, and BMP-9 were noticed, but only BMP-2 reached statistical significance. Expressions of Med19 and BMP-2 were significantly higher in cases with bone metastasis and were positively correlated in cases with bone metastasis and muscle invasion. Med19 is a critical factor involved in the invasiveness and promotion of bone metastasis of BCa, possibly via BMP-2.

  5. [Conformal radiotherapy for vertebral bone metastasis].

    PubMed

    Faivre, J C; Py, J F; Vogin, G; Martinage, G; Salleron, J; Royer, P; Grandgirard, N; Pasquier, D; Thureau, S

    2016-10-01

    Analgesic external beam radiation therapy is a standard of care for patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases and/or prevention of bone complications. In case of fracture risk, radiation therapy is performed after surgery in a consolidation of an analgesic purpose and stabilizing osteosynthesis. Radiotherapy is mandatory after vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Spinal cord compression - the only emergency in radiation therapy - is indicated postoperatively either exclusively for non surgical indication. Analgesic re-irradiation is possible in the case of insufficient response or recurrent pain after radiotherapy. Metabolic radiation, bisphosphonates or denosumab do not dissuade external radiation therapy for pain relief. Systemic oncological treatments can be suspended with a period of wash out given the risk of radiosensitization or recall phenomenon. Better yet, the intensity modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy can be part of a curative strategy for oligometastatic patients and suggest new treatment prospects.

  6. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for production of bone metastasis, but not visceral metastasis, by human small cell lung cancer SBC-5 cells in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Miki, Toyokazu; Yano, Seiji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Kanematsu, Takanori; Muguruma, Hiroaki; Sone, Saburo

    2004-02-10

    We previously established an osteolytic bone metastasis model with multiorgan dissemination in natural killer (NK) cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice using human small cell lung cancer cells (SBC-5), which highly express the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). In our present study, we evaluated the role of PTHrP on bone metastasis by SBC-5 cells using anti-PTHrP neutralizing antibody (Ab). Anti-PTHrP Ab did not affect the proliferation or cytokine production of SBC-5 cells in vitro. Repeated intravenous injection with anti-PTHrP Ab inhibited the formation of bone metastasis in a dose-dependent manner, while the same treatment had no significant effect on the metastasis to visceral organs (lung, liver, kidney and lymph node). In addition, treatment with anti-PTHrP Ab improved the elevated serum calcium level, associated with inhibition of osteolytic bone metastasis, suggesting that anti-PTHrP Ab inhibited bone metastasis via suppression of bone resorption probably by neutralizing PTHrP. These findings suggest that PTHrP is essential for bone metastasis, but not visceral metastasis, by small cell lung cancer SBC-5 cells.

  7. A New In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    prostate, lung , and multiple myeloma cancers (1). Metastasis to the bone often progresses with significant morbidity related to substantial bone loss...Cancer Metastasis to Bone PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea M. Mastro, Ph.D CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Penn State University...A New In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0432 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Novel Targets in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    BrCa cases with different molecular subtypes, and found a significant inverse association between cytoplasmic DDR1 localization and progesterone...the association between DDR expression in primary tumors and development of BrCa bone metastasis. In our experimental studies, we have screened and...also test the role of DDR2 in intraosseous BrCa growth. The results of these studies will be used to investigate the role of tumor- associated DDRs

  9. Role of Katanin in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiang-Cang Ye, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center ...Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas 77030 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...analyzed with TissueScan Prostate Cancer Panel I ( Origene , Rockville, MD), we found that KATNA1- E7 was expressed broadly in most of samples including

  10. Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

  11. Management of long bone metastases: recommendations from the Italian Orthopaedic Society bone metastasis study group.

    PubMed

    Capanna, Rodolfo; Piccioli, Andrea; Di Martino, Alberto; Daolio, Primo Andrea; Ippolito, Vincenzo; Maccauro, Giulio; Piana, Raimondo; Ruggieri, Pietro; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Campanacci, Domenico Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the current approach to patients affected by metastasis to the long bones and to present a clinical and surgical algorithm available for clinicians and for future research. A modern approach to patients affected by long bone metastasis in fact requires a multidisciplinary contest where oncologists, radiotherapists, surgeons and physical therapists cooperate with a shared vision, in order to provide the best possible integrated treatments available. The authors of this article constitute the Bone Metastasis Study Group of the Italian Orthopaedic Society (SIOT): a national group of orthopedic tumor surgeons who are dedicated to studying the approach, techniques and outcomes of surgery for metastatic tumours of the musculoskeletal system.

  12. Diagnosis of bone metastasis: recent comparative studies of imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J N; Paycha, F; Balogova, S

    2011-08-01

    Various imaging modalities are currently available to diagnose bone metastasis. The two main anatomical modalities are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with many variants proposed for the MRI procedure, including diffusion-weighted imaging. The two main functional modalities are scintigraphy and PET, also with many variants in the radiopharmaceutical, from the "all purpose" 99mTc labelled bisphosphonates to very selective radiopharmaceuticals for rare neoplasia. The diagnostic strategy will become more and more individually tailored according to the patient's clinical and biological data (primary cancer type, phase of the evolution, markers of aggressiveness, serum levels of biological tracers of bone metabolism, circulating or disseminating tumour cells …). If imaging is indicated, the diagnostic strategy will also depend on the availability and the diagnostic performance of the imaging modalities. Assessment of diagnostic performance requires comparative studies, performed with an adequate methodology. The main methodological weaknesses encountered in studies intending to compare imaging modalities for diagnosing bone metastasis are summarised. Comparative studies have been reviewed, which address the initial diagnosis of skeletal metastases in solid tumours except primary bone cancers. The results of more than 140 such comparative studies are then summarised and briefly commented, according to the type of the primary cancer, and according to the compared imaging modalities.

  13. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteosarcoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan; Connolly, Patrick; Roth, Michael; Chung, So Hak; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Guzik, Hillary; Gorlick, Richard; Geller, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) may offer the potential to enhance allograft-host osseous union in limb-salvage surgery following osteosarcoma resection. However, there is concern regarding the effect of locally applied BMP-2 on tumor recurrence and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of exogenous BMP-2 on osteosarcoma migration and invasion across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro and to characterize the effect of BMP-2 on pulmonary osteosarcoma metastasis within a xenograft model. Experimental design The effect of BMP-2 on in vitro tumor growth and development was assessed across multiple standard and patient-derived xenograft osteosarcoma cell lines. Tumor migration capacity, invasion, and cell proliferation were characterized. In addition, the effect on metastasis was measured using a xenograft model following tail-vein injection. The effect of exogenous BMP-2 on the development of metastases was measured following both single and multiple BMP-2 administrations. Results There was no significant difference in migration capacity, invasion, or cell proliferation between the BMP-2 treated and the untreated osteosarcoma cell lines. There was no significant difference in pulmonary metastases between either the single-dose or multi-dose BMP-2 treated animals and the untreated control animals. Conclusions In the model systems tested, the addition of BMP-2 does not increase osteosarcoma proliferation, migration, invasion, or metastasis to the lungs. PMID:28264040

  14. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteosarcoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jonathan; Connolly, Patrick; Roth, Michael; Chung, So Hak; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Guzik, Hillary; Morris, Jonathan; Gorlick, Richard; Geller, David S

    2017-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) may offer the potential to enhance allograft-host osseous union in limb-salvage surgery following osteosarcoma resection. However, there is concern regarding the effect of locally applied BMP-2 on tumor recurrence and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of exogenous BMP-2 on osteosarcoma migration and invasion across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro and to characterize the effect of BMP-2 on pulmonary osteosarcoma metastasis within a xenograft model. The effect of BMP-2 on in vitro tumor growth and development was assessed across multiple standard and patient-derived xenograft osteosarcoma cell lines. Tumor migration capacity, invasion, and cell proliferation were characterized. In addition, the effect on metastasis was measured using a xenograft model following tail-vein injection. The effect of exogenous BMP-2 on the development of metastases was measured following both single and multiple BMP-2 administrations. There was no significant difference in migration capacity, invasion, or cell proliferation between the BMP-2 treated and the untreated osteosarcoma cell lines. There was no significant difference in pulmonary metastases between either the single-dose or multi-dose BMP-2 treated animals and the untreated control animals. In the model systems tested, the addition of BMP-2 does not increase osteosarcoma proliferation, migration, invasion, or metastasis to the lungs.

  15. Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin-6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0159 TITLE: Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate DAMD17-02-1-0159 Cancer Bone Metastasis 6 . AUTHOR(S...DAMD17-02-1-0159 "Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin - 6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis" INTRODUCTION: The hypothesis of this grant proposal

  16. Bone formation: roles of genistein and daidzein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bone remodeling consists of a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Osteoporosis is the result of increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation causing a decreased bone mass density, loss of bone microarchitecture, and an increased risk of fractu...

  17. The bone remodeling environment is a factor in breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Li Laine; Zheng, Yu; Stalgis-Bilinski, Kellie; Dunstan, Colin R

    2011-01-01

    The bone microenvironment is clearly an important determinant of breast cancer metastasis to bone. Once established in bone, the ability for breast cancer cells to hijack normal regulatory pathways for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival is known to form the basis of a vicious cycle that promotes both bone destruction and tumor growth. However, the importance of the background remodeling activity in the early stages of breast cancer metastatic establishment in bone has not been systematically investigated. Here we review recent studies that indicate that bone remodeling levels, as influenced by calcium and vitamin D status, do impact the ability of human breast cancer cells to grow in the bones of nude mice. These studies support the assessment and correction of calcium and vitamin D deficient states in women at risk of developing advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DLC1-dependent parathyroid hormone-like hormone inhibition suppresses breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Lei, Rong; Zhuang, Xueqian; Zhang, Ning; Pan, Hong; Li, Gang; Hu, Jing; Pan, Xiaoqi; Tao, Qian; Fu, Da; Xiao, Jianru; Chin, Y Eugene; Kang, Yibin; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Guohong

    2014-04-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer that is often accelerated by TGF-β signaling; however, little is known about how the TGF-β pathway is regulated during bone metastasis. Here we report that deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is an important regulator of TGF-β responses and osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells. In murine models, breast cancer cells lacking DLC1 expression exhibited enhanced capabilities of bone metastasis. Knockdown of DLC1 in cancer cells promoted bone metastasis, leading to manifested osteolysis and accelerated death in mice, while DLC1 overexpression suppressed bone metastasis. Activation of Rho-ROCK signaling in the absence of DLC1 mediated SMAD3 linker region phosphorylation and TGF-β-induced expression of parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), leading to osteoclast maturation for osteolytic colonization. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Rho-ROCK effectively reduced PTHLH production and breast cancer bone metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of clinical breast tumor samples revealed that reduced DLC1 expression was linked to elevated PTHLH expression and organ-specific metastasis to bone. Overall, our findings define a stroma-dependent paradigm of Rho signaling in cancer and implicate Rho-TGF-β crosstalk in osteolytic bone metastasis.

  19. Biomechanical forces in the skeleton and their relevance to bone metastasis: biology and engineering considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Maureen; Fischbach, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer related-deaths. However, the effect of skeleton-associated biomechanical signals on the initiation, progression, and therapy response of breast cancer bone metastasis is largely unknown. This review seeks to highlight possible functional connections between skeletal mechanical signals and breast cancer bone metastasis and their contribution to clinical outcome. It provides an introduction to the physical and biological signals underlying bone functional adaptation and discusses the modulatory roles of mechanical loading and breast cancer metastasis in this process. Following a definition of biophysical design criteria, in vitro and in vivo approaches from the fields of bone biomechanics and tissue engineering will be reviewed that may be suitable to investigate breast cancer bone metastasis as a function of varied mechano-signaling. Finally, an outlook of future opportunities and challenges associated with this newly emerging field will be provided. PMID:25174311

  20. Hepatic metastasis complicated by abscess formation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Liao; Lihua, Qiu; Xianming, Diao; Qiyong, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses and hepatic metastasis are common diseases. However, hepatic abscesses seldom occur in patients with hepatic metastases. We describe a case of a 67-year-old female patient with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed several lesions, with the largest lesion displaying features of both hepatic pyogenic abscess and liver metastasis. These features included iso- or hypointense signaling on T1WI and T2WI, hyperintense signaling on diffusion weighted imaging of the thick wall, and mixed hyperintense signal in the center on DWI, as well as dramatic and irregular peripheral enhancement was detected on LAVA dynamic contrast scanning. Aspiration and culture of the largest lesions revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae and a pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. At this point, the patient admitted a history of colon adenocarcinoma 9 years ago treated with hemicolectomy. Therefore, this patient was considered to have a hepatic pyogenic abscesses complicated by hepatic metastasis. The patient began treatment for the responsible pathogens and underwent chemoembolization of the liver lesions. In special cases, we could attempt to pursue a more detailed search for coexistence of microorganism infection and tumor.

  1. TGFBeta Induction of PMEPA1: Role in Bone Metastasis Due to Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis Due to Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Pierrick G. Fournier, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...NUMBER TGFβ Induction of PMEPA1: Role in Bone Metastasis Due to Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0057 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...13 4 INTRODUCTION Metastasis , the ultimate step of malignancy, is not a randomized process and some sites, such as bone

  2. An Unusual Bone Metastasis Mimicking SAPHO (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis) Syndrome on Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianming; Tang, Ping

    2016-02-01

    The costosternoclavicular region is not a common bone metastasis site, and symmetrical involvement is even rarer. Increased tracer uptake in the manubrium and sternoclavicular joints usually gives the typical "bull-horn" appearance seen in SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis). Herein, we report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma who had undergone left radical mastectomy 3 years earlier and presented with typical increased tracer uptake in the bilateral sternocostoclavicular region resembling the so-called bull horn. The final diagnosis of metastasis from breast cancer was made histopathologically following biopsy.

  3. Sclerostin induced tumor growth, bone metastasis and osteolysis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Menghai; Liu, Changzhen; Li, Shifei; Zhang, Shudong; Yao, Qi; Song, Qingkun

    2017-09-12

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Many patients suffer from bone metastasis. Sclerostin, a key regulator of normal bone remodeling, is critically involved in osteolytic bone diseases. However, its role in breast cancer bone metastasis remains unknown. Here, we found that sclerostin was overexpressed in breast cancer tumor tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of sclerostin by antibody (Scl-Ab) significantly reduced migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In xenograft model, sclerostin inhibition improved survival of nude mice and prevented osteolytic lesions resulting from tumor metastasis. Taken together, sclerostin promotes breast cancer cell migration, invasion and bone osteolysis. Inhibition of sclerostin may serve as an efficient strategy for interventions against breast cancer bone metastasis or osteolytic bone diseases.

  4. Osteocytic Connexin Hemichannels Suppress Breast Cancer Growth and Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jade Z.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Gu, Sumin; Kar, Rekha; Gao, Xiaoli; Sun, LuZhe; Jiang, Jean X.

    2016-01-01

    Although the skeleton is one of predominant sites for breast cancer metastasis, why breast cancer cells often become dormant after homing to bone is not well understood. Here, we reported an intrinsic self-defense mechanism of bone cells against breast cancer cells: a critical role of connexin (Cx) 43 hemichannels in osteocytes in the suppression of breast cancer bone metastasis. Cx43 hemichannels allow passage of small molecules between the intracellular and extracellular environments. The treatment of bisphosphonate drugs, either alendronate (ALN) or zoledronic acid (ZOL), opened Cx43 hemichannels in osteocytes. Conditioned media (CM) collected from MLO-Y4 osteocyte cells treated with bisphosphonates inhibited the anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and Py8119 mouse mammary carcinoma cells and this inhibitory effect was attenuated with Cx43(E2), a specific hemichannel blocking antibody. The opening of osteocytic Cx43 hemichannels by mechanical stimulation had similar inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells and this inhibition was attenuated by Cx43(E2) antibody as well. These inhibitory effects on cancer cells were mediated by ATP released from osteocyte Cx43 hemichannels. Furthermore, both Cx43 osteocyte-specific knockout mice and osteocyte-specific Δ130–136 transgenic mice with impaired Cx43 gap junctions and hemichannels showed significantly increased tumor growth and attenuated the inhibitory effect of ZOL. However, R76W transgenic mice with functional hemichannels but not gap junctions in osteocytes did not display a significant difference. Together, our studies establish the specific inhibitory role of osteocytic Cx43 hemichannels, and exploiting the activity of this channel could serve as a de novo therapeutic strategy. PMID:27041582

  5. Bone metastasis model with multiorgan dissemination of human small-cell lung cancer (SBC-5) cells in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Miki, T; Yano, S; Hanibuchi, M; Sone, S

    2000-01-01

    Lung cancer is commonly associated with multiorgan metastasis, and bone is a frequent metastatic site for lung cancer. Nevertheless, no bone metastasis model of lung cancer with multiorgan dissemination is available, which could provide opportunity to study the molecular pathogenesis. We examined the abilities of eight human lung cancer cell lines injected intravenously into natural killer (NK) cell-depleted SCID mice to generate metastatic nodules in bone and multiple organs, and explored the correlation of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) with the bone metastasis. Although all the small-cell carcinoma cell lines (SBC-5, SBC-3, SBC-3/ADM, H69, H69/VP) formed metastatic nodules in multiple organs (liver, kidney, and lymph nodes), only SBC-5 cells reproducibly developed bone metastases. Squamous cell carcinoma (RERF-LC-AI) cells metastasized mainly into the liver and kidneys, whereas adenocarcinoma (PC-14, A549) mainly produced colonies in the lungs. As assessed by X-ray photography, the osteolytic bone metastases produced by SBC-5 cells were detected as early as on day 28, and all recipient mice developed bone metastasis by day 35. The expression of PTHrP in eight cell lines was directly correlated with the formation of bone metastasis. No correlation was observed between the formation of bone metastasis and the expression of other metastasis-related cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11, TNF-alpha, VEGF, M-CSF). Consistent with the formation of bone metastasis by SBC-5 cells, the levels of PTHrP and calcium in the mouse serum were increased in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that PTHrP produced by human lung cancer may play a crucial role in the formation of bone metastasis and hypercalcemia. These findings indicate that a bone metastasis model of SBC-5 cells may be useful for clarifying the molecular aspects of the metastatic processes in different organ microenvironments and the development of therapeutic modalities for lung cancer

  6. Immune Cells Act as Promising Targets for the Treatment of Bone Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guojing; He, Yuedong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Xijie

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common complication of certain types of cancer, and unfortunately, it is still incurable to date. Immune system is a major defence against tumor cells and bone metastasis. However, the immunodeficient mouse models are widely used in most researches of bone metastasis, thereby excluding the regulatory roles of the immune system in bone metastasis. The aim was to provide a comprehensive overview on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which immune cells interact with tumor cells and bone cells, as well as recent related patents. We performed a literature search of PubMed database for the current knowledge on the interaction between bone metastasis and immune system. Recent related patents were obtained from World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) website. Immune cells in the bone-tumor microenvironment include dentritic cells, monocytes/ macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, T helper cells, neutrophil, CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells, et al. In addition to their well-known immunomodulatory function, recent studies revealed that immune cells could cooperate with tumor cells and bone cells to enhance bone metastasis and tumor progression. There are some patents targeting immune system to inhibit bone metastasis. Immune cells are instigated by tumor cells to enhance the occurrence and the development of bone metastasis. Taking full advantage of anti-tumor roles of immune cells may bring the promise of a possible cure for bone metastasis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. CCN3 Impairs Osteoblast and Stimulates Osteoclast Differentiation to Favor Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Véronique; Tiedemann, Kerstin; Mourskaia, Anna; Fong, Jenna E.; Tran-Thanh, Danh; Amir, Eitan; Clemons, Mark; Perbal, Bernard; Komarova, Svetlana V.; Siegel, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis, causing pain, fractures, spinal cord compressions, and hypercalcemia, all of which can significantly diminish the patient's quality of life. We identified CCN3 as a novel factor that is highly expressed in bone metastatic breast cancer cells from a xenograft mouse model and in bone metastatic lesions from patients with breast cancer. We demonstrate that CCN3 overexpression enhances the ability of weakly bone metastatic breast cancer cells to colonize and grow in the bone without altering their growth in the mammary fat pad. We further demonstrated that human recombinant CCN3 inhibits osteoblast differentiation from primary bone marrow cultures, leading to a higher receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. In conjunction with its ability to impair osteoblast differentiation, we uncovered a novel role for CCN3 in promoting osteoclast differentiation from RANKL-primed monocyte precursors. CCN3 exerts its pro-osteoclastogenic effects by promoting calcium oscillations and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation. Together, these results demonstrate that CCN3 regulates the differentiation of bone resident cells to create a resorptive environment that promotes the formation of osteolytic breast cancer metastases. PMID:21514448

  8. A prediction model of survival for patients with bone metastasis from uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to establish a predictive model of survival period after bone metastasis from cervical cancer. Methods A total of 54 patients with bone metastasis from cervical cancer were included in the study. Data at the time of bone metastasis diagnosis, which included presence of extraskeletal metastasis, performance status, history of any previous radiation or chemotherapy, the number of bone metastases, onset period, and treatment were collected. Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results The median survival period after diagnosis of bone metastasis was 22 weeks (5 months). The 26- and 52-week survival rates after bone metastasis were 36.5% and 15.4%, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that extraskeletal metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 6.1; 95% CI, 2.2 to 16.6), performance status of 3 to 4 (HR, 7.8; 95% CI, 3.3 to 18.2), previous radiation or chemotherapy (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 7.8), multiple bone metastases (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.5), and a bone metastasis-free interval of <12 months (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.3) were significantly and independently related to poor survival. A prognostic score was calculated by adding the number of each significant factor. The 26-week survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were 70.1% in the group with a score ≤2, 46.7% in the group with a score of 3, and 12.5% in the group with a score ≥4 (p<0.001). Conclusion This scoring system provided useful prognostic information on survival of patients with bone metastasis of cervical cancer. PMID:27550401

  9. Functional screen identifies kinases driving prostate cancer visceral and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Faltermeier, Claire M; Drake, Justin M; Clark, Peter M; Smith, Bryan A; Zong, Yang; Volpe, Carmen; Mathis, Colleen; Morrissey, Colm; Castor, Brandon; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-01-12

    Mutationally activated kinases play an important role in the progression and metastasis of many cancers. Despite numerous oncogenic alterations implicated in metastatic prostate cancer, mutations of kinases are rare. Several lines of evidence suggest that nonmutated kinases and their pathways are involved in prostate cancer progression, but few kinases have been mechanistically linked to metastasis. Using a mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics dataset in concert with gene expression analysis, we selected over 100 kinases potentially implicated in human metastatic prostate cancer for functional evaluation. A primary in vivo screen based on overexpression of candidate kinases in murine prostate cells identified 20 wild-type kinases that promote metastasis. We queried these 20 kinases in a secondary in vivo screen using human prostate cells. Strikingly, all three RAF family members, MERTK, and NTRK2 drove the formation of bone and visceral metastasis confirmed by positron-emission tomography combined with computed tomography imaging and histology. Immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays indicated that these kinases are highly expressed in human metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer tissues. Our functional studies reveal the strong capability of select wild-type protein kinases to drive critical steps of the metastatic cascade, and implicate these kinases in possible therapeutic intervention.

  10. Perineural invasion in prostate biopsy specimens is associated with increased bone metastasis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Esra; Simsek, Emrah; Ustuner, Murat; Yavuz, Ufuk; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perineural invasion (PNI) and bone metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 633 PCas who had whole-body bone scan (WBBS) between 2008 and 2014. We recorded the age, clinical T-stage, total PSA (tPSA) prior to biopsy, Gleason sum (GS), and PNI in transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and digital rectal examination findings. Bone metastases were assessed with WBBS and magnetic resonance image if WBBS was suspicious. We divided the patients into two groups according to NCCN criteria: (Group 1) bone scan not indicated, (Group 2) bone scan indicated. There were 262 patients in Group 1 and 371 in 2. There is not significant relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 1. However, there is very limited number of metastatic patients (n = 12) in this group. There is a strong relationship between PNI and bone metastasis in Group 2 (P = 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of PNI for bone metastasis were 72.4%, 81.7%, and 77.7%, respectively. In this group, tPSA, GS, positive DRE, and PNI were significant covariates for prediction of bone metastasis in univariate and multivariate analysis (except age). The most powerful predictor was PNI, and it increased the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold. PNI in the TRUS-Bx specimens is the most powerful predictive histopathological feature for bone metastasis, by increasing the risk of bone metastasis 11-fold in NCCN bone scan indicated patients (Group 2). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Periostin promotes immunosuppressive premetastatic niche formation to facilitate breast tumour metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Shanshan; Mao, Yubin; Chen, Mimi; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xueliang; Ma, Zhenling; Liu, Fan; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi; Ouyang, Gaoliang

    2016-08-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is a limiting factor in the metastatic colonization of disseminated tumour cells. However, the role of POSTN in regulating the immunosuppressive function of immature myeloid cells in tumour metastasis has not been documented. Here, we demonstrate that POSTN promotes the pulmonary accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during the early stage of breast tumour metastasis. Postn deletion decreases neutrophil and monocytic cell populations in the bone marrow of mice and suppresses the accumulation of MDSCs to premetastatic sites. We also found that POSTN-deficient MDSCs display reduced activation of ERK, AKT and STAT3 and that POSTN deficiency decreases the immunosuppressive functions of MDSCs during tumour progression. Moreover, the pro-metastatic role of POSTN is largely limited to ER-negative breast cancer patients. Lysyl oxidase contributes to POSTN-promoted premetastatic niche formation and tumour metastasis. Our findings indicate that POSTN is essential for immunosuppressive premetastatic niche formation in the lungs during breast tumour metastasis and is a potential target for the prevention and treatment of breast tumour metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  13. Tumor-specific expression of αvβ3 integrin promotes spontaneous metastasis of breast cancer to bone

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K; Pouliot, Normand; Stanley, Kym L; Chia, Jenny; Moseley, Jane M; Hards, Daphne K; Anderson, Robin L

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Studies in xenograft models and experimental models of metastasis have implicated several β3 integrin-expressing cell populations, including endothelium, platelets and osteoclasts, in breast tumor progression. Since orthotopic human xenograft models of breast cancer are poorly metastatic to bone and experimental models bypass the formation of a primary tumor, however, the precise contribution of tumor-specific αvβ3 to the spontaneous metastasis of breast tumors from the mammary gland to bone remains unclear. Methods We used a syngeneic orthotopic model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis to test whether exogenous expression of αvβ3 in a mammary carcinoma line (66cl4) that metastasizes to the lung, but not to bone, was sufficient to promote its spontaneous metastasis to bone from the mammary gland. The tumor burden in the spine and the lung following inoculation of αvβ3-expressing 66cl4 (66cl4beta3) tumor cells or control 66cl4pBabe into the mammary gland was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. The ability of these cells to grow and form osteolytic lesions in bone was determined by histology and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of bone sections following intratibial injection of tumor cells. The adhesive, migratory and invasive properties of 66cl4pBabe and 66cl4beta3 cells were evaluated in standard in vitro assays. Results The 66cl4beta3 tumors showed a 20-fold increase in metastatic burden in the spine compared with 66cl4pBabe. A similar trend in lung metastasis was observed. αvβ3 did not increase the proliferation of 66cl4 cells in vitro or in the mammary gland in vivo. Similarly, αvβ3 is not required for the proliferation of 66cl4 cells in bone as both 66cl4pBabe and 66cl4beta3 proliferated to the same extent when injected directly into the tibia. 66cl4beta3 tumor growth in the tibia, however, increased osteoclast recruitment and bone resorption compared with 66cl4 tumors. Moreover, αvβ3 increased 66cl4 tumor cell

  14. The Host Microenvironment Influences Prostate Cancer Invasion, Systemic Spread, Bone Colonization, and Osteoblastic Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Sourik S.; Li, Xiaohong; Miranti, Cindy K.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Most PCa deaths are due to osteoblastic bone metastases. What triggers PCa metastasis to the bone and what causes osteoblastic lesions remain unanswered. A major contributor to PCa metastasis is the host microenvironment. Here, we address how the primary tumor microenvironment influences PCa metastasis via integrins, extracellular proteases, and transient epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote PCa progression, invasion, and metastasis. We discuss how the bone-microenvironment influences metastasis; where chemotactic cytokines favor bone homing, adhesion molecules promote colonization, and bone-derived signals induce osteoblastic lesions. Animal models that fully recapitulate human PCa progression from primary tumor to bone metastasis are needed to understand the PCa pathophysiology that leads to bone metastasis. Better delineation of the specific processes involved in PCa bone metastasize is needed to prevent or treat metastatic PCa. Therapeutic regimens that focus on the tumor microenvironment could add to the PCa pharmacopeia. PMID:25566502

  15. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta: a novel osteoclast stimulating factor secreted by renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Scott L; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Doucet, Michele; Brady, Kelly; Weber, Kristy L

    2008-03-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) develop bone metastasis, which is characterized by extensive osteolysis leading to severe bone pain and pathologic fracture. Although the mechanism of RCC-induced osteolysis is unknown, studies of bone metastasis have shown that tumor-induced changes in bone remodeling are likely mediated by alterations in the bone microenvironment. Here, we report the discovery of a novel osteoclast stimulatory factor secreted by RCC bone metastasis (RBM). Through microarray analysis, we found expression of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 delta (MIP-1 delta), to be increased in RBM versus patient-matched primary RCC tissues and confirmed this finding by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MIP-1 delta expression in RBM tissues was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than in human bone marrow, suggesting a potential alteration of the bone microenvironment. The receptors for MIP-1 delta, CCR1 and CCR3, were expressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature, bone-resorbing osteoclasts as shown by qRT-PCR and Western analysis. In functional studies, MIP-1 delta stimulated chemotaxis of two osteoclast precursor cell types: murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) and RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, MIP-1 delta treatment of murine calvaria caused increased bone resorption as determined by measurement of released calcium. Correspondingly, MIP-1 delta significantly enhanced osteoclast formation and activity in response to RANKL in both BM-MNC and RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that MIP-1 delta expression is increased in RBM relative to RCC and bone marrow, and may promote RBM-induced osteolysis by stimulating the recruitment and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of HGF/Met receptor axis is critical for the outgrowth of bone metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bendinelli, Paola; Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2017-02-02

    Our translational research deals with the influence of microenvironment on the phenotype and colonization of bone metastases from breast carcinoma, and on pre-metastatic niche formation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the origin of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), ligand of Met receptor, the control of the axis HGF/Met by DNA methylation, and its importance for the nexus supportive cells-metastatic cells and for metastasis outgrowth. In bone metastasis of the 1833-xenograft model, DNA methyltransferase blockade using the chemotherapic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) strongly reduced the expression of HGF/Met receptor axis and of E-cadherin, with decrease of metastasis wideness and osteolysis, prolonging mice survival. Thus, DNA methylation events acted as commanders of breast carcinoma cells metastatizing to bone influencing the epithelial phenotype. HGF emerged as a bone-marrow stimulus, and the exosomes seemed to furnish HGF to metastatic cells. In fact, decitabine treatment similarly affected some markers of these microvesicles and HGF, indicating that its supply to recipient cells was prevented. Notably, in bone metastasis the hypomethylation of HGF, Met and E-cadherin promoters did not appear responsible for their elevated expression, but we suggest the involvement of hypermethylated regulators and of Wwox oncosuppressor, the latter being affected by decitabine. Wwox expression increased under decitabine strongly localizing in nuclei of bone metastases. We hypothesize a role of Wwox in Met activity since in vitro Wwox overexpression downregulated the level of nuclear-Met protein fragment and Met stability, also under long exposure of 1833 cells to decitabine. HGF enhanced phosphoMet and the activity in nuclei, an effect partially prevented by decitabine. Altogether, the data indicated the importance to target the tumor microenvironment by blocking epigenetic mechanisms, which control critical events for colonization such as HGF/Met axis

  17. Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Interleukin-6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    LHRH agonist on the bone marrow environment. Another strategy of reducing androgen levels is by the downregulation of GnRH receptors in the...Interleukin-6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Beatrice S. Knudsen, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Growth Factor and Interleukin-6 in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0159 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  18. Bone Metastasis of Prostate Cancer Can Be Therapeutically Targeted at the TBX2-WNT Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Nandana, Srinivas; Tripathi, Manisha; Duan, Peng; Chu, Chia-Yi; Mishra, Rajeev; Liu, Chunyan; Jin, Renjie; Yamashita, Hironobu; Zayzafoon, Majd; Bhowmick, Neil A; Zhau, Haiyen E; Matusik, Robert J; Chung, Leland W K

    2017-03-15

    Identification of factors that mediate visceral and bone metastatic spread and subsequent bone remodeling events is highly relevant to successful therapeutic intervention in advanced human prostate cancer. TBX2, a T-box family transcription factor that negatively regulates cell-cycle inhibitor p21, plays critical roles during embryonic development, and recent studies have highlighted its role in cancer. Here, we report that TBX2 is overexpressed in human prostate cancer specimens and bone metastases from xenograft mouse models of human prostate cancer. Blocking endogenous TBX2 expression in PC3 and ARCaPM prostate cancer cell models using a dominant-negative construct resulted in decreased tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion in vitro Blocking endogenous TBX2 in human prostate cancer mouse xenografts decreased invasion and abrogation of bone and soft tissue metastasis. Furthermore, blocking endogenous TBX2 in prostate cancer cells dramatically reduced bone-colonizing capability through reduced tumor cell growth and bone remodeling in an intratibial mouse model. TBX2 acted in trans by promoting transcription of the canonical WNT (WNT3A) promoter. Genetically rescuing WNT3A levels in prostate cancer cells with endogenously blocked TBX2 partially restored the TBX2-induced prostate cancer metastatic capability in mice. Conversely, WNT3A-neutralizing antibodies or WNT antagonist SFRP-2 blocked TBX2-induced invasion. Our findings highlight TBX2 as a novel therapeutic target upstream of WNT3A, where WNT3A antagonists could be novel agents for the treatment of metastasis and for skeletal complications in prostate cancer patients. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1331-44. ©2017 AACR.

  19. Analysis of clinicopathological factors associated with bone metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhu, Shu; Xie, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Shan-feng; Tong, Liang-qian; Zhou, Sheng; Zhao, Ming; Xianyu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Xiong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women today. Once breast cancer metastasizes to bone, mortality increases. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify patients with high risk of bone metastasis, and to find predictive factors for the occurrence of bone metastasis at an earlier stage of breast cancer. Three hundred and sixty patients with pathologically proved breast cancer visiting the Department of Nuclear Medicine for whole body bone scan from January 2006 and January 2009 were investigated in this study. Clinicopathological information was obtained, which consisted of age, menopausal status, clinical staging, lymph node stage, histological grade, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Correlation between bone metastasis and the associated factors was tested by using the Chi-square test. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the factors which independently contributed to survival after bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Survival curves were drawn for metastasis-free interval and the independent factors which contributed to survival, using the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-four patients were excluded from subsequent analysis. Three hundred and thirty-six enrolled patients ranged in age from 22 to 77 years (mean, 47.8 years). ER/PR status [ER(+) vs. ER(-), χ (2)=4.328, P=0.037; ER(+)PR(+) vs. ER(+)PR(-), χ (2)=4.425, P=0.035] and histological grade (χ (2)=7.131, P=0.028) were significantly associated with bone metastasis. ER status (x (2)=8.315, P=0.004) and metastasis-free interval (χ (2)=6.863, P=0.009) were independent prognostic factors for survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. Our study suggested that ER/PR status and histological grade are risk factors for the development of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. However, ER status and metastasis-free interval are independent prognostic factors for survival in

  20. Effect of Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans) on the progression of prostate cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, S-M; Som, A; Tu, B; Logothetis, C J; Lee, M-H; Yeung, S-CJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with prostate cancer tend to die from bone metastases. Until now, no evidence has shown that Paget's disease of bone (PDB) affects the progression of bone metastasis or overall survival of patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched our patient database for men who had presented with prostate cancer and PDB between June 1993 and March 2009, and identified best-matched control patients according to stage, grade, age, date of diagnosis, treatment, and race. Results: Among 1346 consecutive patients with prostate cancer diagnosed before 2008, 15 were confirmed to have comorbid PDB. Twenty-six more were identified from the institutional billing search. Including the 41 best-matched controls, our total study population was 82 patients. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, we estimated median times from diagnosis of prostate cancer to bone metastasis to be 21.5 years for those with PDB and 9.4 years for those without PDB (P=0.044). Median overall survival times were 11.8 and 9.2 years for the two groups, respectively (P=0.008). Conclusion: For the first time, we have obtained evidence that patients with prostate cancer and PDB have delayed time to bone metastases and improved overall survival than do patients with prostate cancer alone. PMID:22805323

  1. Genomic copy number imbalances associated with bone and non-bone metastasis of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Renke; Baumbusch, Lars O; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa M; Do, Kim-Anh; Sahin, Aysegul; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Taube, Joseph H; Mani, Sendurai A; Aarøe, Jørgen; Wärnberg, Fredrik; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B; Thompson, Patricia A; Bondy, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3-22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2-3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios. For bone metastasis, the hazard (95 % confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11-0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74-5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17-0.66) and 2.33 (1.59-3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk.

  2. Genomic Copy Number Imbalances Associated with Bone and Non-bone Metastasis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Renke; Baumbusch, Lars O.; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Do, Kim-Anh; Sahin, Aysegul; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Taube, Joseph H.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Aarøe, Jørgen; Wärnberg, Fredrik; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Patients and Methods Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3–22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2–3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios (HRs). For bone metastasis, the hazard (95% confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11–0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74–5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17–0.66) and 2.33 (1.59–3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Conclusions Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk. PMID:24305980

  3. Wnt signaling pathway: implications for therapy in lung cancer and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yongming; Chen, Yan

    2014-10-10

    Lung cancer remains a major worldwide health problem and patients have high rate of metastasis including bone. Although pathologic characteristics of this disease are clear and well established, much remains to be understood about this tumor, particularly at the molecular signaling level. Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been widely investigated and found to play a prominent role to induce human malignant diseases, such as breast and prostate cancer. A variety of studies have also demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is closely associated with bone malignancies including osteosarcoma, multiple myeloma, and breast or prostate cancer induced bone metastasis. The aim of this review is to provide a summary regarding the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in lung cancer and bone metastasis, highlighting the aberrant activation of Wnt in this malignancy. We also discuss the potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of lung cancer and cancer induced bone metastasis targeting the Wnt pathway.

  4. [Analysis of risk factors for bone metastasis after radical resection of colorectal cancer within 5 years].

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Tan, Zhen; Fu, Chuangang; Wang, Hao; Yuan, Jie

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the risk factors of metachronous bone metastasis after radical resection of colorectal cancer within 5 years. Clinical data of 1 749 patients with colorectal cancer, of whom 50(2.8%) patients developed metastasis to bone after operation, in the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital of The Second Military Medical University from January 2001 to December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to find the risk factors of metachronous bone metastasis from colorectal cancer using Chi square test and Logistic regression, respectively. Of 50 colorectal cancer cases with bone metastasis, 29 were male and 21 were female. The age was ≥ 60 years old in 28 cases. Tumors of 36 cases were located in the rectum and of 14 cases located in the colon. Pathology examination showed 43 cases were adenocarcinomas, 7 cases were mucinous adenocarcinoma. Forty-two cases had T3-4 stage lesions, 30 cases had lymph node metastasis, 14 cases had pulmonary metastasis, and 5 cases had liver metastasis. Univariate Chi square test indicated that factors associated with the metachronous bone metastasis of colorectal cancer within 5 years were tumor site (χ(2)=4.932, P=0.026), preoperative carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) level (χ(2)=4.266, P=0.039), lymph node metastasis (χ(2)=13.054, P=0.000) and pulmonary metastasis(χ(2)=35.524, P=0.000). The incidence of bone metastasis in patients with rectal cancer (3.6%, 36/991) was higher compared to those with colon cancer (1.8%, 14/758). The incidence of bone metastasis in patients with higher(> 37 kU/L) preoperative serum CA199 level (4.9%, 12/245) was higher compared to those with lower serum CA199 level (2.5%, 38/1504). The incidence of bone metastasis in patients with lymph node metastasis(4.8%,30/627) and pulmonary metastasis (11.6%, 14/121) was significantly higher compared to those without lymph node metastasis (1.8%, 20/1122) and pulmonary metastasis(2.2%, 36

  5. Long-term follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Tah; Hsueh, Chuen; Li, Chia-Lin; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis in various clinical presentations and to determine the prognostic factors after multimodality treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed of 3,120 patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Of these patients, 131 (including 97 women, 71.8%) were diagnosed with bone metastasis and underwent follow-up at the Chang Gung Medical Center. Patients with bone metastasis were categorized into two groups. Group A was comprised of patients who were diagnosed with bone metastasis either before thyroidectomy or within 6 months of the initial thyroidectomy (90 patients, 68.7%). Group B was comprised of patients with bone metastasis who received a diagnosis 6 months post-thyroidectomy in the follow-up period (41 patients, 31.3%). After a mean follow-up period of 8.4 ± 7.0 years, there were 88 deaths (67.2%) attributed to thyroid cancer and 13 patients (9.9%) achieved disease-free status. A multivariate analysis showed that older age, early diagnosis, and brain metastasis were each associated with a poor prognosis. The difference in disease-specific mortality rates between groups A and B was significant (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers with bone metastasis have a high rate of mortality. Despite this high mortality, 9.9% patients still had an excellent response to treatment. PMID:28278295

  6. CT-diagnosed severe skull base bone destruction predicts distant bone metastasis in early N-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xian; Tang, Jiao; Jiang, Chang-Bin; Hu, Jing-Ye; Tu, Zi-Wei; Wang, Hui; Niu, Dao-Li; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis is the most frequent type of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the correlation between the skull base bone destruction and the distant bone metastasis in patients with NPC. A total of 449 cases with NPC who were diagnosed and had definitive radiotherapy from 2001 to 2006 were enrolled in this study. The skull base bone destruction was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) in all cases, and 191 patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan. Kaplan–Meier method was adopted to perform the univariate analysis; Cox regression model was used to perform multivariate analysis to determine whether the skull base bone destruction when diagnosed by CT was an independent impact factor of the distant bone metastases. The group with skull base bone destruction had a distant bone metastases rate of 9.0% (14/155), whereas the group without skull base bone destruction had rate of 4.1% (12/294). The multivariate analysis showed that the skull base bone destruction, when diagnosed by CT, was an independent impact factor of the distant bone metastases-free survival in the early N-staging cases, but was not an independent impact factor when diagnosed by MRI. The skull base bone destruction diagnosed by CT in patients with NPC had predictive value for the distant bone metastases, especially for the early N-staging cases. PMID:27895493

  7. Acidosis Promotes Metastasis Formation by Enhancing Tumor Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Riemann, A; Schneider, B; Gündel, D; Stock, C; Gekle, M; Thews, O

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by hypoxia, acidosis as well as other metabolic and biochemical alterations. Its role in cancer progression is increasingly appreciated especially on invasive capacity and the formation of metastasis. The effect of acidosis on metastasis formation of two rat carcinoma cell lines was studied in the animal model. In order to analyze the pH dependency of different steps of metastasis formation, invasiveness, cell adhesion and migration of AT-1 prostate cancer cells as well as possible underlying cell signaling pathways were studied in vitro. Acidosis significantly increased the formation of lung metastases of both tumor cell lines in vivo. In vitro, extracellular acidosis neither enhanced invasiveness nor affected cell adhesion to a plastic or to an endothelial layer. However, cellular motility was markedly elevated at pH 6.6 and this effect was sustained even when extracellular pH was switched back to pH 7.4. When analyzing the underlying mechanism, a prominent role of ROS in the induction of migration was observed. Signaling through the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38 as well as Src family kinases was not involved. Thus, cancer cells in an acidic microenvironment can acquire enhanced motility, which is sustained even if the tumor cells leave their acidic microenvironment e.g. by entering the blood stream. This increase depended on elevated ROS production and may contribute to the augmented formation of metastases of acidosis-primed tumor cells in vivo.

  8. RUNX2 promotes breast cancer bone metastasis by increasing integrin α5-mediated colonization.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Jun-Tao; Tan, Cong-Cong; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2016-09-28

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is regarded as an important contributor to breast cancer bone metastasis. However, previous studies did not provide direct clinical evidence for a role of RUNX2 in bone-specific metastasis in breast cancer, and the mechanism of RUNX2 in cancer cell recruitment and adhesion to the bone remains unclear. In this study, we showed that RUNX2 expression is positively correlated with the risk of bone-specific metastasis in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. Then, we identified ITGA5 as a transcriptional target of RUNX2 from multiple candidate genes encoding adhesion molecules or chemokine receptors. We further provided experimental and clinical evidence that RUNX2, in an integrin α5-dependent manner, promotes the attraction and adhesion of breast cancer cells to the bone and confers cancer cell survival and bone colonization advantages. Overall, our findings clarify an adhesion-dependent mechanism of RUNX2 for the osteotropism and bone colonization of breast cancer cells and implicate RUNX2 and integrin α5 as potential molecular markers for the prediction of bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Evaluation and classification of drug therapy for breast cancer with bone-only metastasis].

    PubMed

    Meng, X Y; Song, S T

    2017-03-23

    Skeleton is one of the most common metastatic organs for breast cancer, which has a better prognosis than visceral metastases. Bone-only metastasis was defined"non-measurable" in the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria, and was excluded by clinical trials. However, patients with bone-only metastasis are also in need of effective treatment to prolong survival. Endocrine therapy is the most important treatment for bone metastatic patients. Tumor response of bone metastases can be determined objectively by bone-window CT. Effective treatment should be continued if the symptoms are relieved or osteogenesis is observed. Osteoblastic change in bone-window CT is a sign of improvement after treatment. Endocrine therapy is proper for ER-positive patients. The patients with initial osteoblastic metastasis should not be treated with salvage chemotherapy or anti-HER2 treatment, only if osteolytic metastasis or visceral metastasis is observed. Bishosphonates are just auxiliary drugs in bone metastasis, which should not be abused.

  10. Transcriptional network analysis identifies BACH1 as a master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Wu, Heng; Lei, Rong; Chong, Robert A; Wei, Yong; Lu, Xin; Tagkopoulos, Ilias; Kung, Sun-Yuan; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Guohong; Kang, Yibin

    2012-09-28

    The application of functional genomic analysis of breast cancer metastasis has led to the identification of a growing number of organ-specific metastasis genes, which often function in concert to facilitate different steps of the metastatic cascade. However, the gene regulatory network that controls the expression of these metastasis genes remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a computational approach for the deconvolution of transcriptional networks to discover master regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis. Several known regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis such as Smad4 and HIF1 were identified in our analysis. Experimental validation of the networks revealed BACH1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, as the common regulator of several functional metastasis genes, including MMP1 and CXCR4. Ectopic expression of BACH1 enhanced the malignance of breast cancer cells, and conversely, BACH1 knockdown significantly reduced bone metastasis. The expression of BACH1 and its target genes was linked to the higher risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients. This study established BACH1 as the master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis and provided a paradigm to identify molecular determinants in complex pathological processes.

  11. A mathematical model for describing the metastasis of cancer in bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the rapid proliferation of cancer cells (secondary tumour) at a specific place, generally leading to death. This occurs at anatomical parts providing the necessary environment for vascularity, oxygen and food to hide their actions and trigger the rapid growth of cancer. Prostate and breast cancers, for example, use bone marrow for their proliferation. Bone-supporting cancer cells thus adapt to the environment, mimicking the behaviour of genetic and molecular bone cells. Evidence of this has been given in Cecchini et al. (2005, EAU Update Ser. 3:214-226), providing arguments such as how cancer cell growth is so active during bone reabsorption. This paper simulates metastasis activation in bone marrow. A mathematical model has been developed involving the activation of molecules from bone tissue cells, which are necessary for cancer to proliferate. Here, we simulate two forms of secondary tumour growth depending on the type of metastasis: osteosclerosis and osteolysis.

  12. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients) were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year), medium risk (1-3%), and low risk (<1%). Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436). Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T), nodal grade (pN), and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I <1% per person-year, and those with stages II were between 1 and 3%. Further analysis with histology in stage II patients showed that stage IIB with high risk histology also had a high incidence (3% person year), whereas stage IIA with medium risk histology were <1%. Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups. PMID:20646320

  13. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30-40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  14. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  15. Skeletal Metastasis From Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder: Need for Bone Scintigraphy Justified?

    PubMed

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the gall bladder has a guarded prognosis with predominant sites of involvement being liver and regional nodes. Osseous metastasis in carcinoma of the gall bladder is rare and hence bone scintigraphy does not form a part of the routine work-up for such patients. We describe two patients with carcinoma of the gall bladder with osteolytic metastasis (stage 4). Conservative treatment was planned but both of them succumbed to the illness. We thus highlight the importance of performing a bone scan or PET CT in cases of carcinoma of the gall bladder. Besides, our cases challenge Paget's seed - soil theory for sites of metastasis.

  16. Latent bone metastasis in breast cancer tied to Src-dependent survival signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang H-F; Wang, Qiongqing; Gerald, William; Hudis, Clifford A; Norton, Larry; Smid, Marcel; Foekens, John A; Massagué, Joan

    2009-07-07

    Metastasis may arise years after removal of a primary tumor. The mechanisms allowing latent disseminated cancer cells to survive are unknown. We report that a gene expression signature of Src activation is associated with late-onset bone metastasis in breast cancer. This link is independent of hormone receptor status or breast cancer subtype. In breast cancer cells, Src is dispensable for homing to the bones or lungs but is critical for the survival and outgrowth of these cells in the bone marrow. Src mediates AKT regulation and cancer cell survival responses to CXCL12 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), factors that are distinctively expressed in the bone metastasis microenvironment. Breast cancer cells that lodge in the bone marrow succumb in this environment when deprived of Src activity.

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging findings of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Arda; Yang, Cheng; Soylu, Fatma Nur; Lakadamyalı, Hatice; Sethi, Ila; Karczmar, Gregory; Stadler, Walter; Oto, Aytekin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) findings of bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients. METHODS: Sixteen men with a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer to bones were examined with DCE-MRI at 1.5 Tesla. The mean contrast agent concentration vs time curves for bone metastasis and normal bone were calculated and Ktrans and ve values were estimated and compared. RESULTS: An early significant enhancement (wash-out: n = 6, plateau: n = 8 and persistent: n = 2) was detected in all bone metastases (n = 16). Bone metastasis from prostate cancer showed significant enhancement and high Ktrans and ve values compared to normal bone which does not enhance in the elderly population. The mean Ktrans was 0.101/min and 0.0051/min (P < 0.001), the mean ve was 0.141 and 0.0038 (P < 0.001), for bone metastases and normal bone, respectively. CONCLUSION: DCE-MRI and its quantitative perfusion parameters may have a role in improving the detection of skeletal metastasis in prostate cancer patients. PMID:22229077

  18. Zoledronic acid at the time of castration prevented castration-induced bone metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Paramita M; Gao, Allen C

    2014-10-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is known to cause bone loss in a majority of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A study published in this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer by Ottewell and colleagues shows that ADT increased bone resorption and triggered growth of disseminated prostate cancer (CaP) cells to form bone metastasis using an in vivo model. However, prevention of bone decay by weekly administration of zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the time of castration prevented ADT-induced tumor growth in bone. Recently, two publications from Japan have demonstrated that ZOL combined with ADT improved outcomes for patients with treatment-naïve CaP with bone metastasis. The mechanistic cause for these patients having an improved overall survival compared with those who were treated with ZOL after ADT initiation or before metastasis development was never explained. Ottewell and colleague's study now suggests that it is the bone loss caused by ADT that promoted bone metastasis, and if ZOL is administered at the time of ADT initiation, it would prevent this bone loss and prolong skeletal-related event-free survival.

  19. Inhibition of RANKL blocks skeletal tumor progression and improves survival in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Canon, Jude R; Roudier, Martine; Bryant, Rebecca; Morony, Sean; Stolina, Marina; Kostenuik, Paul J; Dougall, William C

    2008-01-01

    Bone metastases cause severe skeletal morbidity including fractures and hypercalcemia. Tumor cells in bone induce activation of osteoclasts, which mediate bone resorption and release of growth factors from bone matrix, resulting in a "vicious cycle" of bone breakdown and tumor proliferation. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is an essential mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival, and is blocked by a soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). In human malignancies that metastasize to bone, dysregulation of the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway can increase the RANKL:OPG ratio, a condition which favors excessive osteolysis. In a mouse model of bone metastasis, RANKL protein levels in MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) tumor-bearing bones were significantly higher than tumor-free bones. The resulting tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis was dose-dependently inhibited by recombinant OPG-Fc treatment, supporting the essential role for RANKL in this process. Using bioluminescence imaging in a mouse model of metastasis, we monitored the anti-tumor efficacy of RANKL inhibition on MDA-231 human breast cancer cells in a temporal manner. Treatment with OPG-Fc in vivo inhibited growth of MDA-231 tumor cells in bony sites when given both as a preventative (dosed day 0) and as a therapeutic agent for established bone metastases (dosed day 7). One mechanism by which RANKL inhibition reduced tumor burden appears to be indirect through inhibition of the "vicious cycle" and involved an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, as measured by active caspase-3. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that OPG-Fc treatment of mice with established bone metastases resulted in an overall improvement in survival.

  20. A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known metastatic disease, gene expression profiling data were generated and correlated to metastatic behaviour including site-specific metastasis, metastasis pattern and survival outcomes. We analysed gene expression signatures specifically associated with the development of bone metastases. As a validation cohort, we used a published dataset of 376 breast carcinomas for which gene expression data and site-specific metastasis information were available. 80.5 % of luminal-type tumours developed bone metastasis as opposed to 41.7 % of basal and 55.6 % of HER2-like tumours. A novel 15-gene signature identified 82.4 % of the tumours with bone metastasis, 85.2 % of the tumours which had bone metastasis as first site of metastasis and 100 % of the ones with bone metastasis only (p 9.99e-09), in the training set. In the independent dataset, 81.2 % of the positive tested tumours had known metastatic disease to the bone (p 4.28e-10). This 15-gene signature showed much better correlation with the development of bone metastases than previously identified signatures and was predictive in both ER-positive as well as in ER-negative tumours. Multivariate analyses revealed that together with the molecular subtype, our 15-gene expression signature was significantly correlated to bone metastasis status (p <0.001, 95 % CI 3.86-48.02 in the training set; p 0.001, 95 % CI 1.54-5.00 in the independent set). The 15 genes, APOPEC3B, ATL2, BBS1, C6orf61, C6orf167, MMS22L, KCNS1, MFAP3L, NIP7, NUP155, PALM2, PH-4, PGD5, SFT2D2 and STEAP3, encoded mainly membrane-bound molecules with molecular function of protein binding. The expression levels of the up-regulated genes (NAT1, BBS1 and PH-4) were

  1. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  2. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Núñez, A.; Pérez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-01

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  3. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Wnt signal and excessive bone formation].

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Takayuki

    2010-10-01

    Wnt signal has been known to play various roles in many organ from the beginning of embryogensis. Its role in bone metabolism has also been investigated and established. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is one of the important molecules in wnt signal pathway whose point mutations are related to both bone loss and excessive bone formation. Wnt signal is involved in the action of sclerostin which was found as a gene for osteosclerosis, one of the diseases of excessive bone formation. Wnt signal is keeping the position as an important research target for normal and pathological bone formation.

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 promotes tumor formation and lung metastasis in an intratibial injection osteosarcoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Knut; Arlt, Matthias J E; Muff, Roman; Langsam, Bettina; Bertz, Josefine; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important process during tumor invasion. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) is one of the proteases that degrade collagen type I, a major component of bone ECM. In the present study, the biological relevance of MMP-1 in osteosarcoma (OS) tumor growth and metastasis was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human OS cells in primary culture expressed MMP-1 encoding mRNA at considerably higher levels than normal human bone cells. In addition, MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression in the highly metastatic human osteosarcoma 143-B cell line was remarkably higher than in the non-metastatic parental HOS cell line. Stable shRNA-mediated downregulation of MMP-1 in 143-B cells impaired adhesion to collagen I and anchorage-independent growth, reflected by a reduced ability to grow in soft agar. Upon intratibial injection into SCID mice, 143-B cells with shRNA-downregulated MMP-1 expression formed smaller primary tumors and significantly lower numbers of lung micro- and macrometastases than control cells. Conversely, HOS cells stably overexpressing MMP-1 showed an enhanced adhesion capability to collagen I and accelerated anchorage-independent growth compared to empty vector-transduced control cells. Furthermore, and most importantly, individual MMP-1 overexpression in HOS cells enabled the formation of osteolytic primary tumors and lung metastasis while the HOS control cells did not develop any tumors or metastases after intratibial injection. The findings of the present study reveal an important role of MMP-1 in OS primary tumor and metastasis formation to the lung, the major organ of OS metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  6. Inhibition of bone formation during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

  7. Inhibition of bone formation during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

  8. Sox2 is dispensable for primary melanoma and metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S M; Segalada, C; Cheng, P F; Bonalli, M; Parfejevs, V; Levesque, M P; Dummer, R; Nicolis, S K; Sommer, L

    2017-04-03

    Tumor initiation and metastasis formation in many cancers have been associated with emergence of a gene expression program normally active in embryonic or organ-specific stem cells. In particular, the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is not only expressed in a variety of tumors, but is also required for their formation. Melanoma, the most aggressive skin tumor, derives from melanocytes that during development originate from neural crest stem cells. While neural crest stem cells do not express Sox2, expression of this transcription factor has been reported in melanoma. However, the role of Sox2 in melanoma is controversial. To study the requirement of Sox2 for melanoma formation, we therefore performed CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene inactivation in human melanoma cells. In addition, we conditionally inactivated Sox2 in a genetically engineered mouse model, in which melanoma spontaneously develops in the context of an intact stroma and immune system. Surprisingly, in both models, loss of Sox2 did neither affect melanoma initiation, nor growth, nor metastasis formation. The lack of a tumorigenic role of Sox2 in melanoma might reflect a distinct stem cell program active in neural crest stem cells and during melanoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.55.

  9. A Transcriptome-proteome Integrated Network Identifies Endoplasmic Reticulum thiol oxidoreductase (ERp57) as a Hub that Mediates Bone Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Codina, Naiara; Carretero, Rafael; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Cabrera, Teresa; Guney, Emre; Oliva, Baldo; Clezardin, Philippe; Olarte, Omar E.; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Perales, Jose Carlos; Sierra, Angels

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastasis is the most common distant relapse in breast cancer. The identification of key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of new prognostic markers and therapeutic improvements. The aim of this study was to characterize functional phenotypes that favor bone metastasis in human breast cancer. We used the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its osteotropic BO2 subclone to identify crucial proteins in bone metastatic growth. We identified 31 proteins, 15 underexpressed and 16 overexpressed, in BO2 cells compared with parental cells. We employed a network-modeling approach in which these 31 candidate proteins were prioritized with respect to their potential in metastasis formation, based on the topology of the protein-protein interaction network and differential expression. The protein-protein interaction network provided a framework to study the functional relationships between biological molecules by attributing functions to genes whose functions had not been characterized. The combination of expression profiles and protein interactions revealed an endoplasmic reticulum-thiol oxidoreductase, ERp57, functioning as a hub that retained four down-regulated nodes involved in antigen presentation associated with the human major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, including HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-E, and HLA-F. Further analysis of the interaction network revealed an inverse correlation between ERp57 and vimentin, which influences cytoskeleton reorganization. Moreover, knockdown of ERp57 in BO2 cells confirmed its bone organ-specific prometastatic role. Altogether, ERp57 appears as a multifunctional chaperone that can regulate diverse biological processes to maintain the homeostasis of breast cancer cells and promote the development of bone metastasis. PMID:23625662

  10. Role of Adrenomedullin in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis and Chemoresistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    cell and the bone microenvironment (Siclari et al, 2006). Once the tumor cell has entered bone, the tumor cell secretes factors that act on bone... neomycin resistance gene expression. Decreasing AM promotes bone metastases by osteolytic breast cancer cells. Its role in breast cancer is different than...within bone that contribute to the incurability of the disease. Once breast cancer cells enter bone, a ‘vicious cycle’ develops between breast cancer

  11. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Gastric Cancer: Final Results of a Multicenter Bone Metastasis Survey

    PubMed Central

    Silvestris, Nicola; Pantano, Francesco; Ibrahim, Toni; Gamucci, Teresa; De Vita, Fernando; Di Palma, Teresa; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Barni, Sandro; Bernardo, Antonio; Febbraro, Antonio; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Bertocchi, Paola; Catalano, Vincenzo; Giommoni, Elisa; Comandone, Alessandro; Maiello, Evaristo; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Ferrara, Raimondo; Trogu, Antonio; Berardi, Rossana; Leo, Silvana; Bertolini, Alessandro; Angelini, Francesco; Cinieri, Saverio; Russo, Antonio; Pisconti, Salvatore; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Azzariti, Amalia; Santini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced gastric cancer (GC) as disease-related survival improves. In literature, few data on the natural history of bone disease in GC are available. Patients and Methods Data on clinicopathology, skeletal outcomes, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 208 deceased GC patients with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results Median time to bone metastasis was 8 months (CI 95%, 6.125–9.875 months) considering all included patients. Median number of SREs/patient was one. Less than half of the patients (31%) experienced at least one and only 4 and 2% experienced at least two and three events, respectively. Median times to first and second SRE were 2 and 4 months, respectively. Median survival was 6 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 3 months after first SRE. Median survival in patients who did not experience SREs was 5 months. Among patients who received zoledronic acid before the first SRE, the median time to appearance of first SRE was significantly prolonged compared to control (7 months vs 4 months for control; P: 0.0005). Conclusions To our knowledge, this retrospective analysis is the largest multicenter study to demonstrate that bone metastases from GC are not so rare, are commonly aggressive and result in relatively early onset of SREs in the majority of patients. Indeed, our large study, which included 90 patients treated with ZOL, showed, for the first time in literature, a significant extension of time to first SRE and increase in the median survival time after diagnosis of bone metastasis. Taken together, these data may support the beneficial effects of ZOL in GC patients. PMID:24204569

  12. Risk of metastasis among rib abnormalities on bone scans in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yansheng; Li, Xiuqing; Pan, Hong; Xia, Tiansong; Chen, Lin; Xu, Zhaoqiang; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Xiaoan

    2015-01-01

    Bone scan abnormalities, especially rib lesions, are often confusing for physicians due to a high number of false-positive lesions. This study investigated risk factors that are associated with bone metastasis in 613 breast cancer patients with bone scan abnormalities. Significantly increased rates of bone metastasis were observed in patients with multiple lesions, large tumor sizes, and lymph node involvement. In addition, patients with concurrent lesions of rib and other sites exhibited a significant higher rate of metastatic disease compared to those with other site lesions (P = 0.009). In the subset of 324 patients with rib abnormalities, the rate of metastasis was extremely low in patients with pure rib lesions (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.1%–4.1%). Concurrent lesions of rib and other sites were more likely to be rib metastasis compared to pure rib lesions (P < 0.001). Moreover, multiple rib lesions and lesions located on bilateral ribs were more likely to be rib metastasis (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that patients with pure rib abnormalities could be recommended for follow-up only. However, if concurrent lesions of rib and other sites were detected on bone scans, additional radiological examinations should be performed to patients. PMID:25939860

  13. Expression of Cadherin-17 Promotes Metastasis in a Highly Bone Marrow Metastatic Murine Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2017-01-01

    We previously established 4T1E/M3 highly bone marrow metastatic mouse breast cancer cells through in vivo selection of 4T1 cells. But while the incidence of bone marrow metastasis of 4T1E/M3 cells was high (~80%) when injected intravenously to mice, it was rather low (~20%) when injected subcutaneously. Therefore, using 4T1E/M3 cells, we carried out further in vitro and in vivo selection steps to establish FP10SC2 cells, which show a very high incidence of metastasis to lungs (100%) and spines (85%) after subcutaneous injection into mice. qRT-PCR and western bolt analysis revealed that cadherin-17 gene and protein expression were higher in FP10SC2 cells than in parental 4T1E/M3 cells. In addition, immunostaining revealed the presence of cadherin-17 at sites of bone marrow and lung metastasis after subcutaneous injection of FP10SC2 cells into mice. Suppressing cadherin-17 expression in FP10SC2 cells using RNAi dramatically decreased the cells' anchorage-independent growth and migration in vitro and their metastasis to lung and bone marrow in vivo. These findings suggest that cadherin-17 plays a crucial role in mediating breast cancer metastasis to bone marrow. PMID:28197418

  14. Preventive Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Bone Metastasis in Mice Injected with Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Joon; Lee, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Oh, Young Ju

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are used routinely to reduce bone-related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. We evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid, a third generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, to prevent bone metastasis in breast cancer. Zoledronic acid or vehicle alone was administered to nude mice either simultaneously or after intracardiac injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Nude mice treated with zoledronic acid at early time points showed a lower incidence of bone metastases than did vehicle-treated nude mice, but these differences were not statistically significant. Only 37.5% of mice treated with zoledronic acid at the time of tumor cell inoculation developed bone metastases compared to over 51.8% of mice receiving vehicle alone (P = 0.304). Cell count of apoptosis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in metastatic bone tissue significantly increased in the zoledronic acid-treated groups compared to non-treated group (1,018.3 vs 282.0; P = 0.046). However, metastatic tumor cells, which invade soft tissue around the bone, did not show extensive apoptosis; there were no differences between the zoledronic acid-treated and control groups. These results suggest that zoledronic acid increases apoptosis of metastatic breast tumor cells in the bone and could therefore reduce metastatic tumor burden. These results support the use of zoledronic acid to reduce the incidence of bone metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:22147993

  15. Alterations of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment Contribute to Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. For example, most of the so-called tumorigenic molecules (such as vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix...clinical benefits of anti-platelet agents (such as aspirin and heparin) in cancer patients [56]. Macrophages Promote Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Bone...mechanisms of recruitment, activation and function of TAMs (M2 macrophages). In particular, most prominent molecules produced by tumors to affect TAMs

  16. The incidence of bone metastasis after early-stage breast cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Liede, Alexander; Jerzak, Katarzyna J; Hernandez, Rohini K; Wade, Sally W; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Current information on the incidence and prevalence of bone metastases in women with breast cancer is scarce. This study examined the occurrence and predictors of bone metastases, as well as post-metastasis survival in a prospective cohort of Canadian women with breast cancer. We included women treated for early-stage (stage I, II, or III) breast cancer at the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre (HBBC) in Toronto, Canada between 1987 and 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records and pathology reports in the HBBC database; follow-up extended to end of data availability or August 31, 2015. Actuarial survival analyses provided cumulative incidence of bone metastases at 5, 10, and 15 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves describe breast cancer mortality. Regression models assessed patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics as predictors of bone metastases with all-cause mortality as a competing risk. Among 2097 women studied, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year probability of bone metastasis was 6.5, 10.3, and 11.3 % for the first recurrence, and 8.4, 12.5, and 13.6 % for any bone recurrence. At median follow-up (12.5 years), 13.2 % of patients had bone metastases. Median survival was 1.6 years following bone metastasis, and shorter if both bone and visceral metastases occurred. Advanced age and adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen were protective against bone metastasis. In this representative cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, with long follow-up, the incidence of bone metastases was consistent with longitudinal studies from the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the US.

  17. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Methods Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. Results The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Conclusions Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis. PMID:24576174

  18. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Joeckel, Elke; Haber, Tobias; Prawitt, Dirk; Junker, Kerstin; Hampel, Christian; Thüroff, Joachim W; Roos, Frederik C; Brenner, Walburgis

    2014-02-28

    The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis.

  19. ANGPTL2 increases bone metastasis of breast cancer cells through enhancing CXCR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tetsuro; Endo, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Odagiri, Haruki; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Tanoue, Hironori; Ito, Hitoshi; Yugami, Masaki; Miyata, Keishi; Morinaga, Jun; Horiguchi, Haruki; Motokawa, Ikuyo; Terada, Kazutoyo; Morioka, Masaki Suimye; Manabe, Ichiro; Iwase, Hirotaka; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Oike, Yuichi

    2015-03-16

    Bone metastasis of breast cancer cells is a major concern, as it causes increased morbidity and mortality in patients. Bone tissue-derived CXCL12 preferentially recruits breast cancer cells expressing CXCR4 to bone metastatic sites. Thus, understanding how CXCR4 expression is regulated in breast cancer cells could suggest approaches to decrease bone metastasis of breast tumor cells. Here, we show that tumor cell-derived angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) increases responsiveness of breast cancer cells to CXCL12 by promoting up-regulation of CXCR4 in those cells. In addition, we used a xenograft mouse model established by intracardiac injection of tumor cells to show that ANGPTL2 knockdown in breast cancer cells attenuates tumor cell responsiveness to CXCL12 by decreasing CXCR4 expression in those cells, thereby decreasing bone metastasis. Finally, we found that ANGPTL2 and CXCR4 expression levels within primary tumor tissues from breast cancer patients are positively correlated. We conclude that tumor cell-derived ANGPTL2 may increase bone metastasis by enhancing breast tumor cell responsiveness to CXCL12 signaling through up-regulation of tumor cell CXCR4 expression. These findings may suggest novel therapeutic approaches to treat metastatic breast cancer.

  20. Bone metastasis in breast cancer is treated by high-dose tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, George P; Trafalis, Dimitrios; Kaparelou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases in breast cancer are quite common, and some patients may have no other site of metastasis. An effective treatment is often endocrine agents administration (tamoxifen or antiaromatases), given mainly to postmenopausal women. Radiation treatment is also effective, although difficult to perform in cases of extensive skeletal disease. Chemotherapy does not help. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of high-dose tamoxifen in female patients with breast cancer and bone metastasis. 28 patients with breast cancer were treated with high-dose tamoxifen. All of them had been pretreated with hormonal therapy including low-dose tamoxifen. The results were extremely positive with clinical amelioration and also disappearance of osteolysis in some patients. Twenty six out of 28 patients responded to the treatment, the criteria being mainly pain reduction and body mobilization (an amelioration which lasted 8 months-4 years). Tamoxifen is efficient when readministered at high dose to breast cancer patient with bone metastasis.

  1. ERBB3 is required for metastasis formation of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, S; Preziosi, M; Rothberg, P G; Zeitouni, N; Corson, N; Xu, L

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is curable when it is at an early phase but is lethal once it becomes metastatic. The recent development of BRAFV600E inhibitors (BIs) showed great promise in treating metastatic melanoma, but resistance developed quickly in the treated patients, and these inhibitors are not effective on melanomas that express wild-type BRAF. Alternative therapeutic strategies for metastatic melanoma are urgently needed. Here we report that ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, is required for the formation of lung metastasis from both the BI-sensitive melanoma cell line, MA-2, and the BI-resistant melanoma cell line, 451Lu-R. Further analyses revealed that ERBB3 does not affect the initial seeding of melanoma cells in lung but is required for their further development into overt metastases, indicating that ERBB3 might be essential for the survival of melanoma cells after they reach the lung. Consistent with this, the ERBB3 ligand, NRG1, is highly expressed in mouse lungs and induces ERBB3-depdnent phosphorylation of AKT in both MA-2 and 451Lu-R cells in vitro. These findings suggest that ERBB3 may serve as a target for treating metastatic melanomas that are resistant to BIs. In support of this, administration of the pan-ERBB inhibitor, canertinib, significantly suppresses the metastasis formation of BI-resistant melanoma cell lines. PMID:25000258

  2. The role of internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture: an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammad; Terai, Hidetomi; Yamada, Kentaro; Suzuki, Akinobu; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    Patients with long bone metastasis have many therapeutic options, including surgery. However, the appropriate time for surgical intervention and the use of internal fixation prior to impending fracture remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to establish a long bone metastatic model with internal fixation, and to determine whether prophylactic internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture would affect bone destruction, tumor progression, and mortality. We implanted VX2 tumor cells into the tibiae of 45 rabbits divided equally into three groups: internal fixation, control, and sham groups. Rabbits were monitored by X-ray and computed tomography, and blood serum levels were examined every 2 weeks. Computed tomography data revealed significantly higher bone destruction in rabbit tibiae in the sham and control groups compared with those in the fixation group; there were volumetric bone losses of 0.2, 0.4, and 2.3% in the fixation, sham, and control groups, respectively, at 3 weeks, which increased to 1.2, 2.5, and 6.1% at 5 weeks. Rabbits in the fixation group showed significantly prolonged survival (64.5 ± 13.5 days) in comparison with rabbits in the sham group (50.3 ± 11.6 days) and control group (38.2 ± 4.9 days). Our results suggest that prophylactic internal fixation may hinder bone destruction and tumor progression, thus extending the survival period for patients with long bone metastasis.

  3. Relationship Between P15 Gene Mutation and Formation and Metastasis of Malignant Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, ChangShui; Wang, WenBo

    2016-02-27

    BACKGROUND As a type of primary malignant bone tumor, osteosarcoma has high incidence and poor prognosis, and is predisposed for pulmonary metastasis. The abnormal expression of P15 gene directly participates in the invasion of various cancers. Therefore, this study investigated the gene mutation of P15 in both primary lesion and pulmonary metastasis lesion of osteosarcoma in a rat model, in an attempt to elucidate the value of P15 gene as a biological marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Model rats had injection of osteosarcoma UMR-106 cells (5×106) inoculated underneath the right forelimb skin, while control rats received saline injection instead. Six rats were sacrificed after 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of the inoculation. Tissue samples from inoculation sites and lungs were extracted for measuring the tumor size. SP immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect the positive expression rate, while P15 gene mutation was detected by PCR method. RESULTS With the elongation of inoculation time, tumor size was significantly increased (p<0.05). The positive expression rates in both primary and pulmonary metastasis lesions were also significantly elevated (p<0.05). The occurrence rate of P15 gene mutation in model rats was significantly elevated and showed a correlation with the tumor formation (r=0.998, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The P15 gene mutation was significantly correlated with osteosarcoma formation and metastasis towards the pulmonary tissue, suggesting its potency as a novel biological marker for early diagnosis of osteosarcoma.

  4. Relationship Between P15 Gene Mutation and Formation and Metastasis of Malignant Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, ChangShui; Wang, WenBo

    2016-01-01

    Background As a type of primary malignant bone tumor, osteosarcoma has high incidence and poor prognosis, and is predisposed for pulmonary metastasis. The abnormal expression of P15 gene directly participates in the invasion of various cancers. Therefore, this study investigated the gene mutation of P15 in both primary lesion and pulmonary metastasis lesion of osteosarcoma in a rat model, in an attempt to elucidate the value of P15 gene as a biological marker. Material/Methods A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Model rats had injection of osteosarcoma UMR-106 cells (5×106) inoculated underneath the right forelimb skin, while control rats received saline injection instead. Six rats were sacrificed after 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of the inoculation. Tissue samples from inoculation sites and lungs were extracted for measuring the tumor size. SP immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect the positive expression rate, while P15 gene mutation was detected by PCR method. Results With the elongation of inoculation time, tumor size was significantly increased (p<0.05). The positive expression rates in both primary and pulmonary metastasis lesions were also significantly elevated (p<0.05). The occurrence rate of P15 gene mutation in model rats was significantly elevated and showed a correlation with the tumor formation (r=0.998, p<0.05). Conclusions The P15 gene mutation was significantly correlated with osteosarcoma formation and metastasis towards the pulmonary tissue, suggesting its potency as a novel biological marker for early diagnosis of osteosarcoma. PMID:26921270

  5. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  6. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  7. Study the Influence of Arthritis on Breast Cancer-Associated Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis (7). The preference of breast cancer cells to grow in the bone and lung is underscored by the fact that 65-75...of patients with advanced disease develop metastases in these organs. Yet, it is not known why and how breast cancer cells prefer to colonize...of breast cancer metastasis (7). The preference of   13 breast cancer cells to grow in the bone and lung is underscored by the fact that 65-75% of

  8. [A single metastasis in the carpal bones as the first clinical manifestation of a hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Corrales Pinzón, R; Alonso Sánchez, J M; de la Mano González, S; El Karzazi Tarazona, K

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Spreading outside the liver usually takes place in advanced stages of the disease, and bone is the third most common site of metastases. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in which the first clinical manifestation was a single metastasis to the carpal bones. The interest of this case lies in the way this hepatocellular carcinoma manifested as well as in the unusual site of the metastasis. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits human prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Toneri, Makoto; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Cameron; Yano, Shuya; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Bouvet, Michael; Nakanishi, Hayao; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2015-10-13

    Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer patients and often is lethal. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is often used for bone metastasis with limited efficacy. More effective models and treatment methods are required to improve the outcome of prostate cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R were analyzed in vitro and in vivo on prostate cancer cells and experimental bone metastasis. Both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells expressing red fluorescent protien in vitro. To investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis, we established models of both early and advanced stage bone metastasis. The mice were treated with ZOL, S. typhimurium A1-R, and combination therapy of both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R. ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of solitary bone metastases. S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly decreased bone metastasis and delayed the appearance of PC-3 bone metastases of multiple mouse models. Additionally, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly improved the overall survival of the mice with multiple bone metastases. The results of the present study indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit prostate cancer bone metastasis and has potential for future clinical use in the adjuvant setting.

  10. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits human prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Toneri, Makoto; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Cameron; Yano, Shuya; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Bouvet, Michael; Nakanishi, Hayao; Hoffman, Robert M.; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer patients and often is lethal. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is often used for bone metastasis with limited efficacy. More effective models and treatment methods are required to improve the outcome of prostate cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R were analyzed in vitro and in vivo on prostate cancer cells and experimental bone metastasis. Both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells expressing red fluorescent protien in vitro. To investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis, we established models of both early and advanced stage bone metastasis. The mice were treated with ZOL, S. typhimurium A1-R, and combination therapy of both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R. ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of solitary bone metastases. S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly decreased bone metastasis and delayed the appearance of PC-3 bone metastases of multiple mouse models. Additionally, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly improved the overall survival of the mice with multiple bone metastases. The results of the present study indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit prostate cancer bone metastasis and has potential for future clinical use in the adjuvant setting. PMID:26431498

  11. Identification of brain- and bone-specific breast cancer metastasis genes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andreas; Olendrowitz, Christian; Schmutzler, Rita; Hampl, Juergen; Schlag, Peter M; Maass, Nicolai; Arnold, Norbert; Wessel, Ralf; Ramser, Juliane; Meindl, Alfons; Scherneck, Siegfried; Seitz, Susanne

    2009-04-18

    In breast cancer, metastases are relatively widely distributed, with the most common sites being bone, regional lymph nodes, lung, liver, and brain. The detailed mechanism of organ-specific metastasis is poorly understood. In this study, we initiated a search for genes that are implicated in brain or bone metastasis of primary human breast cancer. We generated gene expression profiles of 18 brain and eight bone metastases derived from primary breast tumors. We identified 73 genes differentially expressed between brain and bone metastases. Visualization of the differential gene expression profiles by correspondence and cluster analyses shows that the metastases clearly separate into two distinct groups as an exact reflection of their site of metastasis. Moreover, the analysis of this gene set in primary breast tumors relapsing to either bone or brain allowed accurate categorization of the tumors according to their metastatic site. The identified genes may prove to be excellent markers to predict the site of metastasis in breast cancer patients and could lead to tailor-made therapy to an individual patient.

  12. Mechanosensitive miRNAs and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihao; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Chao; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli are required for the maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mass. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that multiple regulators (e.g., hormone, cytoskeleton proteins and signaling pathways) are involved in the mechanical stimuli modulating the activities of osteogenic cells and the process of bone formation. Significantly, recent studies have showed that several microRNAs (miRNAs) were sensitive to various mechanical stimuli and played a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. However, the functional roles and further mechanisms of mechanosensitive miRNAs in bone formation are not yet completely understood. This review highlights the roles of mechanosensitive miRNAs in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation and underlines their potential therapeutic application for bone loss induced by the altering of mechanical stimuli. PMID:28767056

  13. Metastasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Diagnosis Metastasis A major concern when diagnosing a ...

  14. Progress in the research on the mechanism of bone metastasis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qinqin; Xu, Zhenye; Wang, Lifang; Ruan, Mingyu; Jin, Guiyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the predominant cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The bone metastasis of lung cancer brings great suffering to the patient. Previous advances have provided insights into the mechanism of bone metastasis. Previous research has investigated lung cancer stem cells and three steps were determined for the lung cancer cells to metastasize to the bone: i) Escaping from the primary tumor; ii) moving in the circulation; iii) colonizing in the bone. Key molecules are involved in each of these process. Although there is a close association and similarity, dynamic microenvironments affect these processes. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANKL axis serves a vital role in the regulation of the generation and activation of osteoclasts during the osteolytic lesion. However, the specific molecules for the lung cancer cells to metastasize to the bone require further research and exploration. The present study aimed to investigate the relative molecular mechanisms of bone metastasis in lung cancer in recent years, providing a general understanding about the features of lung cancer preferences to bone, and discussing other things that require investigation. PMID:27446555

  15. Metastatic colorectal cancer presenting with bone marrow metastasis: a case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Rita; Mukherji, Deborah; Haydar, Ali; Saroufim, Maya; Temraz, Sally

    2016-01-01

    With advances in treatment, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are now living longer with an apparent increase in the incidence of bone and bone marrow metastases (BMM). Common sites of metastatic disease from CRC include the liver and lungs with bone metastasis rarely occurring in the absence of visceral metastatic disease. We report a series of three patients presenting with isolated bone and BMM leading to a diagnosis of primary CRC. We have reviewed the literature regarding diagnosis, potential mechanisms leading to the development of osseous metastasis and outcome. A high level of clinical suspicion and in-depth understanding of the natural history of these rare metastases may guide future management and treatment decisions. PMID:27034798

  16. Development of a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Valta, Maija P; Zhao, Hongjuan; Ingels, Alexandre; Thong, Alan E; Nolley, Rosalie; Saar, Matthias; Peehl, Donna M

    2014-06-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastases. The incidence of RCC is increasing and bone metastatic RCC merits greater focus. Realistic preclinical bone metastasis models of RCC are lacking, hampering the development of effective therapies. We developed a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human RCC by implanting precision-cut tissue slices under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. The presence of disseminated cells in bone marrow of tissue slice graft (TSG)-bearing mice was screened by human-specific polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by immunohistology using human-specific antibody. Disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of TSG-bearing mice derived from three of seven RCC patients were detected as early as 1 month after tissue implantation at a high frequency with close resemblance to parent tumors (e.g., CAIX expression and high vascularity). The metastatic patterns of TSGs correlated with disease progression in patients. In addition, TSGs retained capacity to metastasize to bone at high frequency after serial passaging and cryopreservation. Moreover, bone metastases in mice responded to Temsirolimus treatment. Intratibial injections of single cells generated from TSGs showed 100 % engraftment and produced X-ray-visible tumors as early as 3 weeks after cancer cell inoculation. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histological analysis revealed osteolytic characteristics of these lesions. Our results demonstrated that orthotopic RCC TSGs have potential to develop bone metastases that respond to standard therapy. This first reported primary RCC bone metastasis model provides a realistic setting to test therapeutics to prevent or treat bone metastases in RCC.

  17. Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promotes lung metastasis in breast cancer model mice.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toshiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2017-08-26

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women in the world. Although breast cancer is well treatable at the early stage, patients with distant metastases show a poor prognosis. Data from recent studies using transplantation models indicate that Mint3/APBA3 might promote breast cancer malignancy. However, whether Mint3 indeed contributes to tumor development, progression, or metastasis in vivo remains unclear. To address this, here we examined whether Mint3 depletion affects tumor malignancy in MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model mice. In MMTV-PyMT mice, Mint3 depletion did not affect tumor onset and tumor growth, but attenuated lung metastases. Experimental lung metastasis of breast cancer Met-1 cells derived from MMTV-PyMT mice also decreased in Mint3-depleted mice, indicating that host Mint3 expression affected lung metastasis of MMTV-PyMT-derived breast cancer cells. Further bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promoted lung metastasis in MMTV-PyMT mice. Thus, targeting Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells might be a good strategy for preventing metastasis and improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone pulsating metastasis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Murat; Derincek, Alihan; Karan, Belgin; Akpınar, Sercan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2010-11-01

    Pulsation on the bone cortex surface is a rare condition. Pulsative palpation of the superficial-located bone tumors can be misperceived as an aneurysm. Fifty-eight-year-old man is presented with pulsating bone mass in his proximal tibia. During angiographic examination, hypervascular masses were diagnosed both at right kidney and at right proximal tibia. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed after abdominal CT scan. Proximal tibia biopsy was complicated with projectile bleeding.

  19. IL-1 drives breast cancer growth and bone metastasis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Holen, Ingunn; Lefley, Diane V.; Francis, Sheila E.; Rennicks, Sarah; Bradbury, Steven; Coleman, Robert E.; Ottewell, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Background We have recently identified interleukin 1B (IL-1B) as a potential biomarker for predicting breast cancer patients at increased risk for developing bone metastasis. In mouse models, IL-1B and its receptor (IL-1R1) are upregulated in breast cancer cells that metastasise to bone compared with cells that do not. We have now investigated the functional role of IL-1 by blocking IL-1R signalling with the clinically licensed antagonist, anakinra. Methodology 6-week old female BALB/c mice received a subcutaneous or intra-venous injection of MDA-MB-231-IV or MCF7 cells. Anakinra (1mg/kg/day) or placebo was administered 3 days before (preventative) or 7 days later (treatment). Tumour volume, apoptosis (TUNEL, Caspase 3), proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis (CD34, VEGF and endothelin) were analysed. Effects on bone were measured by uCT, and TRAP, P1NP, IL-1B, TNF alpha and IL-6 ELISA. Results Anakinra significantly reduced growth of MDA-MB-231-IV tumours in bone from 6.50+/3.00mm2 (placebo) to 2.56+/−1.07mm2 (treatment) and 0.63+/−0.18mm2 (preventative). Anakinra also reduced the number of mice that developed bone metastasis from 90% (placebo) to 40% (treatment) and 10% (preventative). Anti-tumour effects were not confined to bone, subcutaneous tumour volumes reduced from 656.68mm3 (placebo) to 160.47mm3 (treatment) and 31.08mm3 (preventative). Anakinra did not increase tumour cell apoptosis but reduced proliferation and angiogenesis in addition to exerting significant effects on the tumour environment reducing bone turnover markers, IL-1B and TNF alpha. Conclusions Our novel data demonstrate a functional role of IL-1 signalling in breast tumour progression and metastasis, supporting that anakinra could be repurposed for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:27765923

  20. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis: Which Targets Came from the Bench to the Bedside?

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro, Sandra; Ferreira, Arlindo R.; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases ultimately result from a complex interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment. However, prior to the colonization of the bone, cancer cells must succeed through a series of steps that will allow them to detach from the primary tumor, enter into circulation, recognize and adhere to specific endothelium, and overcome dormancy. We now know that as important as the metastatic cascade, tumor cells prime the secondary organ microenvironment prior to their arrival, reflecting the existence of specific metastasis-initiating cells in the primary tumor and circulating osteotropic factors. The deep comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of bone metastases may allow the future development of specific anti-tumoral therapies, but so far the approved and effective therapies for bone metastatic disease are mostly based in bone-targeted agents, like bisphosphonates, denosumab and, for prostate cancer, radium-223. Bisphosphonates and denosumab have proven to be effective in blocking bone resorption and decreasing morbidity; furthermore, in the adjuvant setting, these agents can decrease bone relapse after breast cancer surgery in postmenopausal women. In this review, we will present and discuss some examples of applied knowledge from the bench to the bed side in the field of bone metastasis. PMID:27618899

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Dopamine Receptor D1 Agonist on Mammary Tumor and Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Kazumasa; Liu, Shengzhi; Liu, Yang; Chen, Andy; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Na, Sungsoo; Li, Bai-Yan; Matsuura, Nariaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yin, Yukun; Gan, Liangying; Xu, Aihua; Li, Jiliang; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Yokota, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling plays a critical role in the nervous system, but little is known about its potential role in breast cancer and bone metabolism. A screening of ~1,000 biologically active compounds revealed that a selective agonist of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), A77636, inhibited proliferation of 4T1.2 mammary tumor cells as well as MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Herein, we examined the effect of A77636 on bone quality using a mouse model of bone metastasis from mammary tumor. A77636 inhibited migration of cancer cells in a DRD1-dependent fashion and suppressed development of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by downregulating NFATc1 through the elevation of phosphorylation of eIF2α. In the mouse model of bone metastasis, A77636 reduced osteolytic lesions and prevented mechanical weakening of the femur and tibia. Collectively, we expect that dopaminergic signaling might provide a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer and bone metastasis. PMID:28374823

  3. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  4. Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone Affects Osteoblast Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    osteoblasts cultured with conditioned medium from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts did not affect cell number. b. Task lb-le: These aims were not pursued. Because...not affected by NIH 3T3 fibroblast conditioned medium or vehicle control medium. Cells were examined at various times up to 35 days of culture. Tasks...Understanding how breast cancer cells affect osteoblasts following skeletal metastasis will be instrumental in finding new drug targets to not only treat

  5. The role of platelets and megakaryocytes in bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Raphael; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Blood platelets have been known for more than a century as important partners for successful metastatic dissemination of solid tumors. Cancer cell-induced platelet activation is a key event responsible for prometastatic activity of platelets. Blocking platelet aggregation inhibits the progression of skeletal metastases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. The establishment and progression of bone metastases are strongly influenced by the bone remodeling process. Growth factors and cytokines released upon platelet activation may contribute to both skeletal tumor growth and osteolytic lesions. Megakaryocytes are platelet precursors located in the bone marrow that control bone mass through direct stimulation of osteoblast functions and indirect inhibition of osteoclast activities. Considering growing evidence for their role in the metastatic cascade, platelets and/or megakaryocytes may provide new therapeutic opportunities to help limit bone metastases.

  6. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-containing scaffolds for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pathi, Siddharth P; Lin, Debra D W; Dorvee, Jason R; Estroff, Lara A; Fischbach, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, where it leads to secondary tumor growth, osteolytic bone degradation, and poor clinical prognosis. Hydroxyapatite Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (HA), a mineral closely related to the inorganic component of bone, may be implicated in these processes. However, it is currently unclear how the nanoscale materials properties of bone mineral, such as particle size and crystallinity, which change as a result of osteolytic bone remodeling, affect metastatic breast cancer. We have developed a two-step hydrothermal synthesis method to obtain HA nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and varying crystallinity. These nanoparticles were incorporated into gas-foamed/particulate leached poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds, which were seeded with metastatic breast cancer cells to create mineral-containing scaffolds for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis. Our results suggest that smaller, poorly-crystalline HA nanoparticles promote greater adsorption of adhesive serum proteins and enhance breast tumor cell adhesion and growth relative to larger, more crystalline nanoparticles. Conversely, the larger, more crystalline HA nanoparticles stimulate enhanced expression of the osteolytic factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). Our data suggest an important role for nanoscale HA properties in the vicious cycle of bone metastasis and indicate that mineral-containing tumor models may be excellent tools to study cancer biology and to define design parameters for non-tumorigenic mineral-containing or mineralized matrices for bone regeneration.

  7. Osteonectin promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion: a possible mechanism for metastasis to bone.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K; Webber, M; Benayahu, D; Kleinman, H K

    1999-09-01

    The mechanism underlying the "organ-specific" metastasis of prostate cancer cells to the bone is still poorly understood. It is not clear whether the cells only invade the bone and proliferate there or whether they invade many tissues but survive mainly in the bone ("seed and soil"). Extracts from various organs were used as chemoattractants in the in vitro chemotaxis and invasion assays. Results show that, in comparison with extracts of other tissues, bone extracts promote a 2- to 4-fold increase in chemotaxis by human prostate epithelial cells and a 4-fold increase in the invasive ability of human prostate carcinoma cells. The purified active factor from bone and from marrow stromal-cell-conditioned medium is a low glycosylated osteonectin that specifically promotes the invasive ability of bone-metastasizing prostate (and breast) cancer cells but not that of non-bone-metastasizing tumor cells. It does not stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro or in vivo. Because osteonectin specifically enhances matrix metalloprotease activity in prostate and breast cancer cells (and not in other tumor cell types), we conclude that prostate cancer cell metastasis to the bone is, in part, mediated by the ability of osteonectin to promote migration, protease activity, and invasion.

  8. Effect of Gusuibu graft on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2006-05-01

    We compared the amount of new bone produced by Gusuibu in collagen grafts to that produced by bone grafts and collagen grafts. Twenty bone defects were created in the parietal bone of 14 New Zealand White rabbits. In the experimental group, 5 defects were grafted with Gusuibu extract mixed with absorbable collagen sponge, and 5 defects were grafted with autogenous endochondral bone. In the control groups, 5 defects were grafted with absorbable collagen sponge alone (active control) and 5 were left empty (passive control). Animals were killed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histologic assessment. Serial sections were cut across each defect. Quantitative analysis of new bone formation was made on 150 sections using image analysis. A total of 24% and 90% more new bone were present in defects grafted with Gusuibu in collagen grafts than those grafted with bone and collagen, respectively. No bone was formed in the passive control group. Gusuibu in collagen grafts have the effect of increased new bone formation locally and can be used as a bone graft material.

  9. Effect of psoralen on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2011-02-01

    To compare the amount of new bone and bone cells produced by psoralen in collagen matrix to that produced by collagen matrix in vivo. Eighteen bone defects, 5 mm by 10 mm were created in the parietal bone of nine New Zealand White rabbits. Six defects were grafted with psoralen mixed with collagen matrix. Six defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone (negative control--collagen) and six were left empty (negative control--empty). Animals were killed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histological assessment. Quantitative analysis of new bone formation and bone cells were made on 100 sections (50 sections for each group) using image analysis. A total of 454% more new bone was present in defects grafted with psoralen in collagen matrix than those grafted with collagen matrix. No bone was formed in the negative control--empty group. The amount of bone forming osteoblasts was also significantly greater in the psoralen group than the negative control--collagen group. Psoralen in collagen matrix has the effect of increasing new bone formation locally in vivo. Psoralen in collagen matrix can be developed as a bone graft material.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; Pacheco-Tena, César

    2016-07-01

    Spondyloarthritis comprise a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterized by its association to HLA-B27 and the presence of arthritis and enthesitis. The pathogenesis involves both an inflammatory process and new bone formation, which eventually lead to ankylosis of the spine. To date, the intrinsic mechanisms of the pathogenic process have not been fully elucidated, and our progress is remarkable in the identification of therapeutic targets to achieve the control of the inflammatory process, yet our ability to inhibit the excessive bone formation is still insufficient. The study of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis has been mostly conducted in animal models of the disease and only few experiments have been done using human biopsies. The deregulation and overexpression of molecules involved in the osteogenesis process have been observed in bone cells, mesenchymal cells, and fibroblasts. The signaling associated to the excessive bone formation is congruent with those involved in the physiological processes of bone remodeling. Bone morphogenetic proteins and Wnt pathways have been found deregulated in this disease; however, the cause for uncontrolled stimulation remains unknown. Mechanical stress appears to play an important role in the pathological osteogenesis process; nevertheless, the association of other important factors, such as the presence of HLA-B27 and environmental factors, remains uncertain. The present review summarizes the experimental findings that describe the signaling pathways involved in the new bone formation process in spondyloarthritis in animal models and in human biopsies. The role of mechanical stress as the trigger of these pathways is also reviewed.

  11. Bone metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma. A report of five cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maccauro, G; Muratori, E; Sgambato, A; Liuzza, F; Esposito, M; Grieco, A; Gosheger, G

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma occurs frequently throughout the world. Bone metastases are rare although incidence has increased because of progress in diagnosis and treatment. The authors report 5 cases of bone metastases and review the literature. The spine is the most frequent localization of bone metastases. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for this lesion. Surgery should be used to prevent and treat complications such as nerve compression and pathologic fracture, only if the coagulative pattern and the conditions of the patient allow it. The authors recommend the use of long intramedullary nailing when localization of the disease is in the femur, with prophylactic stabilization of the neck in diaphyseal metastasis.

  12. Role of Runx2 in breast cancer-mediated bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vishal, M; Swetha, R; Thejaswini, G; Arumugam, B; Selvamurugan, N

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in women. The currently available treatment for breast cancer is mostly curative except when it becomes metastatic. One of the major sites for metastasis of breast cancer is the bone. Homing of the circulating tumor cells is tightly regulated including a number of factors present in the cells and their microenvironment. Runx2, a transcription factor plays an important role in osteogenesis and breast cancer mediated bone metastases. One of the recent advances in molecular therapy includes the discovery of the small, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) and they target specific genes to reduce their expression at the post-transcriptional level. This review provides an outline of breast cancer mediated bone metastasis and summarizes the recent development on the regulation of Runx2 expression by miRNAs which can lead to novel molecular therapeutics for the same.

  13. Multimodality imaging of early heterotopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Laurin, N R; Powe, J E; Pavlosky, W F; Driedger, A A

    1990-04-01

    An atypical heterotopic bone formation that was difficult to diagnose presented in a young paraplegic patient as an acute deep vein thrombosis. A number of imaging methods, including contrast venography, ultrasonography, conventional radiography, bone scanning, leukocyte scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, were used to arrive eventually at the final diagnosis. Early bone scanning remains a sensitive and effective method of diagnosis. Computed tomography can be useful in difficult cases, but the role of other imaging studies appears limited.

  14. Gender difference in bone metastasis of human small cell lung cancer, SBC-5 cells in natural killer-cell depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Otsuka, Shinsaku; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kakiuchi, Soji; Uehara, Hisanori; Yano, Seiji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Sone, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    Lung cancer frequently develops multiple organ metastases, which thus makes this disease a leading cause of malignancy-related death worldwide. A gender difference is reported to affect the incidence and mortality of lung cancer; however, whether and how the gender difference is involved in lung cancer metastasis is unclear. This study evaluated the gender difference in multiple organ metastases in human small cell lung cancer (SBC-5) cells by using natural killer cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice. Among multiple organ metastases, only bone metastasis formation significantly increased in female mice in comparison to males, while no significant difference was observed in the metastases to the liver and lungs. The suppression of androgen by castration or androgen receptor antagonist treatment in male mice also induced a significant increase of bone metastases. The number of osteoclasts in the bone metastatic lesions was greater in female mice and in mice with androgen suppression than in control male. However, there was no significant difference in the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) associated with gender or androgen suppression. An in vitro study also indicated that sex steroid treatment had no effect on the proliferation or PTHrP production in SBC-5 cells. These results indicate that the balance of sex steroids therefore plays an important role in the formation of bone metastasis in small cell lung cancer, and suggests diverse mechanisms of interaction between cancer cells and host cells in the bone microenvironment.

  15. [Clinical features of osteonecrosis of jaws after bisphosphonates therapy for bone metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-xing; Wang, Dian-can; Wang, Yang; Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Guo, Chuan-bin

    2016-02-18

    To understand the clinical features of osteonecrosis of the jaw after bisphosphonates use for therapy of breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. The cases diagnosed as bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) were retrospectively analyzed from January 2011 to August 2015 in the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, and those breast cancer patients with bone metastasis were selected. The clinical symptoms, imaging characteristics and treatment results were summarized. A total of 14 cases of breast cancer patients with bone metastasis were selected, with an average age of 60.21 years. The average time of suffering from breast cancer was 9.77 years, and the average time of bone metastasis and bisphosphonates drugs use was 5.67 and 3.29 years individually. There was no patient with systemic application history of hormone therapy, and no history of diabetes. There were 9 patients with tooth extractions history, and the mean time of bone necrosis symptoms was 8.58 months. There were 10 cases with bone necrosis occurring on mandible, 3 cases on maxilla, and one case with both upper and lower jaws involved. Among the 10 patients with surgical treatment, there were 3 cases cured, and 6 cases improved. However, the clinical symptoms of 2 cases with conservative treatment were significantly aggravated. The medication time between the bisphosphonates use beginning and the occurrence of BRONJ is relatively long. The history of diabetes and long-time hormone use did not exist in this group. Tooth extraction itself does not determine the severity of BRONJ. Mandible is the most common site involved by BRONJ. Surgical treatment can alleviate the clinical symptoms of BRONJ with breast cancer to some extent.

  16. Plant-derived anticancer agents: a promising treatment for bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a very frequent complication of advanced cancer, and it remains an incurable disease. Current therapies that have been approved for the treatment of bone metastases delay the occurrence of skeletal-related events and can extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. However, they will not cure or cause the regression of established bone metastases, and new side effects are emerging after prolonged treatment. Thus, new therapies are severely needed. There are compelling evidences from in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies that support the use of compounds derived from plants to treat several forms of cancers including bone metastasis. More than 25% of the drugs used during the past 20 years were directly derived from plants, whereas another 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5–15% of the ∼250 000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. There is a growing interest for the study of anticancer drugs with relatively low side effects that target specific key signaling pathways that control the establishment and progression of the cancer metastasis. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify new natural compounds with high efficiency in cancer prevention and treatment. Extensive reviews about plant-derived agents and their use in cancer have been published, but none when it comes to the treatment of bone metastases. Only a few of these compounds have been evaluated for the treatment of bone metastasis; here we describe some of the most prominent ones that are having the potential to reach the clinic soon. PMID:28243436

  17. Autocrine and paracrine STIP1 signaling promote osteolytic bone metastasis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; You, Hongbo; Qi, Jun; Yang, Caihong; Ren, Ye; Cheng, Hao

    2017-03-07

    Bone metastases are responsible for some of the most devastating complications of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, pro-metastatic factors leading to the highly osteolytic characteristics of RCC bone metastasis have barely been explored. We previously developed novel bone-seeking RCC cell lines by the in vivo selection strategy and performed a comparative proteome analysis on their total cell lysate. Here, we focused on STIP1 (stress-induced phosphoprotein 1), the high up-regulated protein in the bone-seeking cells, and explored its clinical relevance and functions in RCC bone metastasis. We observed high levels of both intracellular and extracellular STIP1 protein in bone metastatic tissue samples. Elevated STIP1 mRNA in the primary RCC tumors remarkably correlated with worse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, both human recombinant STIP1 protein and anti-STIP1 neutralizing antibody were used in the functional studies. We found that 1) STIP1 protein on the extracellular surface of tumor cells promoted the proliferation and migration/invasion of RCC tumor cells through the autocrine STIP1-ALK2-SMAD1/5 pathway; and 2) STIP1 protein secreted into the extracellular tumor stromal area, promoted the differentiation of osteoclasts through the paracrine STIP1-PrPc-ERK1/2 pathway. Increased cathepsin K (CTSK), the key enzyme secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption was further detected in the differentiated osteoclasts. These results provide evidence of the great potential of STIP1 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target in RCC bone metastasis.

  18. Trifolium-like Platinum Nanoparticle-Mediated Photothermal Therapy Inhibits Tumor Growth and Osteolysis in a Bone Metastasis Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changping; Cai, Xiaopan; Zhang, Jishen; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Yu; Ge, Huyifeng; Yan, Wangjun; Huang, Quan; Xiao, Jianru; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2015-05-06

    Bone metastasis is a frequent and fatal complication of cancer that lacks effective clinical treatment. Photothermal therapy represents a new strategy for the destruction of multiple cancers. In this study, trifolium-like platinum nanoparticles (TPNs) with small size and excellent photothermal conversion property are prepared via a facile and green method. TPNs show minimal cytotoxicity on normal cell lines and kill cancer cells upon exposure to a near-infrared light. These nanoparticles effectively inhibit tumor growth and prevent osteolysis in a bone metastasis model. This study offers a promising strategy in the treatment of bone metastasis.

  19. Computer aided lytic bone metastasis detection using regular CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; O'Connor, Stacy D.; Summers, Ronald

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a computer aided detection system to find lytic bone metastases in the spine. The CAD system is designed to run on routine chest and/or abdominal CT exams (5mm slice thickness) obtained during a patient's evaluation for other indications. The system can therefore serve as a background procedure to detect bone metastases. The spine is first automatically extracted based on adaptive thresholding, morphological operation, and region growing. The spinal cord is then traced from thoracic spine to lumbar spine using a dynamic graph search to set up a local spine coordinate system. A watershed algorithm is then applied to detect potential lytic bone lesions. A set of 26 quantitative features (density, shape and location) are computed for each detection. After a filter on the features, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used as classifiers to determine if a detection is a true lesion. The SVM was trained using ground truth segmentation manually defined by experts.

  20. Silencing of atp6v1c1 prevents breast cancer growth and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengmei; Zhu, Guochun; McConnell, Matthew; Deng, Lianfu; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Mengrui; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jinshen; Qi, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Atp6v1c1, a regulator of the assembly of the V0 and V1 domains of the V-ATPase complex, is up-regulated in metastatic oral tumors. Despite these studies, the function of Atp6v1c1 in tumor growth and metastasis is still unknown. Atp6v1c1's expression in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma indicates that Atp6v1c1 has an important function in cancer growth and metastasis. We hypothesized that elevated expression of Atp6v1c1 is essential to cancer growth and metastasis and that Atp6v1c1 promotes cancer growth and metastasis through activation of V-ATPase activity. To test this hypothesis, a Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown approach was used to study the function of Atp6v1c1 in mouse 4T1 mammary tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. Our data revealed that silencing of Atp6v1c1 in 4T1 cancer cells inhibited lysosomal acidification and severely impaired 4T1 cell growth, migration, and invasion through Matrigel in vitro. We also show that Atp6v1c1 knockdown with Lenti-c1s3, a lentivirus targeting Atp6v1c1 for shRNA mediated knockdown, can significantly inhibit 4T1 xenograft tumor growth, metastasis, and osteolytic lesions in vivo. Our study demonstrates that Atp6v1c1 may promote breast cancer growth and bone metastasis through regulation of lysosomal V-ATPase activity, indicating that Atp6v1c1 may be a viable target for breast cancer therapy and silencing of Atp6v1c1 may be an innovative therapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  1. A cellular automata model of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Van Scoy, Gabrielle K; George, Estee L; Opoku Asantewaa, Flora; Kerns, Lucy; Saunders, Marnie M; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is an elegantly orchestrated process by which osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts function as a syncytium to maintain or modify bone. On the microscopic level, bone consists of cells that create, destroy and monitor the bone matrix. These cells interact in a coordinated manner to maintain a tightly regulated homeostasis. It is this regulation that is responsible for the observed increase in bone gain in the dominant arm of a tennis player and the observed increase in bone loss associated with spaceflight and osteoporosis. The manner in which these cells interact to bring about a change in bone quality and quantity has yet to be fully elucidated. But efforts to understand the multicellular complexity can ultimately lead to eradication of metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and improved implant longevity. Experimentally validated mathematical models that simulate functional activity and offer eventual predictive capabilities offer tremendous potential in understanding multicellular bone remodeling. Here we undertake the initial challenge to develop a mathematical model of bone formation validated with in vitro data obtained from osteoblastic bone cells induced to mineralize and quantified at 26 days of culture. A cellular automata model was constructed to simulate the in vitro characterization. Permutation tests were performed to compare the distribution of the mineralization in the cultures and the distribution of the mineralization in the mathematical models. The results of the permutation test show the distribution of mineralization from the characterization and mathematical model come from the same probability distribution, therefore validating the cellular automata model.

  2. Platelet aggregation in the formation of tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruo, Takashi; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death from cancer, yet the optimal strategy against it remains uncertain. The pathogenesis of hematogenous metastasis is dynamic and consists of the following steps: 1) detachment of tumor cells from the primary site, 2) invasion into the host’s blood vessels, 3) migration in the host’s blood stream, 4) transport along the circulation, 5) arrest in or adhesion to the capillary in a distant organ, 6) extravasation, and 7) proliferation within the foreign tissues. A key to successful hematogenous metastasis is tumor survival in the bloodstream because most circulating tumor cells are rapidly destroyed by the shear forces or are attacked by the immune system. Less than 0.01% of these cells result in metastasis. Tumor cell–induced platelet aggregation has been reported to facilitate hematogenous metastasis by increasing the arrest of tumor cell emboli in the microcirculation. Platelet aggregation is also believed to protect tumor cells from immunological assault in the circulation. We have identified Aggrus as a platelet–aggregating factor expressed on a number of human cancers. Because hematogenous metastasis is reduced when neutralizing antibodies or eliminating carbohydrates attenuates Aggrus function, Aggrus’s main contribution to hematogenous metastasis of Aggrus–expressing cells, then, is by promoting platelet aggregation. Aggrus could serve as an ideal target for drug development to block metastasis. PMID:18941298

  3. MMP-8, A Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Suppressor Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Cancer. 88, 1318-26 49 Pang, S. T., Flores- Morales , A., Skoog, L., Chuan, Y. C., Nordstedt, G. and Pousette, A. (2004) 50 Chen, Y. and Rittling...Wakefield L, Oreffo RO, Escobedo A, Twardzik DR, Mundy GR. 1991. Latent forms of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) derived from bone cultures

  4. [Unknown primary bone metastasis: therapeutic and diagnostic strategies].

    PubMed

    Bortolus, R; Roncadin, M; Arcicasa, M; Boz, G; Franchin, G; De Paoli, A; Falchi, A M; Trovó, M G

    1993-04-01

    The primary site remains unknown in 0.5-15% of patients with multiple metastases. In 5-20% of these patients bone metastases are the first sign of disease. Survival after diagnosis ranges 2 to 6 months and 1-year survival is less than 25%. First of all, this paper reviews the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to patients with bone metastases from an unknown primary site and then reports the 10-year experience with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Division of the Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (Aviano) and of the Pordenone General Hospital in this patient population. Seventy-nine patients with bone metastases were evaluated. In 33 patients histology confirmed the original diagnosis and in 46 patients diagnosis was based on radiological and clinical findings. With respect to pain relief, differences in irradiated areas and in the ages of the patients were not significant. The patient's sex, however, did make a difference both to the degree of pain relief achieved and to survival (more favorable in women). To conclude, this paper suggests the diagnostic procedures necessary for the correct follow-up of patients with bone metastases from an unknown primary site.

  5. Features and prognostic impact of distant metastasis in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations: importance of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ryoko; Kato, Ryoji; Otoshi, Takehiro; Kawamura, Takahisa; Tamai, Koji; Shibata, Yumi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Nagata, Kazuma; Otsuka, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-06-01

    Mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signaling pathways were associated with multiple brain and intra-pulmonary metastases, oncogenic progression and metastasis. However, features of metastasis to other organs and the independent prognostic influence of metastatic lesions were not elucidated in patients with lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. Between January 2007 and April 2012, we treated 277 patients diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Studied were 246 patients with available tumor EGFR mutation data who also underwent radiographic evaluation of lung, abdominal, brain, and bone metastases. The EGFR mutated group (N = 98) had significantly more metastatic lesions in the brain and bone than the wild-type group (N = 148): brain, 3 (1-93) versus 2 (1-32) median (range), P = 0.023; bone, 3 (1-43) versus 2 (1-27), P = 0.035, respectively. In addition, EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple than non-multiple lung metastases (24/40 vs. 12/42, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that bone metastasis was a significant independent negative predictive factor of overall survival (OS) in patients with mutated [hazard ratio (HR) 2.04; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.64; P = 0.011] and wild-type EGFR (HR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.37-3.20; P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with mutated EGFR had more lung, brain, and bone metastases, and bone metastasis was an independent negative predictor of OS.

  6. Dynamic modeling of bone metastasis, microenvironment and therapy: Integrating parathyroid hormone (PTH) effect, anti-resorptive and anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rui Moura; Lemos, João Miranda; Alho, Irina; Valério, Duarte; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Costa, Luís; Vinga, Susana

    2016-02-21

    Bone is a common site for the development of metastasis, as its microenvironment provides the necessary conditions for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Several mathematical models to describe the bone remodeling process and how osteoclasts and osteoblasts coupled action ensures bone homeostasis have been proposed and further extended to include the effect of cancer cells. The model proposed here includes the influence of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) as capable of triggering and regulating the bone remodeling cycle. It also considers the secretion of PTH-related protein (PTHrP) by cancer cells, which stimulates the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts that activates osteoclasts, increasing bone resorption and the subsequent release of growth factors entrapped in the bone matrix, which induce tumor growth, giving rise to a self-perpetuating cycle known as the vicious cycle of bone metastases. The model additionally describes how the presence of metastases contributes to the decoupling between bone resorption and formation. Moreover, the effects of anti-cancer and anti-resorptive treatments, through chemotherapy and the administration of bisphosphonates or denosumab, are also included, along with their corresponding pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). The simulated models, available at http://sels.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/software/, are able to describe bone remodeling cycles, the growth of bone metastases and how treatment can effectively reduce tumor burden on bone and prevent loss of bone strength.

  7. High SPARC Expression Starting from Dysplasia, Associated with Breast Carcinoma, Is Predictive for Bone Metastasis without Enhancement of Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Morelli, Daniele; Drago, Lorenzo; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bonini, Chiara; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-01

    In order to become established in the skeleton, metastatic cells disseminating from the breast carcinoma need to acquire organ-specific traits. There are no effective predictors for who will develop bone metastasis to guide long-term predictive therapy. Our purpose was to individuate events critical for bone colonization to make a molecular classification of breast carcinoma useful for bone-metastasis outcome. In dysplasia adjacent to carcinoma and in pair-matched specimens of bone metastasis we examined SPARC expression and localization as well as Endothelin 1/ETAR signals by immunohistochemistry, and the evaluation of plasma levels of SPARC by ELISA was also performed. In patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to bone, SPARC and Endothelin 1/ETAR axis were highly expressed from dysplasia until bone metastasis, but the SPARC plasma level was as low as that of normal women, in contrast to patients that never develop bone metastasis, suggesting that circulating SPARC was counter adhesive. Altogether, the early identification of SPARC/Endothelin 1/ETAR in dysplastic lesions would be important to devise therapies preventing metastasis engraftment, since often carcinoma cells spread to distant organs at the time or even before patients present with cancer. PMID:26703564

  8. High SPARC Expression Starting from Dysplasia, Associated with Breast Carcinoma, Is Predictive for Bone Metastasis without Enhancement of Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Morelli, Daniele; Drago, Lorenzo; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bonini, Chiara; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-11-26

    In order to become established in the skeleton, metastatic cells disseminating from the breast carcinoma need to acquire organ-specific traits. There are no effective predictors for who will develop bone metastasis to guide long-term predictive therapy. Our purpose was to individuate events critical for bone colonization to make a molecular classification of breast carcinoma useful for bone-metastasis outcome. In dysplasia adjacent to carcinoma and in pair-matched specimens of bone metastasis we examined SPARC expression and localization as well as Endothelin 1/ETAR signals by immunohistochemistry, and the evaluation of plasma levels of SPARC by ELISA was also performed. In patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to bone, SPARC and Endothelin 1/ETAR axis were highly expressed from dysplasia until bone metastasis, but the SPARC plasma level was as low as that of normal women, in contrast to patients that never develop bone metastasis, suggesting that circulating SPARC was counter adhesive. Altogether, the early identification of SPARC/Endothelin 1/ETAR in dysplastic lesions would be important to devise therapies preventing metastasis engraftment, since often carcinoma cells spread to distant organs at the time or even before patients present with cancer.

  9. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    inhibitory effect of fish oil on growth of breast cancer cells last year wereported that fish oil or w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) (1...needs to be verified using larger animal pool and statisticalanalysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Omega 3- fatty acids ; Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2...membrane of the apoptotic cells. In addition we tested fish oil diet, rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) such as DHA and EPA, for its

  10. Regulation of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by DKK1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    addition since mice carrying the nude mutation are poor breeders, the SCID mutation (Prkdcscid) was a preferred immunodeficient model. A pilot...factor in osteoblast suppression characteristic of multiple myeloma bone disease [10]. Since this first report, DKK1 has been implicated in other...acute myeloid leukemia [21], malignant glioma [22] and multiple myeloma [23]. The extent to which a similar epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation

  11. Role of Katanin in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    metastases. Our preliminary study using the proteomics approach has identified katanin p60 as a differentially expressed factor in the bone marrow...V5-His and subsequently subcloned into recombinant retroviral vector pBMN-IRES- Tomato (Figure 3). pBMN-IRES- Tomato is a bicistronic viral vector for...a kind gift from Gary Nolan, Stanford University) by replacement of the GFP gene with a gene encoded for Tomato red fluorescent protein (provided

  12. Tumor-Host Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    can have serious complications, including hypercalcemia, pain, pathologic fractures and central nervous compromise (spinal cord or nerve root...compression)’. Bone metastases are the most common cause of pain for cancer patients, resulting from either mechanical or chemical stimulation of pain...involved in osteoblast stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. Many of these, for example PTHrP, IL-6, IL- 11 and M-CSF, are expressed by tumor cells 1

  13. RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mark; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Sheldrake, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of male cancer deaths in the developed world. The current lack of highly specific detection methods and efficient therapeutic agents for advanced disease have been identified as problems requiring further research. The integrins play a vital role in the cross-talk between the cell and extracellular matrix, enhancing the growth, migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Progression and metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with changes in integrin expression, notably abnormal expression and activation of the β3 integrins in tumour cells, which promotes haematogenous spread and tumour growth in bone. As such, influencing integrin cell expression and function using targeted therapeutics represents a potential treatment for bone metastasis, the most common and debilitating complication of advanced prostate cancer. In this review, we highlight the multiple ways in which RGD-binding integrins contribute to prostate cancer progression and metastasis, and identify the rationale for development of multi-integrin antagonists targeting the RGD-binding subfamily as molecularly targeted agents for its treatment. PMID:24213501

  14. (18)F-fluoride PET imaging in a nude rat model of bone metastasis from breast cancer: Comparison with (18)F-FDG and bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Jun; Song, Eun Hye; Park, Jun Young; Park, Young Jin; Cho, Arthur; Song, Ho-Taek

    2015-09-01

    Clinically-relevant animal models and appropriate imaging diagnostic tools are essential to study cancer and develop novel therapeutics. We evaluated a model of bone metastasis in nude rats by micro-PET and bioluminescence imaging. A bone metastasis model was produced by intracardiac injection of osteotropic MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc human breast cancer cells into nude rats. Bioluminescence imaging and micro-PET scans using (18)F-FDG and (18)F-fluoride were acquired serially for 5 weeks. We correlated bioluminescence imaging, (18)F-FDG and (18)F-fluoride PET images, and histological slides. Multiple bone metastases were successfully evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and (18)F-FDG and (18)F-fluoride PET scans. Bioluminescence photon flux increased exponentially on weekly follow-up. (18)F-FDG PET revealed increased FDG uptake at the spine and bilaterally in the hind legs in week 2 images, and showed a progressive pattern up to 4 weeks that correlated with bioluminescence imaging. (18)F-fluoride PET showed minimal abnormal findings in week 2 images, but it showed an irregular pattern at the spine from week 3 or 4 images. On quantitative analysis with standardized uptake values, a pattern of gradual increase was observed from week 2 to week 4 in both (18)F-FDG PET and fluoride PET. Histopathological examination confirmed the formation of osteolytic metastasis and necrosis of the distal femur, which appeared as a photon defect on PET scans. Developing bone metastasis from breast cancer in a nude rat model was successfully evaluated with an animal PET imaging system and bioluminescence imaging. This nude rat model of bone metastasis, which can be evaluated by PET imaging, may be a valuable tool for evaluating early responses to novel therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alteration of osteoblast arrangement via direct attack by cancer cells: New insights into bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yumi; Matsugaki, Aira; Sekita, Aiko; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Intact bone tissue exhibits a characteristic anisotropic microstructure derived from collagen fiber alignment and the related c-axis orientation of apatite crystals, which govern the mechanical properties of bone tissue. In contrast, tumor-invaded bone exhibits a disorganized, less-aligned microstructure that results in severely disrupted mechanical function. Despite its importance both in basic principle and in therapeutic applications, the classical understanding of bone metastasis is limited to alterations in bone mass regulated by metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying the disruption of bone tissue anisotropy in metastasized bone. We observed that direct attack by cancer cells on osteoblasts induces the less-organized osteoblast arrangement. Importantly, the crystallographic anisotropy of bone tissue is quantitatively determined by the level of osteoblast arrangement. Osteoblast arrangement was significantly disrupted by physical contact with cancer cells such as osteolytic melanoma B16F10, breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and osteoblastic prostate cancer MDA-PCa-2b cells. The present findings demonstrate that the abnormal arrangement of osteoblasts induced by physical contact with cancer cells facilitates the disorganized microstructure of metastasized bone. PMID:28303941

  16. A Rare Tumor with a Very Rare Initial Presentation: Thymic Carcinoma as Bone Marrow Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Leelavathi

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of thymus gland are rare and account for 0.2% to 1.5% of all the neoplasms. They constitute a heterogeneous group that has an unknown etiology and a complex as well as varied biology. This has led to difficulty in their histological classification and in predicting their prognostic and survival markers. Among them, thymic carcinoma is the most aggressive thymic epithelial tumor exhibiting cytological malignant features and a diversity of clinicopathological characteristics that can cause diagnostic dilemmas, misdiagnosis, and therapeutic challenge. We herein describe a case of a 60-year-old man who while undergoing evaluation for the cause of pancytopenia was discovered having bone marrow metastasis from an asymptomatic thymic carcinoma. Bone marrow metastasis is an extremely rare initial presentation of thymic carcinoma with only few cases reported in the literature. PMID:28116199

  17. Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Zhao, Haibo; Kitaura, Hideki; Bhattacharyya, Sandip; Brewer, Judson A; Muglia, Louis J; Ross, F Patrick; Teitelbaum, Steven L

    2006-08-01

    The pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced (GC-induced) bone loss is unclear. For example, osteoblast apoptosis is enhanced by GCs in vivo, but they stimulate bone formation in vitro. This conundrum suggests that an intermediary cell transmits a component of the bone-suppressive effects of GCs to osteoblasts in the intact animal. Bone remodeling is characterized by tethering of the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Hence, the osteoclast is a potential modulator of the effect of GCs on osteoblasts. To define the direct impact of GCs on bone-resorptive cells, we compared the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on WT osteoclasts with those derived from mice with disruption of the GC receptor in osteoclast lineage cells (GRoc-/- mice). While the steroid prolonged longevity of osteoclasts, their bone-degrading capacity was suppressed. The inhibitory effect of DEX on bone resorption reflects failure of osteoclasts to organize their cytoskeleton in response to M-CSF. DEX specifically arrested M-CSF activation of RhoA, Rac, and Vav3, each of which regulate the osteoclast cytoskeleton. In all circumstances GRoc-/- mice were spared the impact of DEX on osteoclasts and their precursors. Consistent with osteoclasts modulating the osteoblast-suppressive effect of DEX, GRoc-/- mice are protected from the steroid's inhibition of bone formation.

  18. Inherited human diseases of heterotopic bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.

    2013-01-01

    Human disorders of hereditary and nonhereditary heterotopic ossification are conditions in which osteogenesis occurs outside of the skeleton, within soft tissues of the body. The resulting extraskeletal bone is normal. The aberration lies within the mechanisms that regulate cell-fate determination, directing the inappropriate formation of cartilage or bone, or both, in tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Specific gene mutations have been identified in two rare inherited disorders that are clinically characterized by extensive and progressive extraskeletal bone formation—fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and progressive osseous heteroplasia. In fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, activating mutations in activin receptor type-1, a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor, induce heterotopic endochondral ossification, which results in the development of a functional bone organ system that includes skeletal-like bone and bone marrow. In progressive osseous heteroplasia, the heterotopic ossification leads to the formation of mainly intramembranous bone tissue in response to inactivating mutations in the GNAS gene. Patients with these diseases variably show malformation of normal skeletal elements, identifying the causative genes and their associated signaling pathways as key mediators of skeletal development in addition to regulating cell-fate decisions by adult stem cells. PMID:20703219

  19. Discoidin domain receptor 2 facilitates prostate cancer bone metastasis via regulating parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhang; Jin, Su; Wei, Zhang; Huilian, Hou; Zhanhai, Yin; Yue, Teng; Juan, Li; Jing, Li; Libo, Yao; Xu, Li

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton but the underlying mechanism remains largely undefined. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family and is activated by collagen binding. This study aimed to investigate the function and detailed mechanism of DDR2 in prostate cancer bone dissemination. Herein we found that DDR2 was strongly expressed in bone-metastatic prostate cancer cells and tissues compared to that in normal controls. Enhanced expression of constitutively activated DDR2 led to elevation in motility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells, whereas knockdown of DDR2 through specific shRNA caused a dramatic repression. Knockdown of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in significant decrease in the proliferation, differentiation and function of osteoblast. Over-expression of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in notable acceleration of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, whereas knockdown of DDR2 exhibited the opposite effects. An intrabone injection bone metastasis animal model demonstrated that DDR2 promoted osteolytic metastasis in vivo. Molecular evidence demonstrated that DDR2 regulated the expression, secretion, and promoter activity of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), via modulating Runx2 phosphorylation and transactivity. DDR2 was responsive to TGF-β and involved in TGF-β-mediated osteoclast activation and bone resorption. In addition, DDR2 facilitated prostate cancer cells adhere to type I collagen. This study reveals for the first time that DDR2 plays an essential role in prostate cancer bone metastasis. The mechanism disclosure may provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. The Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Breast Tumorigenesis and Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    signature and the basal molecular subtypes found within breast cancer cell lines. Heatmap of the Crk signature in the Neve breast cancer cell line...metastasis to bone. Cancer Cell 2003, 3:537-549. 16. Minn AJ, Gupta GP, Siegel PM, Bos PD , Shu W, Giri DD, Viale A, Olshen AB, Gerald WL, Massague J...prognosis using molecular profiling in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. BMC Genomics 2008, 9:239. 27. Neve RM, Chin K

  1. CXCL13-CXCR5 Interaction and Prostate Cancer Cell Firm Adhesion and Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0562 TITLE: CXCL13- CXCR5 Interaction and...9 May 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CXCL13- CXCR5 Interaction and Prostate Cancer Cell Firm 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Adhesion and Bone Metastasis 5b... CXCR5 . The ligand for this receptor is CXCL13, which is expressed by stromal cells and an important chemokine that B cells use to navigate lymphatic

  2. Coordinate regulation of microenvironmental stimuli and role of methylation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Emanuela; Maroni, Paola; Disanza, Andrea; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone metastasis is unclear, and much focus in metastatic biology and therapy relays on epigenetic alterations. Since DNA-methyltransferase blockade with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAza) counteracts tumour growth, here we utilized dAza to clarify whether molecular events undergoing epigenetic control were critical for bone metastatization. In particular, we investigated the patterns of secreted-protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and of Endothelin 1, affected by DNA methyltransferases in tumours, with the hypothesis that in bone metastasis a coordinate function of SPARC and Endothelin 1, if any occurs, was orchestrated by DNA methylation. To this purpose, we prepared a xenograft model with the clone 1833, derived from human-MDA-MB231 cells, and dAza administration slowed-down metastasis outgrowth. This seemed consequent to the reductions of SPARC and Endothelin 1 at invasive front and in the bone marrow, mostly due to loss of Twist. In the metastasis bulk Snail, partly reduced by dAza, might sustain Endothelin 1-SPARC cooperativity. Both SPARC and Endothelin 1 underwent post-translational control by miRNAs, a molecular mechanism that might explain the in vivo data. Ectopic miR29a reduced SPARC expression also under long-term dAza exposure, while Endothelin 1 down-regulation occurred in the presence of endogenous-miR98 expression. Notably, dAza effects differed depending on in vivo and in vitro conditions. In 1833 cells exposed to 30-days dAza, SPARC-protein level was practically unaffected, while Endothelin 1 induction depended on the 3'-UTR functionality. The blockade of methyltransferases leading to SPARC reduction in vivo, might represent a promising strategy to hamper early steps of the metastatic process affecting the osteogenic niche. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HETEROPLASTIC BONE FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Asami, Goichi; Dock, William

    1920-01-01

    1. Bone formation in the rabbit kidney with ligated vessels takes place (a) through the activity of young fibroblasts which accumulate to form a membrane-like structure; (b) subsequently by direct ossification of hyaline connective tissue in continuity with preformed bone; and (c) through erosion of lime placques by granulating tissue and laying down of lamellar bone by cells derived from fibroblasts. 2. Bone formation in the rabbit kidney begins not in direct contact with calcium deposits, but in the loose vascular connective tissue close under the transitional epithelium of the calices. 3. With autotransplanted ear cartilage of the rabbit there is an active new formation of cartilage in the connective tissue which surrounds the transplants, and the bone is formed by the fibroblasts from the perichondrium which erode and invade the calcified areas in this new cartilage. 4. The process of bone formation in the kidney is similar to that found in normal membranous ossification, while with the transplanted ear cartilage the process is identical with endochondral ossification. PMID:19868472

  4. Myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling in bone promotes basic-FGF and breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Vander Ark, A; Lee, P; Hostetter, G; Bhowmick, N A; Matrisian, L M; Williams, B O; Miranti, C K; Li, X

    2016-05-05

    Breast cancer (BCa) bone metastases cause osteolytic bone lesions, which result from the interactions of metastatic BCa cells with osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoclasts differentiate from myeloid lineage cells. To understand the cell-specific role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the myeloid lineage, in BCa bone metastases, MDA-MB-231 BCa cells were intra-tibially or intra-cardially injected into LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) knockout (LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO) or Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) mice. Metastatic bone lesion development was compared by analysis of both lesion number and area. We found that LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 bone lesion development in both the cardiac and tibial injection models. LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 knockout inhibited the tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis of the metastatic bones. Cytokine array analysis showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was downregulated in MDA-MB-231-injected tibiae from the LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO group, and intravenous injection of the recombinant bFGF to LysM(Cre)/Tgfbr2 KO mice rescued the inhibited metastatic bone lesion development. The mechanism by which bFGF rescued the bone lesion development was by promotion of tumor cell proliferation through the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cFos pathway after binding to the FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Consistent with animal studies, we found that in human BCa bone metastatic tissues, TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and p-Smad2 were expressed in osteoclasts and tumor cells, and were correlated with the expression of FGFR1. Our studies suggest that myeloid-specific TGF-β signaling-mediated bFGF in the bone promotes BCa bone metastasis.

  5. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  6. Successful whole-exome sequencing from a prostate cancer bone metastasis biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Van Allen, EM; Foye, A; Wagle, N; Kim, W; Carter, SL; McKenna, A; Simko, JP; Garraway, LA; Febbo, PG

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Comprehensive molecular characterization of cancer that has metastasized to bone has proved challenging, which may limit the diagnostic and potential therapeutic opportunities for patients with bone-only metastatic disease. METHODS We describe successful tissue acquisition, DNA extraction, and whole-exome sequencing from a bone metastasis of a patient with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). RESULTS The resulting high-quality tumor sequencing identified plausibly actionable somatic genomic alterations that dysregulate the phosphoinostide 3-kinase pathway, as well as a theoretically actionable germline variant in the BRCA2 gene. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate the feasibility of diagnostic bone metastases profiling and analysis that will be required for the widespread application of prospective ‘precision medicine’ to men with advanced PCa. PMID:24366412

  7. Current treatments and novel therapeutic targets for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Juncheng; Wang, Zhilin; Makarov, Danil; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in men in developed countries. While early stage disease can often be cured, many patients eventually develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The majority of CRPC patients have bone metastases, which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Although there is no cure for prostate cancer metastatic to bone, several bone-targeted agents have been approved to prevent skeletal-related events (SREs). Among them, bisphosphonates were the first class of drugs investigated for prevention of SREs. Denosumab is a recently approved agent that binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) as a humanized monoclonal antibody. Both agents target prostate cancer skeletal metastasis through the inhibition of bone resorption. Alpharadin is the first radiopharmaceutical agent that has significant overall survival benefit. It has benefits in pain palliation and SREs as well. Another newly approved drug is Abiraterone acetate, which decreases circulating levels of testosterone by targeting an enzyme expressed in the testis and the adrenal, as well as in prostate cancer tissues. This review outlines the clinical and preclinical data supporting the use of these and new agents in development for CRPC with bone metastasis. PMID:25374898

  8. Post-operative breast cancer patients diagnosed with skeletal metastasis without bone pain had fewer skeletal-related events and deaths than those with bone pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Skeletal metastases are often accompanied by bone pain. To investigate the clinical meaning of bone pain associated with skeletal metastasis in breast cancer patients after surgery, we explored whether the presence of bone pain was due to skeletal-related events (SREs) or survival (cause specific death, CSD), retrospectively. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 were examined for signs of skeletal metastasis until December 2006. Patients who were diagnosed as having skeletal metastasis were the subjects of this study. Bone scans were performed annually for 5, 7 or 10 years; they were also conducted if skeletal metastasis was suspected. Data concerning bone pain and tumor markers at the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis, and data relating to various factors including tumors, lymph nodes and hormone receptors at the time of surgery, were investigated. The relationships between factors such as bone pain, SRE and CSD were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's analysis. Results Skeletal metastasis occurred in 668 patients but the pain status of two patients was unknown, therefore 666 patients were included in the study. At the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis 270 patients complained of pain; however, 396 patients did not. Analysis of data using Cox's and Kaplan-Meier methods demonstrated that patients without pain had fewer SREs and better survival rates than those with pain. Hazard ratios regarding SRE (base = patients without pain) were 2.331 in univariate analysis and 2.243 in multivariate analysis. Hazard ratios regarding CSD (base = patients without pain) were 1.441 in univariate analysis and 1.535 in multivariate analysis. Similar results were obtained when analyses were carried out using the date of surgery as the starting point. Conclusion Bone pain at diagnosis of skeletal metastasis was an indicator of increased SRE and CSD. However, these data did not support recommendations of

  9. Galectin-3 Cleavage Alters Bone Remodeling: Different Outcomes in Breast and Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kosei; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Yanagawa, Takashi; Harazono, Yosuke; Hogan, Victor; Chen, Wei; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mehra, Rohit; Raz, Avraham

    2016-03-15

    Management of bone metastasis remains clinically challenging and requires the identification of new molecular target(s) that can be therapeutically exploited to improve patient outcome. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been implicated as a secreted factor that alters the bone microenvironment. Proteolytic cleavage of Gal-3 may also contribute to malignant cellular behaviors, but has not been addressed in cancer metastasis. Here, we report that Gal-3 modulates the osteolytic bone tumor microenvironment in the presence of RANKL. Gal-3 was localized on the osteoclast cell surface, and its suppression by RNAi or a specific antagonist markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and reduced the number of mature osteoclasts. Structurally, the 158-175 amino acid sequence in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of Gal-3 was responsible for augmented osteoclastogenesis. During osteoclast maturation, Gal-3 interacted and colocalized with myosin-2A along the surface of cell-cell fusion. Pathologically, bone metastatic cancers expressed and released an intact form of Gal-3, mainly detected in breast cancer bone metastases, as well as a cleaved form, more abundant in prostate cancer bone metastases. Secreted intact Gal-3 interacted with myosin-2A, leading to osteoclastogenesis, whereas a shift to cleaved Gal-3 attenuated the enhancement in osteoclast differentiation. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Gal-3 shapes the bone tumor microenvironment through distinct roles contingent on its cleavage status, and highlight Gal-3 targeting through the CRD as a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolytic bone remodeling in the metastatic niche. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Genetic and Transcriptional Control of Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Amjad; Chen, Haiyan; Ghori, Farah Y.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis An exquisite interplay of developmental cues, transcription factors, coregulatory and signaling proteins support formation of skeletal elements of the jaw during embryogenesis and the dynamic remodeling of alveolar bone in the post-natal life. These molecules promote initial condensation of the mesenchyme, commitment of the mesenchymal progenitor to osteogenic lineage cells, and differentiation of committed osteoblast to mature osteocyte within mineralized bone. Parallel regulatory network promote formation of the functional ostoclast from mononuclear cells to support continuous bone remodeling within the alveolar bone. With an ever expanding list of new regulatory factors, the complexities of the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in skeletal cells are being further appreciated. This review examines the multifunctional roles of prominent nuclear proteins, cytokines, hormones and paracrine factors that control osteogenesis. PMID:20713262

  11. Bone metastasis in prostate cancer: Recurring mitochondrial DNA mutation reveals selective pressure exerted by the bone microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Rebecca S; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goodman, Michael; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Kissick, Haydn T; Morrissey, Colm; True, Lawrence D; Petros, John A

    2015-09-01

    Cancer progression and metastasis occur such that cells with acquired mutations enhancing growth and survival (or inhibiting cell death) increase in number, a concept that has been recognized as analogous to Darwinian evolution of species since Peter C. Nowell's description in 1976. Selective forces include those intrinsic to the host (including metastatic site) as well as those resulting from anti-cancer therapies. By examining the mutational status of multiple tumor sites within an individual patient some insight may be gained into those genetic variants that enhance site-specific metastasis. By comparing these data across multiple individuals, recurrent patterns may identify alterations that are fundamental to successful site-specific metastasis. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome in 10 prostate cancer patients with bone metastases enrolled in a rapid autopsy program. Patients had late stage disease and received androgen ablation and frequently other systemic therapies. For each of 9 patients, 4 separate tissues were sequenced: the primary prostate cancer, a soft tissue metastasis, a bone metastasis and an uninvolved normal tissue that served as the non-cancerous control. An additional (10th) patient had no primary prostate available for sequencing but had both metastatic sites (and control DNA) sequenced. We then examined the number and location of somatically acquired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in the primary tumor and two metastatic sites in each individual patient. Finally, we compared patients with each other to determine any common patterns of somatic mutation. Somatic mutations were significantly more numerous in the bone compared to either the primary tumor or soft tissue metastases. A missense mutation at nucleotide position (n.p.) 10398 (A10398G; Thr114Ala) in the respiratory complex I gene ND3 was the most common (7 of 10 patients) and was detected only in the bone. Other notable somatic mutations that occurred in more than one patient

  12. The role of lncRNA MALAT1 in bone metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meijuan; Sun, Wanli; Liu, Yongquan; Dong, Xiuhong

    2016-09-01

    lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adencarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) plays an important role in the metastasis of lung cancer. Yet, its role in bone metastasis and the related mechanism remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in the bone metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including the expression pattern in tumor tissues, and the effect on the apoptosis, proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. The expression level of MALAT1 in NSCLC tissues with/without bone metastasis and in NSCLC cell lines with (ACC-LC-319/bone2)/without (SPC‑A1) bone metastatic ability was determined with qRT-PCR and compared with t-test. si-MALAT1 was used to downregulate the expression of MALAT1 in ACC-LC-319/bone2 cells. The proliferation ability was assessed by MTT assay, and the apoptosis, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo were also assessed to detect the effect of MALAT1 expression on NSCLC cells. In conclusion, the present study found that MALAT1 was significantly highly expressed in NSCLC tissues with bone metastasis and in NSCLC cell lines with high bone metastatic ability (P<0.0001). Downregulation of MALAT1 expression significantly inhibited proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in comparing with the negative controls. Our results also revealed that MALAT1 significantly increased the migration, invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo, which suggests its important role in the bone metastasis of NSCLC.

  13. Galectin-3 in bone tumor microenvironment: a beacon for individual skeletal metastasis management.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kosei; Kho, Dong Hyo; Yanagawa, Takashi; Zimel, Melissa; Heath, Elisabeth; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2016-06-01

    The skeleton is frequently a secondary growth site of disseminated cancers, often leading to painful and devastating clinical outcomes. Metastatic cancer distorts bone marrow homeostasis through tumor-derived factors, which shapes different bone tumor microenvironments depending on the tumor cells' origin. Here, we propose a novel insight on tumor-secreted Galectin-3 (Gal-3) that controls the induction of an inflammatory cascade, differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone marrow cells, resulting in bone destruction and therapeutic failure. In the approaching era of personalized medicine, the current treatment modalities targeting bone metastatic environments are provided to the patient with limited consideration of the cancer cells' origin. Our new outlook suggests delivering individual tumor microenvironment treatments based on the expression level/activity/functionality of tumor-derived factors, rather than utilizing a commonly shared therapeutic umbrella. The notion of "Gal-3-associated bone remodeling" could be the first step toward a specific personalized therapy for each cancer type generating a different bone niche in patients afflicted with non-curable bone metastasis.

  14. Breast cancer osteomimicry and its role in bone specific metastasis; an integrative, systematic review of preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Awolaran, Olugbenga; Brooks, Susan A; Lavender, Verna

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016. 4491 potentially relevant citations were retrieved. 63 articles met the inclusion criteria, which were primary studies reporting evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in predisposing breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. 12 of those 63 articles that additionally met quality criteria were included in the review. Extracted data were tabulated and key findings that indicated biological mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis to bone were synthesised. 15 proteins expressed by breast cancer cells were identified as factors that mediate breast cancer bone metastasis: ICAM-1, cadherin-11, osteoactivin, bone sialoprotein, CCN3, IL-11, CCL2, CITED2, CXCR4, CTGF, OPN, CX3CR1, TWIST1, adrenomedullin and Enpp1. Upregulation or overexpression of one or more of them by breast cancer cells resulted in increased breast cancer metastasis to bone in vivo, except for CCL2 where bone-metastatic cells showed a reduced expression of this factor. All factors identified, here expressed by breast cancer cells, are proteins that are normally expressed in the bone microenvironment and linked to physiologic bone functions. All have a functional role in one of more of the following: cell proliferation and differentiation, bone mineralization and remodelling, cell adhesion and/or chemokine signalling. Six of them (cadherin-11, ICAM-1, OPN, CX3CR1

  15. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival benefit with radium-223 dichloride in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Mari I; Rissanen, Jukka P; Käkönen, Rami; Fagerlund, Katja M; Alhoniemi, Esa; Mumberg, Dominik; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Halleen, Jussi M; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria; Scholz, Arne

    2013-06-19

    Bone metastases are associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium mimetic that localizes to bone, providing targeted therapy for skeletal metastasis. We investigated the mode of action of radium-223 dichloride using breast cancer cell, osteoclast, and osteoblast cultures as well as a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. A single dose of radium-223 dichloride was used in three different settings mimicking the prevention or treatment of bone metastasis. Disease progression was monitored using fluorescence and radiographic imaging and histological analyses. The effect of radium-223 dichloride alone and in combination with doxorubicin or zoledronic acid on survival of mice was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests used were two-sided. Radium-223 dichloride incorporated into bone matrix and inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (all P values < .001) in vitro. In an established bone metastasis setting, radium-223 dichloride prevented tumor-induced cachexia (0/14 vs 7/14 control mice) and decreased osteolysis by 56% and tumor growth by 43% (all P values < .05). Radium-223 dichloride induced double-strand DNA breaks in cancer cells in vivo. Finally, radium-223 dichloride extended survival as a monotherapy (29.2 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.6 to 31.8 days, P = .039) and in combination with zoledronic acid (31.4 days, 95% CI = 28.8 to 34.0 days, P = .004) or doxorubicin (31.5 days, 95% CI = 29.5 to 33.5 days, P < .001) compared to the vehicle group (24.9 days, 95% CI = 23.4 to 26.4 days). Similar but even more pronounced effects were observed when radium-223 dichloride was administered in a preventive or micrometastatic setting. Our findings strongly support the development of radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of breast cancer patients with or at high risk of developing bone metastases.

  17. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    PubMed Central

    von Stechow, Dietrich; Fish, Susan; Yahalom, Dror; Bab, Itai; Chorev, Michael; Müller, Ralph; Alexander, Joseph M

    2003-01-01

    Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS) to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0), remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5), followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13). Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH) in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day) compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p < 0.001). However, the same comparison for the SVS-treated group (10 mg/kg/day administered by gavage) showed no significant difference (p = NS). LC/MS detected SVS and SVS-OH in mouse serum 20 minutes after gavage of 100 mg SVS. A serum osteocalcin assay (OC) demonstrated that neither bone formation nor osteoblast activity is significantly enhanced by SVS treatment in this in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo. PMID:12718758

  18. The Molecular Signature of the Stroma Response in Prostate Cancer-Induced Osteoblastic Bone Metastasis Highlights Expansion of Hematopoietic and Prostate Epithelial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Secondini, Chiara; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Schwaninger, Ruth; Fleischmann, Achim; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Poch, Olivier; Delorenzi, Mauro; Temanni, Ramzi; Mills, Ian G.; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Thalmann, George N.; Cecchini, Marco G.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and the tissue-specific stroma is critical for primary and metastatic tumor growth progression. Prostate cancer cells colonize preferentially bone (osteotropism), where they alter the physiological balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and elicit prevalently an osteoblastic response (osteoinduction). The molecular cues provided by osteoblasts for the survival and growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. We exploited the sufficient divergence between human and mouse RNA sequences together with redefinition of highly species-specific gene arrays by computer-aided and experimental exclusion of cross-hybridizing oligonucleotide probes. This strategy allowed the dissection of the stroma (mouse) from the cancer cell (human) transcriptome in bone metastasis xenograft models of human osteoinductive prostate cancer cells (VCaP and C4-2B). As a result, we generated the osteoblastic bone metastasis-associated stroma transcriptome (OB-BMST). Subtraction of genes shared by inflammation, wound healing and desmoplastic responses, and by the tissue type-independent stroma responses to a variety of non-osteotropic and osteotropic primary cancers generated a curated gene signature (“Core” OB-BMST) putatively representing the bone marrow/bone-specific stroma response to prostate cancer-induced, osteoblastic bone metastasis. The expression pattern of three representative Core OB-BMST genes (PTN, EPHA3 and FSCN1) seems to confirm the bone specificity of this response. A robust induction of genes involved in osteogenesis and angiogenesis dominates both the OB-BMST and Core OB-BMST. This translates in an amplification of hematopoietic and, remarkably, prostate epithelial stem cell niche components that may function as a self-reinforcing bone metastatic niche providing a growth support specific for osteoinductive prostate cancer cells. The induction of this

  19. Lectin binding to cutaneous malignant melanoma: HPA is associated with metastasis formation

    PubMed Central

    Thies, A; Moll, I; Berger, J; Schumacher, U

    2001-01-01

    Changes in protein glycosylation of tumour cells, as detected by lectin histochemistry, have been associated with metastasis formation in several human malignancies. This study analysed the association between lectin binding and metastasis in cutaneous malignant melanoma. In a 10-year retrospective study, sections of 100 primary cutaneous malignant melanomas were histochemically stained for the following 5 lectins: HPA, SNA-I, MAA, WGA and PHA-L, differing in their carbohydrate specificity. Since differences in the results of HPA binding depending on methodology have been reported, an indirect and a biotinylated method were employed for HPA. Kaplan–Meier analysis of time to first metastasis revealed a positive correlation between HPA binding and metastasis for both methods, with the biotinylated HPA method (P< 0.0001) being superior to the ‘indirect’ method (P = 0.0006). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that even after adjustment for stage, HPA positivity is an independent predictor for metastasis. The results of the present study indicate that N -acetyl-galactosamine/-glucosamine residues, recognized by HPA, are linked to metastasis in malignant melanoma. In contrast, β1-6 branched oligosaccharides or sialic acid residues, both of which were correlated with metastasis in other malignancies, are of no functional importance for metastasis formation in malignant melanoma. Thus, HPA proved to be a useful and independent prognostic marker for the metastatic phenotype of melanoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11259098

  20. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  1. Multi-modal Imaging of Angiogenesis in a Nude Rat Model of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Volumetric Computed Tomography and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Berger, Martin R.; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential feature of cancer growth and metastasis formation. In bone metastasis, angiogenic factors are pivotal for tumor cell proliferation in the bone marrow cavity as well as for interaction of tumor and bone cells resulting in local bone destruction. Our aim was to develop a model of experimental bone metastasis that allows in vivo assessment of angiogenesis in skeletal lesions using non-invasive imaging techniques. For this purpose, we injected 105 MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the superficial epigastric artery, which precludes the growth of metastases in body areas other than the respective hind leg1. Following 25-30 days after tumor cell inoculation, site-specific bone metastases develop, restricted to the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula1. Morphological and functional aspects of angiogenesis can be investigated longitudinally in bone metastases using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and ultrasound (US). MRI displays morphologic information on the soft tissue part of bone metastases that is initially confined to the bone marrow cavity and subsequently exceeds cortical bone while progressing. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) functional data including regional blood volume, perfusion and vessel permeability can be obtained and quantified2-4. Bone destruction is captured in high resolution using morphological VCT imaging. Complementary to MRI findings, osteolytic lesions can be located adjacent to sites of intramedullary tumor growth. After contrast agent application, VCT angiography reveals the macrovessel architecture in bone metastases in high resolution, and DCE-VCT enables insight in the microcirculation of these lesions5,6. US is applicable to assess morphological and functional features from skeletal lesions due to local osteolysis of cortical bone. Using B-mode and Doppler techniques, structure and perfusion of the soft tissue metastases can be evaluated

  2. Eight proteins play critical roles in RCC with bone metastasis via mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Zhao, Xiaolin; Qi, Jun; Yang, Caihong; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Ye; Huang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Most kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). RCC lacks early warning signs and 70 % of patients with RCC develop metastases. Among them, 50 % of patients having skeletal metastases developed a dismal survival of less than 10 % at 5 years. Therefore, exploring the key driving proteins and pathways involved in RCC bone metastasis could benefit patients' therapy and prolong their survival. We examined the difference between the OS-RC-2 cells and the OS-RC-2-BM5 cells (subpopulation from OS-RC-2) of RCC with proteomics. Then we employed Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and the clinical database (oncomine) to screen and verify the key proteins and then we analyzed the functions and the related pathways of selected key proteins with system biology approaches. Our proteomic data revealed 26 significant changed spots (fold change <0.5 and >1.9, P < 0.05) between two cells. The Western blotting results validated for these identified spots were consistent with the proteomics'. From the public clinical database, 23 out of 26 proteins were connected with RCC metastases and 9 out of 23 with survival time directly (P < 0.05). Finally, only 8 out of 9 proteins had significantly positive results in tissues of RCC patients with bone metastasis compared with primary tumor (P < 0.05). System biology analyzing results showed these eight proteins mainly distributed in oxidative phosphorylation which indicates that mitochondria dysfunction played the critical role to regulate cells metastasis. Our article used a variety of experimental techniques to find eight proteins which abnormally regulated mitochondrial function to achieve a successful induction for RCC metastasis to bone.

  3. Cadherin-11 regulates the metastasis of Ewing sarcoma cells to bone.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Mihoko; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Endo, Makoto; Okada, Seiji; Iura, Kunio; Kamura, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Toshifumi; Iida, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Yuko; Nabeshima, Akira; Yokoyama, Nobuhiko; Fukushima, Suguru; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a small round-cell tumor of the bones and soft tissues. ES frequently causes distant metastases, particularly in the lung and bone, which worsens patient prognosis. Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) is an adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in osteoblasts. Its expression is associated with bone metastases in prostate and breast cancer patients, and is known to occur in ES. Here we investigated the effects of Cad-11 on bone metastases of ES. Human ES cell lines RD-ES, SK-ES-1, SK-N-MC, and TC-71 cells were transduced with lentivirus containing Cad-11 shRNA or control shRNA (ES/Cad-11 and ES/Ctr). RD-ES and TC-71 were infected with a lentivirus luciferase vector. Adhesion assays were performed using these cells and recombinant Cad-11-Fc chimera or mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell motility was investigated via wound-healing assay. Intracardiac injection of RD-ES/Cad-11 and RD-ES/Ctr was used to create a mouse model of experimental bone metastasis. The association between Cad-11 expression and bone metastases and clinical prognosis in ES patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We found knockdown of Cad-11 in ES cells resulted in reduced attachment ability and cell motility. In a mouse model of metastasis, RD-ES/Cad-11 cells caused fewer metastases than RD-ES/Ctr cells. The expression of Cad-11 in ES patients was significantly related to bone metastases (P < 0.05, logistic regression) and poorer overall survival (P < 0.05, log-rank test). These findings may explain that Cad-11 in ES cells may be essential for cell adhesion and motility, and is a promising molecular target for patients with ES.

  4. XCR1 promotes cell growth and migration and is correlated with bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ting; Han, Shuai; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Zhitao; Yan, Wangjun; Liu, Tielong; Wei, Haifeng; Song, Dianwen; Zhou, Wang Yang, Xinghai Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-21

    Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 30–40% patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the mechanism underlying this bone metastasis remains poorly understood. The chemokine super family is believed to play an important role in tumor metastasis in lung cancer. The chemokine receptor XCR1 has been identified to promote cell proliferation and migration in oral cancer and ovarian carcinoma, but the role of XCR1 in lung cancer has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that XCR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer bone metastasis as compared with that in patients with primary lung cancer. In addition, the XCR1 ligand XCL1 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells markedly, and knockdown of XCR1 by siRNA abolished the effect of XCL1 in cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we identified JAK2/STAT3 as a novel downstream pathway of XCR1, while XCL1/XCR1 increased the mRNA level of the downstream of JAK2/STAT3 including PIM1, JunB, TTP, MMP2 and MMP9. These results indicate that XCR1 is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis. - Highlights: • XCR1 is overexpressed in bone metastasis compared with primary NSCLC. • XCR1 activation by XCL1 promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. • JAK2/STAT3 is a novel potential downstream pathway of XCR1.

  5. Favorable control of advanced colon adenocarcinoma with severe bone marrow metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hanamura, Fumiyasu; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Miyuki; Oda, Hisanobu; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Esaki, Taito; Baba, Eishi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a propensity to metastasize to the liver, lungs and regional abdominal lymph nodes, but rarely to the bone marrow. A 60-year-old man presented to the National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center with a 4-week history of persistent lower back pain, anorexia and difficulty defecating. Complete blood count revealed severe thrombocytopenia and erythroblastosis, suggesting a hematological malignancy. However, the bone marrow examination demonstrated involvement by a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, but no hematopoietic abnormalities. A computed tomography scan revealed thickening of the wall of the sigmoid colon, with para-aortic, hilar, mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The patient was thus diagnosed with sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with lymph node and bone marrow metastasis. Modified FOLFOX6 was promptly initiated, with concurrent therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An increased number of thrombocytes was observed on day 6. After 3 cycles of treatment, the patient recovered from DIC and the levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment were decreased. Tumor biopsy during colonoscopy following recovery from DIC demonstrated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with mucin production, without mutations in the RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA genes, and a cytokeratin (CK) 7-negative, CK20-positive phenotype. The patient has been treated with chemotherapy for 150 days without disease progression. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy for rarely encountered bone marrow metastasis from CRC is poor. The present case was favorably maintained on chemotherapy and survived for 10 months. PMID:27900088

  6. Down-regulation of β3-integrin inhibits bone metastasis of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Jian-ping; Guo, Shan; Min, Jie; Liu, Li-li; Su, Hai-chuan; Feng, Ying-ming; Zhang, He-long

    2012-03-01

    Bone is one of the most frequent targets of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) metastasis, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. β3-integrin plays an important role in invasion of various kinds of tumors. Yet, its role in bone-metastasis of SCLC is still unknown. In this study, we first examined the expression of β3-integrin in SBC-5 and SBC-3 cells by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. We found that, compared to none bone-metastatic SBC-3 cells, β3-integrin was highly expressed in SBC-5 cells, a specific bone-metastatic SCLC cells line characterized in our previous study. We next constructed β3-integrin siRNA and transfected SBC-5 cell line, and found that β3-integrin siRNA significantly down-regulated the β3-integrin mRNA level and protein expression in SBC-5 cell line. We further found that inhibition of β3-integrin significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In addition, the β3-integrin down-regulated cells presented significant decrease in cell adhesion, migration and invasion activity. Our results suggest the β3-integrin has an essential effect on tumor cell proliferation and progression, and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skeletal metastases of lung cancer.

  7. Inhibiting MDSC differentiation from bone marrow with phytochemical polyacetylenes drastically impairs tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Yen; Lan, Chun-Wen; Huang, Yu-Chen; Lin, Chih-Yu; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yang, Wen-Chin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are implicated in the promotion of tumor metastasis by protecting metastatic cancerous cells from immune surveillance and have thus been suggested as novel targets for cancer therapy. We demonstrate here that oral feeding with polyacetylenic glycosides (BP-E-F1) from the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa effectively suppresses tumor metastasis and inhibits tumor-induced accumulation of granulocytic (g) MDSCs, but does not result in body weight loss in a mouse mammary tumor-resection model. BP-E-F1 is further demonstrated to exert its anti-metastasis activity through inhibiting the differentiation and function of gMDSCs. Pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that BP-E-F1 suppresses the differentiation of gMDSCs via the inhibition of a tumor-derived, G-CSF-induced signaling pathway in bone marrow cells of test mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific plant polyacetylenic glycosides that target gMDSC differentiation by communicating with bone marrow cells may hence be seriously considered for potential application as botanical drugs against metastatic cancers. PMID:27857157

  8. Inhibiting MDSC differentiation from bone marrow with phytochemical polyacetylenes drastically impairs tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Yen; Lan, Chun-Wen; Huang, Yu-Chen; Lin, Chih-Yu; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yang, Wen-Chin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2016-11-18

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are implicated in the promotion of tumor metastasis by protecting metastatic cancerous cells from immune surveillance and have thus been suggested as novel targets for cancer therapy. We demonstrate here that oral feeding with polyacetylenic glycosides (BP-E-F1) from the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa effectively suppresses tumor metastasis and inhibits tumor-induced accumulation of granulocytic (g) MDSCs, but does not result in body weight loss in a mouse mammary tumor-resection model. BP-E-F1 is further demonstrated to exert its anti-metastasis activity through inhibiting the differentiation and function of gMDSCs. Pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies reveal that BP-E-F1 suppresses the differentiation of gMDSCs via the inhibition of a tumor-derived, G-CSF-induced signaling pathway in bone marrow cells of test mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific plant polyacetylenic glycosides that target gMDSC differentiation by communicating with bone marrow cells may hence be seriously considered for potential application as botanical drugs against metastatic cancers.

  9. Bone metastasis from early gastric cancer following non-curative endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Oda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Katai, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kushima, Ryoji; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old male underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to treat early gastric cancer (EGC) in 2001. The lesion (50 mm × 25 mm diameter) was histologically diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with an ulcer finding. Although the tumor was confined to the mucosa with no evidence of lymphovascular involvement, the ESD was regarded as a non-curative resection due to the histological type, tumor size, and existence of an ulcer finding (as indicated by the 2010 Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, ver. 3). Despite strong recommendation for subsequent gastrectomy, the patient refused surgery. An alternative follow-up routine was designed, which included five years of biannual clinical examinations to detect and measure serum tumor markers and perform visual assessment of recurrence by endoscopy and computed tomography scan after which the examinations were performed annually. The patient’s condition remained stable for eight years, until a complaint of back pain in 2010 prompted further clinical investigation. Bone scintigraphy indicated increased uptake. Histological examination of biopsy specimens taken from the lumbar spine revealed adenocarcinoma resembling the carcinoma cells from the EGC that had been treated previously by ESD, and which was consistent with immunohistochemical findings of gastrointestinal tract cancer. Thus, the diagnosis of bone metastasis from EGC was made. The reported rates of EGC recurrence in surgically resected cases range 1.4%-3.4%, but among these bone metastasis is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bone metastasis from EGC following a non-curative ESD and occurring after an eight-year disease-free interval. PMID:23946610

  10. CD169(+) macrophages mediate pathological formation of woven bone in skeletal lesions of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Andy C; He, Yaowu; Broomfield, Amy; Paatan, Nicoll J; Harrington, Brittney S; Tseng, Hsu-Wen; Beaven, Elizabeth A; Kiernan, Deirdre M; Swindle, Peter; Clubb, Adrian B; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Winkler, Ingrid G; Ling, Ming-Tat; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Hooper, John D; Pettit, Allison R

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal metastases present a major clinical challenge for prostate cancer patient care, inflicting distinctive mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions that cause morbidity and refractory skeletal complications. Macrophages are abundant in bone and bone marrow and can influence both osteoblast and osteoclast function in physiology and pathology. Herein, we examined the role of macrophages in prostate cancer bone lesions, particularly the osteoblastic response. First, macrophage and lymphocyte distributions were qualitatively assessed in patient's prostate cancer skeletal lesions by immunohistochemistry. Second, macrophage functional contributions to prostate tumour growth in bone were explored using an immune-competent mouse model combined with two independent approaches to achieve in vivo macrophage depletion: liposome encapsulated clodronate that depletes phagocytic cells (including macrophages and osteoclasts); and targeted depletion of CD169(+) macrophages using a suicide gene knock-in model. Immunohistochemistry and histomorphometric analysis were performed to quantitatively assess cancer-induced bone changes. In human bone metastasis specimens, CD68(+) macrophages were consistently located within the tumour mass. Osteal macrophages (osteomacs) were associated with pathological woven bone within the metastatic lesions. In contrast, lymphocytes were inconsistently present in prostate cancer skeletal lesions and when detected, had varied distributions. In the immune-competent mouse model, CD169(+) macrophage ablation significantly inhibited prostate cancer-induced woven bone formation, suggesting that CD169(+) macrophages within pathological woven bone are integral to tumour-induced bone formation. In contrast, pan-phagocytic cell, but not targeted CD169(+) macrophage depletion resulted in increased tumour mass, indicating that CD169(-) macrophage subset(s) and/or osteoclasts influenced tumour growth. In summary, these observations indicate a prominent role

  11. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Morita, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Muranaka, A.; Tomomitsu, T.; Yanagimoto, S.; Sone, T.; Fukunaga, M.

    1985-04-01

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue.

  12. Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with bone metastasis in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Masood; Binesh, Fariba; Behniafard, Nasim; Nasiri, Faezeh; Shamsi, Farimah

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the clinico-pathological and survival characteristics in patients with bone metastasis. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with bone metastasis who referred to Shahid Ramezanzadeh radiation oncology center. For all of the patients studied, demographic and survival information was recorded. SPSS was used to analyze the data. In this study, 89 men (53.3%) and 78 women (46.7%) with bone metastasis were examined. Most of the patients were in the 66 to 87 age range. Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer in women and prostate cancer was the commonest in men. In most patients, pain was the first manifestation of the disease, and the spine has been most frequently involved areas. The disease was diagnosed by isotope bone scan in the most cases. The mean survival was 31.1 months for patients with breast cancer, 12.9 months for patients with prostate cancer, 13.7 months for patients with lung cancer and the overall survival was 22.5. There was only a meaningful correlation between sex, type of cancer, radiation dose, and survival in patients. We found that age was more effective than the variable of cancer type in survival of patients with bone metastasis. The prognosis of patients with bone metastasis in our center is fair. There was a significant correlation between sex, type of cancer, radiation dose, and survival. Cox proportional hazards model showed that age was a predictor of death.

  13. Is there any correlation between levels of serum ostepontin, CEA, and FDG uptake in lung cancer patients with bone metastasis?

    PubMed

    Ayan, A K; Erdemci, B; Orsal, E; Bayraktutan, Z; Akpinar, E; Topcu, A; Turkeli, M; Seven, B

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an evaluation was made of the relationship between the serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), osteopontin (OPN), and the semi-quantitative parameters of 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in lung cancer patients with bone metastasis. The evaluation included 42 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 31 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients who were referred to our institution for staging by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The biochemical parameters measured included CEA and OPN serum levels. Serum levels of OPN in NSCLC patients with and without bone metastasis were 21.20±4.97 ng/ml and 13.33±4.53 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05). In SCLC patients with and without bone metastasis serum OPN levels were 23.95±4.78 ng/ml and 17.30±3.09 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05). Serum levels of CEA in NSCLC patients with and without bone metastasis were 33.79±6.49 ng/ml and 11.74±2.96 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05). In SCLC patients with and without bone metastasis serum levels of CEA were 28.93±4.59 ng/ml and 13.88±4.47 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05). There were no correlations between primary tumor SUVmax, and serum levels of CEA and OPN. Bone metastasis can be detected in patients with lung cancer by measuring CEA and OPN levels. Increased levels of CEA and OPN levels may be considered an early warning sign in patients needing accurate imaging, as they are at higher risk of bone metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNA-335 and -543 suppress bone metastasis in prostate cancer via targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qizhong; Liu, Xianfeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Jianxun; Lv, Guangyao; Dong, Shengfang

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal metastasis is the major problem in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). Even though the regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of tumor metastases has been well described in numerous types of cancer, the importance in bone metastasis of PCa remains largely unknown. In the present study, the differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between the primary PCa and bone metastatic PCa samples by comparing their expression profiling using miRNA microarray, and 4 miRNAs (miR‑335, ‑543, ‑196 and ‑19a) were noted to be significantly downregulated in bone metastasis compared with primary PCa. Among those, the downregulation of 2 miRNAs (miR‑335 and ‑543) was confirmed in a total of 20 paired primary PCa and bone metastasis samples using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Using the online target prediction tool, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was found to be a shared target of miR‑335 and ‑543, which was further verified using the luciferase assay. By examining the expression pattern of eNOS in primary PCa and skeletal metastatic samples, the mRNA and protein expression levels of eNOS were markedly upregulated in the metastatic samples. Furthermore, exogenous overexpression of miR‑335 and ‑543 significantly downregulated the expression level of eNOS, and substantially compromised the ability of migration and invasion in vitro. These findings suggested that miR‑335 and ‑543 are associated with bone metastasis of PCa and indicated that they may have important roles in the bone metastasis, which may also be clinically used as novel biomarkers in discriminating the different stages of human PCa and predicting bone metastasis.

  15. Essential roles of the interaction between cancer cell-derived chemokine, CCL4, and intra-bone CCR5-expressing fibroblasts in breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Soichiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Nishimura, Tatsunori; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Gotoh, Noriko; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2016-08-01

    From a murine breast cancer cell line, 4T1, we established a subclone, 4T1.3, which consistently metastasizes to bone upon its injection into the mammary fat pad. 4T1.3 clone exhibited similar proliferation rate and migration capacity as the parental clone. However, the intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused larger tumors than that of the parental cells, accompanied with increases in fibroblast, but not osteoclast or osteoblast numbers. 4T1.3 clone displayed an enhanced expression of a chemokine, CCL4, but not its specific receptor, CCR5. CCL4 shRNA-transfection of 4T1.3 clone had few effects on its in vitro properties, but reduced the tumorigenicity arising from the intra-bone injection. Moreover, intra-bone injection of 4T1.3 clone caused smaller tumors in mice deficient in CCR5 or those receiving CCR5 antagonist than in wild-type mice. The reduced tumor formation was associated with attenuated accumulation of CCR5-positive fibroblasts expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)/CCN2. Tumor cell-derived CCL4 could induce fibroblasts to express CTGF/CCN2, which could support 4T1.3 clone proliferation under hypoxic culture conditions. Thus, the CCL4-CCR5 axis can contribute to breast cancer metastasis to bone by mediating the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in bone cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Experimental Study for Minimum Level of Decalcification to Detect the Osteolytic Bone Metastasis of Long Bone on Plain Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jun Ho; Seo, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1951, Ardran reported that metastatic bone lesions could be detectable on plain radiography with 30% to 50% of decalcification. Authors performed experimental study for minimum level of decalcification to detect the osteolytic bone metastasis of long bone with recent technique of radiographs. Methods One pair of fibula and humerus from two cadavers was cut into specimen 1 inch in length. Distal half of specimen was dipped into hydrochloride (HCl) with 15 min interval. All 16 specimens were checked by film-type radiography (FR), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DR). To exclude inter-observer's variance, 3 radiologists evaluated images. Calcium amount before and after decalcification was measured and expressed in percentage of decalcification. Results Osteolytic changes were detectable with 11% to 16% of decalcification for fibula and 3% to 8% for humerus on plain radiography with FR, CR, and DR. Conclusions Our study showed that minimum of 3% and maximum of 16% of decalcification is necessary when osteolytic metastatic bone lesions of long bone could be detected on plain radiography. PMID:27622177

  17. CD44 enhances tumor formation and lung metastasis in experimental osteosarcoma and is an additional predictor for poor patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenovic, Ana; Arlt, Matthias J E; Campanile, Carmen; Brennecke, Patrick; Husmann, Knut; Li, Yufei; Born, Walter; Muff, Roman; Fuchs, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Formation of metastases in the lungs is the major cause of death in patients suffering from osteosarcoma (OS). Metastases at presentation and poor response to preoperative chemotherapy are strong predictors for poor patient outcome. The elucidation of molecular markers that promote metastasis formation and/or chemoresistance is therefore of importance. CD44 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) and has been shown to be involved in metastasis formation in a variety of other tumors. Here we investigated the role of CD44 expression on OS tumor formation and metastasis. High CD44 expression, evaluated with a tissue microarray including samples from 53 OS patients and stained with a pan-CD44 antibody (Hermes3), showed a tendency (p < 0.08) to shortened overall survival. However, nonresponders and patients with lung metastases and high CD44 expression had significantly poorer prognosis than patients with low CD44 expression. Overexpression of the standard CD44 isoform (CD44s) and its HA-binding defective mutant R41A in osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells resulted in HA-independent higher migration rates and increased chemoresistance, partially dependent on HA. In an orthotopic mouse model of OS, overexpression of CD44s in SaOS-2 cells resulted in an HA-dependent increased primary tumor formation and increased numbers of micrometastases and macrometastases in the lungs. In conclusion, although CD44 failed to be an independent predictor for patient outcome in this limited cohort of OS patients, increased CD44 expression was associated with even worse survival in patients with chemoresistance and with lung metastases. CD44-associated chemoresistance was also observed in vitro, and increased formation of lung metastases was found in vivo in SCID mice. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Quantifying the Balance Between Total Bone Formation and Total Bone Resorption: An Index of Net Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weijuan; Ishii, Shinya; Greendale, Gail A.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bone gain vs loss across the skeleton loss depends on the balance between total bone formation and total bone resorption. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether resorption and formation markers can be combined to gauge net bone formation across the skeleton. Design: The study included a cohort followed up across menopause transition (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation). Setting and Participants: Community-dwelling women, 42–52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal at baseline, participated in the study. Outcome: The study included the following measures: 1) bone balance index (BBI) created by estimating the relationship between resorption (urinary N-telopeptide) and formation (osteocalcin) markers when the total formation equals the total resorption in 685 women with stable bone mineral density (BMD) (>5 y before the final menstrual period [FMP]) and applying this relationship to measured bone turnover markers in 216 women beginning to lose bone (≤2 y from FMP); and 2) annualized percentage declines over the following 3–4 years in the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD. Results: Adjusted for covariates, the BBI was greater (more favorable) in women with a greater body mass index (P = .03) and lower (less favorable) in women closer to the FMP (P = .007). Each SD decrement in BBI was associated with 0.27%/y faster LS BMD decline (P 0.04) and a 38% higher odds of faster-than-average loss of LS bone mass (P = .008, c-statistic 0.76). BBI was not associated with decline in FN BMD. Urinary N-telopeptide alone was not associated with either LS or FN BMD decline. Conclusions: An index that quantifies net bone formation vs resorption can be created from bone turnover markers and may help identify individuals at high risk for LS bone loss. PMID:27336357

  19. Experimental adipocere formation: implications for adipocere formation on buried bone.

    PubMed

    Moses, Randolph J

    2012-05-01

    Adipocere, or grave wax (adipo = fat, cere = wax), is a distinctive decomposition product composed primarily of fatty acids (FA) and their alkali salts. FA result from the bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of body fats. Reactions with ammonia and alkali metals originating from body fluids and pore waters of the depositional environment produce alkali salts of FA (soap). Adipocere formation is generally associated with burial of corpses with ample adipose tissue available. No indications that adipocere can form on defleshed remains have been presented in the literature. At the termination of a long-term bone diagenesis experiment, several samples were found to possess growths of an unknown compound. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that the growths are adipocere. The results herein reveal that adipocere can indeed form on defleshed bones under the right conditions and that even residual adipose and lipids in defleshed bones are sufficient to produce adipocere growth on the surfaces of bone.

  20. An in vitro 3D bone metastasis model by using a human bone tissue culture and human sex-related cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Salamanna, Francesca; Borsari, Veronica; Brogini, Silvia; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Cepollaro, Simona; Cadossi, Matteo; Martini, Lucia; Mazzotti, Antonio; Fini, Milena

    2016-01-01

    One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively. Bone tissue discarded from total hip replacement surgery was cultured in a rolling apparatus system in a normoxic or hypoxic environment. Gene expression profile, protein levels, histological, immunohistochemical and four-dimensional (4D) micro-CT analyses showed a noticeable specificity of breast and prostate cancer cells for bone colonization and ingrowth, thus highlighting the species-specific and sex-specific osteotropism and the need to widen the current knowledge on cancer-bone metastasis spread in human bone tissues. The results of this study support the application of this model in preclinical studies on bone metastases and also follow the 3R principles, the guiding principles, aimed at replacing/reducing/refining (3R) animal use and their suffering for scientific purposes. PMID:27765913

  1. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites.

    PubMed

    Molly, Liene; Vandromme, Heleen; Quirynen, Marc; Schepers, Evert; Adams, Jessica L; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Adequate bone volume is imperative for the osseointegration of endosseous implants, but postextraction resorption and remodeling may challenge implant placement. The use of bone biomaterials has been advocated to fill extraction sites and to enhance primary implant stability during osseointegration. The objective of the case series was to evaluate bone formation histologically and biomechanically in extraction sites following implantation of three commercially available bone biomaterials to compare their ability to allow guided bone regeneration. Thirty-six periodontally involved teeth were extracted from eight healthy non-smoking subjects. At least two bone biomaterials, a synthetic sponge based on polylactic-polyglycolic acid technology (FIS), bovine porous bone mineral (BPBM), or a natural coral derivative physically and chemically transformed into a calcium carbonate ceramic (COR), and one non-grafted control were applied to the extraction sockets within each subject and were covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene device. The devices were removed after 2 months, and trephine biopsies were obtained from each site 4 months later. At that time, endosseous implants were placed in 25 of the sites, and healing abutments were placed; measurements were taken 4 to 6 months later with an electronic mobility testing device. The percentage of residual biomaterial was 5.6% +/- 8.9% for FIS (P <0.001), 20.2% +/- 17.0% for BPBM (P <0.05), and 12.0% +/- 16.4% for COR (P <0.001). The amount of residual biomaterial after 6 months showed a significant relationship with the insertion torque measurements during the first third of implant insertion (P <0.05) and with values of the electronic mobility testing device at the abutment connection (P = 0.05). Histologically, new bone apposition was seen on BPBM particles. FIS sites showed similar ingrowth of blood vessels and osteocytes as empty controls. All sites revealed good primary stability at implant insertion and proper

  2. Rescuing Loading Induced Bone Formation at Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Ausk, Brandon J.; Prasad, Jitendra; Threet, Dewayne; Bain, Steven D.; Richardson, Thomas S.; Gross, Ted S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca2+/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential. PMID:20838577

  3. New bone formation in bone defects after melatonin and porcine bone grafts: experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Maté-Sánchez, José-Eduardo; López-Marí, Laura; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of melatonin compared with collagenized porcine bone grafts to accelerate bone formation 2 months after their insertion in tibiae rabbits. Twenty New Zealand rabbits weighing 3,900-4,500 g were used. Twenty collagenized porcine bone (MP3) grafts, twenty melatonin-impregnated bone grafts, and twenty control areas were placed in the proximal metaphyseal area of both rear tibias. Four groups were formed according to the moment in which animal killing was carried out: Group I (15 days), Group II (30 days), Group III (45 days) and Group IV (60 days). Cortical width and cortical length of bone formation was measured. Following implantation, an anteroposterior and lateral radiological study was carried out. Samples were sectioned at 5 μm and stained using hematoxylin-Eeosin, Masson's trichromic, and Gordon-Switt reticulin stains. After 60 days of treatment period, melatonin increased the length of cortical bone formation 99.03 ± 0.61% like control 98.90 ± 3.82% compared with porcine bone 92.73 ± 1.08%. Related to perimeter of cortical bone of the tibiae melatonin new bone was 98.35 ± 1.14% like control 98.0 ± 1.43% more than porcine bone 92.05 ± 1.03%. Histomorphometric values related to porcine bone were connective tissue 49.16 ± 2.4%, graft material (MP3) 23.52 ± 2.3%, and new bone formation 27.32 ± 1.4% compared with test group with melatonin 24.5 ± 1.2%, connective tissue 45.1 ± 1.2%, and new bone formation of 30.4 ± 1.0%. Melatonin has proven to regenerate the width and length of cortical bone in tibiae rabbits more quickly than collagenized porcine bone. Melatonin acts as a bone stimulator compared with porcine bone and control sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 3D Bioprinting a Cell-Laden Bone Matrix for Breast Cancer Metastasis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Miao, Shida; Cui, Haitao; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-11-09

    Metastasis is one of the deadliest consequences of breast cancer, with bone being one of the primary sites of occurrence. Insufficient 3D biomimetic models currently exist to replicate this process in vitro. In this study, we developed a biomimetic bone matrix using 3D bioprinting technology to investigate the interaction between breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone stromal cells (fetal osteoblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)). A tabletop stereolithography 3D bioprinter was employed to fabricate a series of bone matrices consisting of osteoblasts or MSCs encapsulated in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). When BrCa cells were introduced into the stromal cell-laden bioprinted matrices, we found that the growth of BrCa cells was enhanced by the presence of osteoblasts or MSCs, whereas the proliferation of the osteoblasts or MSCs was inhibited by the BrCa cells. The BrCa cells co-cultured with MSCs or osteoblasts presented increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in comparison to that of monocultured BrCa cells. Additionally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs or osteoblasts was reduced after BrCa cell co-culture. These results demonstrate that the 3D bioprinted matrix, with BrCa cells and bone stromal cells, provides a suitable model with which to study the interactive effects of cells in the context of an artificial bone microenvironment and thus may serve as a valuable tool for the investigation of postmetastatic breast cancer progression in bone.

  5. Does magnetic resonance imaging give value-added than bone scintigraphy in the detection of vertebral metastasis?

    PubMed

    Chiewvit, Pipat; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda; Sirivitmaitrie, Kaewta; Chiewvit, Sunanta; Thephamongkhol, Kullatorn

    2009-06-01

    To determine the role of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging for the investigation ofpatients with suspected metastasis to the spine by bone scintigraphy. Retrospectively reviewed with comparison was made between Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (99(m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy and corresponding spine MR images in 48 cases of vertebral metastasis at Siriraj Hospital. The intervals between bone scintigraphy and MR images did not exceed 1 month. The authors studied between January 2005 and December 2006 Bone scintigraphy were performed with planar imaging of the entire body and MR imaging was performed with the 1.5 tesla and 3.0 tesla scanner using standard techniques with T1-, T2-weighted images and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images with intravenous administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. The MR imaging findings were studied: location (cervical or thoracic or lumbar or sacrum spine), number of lesions (solitary or multiple lesions), pattern of enhancement (homogeneous or inhomogeneous), involvement of spinal canal, compression of spinal cord, extradural extension, other incidental findings such as pulmonary metastasis, pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy The final diagnosis was confirmed clinically and followed-up for further management (radiation or surgery) or followed-up by MR imaging (1 month-16 months) and bone scintigraphy (5 months-12 months). Forty-eight cases (80 lesions) of vertebral metastasis were identified (25 men and 23 women; mean age 61 years and range 8-84 years). Primary neoplasms include breast cancer (n=11), colorectal cancer (n=7), lung cancer (n=6), prostate cancer (n=5), nasopharyngeal cancer (n=5), head and neck cancer (n=3), thyroid cancer (n=2), liver cancer (n=2), esophagus cancer (n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), retroperitoneum cancer (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), cervical cancer (n=1), ovarian cancer (n=1), malignant melanoma (n=1). The result of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging is used to evaluate vertebral metastasis: in 44 lesions of

  6. Spectral parametric segmentation of contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT to detect bone metastasis: feasibility sensitivity study using whole-body bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Han; Kim, Sungjun; Lim, Daekeon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Song, Ho-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images may be underutilized for the evaluation of skeletal metastasis. Spectral parametric segmentation of DECT can produce bone-iodine separated images, which have the potential to detect bone metastases. To evaluate the potential of bone-iodine separation in the detection of bone metastasis with spectral parametric segmentation of DECT images which are acquired at clinical follow-up for patients with prior malignancy. The institutional review board approved the protocol of this retrospective review. Chest DECT scans using fast kV-switching between 80 and 140 kVp were included in this study. Bone-iodine separated reformatted images were produced by spectral parametric segmentation of synthesized monochromatic images. All chest CT images of 702 metastatic lesions from 54 patients were retrospectively evaluated in terms of visualization of metastatic lesions compared with (99m)Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) as reference standard of diagnosis. Spectral parametric segmentation images of DECT visualized metastatic lesions in 92.3% (n = 648/702). Osteoblastic metastases were delineated as subtle enhancing lesions on DECT in comparison to WBBS. Spectral parametric segmentation of iodine from cortical and medullary bone allowed visualization of bone metastasis. DECT might be utilized for the screening or detection of bone metastases. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Bone Metastasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... respond very well to these treatments. For example, breast cancer cells that are HER2 positive can respond to trastuzumab (Herceptin) therapy. External radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, ...

  8. Distant metastasis of intraosseous dentinogenic ghost cell tumour to the donor site of a bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-R; Min, J-H; Huh, K-H; Yi, W-J; Heo, M-S; Lee, S-S; Cho, Y-A

    2013-01-01

    A dentinogenic ghost cell tumour (DGCT) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumour which is considered as a solid, neoplastic variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst. Intraosseous DGCTs are more aggressive than extraosseous DGCTs and have a high propensity for local recurrence. This report describes a case of a diagnosis of recurrent DGCT at the primary site and a distant donor site. A 25-year-old female patient visited a dental hospital for a complaint of facial swelling for the previous month. Incisional biopsy was performed and the specimen was diagnosed as DGCT. Partial mandibulectomy for tumour resection and iliac bone graft was performed. 2 years later, the tumour recurred on the mandible and iliac bone. The recurrent lesion on the donor site was diagnosed as metastasized DGCT. This report highlights the possibility of distant metastasis occurring at a graft donor site. PMID:23420853

  9. DHA is a more potent inhibitor of breast cancer metastasis to bone and related osteolysis than EPA.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Veigas, Jyothi Maria; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer patients often develop bone metastasis evidenced by osteolytic lesions, leading to severe pain and bone fracture. Attenuation of breast cancer metastasis to bone and associated osteolysis by fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA, has been demonstrated previously. However, it was not known whether EPA and DHA differentially or similarly affect breast cancer bone metastasis and associated osteolysis. In vitro culture of parental and luciferase gene encoded MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines treated with EPA and DHA revealed that DHA inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells more potently than EPA. Intra-cardiac injection of parental and luciferase gene encoded MDA-MB-231 cells to athymic NCr nu/nu mice demonstrated that DHA-treated mice had significantly less breast cancer cell burden in bone, and also significantly less osteolytic lesions than EPA-treated mice. In vivo cell migration assay as measured by luciferase intensity revealed that DHA attenuated cell migration specifically to the bone. Moreover, the DHA-treated group showed reduced levels of CD44 and TRAP positive area in bone compared to EPA-treated group. Breast cancer cell burden and osteolytic lesions were also examined in intra-tibially breast cancer cell injected mice and found less breast cancer cell growth and associated osteolysis in DHA-treated mice as compared to EPA-treated mice. Finally, doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7dox) human breast cancer cell line was used to examine if DHA can improve sensitization of MCF-7dox cells to doxorubicin. DHA improved the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on proliferation and invasion of MCF-7dox cells. Interestingly, drug resistance gene P-gp was also down-regulated in DHA plus doxorubicin-treated cells. In conclusion, DHA attenuates breast cancer bone metastasis and associated osteolysis more potently than EPA, possibly by inhibiting migration of breast cancer cell to the bone as well as by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption.

  10. Is retention of zoledronic acid onto bone different in multiple myeloma and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis?

    PubMed

    Søe, Kent; Plesner, Torben; Jakobsen, Erik H; Hansen, Charlotte T; Jørgensen, Henrik B; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Zoledronic acid (Zol) is used to treat bone disease in both multiple myeloma (MM) and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis (BC). However, bones of MM and BC patients show a difference in retention of the bisphosphonate used for bone scintigraphy. Therefore, we hypothesized that disease-specific factors may differently influence Zol retention in MM and BC patients. We tested this hypothesis in an investigator initiated phase II clinical trial in which we compared the whole-body retention (WBrt) of Zol in a cohort of 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) (20 Zol naive and 40 with six or more previous administrations). On average, 62% of the administered Zol was retained in the skeleton of both MM and BC patients and independently of the number of treatments. WBrt of Zol did not correlate with cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) levels, but linear regression analyses showed that WBrt of Zol correlated with bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) levels in BC (p = 0.001), and with CTX/bALP in Zol naive MM patients (p = 0.012). Especially in BC patients, WBrt correlated with age (p = 0.014) independently of kidney function. In MM patients WBrt was found to primarily correlate with the extent of bone disease (p = 0.028). Multivariate linear regression analyses of the entire cohort pointed out that WBrt of Zol was best predicted by age (p < 0.000), osseous lesions (p < 0.001), and the preceding Zol dosing (p < 0.005) (r(2)  = 0.97). Comparing bone scintigrams with CT/X-ray images showed a poor correlation between sites of active bone disease and binding of scintigraphy bisphosphonate in 36% of MM patients and in 13% of BC patients. We conclude that WBrt of Zol is primarily determined by two non-disease related factors and only one disease related, but that there may be differences in retention or drug delivery at individual sites of bone disease between MM and BC patients. In order to find the optimal dosing of Zol, these

  11. Regulation of Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis by MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Vimalraj, S.; Miranda, P. J.; Ramyakrishna, B.; Selvamurugan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer progression including bone metastasis is a complex process involving numerous changes in gene expression and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting protein-coding mRNAs posttranscriptionally, often affecting a number of gene targets simultaneously. Alteration in expression of miRNAs is common in human breast cancer, possessing with either oncogenic or tumor suppressive activity. The expression and the functional role of several miRNAs (miR-206, miR-31, miR-27a/b, miR-21, miR-92a, miR-205, miR-125a/b, miR-10b, miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-335, miR-204, miR-211, miR-7, miR-22, miR-126, and miR-17) in breast cancer has been identified. In this review we summarize the experimentally validated targets of up- and downregulated miRNAs and their regulation in breast cancer and bone metastasis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:24191129

  12. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer, Hematological Malignancy, Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro, silk scaffolds, osteogenic microRNAs... Hematological Malignancy, Bone Metastasis, 3D In vitro model, silk scaffolds, osteogenic microRNAs, nanoparticles, osteolysis, sclerostin. 3...American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, December 2015, Orlando, Florida. Metformin Increases Bone Mass, Reduces Adipocyte Size and

  13. Tumor-associated macrophages drive spheroid formation during early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Tan, Shu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Bellone, Stefania; Xu, Xiaocao; Zhang, Haifeng; Santin, Alessandro D.; Lou, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can influence ovarian cancer growth, migration, and metastasis, but the detailed mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis remain unclear. Here, we have shown a strong correlation between TAM-associated spheroids and the clinical pathology of ovarian cancer. Further, we have determined that TAMs promote spheroid formation and tumor growth at early stages of transcoelomic metastasis in an established mouse model for epithelial ovarian cancer. M2 macrophage–like TAMs were localized in the center of spheroids and secreted EGF, which upregulated αMβ2 integrin on TAMs and ICAM-1 on tumor cells to promote association between tumor cells and TAM. Moreover, EGF secreted by TAMs activated EGFR on tumor cells, which in turn upregulated VEGF/VEGFR signaling in surrounding tumor cells to support tumor cell proliferation and migration. Pharmacological blockade of EGFR or antibody neutralization of ICAM-1 in TAMs blunted spheroid formation and ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. These findings suggest that EGF secreted from TAMs plays a critical role in promoting early transcoelomic metastasis of ovarian cancer. As transcoelomic metastasis is also associated with many other cancers, such as pancreatic and colon cancers, our findings uncover a mechanism for TAM-mediated spheroid formation and provide a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer and other transcoelomic metastatic cancers. PMID:27721235

  14. From Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0616 TITLE: From Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a... Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging 5b. GRANT... Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer -related death in women worldwide, and metastasis is responsible for the majority of these deaths. Triple

  15. Disappearance of giant cells and presence of newly formed bone in the pulmonary metastasis of a sacral giant-cell tumor following denosumab treatment: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Ogose, Akira; Sasaki, Taro; Hotta, Tetsuo; Inagawa, Shoichi; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    A giant-cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor. Recently, the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand inhibitor, denosumab, has demonstrated activity against giant-cell tumors. The current study reports a case of a sacral GCTB with lung metastasis. A 19-year-old male patient presented with right buttock pain and right lower leg pain, and a sacral GCTB was diagnosed based on the histological analysis of a biopsy specimen. The patient was successfully treated with neoadjuvant denosumab therapy, which allowed curettage. In addition, the pulmonary nodule reduced in size following denosumab administration, and surgical resection was performed. Since the operation, the patient has been managed with the continued use of denosumab with no sign of recurrence. Microscopic findings from the surgical specimen following denosumab treatment revealed that the giant cells had disappeared and woven bone had formed. The specimen from the pulmonary nodule exhibited similar findings to the surgical specimen. It was reported that denosumab treatment was able to reduce the number of giant cells and RANK-positive stromal cells, and cause the formation of new bone in the primary lesion. The present study reports the first case to demonstrate the efficiency of denosumab in treating pulmonary metastasis of GCTB.

  16. The Role of Interleukin-6/GP130 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression and Its Contribution to Bone Metastasis Morbidity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    interleukin-6 (IL-6) is strongly implicated in primary prostate cancer ( PrCa ) growth and the progression to bone metastasis. While expression and...localization of IL-6 and its receptors gp130 and IL-6R have been studied in organ-confined PrCa , these key mediators of the IL-6/gp130 signaling pathway...have not been previously assessed in prostatic bone metastases. Thus far, our investigations with archival patient biopsies revealed that all PrCa

  17. A Population-based Study of the Fractionation of Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastasis in Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Weidong; Zhang-Salomons, Jina; Hanna, Timothy P.; Mackillop, William J.

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To describe the use of palliative radiotherapy (PRT) for bone metastases in Ontario between 1984 and 2001 and identify factors associated with the choice of fractionation. Methods and Materials: Electronic RT records from the nine provincial RT centers in Ontario were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all courses of PRT for bone metastases. Results: Between 1984 and 2001, 44,884 patients received 74,432 courses of PRT for bone metastases in Ontario. The mean number of courses per patient was 1.7, and 65% of patients received only a single course of PRT for bone metastasis. The mean number of fractions per course was 3.9. The proportion of patients treated with a single fraction increased from 27.2% in 1984-1986 to 40.3% in 1987-1992 and decreased thereafter. Single fractions were used more frequently in patients with a shorter life expectancy, in older patients, and in patients who lived further from an RT center. Single fractions were used more frequently when the prevailing waiting time for RT was longer. There were wide variations in the use of single fractions among the different RT centers (intercenter range, 11.8-62.3%). Intercenter variations persisted throughout the study period and were not explained by differences in case mix. Conclusions: Despite increasing evidence of the effectiveness of single-fraction PRT for bone metastases, most patients continued to receive fractionated PRT throughout the two decades of this study. Single fractions were used more frequently when waiting times were longer. There was persistent, unexplained variation in the fractionation of PRT among different centers.

  18. β2-microglobulin induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and confers cancer lethality and bone metastasis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Josson, Sajni; Nomura, Takeo; Lin, Jen-Tai; Huang, Wen-Chin; Wu, Daqing; Zhau, Haiyen E; Zayzafoon, Majd; Weizmann, M Neale; Gururajan, Murali; Chung, Leland W K

    2011-04-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the predominant causes of cancer lethality. This study demonstrates for the first time how β2-microglobulin (β2-M) supports lethal metastasis in vivo in human prostate, breast, lung, and renal cancer cells. β2-M mediates this process by activating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote lethal bone and soft tissue metastases in host mice. β2-M interacts with its receptor, hemochromatosis (HFE) protein, to modulate iron responsive pathways in cancer cells. Inhibition of either β2-M or HFE results in reversion of EMT. These results demonstrate the role of β2-M in cancer metastasis and lethality. Thus, β2-M and its downstream signaling pathways are promising prognostic markers of cancer metastases and novel therapeutic targets for cancer therapy.

  19. Polyurethane foam scaffold as in vitro model for breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Valentina; Contessi, Nicola; De Marco, Cinzia; Bertoldi, Serena; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Farè, Silvia

    2017-09-18

    Breast cancer (BC) represents the most incident cancer case in women (29%), with high mortality rate. Bone metastasis occurs in 20-50% cases and, despite advances in BC research, the interactions between tumor cells and the metastatic microenvironment are still poorly understood. In vitro 3D models gained great interest in cancer research, thanks to the reproducibility, the 3D spatial cues and associated low costs, compared to in vivo and 2D in vitro models. In this study, we investigated the suitability of a poly-ether-urethane (PU) foam as 3D in vitro model to study the interactions between BC tumor-initiating cells and the bone microenvironment. PU foam open porosity (>70%) appeared suitable to mimic trabecular bone structure. The PU foam showed good mechanical properties under cyclic compression (E=69-109kPa), even if lower than human trabecular bone. The scaffold supported osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line proliferation, with no cytotoxic effects. Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) were cultured and differentiated into osteoblast lineage on the PU foam, as shown by alizarin red staining and RT-PCR, thus offering a bone biomimetic microenvironment to the further co-culture with BC derived tumor-initiating cells (MCFS). Tumor aggregates were observed after three weeks of co-culture by e-cadherin staining and SEM; modification in CaP distribution was identified by SEM-EDX and associated to the presence of tumor cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated the suitability of the PU foam to reproduce a bone biomimetic microenvironment, useful for the co-culture of human osteoblasts/BC tumor-initiating cells and to investigate their interaction. 3D in vitro models represent an outstanding alternative in the study of tumor metastases development, compared to traditional 2D in vitro cultures, which oversimplify the 3D tissue microenvironment, and in vivo studies, affected by low reproducibility and ethical issues. Several scaffold-based 3D in vitro models have been proposed

  20. An approach for the identification of targets specific to bone metastasis using cancer genes interactome and gene ontology analysis.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Shikha; Bagler, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is one of the most enigmatic aspects of cancer pathogenesis and is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Secondary bone cancer (SBC) is a complex disease caused by metastasis of tumor cells from their primary site and is characterized by intricate interplay of molecular interactions. Identification of targets for multifactorial diseases such as SBC, the most frequent complication of breast and prostate cancers, is a challenge. Towards achieving our aim of identification of targets specific to SBC, we constructed a 'Cancer Genes Network', a representative protein interactome of cancer genes. Using graph theoretical methods, we obtained a set of key genes that are relevant for generic mechanisms of cancers and have a role in biological essentiality. We also compiled a curated dataset of 391 SBC genes from published literature which serves as a basis of ontological correlates of secondary bone cancer. Building on these results, we implement a strategy based on generic cancer genes, SBC genes and gene ontology enrichment method, to obtain a set of targets that are specific to bone metastasis. Through this study, we present an approach for probing one of the major complications in cancers, namely, metastasis. The results on genes that play generic roles in cancer phenotype, obtained by network analysis of 'Cancer Genes Network', have broader implications in understanding the role of molecular regulators in mechanisms of cancers. Specifically, our study provides a set of potential targets that are of ontological and regulatory relevance to secondary bone cancer.

  1. [A case of osteonecrosis of the lower jaw due to bisphosphonates in a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Norio; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Ishizaki, Akiko; Morinaga, Nobuhiro; Negishi, Takeshi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    Recently, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) with bisphosphonates is frequently reported. ONJ due to bisphosphonate is an adverse event in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We report a case of ONJ due to bisphosphonates. A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to right advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis. She received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel 70 mg/m2, qw, trastuzumab 2 mg/m2, qw. After chemotherapy, we performed modified mastectomy for local control. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was added with bisphosphonate for bone metastasis of breast cancer. After bisphosphonate was used 14 times, she had a pain and pus-discharge in her lower jaw. The dentists' diagnosis was ONJ. We treated her with antibiotics and local minor curettage. The inflammatory symptoms almost disappeared. In this case, the administration of bisphosphonates was thought to be a major risk factor for ONJ. We think that special precautions for ONJ should be taken in patients administered bisphosphonates for bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  2. An Approach for the Identification of Targets Specific to Bone Metastasis Using Cancer Genes Interactome and Gene Ontology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vashisht, Shikha; Bagler, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is one of the most enigmatic aspects of cancer pathogenesis and is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Secondary bone cancer (SBC) is a complex disease caused by metastasis of tumor cells from their primary site and is characterized by intricate interplay of molecular interactions. Identification of targets for multifactorial diseases such as SBC, the most frequent complication of breast and prostate cancers, is a challenge. Towards achieving our aim of identification of targets specific to SBC, we constructed a ‘Cancer Genes Network’, a representative protein interactome of cancer genes. Using graph theoretical methods, we obtained a set of key genes that are relevant for generic mechanisms of cancers and have a role in biological essentiality. We also compiled a curated dataset of 391 SBC genes from published literature which serves as a basis of ontological correlates of secondary bone cancer. Building on these results, we implement a strategy based on generic cancer genes, SBC genes and gene ontology enrichment method, to obtain a set of targets that are specific to bone metastasis. Through this study, we present an approach for probing one of the major complications in cancers, namely, metastasis. The results on genes that play generic roles in cancer phenotype, obtained by network analysis of ‘Cancer Genes Network’, have broader implications in understanding the role of molecular regulators in mechanisms of cancers. Specifically, our study provides a set of potential targets that are of ontological and regulatory relevance to secondary bone cancer. PMID:23166660

  3. Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Mercatali, Laura; La Manna, Federico; Groenewoud, Arwin; Casadei, Roberto; Recine, Federica; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Pieri, Federica; Liverani, Chiara; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Spadazzi, Chiara; de Vita, Alessandro; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Giorgini, Andrea; Biagini, Roberto; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni; Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX) rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF) embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231). The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT), revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model. PMID:27556456

  4. A ROR1-HER3-LncRNA signaling axis modulates the Hippo-YAP pathway to regulate bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunlai; Wang, Shouyu; Xing, Zhen; Lin, Aifu; Liang, Ke; Song, Jian; Hu, Qingsong; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhongyuan; Park, Peter K.; Hawke, David H.; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shuxing; Liang, Han; Hung, Mien-Chie; Gallick, Gary E.; Han, Leng; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases remain as a serious health concern because of limited therapeutic options. Here, we report that crosstalk between ROR1-HER3 and the Hippo-YAP pathway promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in a long noncoding RNA-dependent fashion. Mechanistically, the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 phosphorylates HER3 at a previously unidentified site Tyr1307, upon neuregulin stimulation, independently of other ErbB family members. p-HER3 Tyr1307 recruits the LLGL2-MAYA-NSUN6 RNA-protein complex to methylate Hippo/MST1 at Lys59. This methylation leads to MST1 inactivation and activation of YAP target genes in tumor cells, which elicits osteoclast differentiation and bone metastasis. Furthermore, increased ROR1, p-HER3 Tyr1307 and MAYA levels correlate with tumor metastasis and unfavorable outcomes. Our data provide insights into the mechanistic regulation and linkage of the ROR1-HER3 and Hippo-YAP pathway in cancer-specific context, and also imply valuable therapeutic targets for bone metastasis and possible therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:28114269

  5. Loss of Androgen-Regulated MicroRNA 1 Activates SRC and Promotes Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ben; Sheppard-Tillman, Heather; Li, Dongmei; Casey, Orla M.; Fang, Lei; Hynes, Paul G.; Ameri, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastasis is the hallmark of progressive and castration-resistant prostate cancers. MicroRNA 1 (miR-1) levels are decreased in clinical samples of primary prostate cancer and further reduced in metastases. SRC has been implicated as a critical factor in bone metastasis, and here we show that SRC is a direct target of miR-1. In prostate cancer patient samples, miR-1 levels are inversely correlated with SRC expression and a SRC-dependent gene signature. Ectopic miR-1 expression inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and bone metastasis in a xenograft model. In contrast, SRC overexpression was sufficient to reconstitute bone metastasis and ERK signaling in cells expressing high levels of miR-1. Androgen receptor (AR) activity, defined by an AR output signature, is low in a portion of castration-resistant prostate cancer. We show that AR binds to the miR-1-2 regulatory region and regulates miR-1 transcription. Patients with low miR-1 levels displayed correlated low canonical AR gene signatures. Our data support the existence of an AR–miR-1–SRC regulatory network. We propose that loss of miR-1 is one mechanistic link between low canonical AR output and SRC-promoted metastatic phenotypes. PMID:25802280

  6. Metabolic changes after MRgFUS treatment of a bone metastasis using PET/CT: A case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candiano, Giuliana; Russo, Giorgio; Stefano, Alessandro; Marino, Lorenza; Ganguzza, Francesca; Vaccari, Arturo; Tripoli, Vincenzo; Galluzzo, Anna; Pulizzi, Sabina; Messana, Domenico; Borasi, Giovanni; Messa, Cristina; Gilardi, Maria Carla

    2012-11-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (Insightec ExAblate 2000 system) in a clinical case of a pelvic bone metastasis, accessible to the ultrasonic beam. Multiple 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations allowed to follow the metabolic and morphological modification of the cancerous lesion.

  7. Mechanisms of cancer cell metastasis to the bone: a multistep process

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Lalit R; Camacho, Daniel F; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2011-01-01

    For metastasis to occur, tumor cells must first detach from their tissue of origin. This requires altering both the tissue of origin and the cancer cell. Once detached, cancer cells in circulation must also acquire survival mechanisms. Although many may successfully disseminate, variation exists in the efficiency with which circulating tumor cells home to and invade the bone marrow as metastastic seeds. Disseminated tumor cells that do successfully invade the marrow are secured by cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix adhesion. However, establishing a foothold in the marrow is not sufficient for disseminated tumor cells to create metastases. A significant latent phase must be overcome by either rescuing cellular proliferation or attenuating micrometastatic mass dormancy programs. Finally, growing metastases fuel osteolysis, osteoblastogenesis and T-cell differentiation, creating a variety of tumor phenotypes. Each step in the metastatic cascade is rich in biological targets and mechanistic pathways. PMID:22044203

  8. Hydroxyapatite formation from cuttlefish bones: kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, H; Tkalcec, E; Orlic, S; Ferrer, G Gallego; Schauperl, Z

    2010-10-01

    Highly porous hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)·(OH)(2), HA) was prepared through hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bones (Sepia officinalis L. Adriatic Sea) in the temperature range from 140 to 220°C for 20 min to 48 h. The phase composition of converted hydroxyapatite was examined by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Rietveld structure refinement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) approach was used to follow the kinetics and mechanism of transformation. Diffusion controlled one dimensional growth of HA, predominantly along the a-axis, could be defined. FTIR spectroscopy determined B-type substitutions of CO(3) (2-) groups. The morphology and microstructure of converted HA was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The general architecture of cuttlefish bones was preserved after hydrothermal treatment and the cuttlefish bones retained its form with the same channel size (~80 × 300 μm). The formation of dandelion-like HA spheres with diameter from 3 to 8 μm were observed on the surface of lamellae, which further transformed into various radially oriented nanoplates and nanorods with an average diameter of about 200-300 nm and an average length of about 8-10 μm.

  9. CYP4A in tumor-associated macrophages promotes pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X W; Yu, T J; Zhang, J; Li, Y; Chen, H L; Yang, G F; Yu, W; Liu, Y Z; Liu, X X; Duan, C F; Tang, H L; Qiu, M; Wang, C L; Zheng, H; Yue, J; Guo, A M; Yang, J

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an essential role in metastasis. However, what enables TAMs to have a superior capacity to establish pre-metastatic microenvironment in distant organs is unclear. Here we have begun to uncover the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A in TAMs on lung pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. CYP4A+ TAM infiltration was positively associated with metastasis, pre-metastatic niche formation and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The pharmacological inhibition of CYP4A reduced lung pre-metastatic niche formation (evidenced by a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 positive (VEGFR1+) myeloid cell recruitment and pro-metastatic protein expression) and metastatic burden, accompanied with TAM polarization away from the M2 phenotype in spontaneous metastasis models of 4T1 breast cancer and B16F10 melanoma. Co-implantation of 4T1 cells with CYP4A10high macrophages promoted lung pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Depletion of TAMs disrupted lung pre-metastatic niches and thereby prevented metastasis. Treatment with the CM from CYP4A10high M2 macrophages (M2) increased pre-metastatic niche formation and metastatic burden in the lungs, whereas CYP4A inhibition attenuated these effects. In vitro TAM polarization away from the M2 phenotype induced by CYP4A inhibition decreased VEGFR1+ myeloid cell migration and fibronectin expression, accompanied with downregulation of STAT3 signaling. Conversely, overexpression of CYP4A or exogenous addition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid promoted M2 polarization and cytokine production of macrophages and thereby enhanced migration of VEGFR1+ myeloid cells, which were reversed by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of STAT3. Importantly, a combined blocking M2 macrophage-derived factors TGF-β, VEGF and SDF-1 abolished VEGFR1+ myeloid cell migration and fibroblast activation induced by CYP4A. In summary, CYP4A in TAMs is crucial for lung pre-metastatic niche

  10. Distal radial fractures heal by direct woven bone formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Descriptions of fracture healing almost exclusively deal with shaft fractures and they often emphasize endochondral bone formation. In reality, most fractures occur in metaphyseal cancellous bone. Apart from a study of vertebral fractures, we have not found any histological description of cancellous bone healing in humans. Patients and methods We studied histological biopsies from the central part of 12 distal radial fractures obtained during surgery 6–28 days after the injury, using routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results New bone formation was seen in 6 cases. It was always in the form of fetal-like, disorganized woven bone. It seldom had contact with old trabeculae and appeared to have formed directly in the marrow. Cartilage was scarce or absent. The samples without bone formation showed only necrosis, scar, or old cancellous bone. Interpretation The histology suggests that cells in the midst of the marrow respond to the trauma by direct formation of bone, independently of trabecular surfaces. PMID:23570338

  11. Prostate cancer cells preferentially home to osteoblast-rich areas in the early stages of bone metastasis: evidence from in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Docherty, Freyja E; Brown, Hannah K; Reeves, Kimberley J; Fowles, Anne C M; Ottewell, Penelope D; Dear, T Neil; Holen, Ingunn; Croucher, Peter I; Eaton, Colby L

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that metastasis-initiating cells gain a foothold in bone by homing to a metastastatic microenvironment (or "niche"). Whereas the precise nature of this niche remains to be established, it is likely to contain bone cell populations including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the mouse tibia, the distribution of osteoblasts on endocortical bone surfaces is non-uniform, and we hypothesize that studying co-localization of individual tumor cells with resident cell populations will reveal the identity of critical cellular components of the niche. In this study, we have mapped the distribution of three human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3-NW1, LN-CaP, and C4 2B4) colonizing the tibiae of athymic mice following intracardiac injection and evaluated their interaction with potential metastatic niches. Prostate cancer cells labeled with the fluorescent cell membrane dye (Vybrant DiD) were found by two-photon microscopy to be engrafted in the tibiae in close proximity (∼40 µm) to bone surfaces and 70% more cancer cells were detected in the lateral compared to the medial endocortical bone regions. This was associated with a 5-fold higher number of osteoblasts and 7-fold higher bone formation rate on the lateral endocortical bone surface compared to the medial side. By disrupting cellular interactions mediated by the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4)/chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) axis with the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, the preferential homing pattern of prostate cancer cells to osteoblast-rich bone surfaces was disrupted. In this study, we map the location of prostate cancer cells that home to endocortical regions in bone and our data demonstrate that homing of prostate cancer cells is associated with the presence and activity of osteoblast lineage cells, and suggest that therapies targeting osteoblast niches should be considered to prevent development of incurable prostate cancer bone metastases.

  12. Renal Impairment Hampers Bisphosphonate Treatment in a Quarter of Lung Cancer Patients with Bone Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fábián, Katalin; Puskás, Rita; Kakuk, Tímea; Prés, László; Fejes, Dorottya; Szegedi, Zsolt; Rojkó, Lívia; Szállási, Zoltán; Döme, Balázs; Pipek, Orsolya; Moldvay, Judit

    2017-08-21

    Renal function impairment in lung cancer patients with bone metastases was investigated, as this can limit the application of bisphosphonates representing the gold standard in the management of such cases. Clinicopathological data of 570 lung cancer patients were retrospectively analysed for changes in renal function parameters. Co-morbidities included hypertension (50%), COPD (33%) and diabetes mellitus (15%). Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact tests and a Cox proportional hazards model. In patients suffering from hypertension, both median serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were higher (81.9 versus 75.8 μmol/l, p<0.001 and 6.0 versus 5.7 mmol/l, p=0.005, respectively). Such a difference could not be observed in patients with diabetes. In COPD patients, only serum creatinine was higher (81.1 versus 77.3 μmol/l, p=0.004). In the whole cohort, we found that while at the time of lung cancer diagnosis the ratio of patients in the pathological range (PRR) was 8.67% for serum creatinine (median: 75 μmol/l) and 14.16% for BUN (median: 5.4 mmol/l), at the time of bone metastasis the PRR for serum creatinine increased to 16.11% (median: 77.0 μmol/l) and for BUN to 24.07% (median: 6.0 mmol/l), which is a significant increase for both parameters (p<0.001). For the whole cohort, the last laboratory results showed a 26.37% PRR for serum creatinine and 45.66% PRR for BUN (significant increase for both, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with hypertension had a higher chance for switching to the pathological range sooner (p=0.033, HR: 1.372, CI: 1.025-1.835). Also, the appearance of the bone metastasis correlated with an acceleration of the onset of such a switch (p<0.001, HR: 2.655, CI: 1.581-4.456). Our results suggest that renal function is impaired in a significant proportion of lung cancer patients and highlight the importance of non-nephrotoxic drug in the management of bone metastases. This article is protected by

  13. Receptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Expression in Primary Tumors Associates with Bone Metastasis Occurrence in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Gaeta, Laura; Pantano, Francesco; Russo, Antonio; Ortega, Cinzia; Porta, Camillo; Galluzzo, Sara; Armento, Grazia; La Verde, Nicla; Caroti, Cinzia; Treilleux, Isabelle; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Perrone, Giuseppe; Addeo, Raffaele; Clezardin, Philippe; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Background Receptor activator of NFkB (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the decoy receptor of RANKL (osteoprotegerin, OPG) play a pivotal role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclasts formation and activity. RANKL stimulates migration of RANK-expressing tumor cells in vitro, conversely inhibited by OPG. Materials and Methods We examined mRNA expression levels of RANKL/RANK/OPG in a publicly available microarray dataset of 295 primary breast cancer patients. We next analyzed RANK expression by immunohistochemistry in an independent series of 93 primary breast cancer specimens and investigated a possible association with clinicopathological parameters, bone recurrence and survival. Results Microarray analysis showed that lower RANK and high OPG mRNA levels correlate with longer overall survival (P = 0.0078 and 0.0335, respectively) and disease-free survival (P = 0.059 and 0.0402, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis of RANK showed a positive correlation with the development of bone metastases (P = 0.023) and a shorter skeletal disease-free survival (SDFS, P = 0.037). Specifically, univariate analysis of survival showed that “RANK-negative” and “RANK-positive” patients had a SDFS of 105.7 months (95% CI: 73.9–124.4) and 58.9 months (95% CI: 34.7–68.5), respectively. RANK protein expression was also associated with accelerated bone metastasis formation in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.029). Conclusions This is the first demonstration of the role of RANK expression in primary tumors as a predictive marker of bone metastasis occurrence and SDFS in a large population of breast cancer patients. PMID:21559440

  14. Clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-6 in cancer metastasis to bone: potential of anti-IL-6 therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tawara, Ken; Oxford, Julia T; Jorcyk, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic events to the bone occur frequently in numerous cancer types such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal carcinomas, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is frequently upregulated and is implicated in the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to bone. IL-6 is able to activate various cell signaling cascades that include the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) pathway, and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Activation of these pathways may explain the ability of IL-6 to mediate various aspects of normal and pathogenic bone remodeling, inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, and pro-tumorigenic effects. This review article will discuss the role of IL-6: 1) in bone metabolism, 2) in cancer metastasis to bone, 3) in cancer prognosis, and 4) as potential therapies for metastatic bone cancer. PMID:21625400

  15. Inflammatory bone spur formation in psoriatic arthritis is different from bone spur formation in hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Finzel, Stephanie; Sahinbegovic, Enijad; Kocijan, Roland; Engelke, Klaus; Englbrecht, Matthias; Schett, Georg

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the different patterns of bone spur formation in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and hand osteoarthritis (OA), using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The study group comprised 70 subjects (25 patients with PsA, 25 patients with hand OA, and 20 healthy controls). The 2 patient groups were similar with regard to age and sex distribution and clinical involvement of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints. All patients underwent high-resolution peripheral QCT scanning of the second, third, and fourth MCP joints of the dominantly affected hand. Demographic and disease-specific data were recorded, and the number, size, and distribution of bone spurs were assessed and compared between patients with PsA and patients with hand OA. The overall number and size of bone spurs were similar in patients with PsA and patients with hand OA. However, localization of lesions within individual joints was substantially different between patients with PsA and those with hand OA. In PsA, bone spurs dominated the radial sides of the joints (for the metacarpal head of the second joint, P < 0.001 versus hand OA; for the base of the second phalangeal joint, P < 0.001 versus hand OA), whereas the palmar and dorsal quadrants were the predilection sites in hand OA. Detailed anatomic analysis showed that bone spurs in the entheseal regions were prominent in patients with PsA but rare in patients with hand OA, and that bone spurs in patients with hand OA typically emerged at the cartilage-bone interphase and the joint margins. Our findings show that the overall number and size of bone spurs are similar in patients with PsA and patients with hand OA. Nonetheless, the anatomic sites of bone proliferation are different between these 2 groups of patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. CCR5 receptor antagonists block metastasis to bone of v-Src-oncogene-transformed metastatic prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sicoli, Daniela; Jiao, Xuanmao; Ju, Xiaoming; Velasco-Velazquez, Marco; Ertel, Adam; Addya, Sankar; Li, Zhiping; Ando, Sebastiano; Fatatis, Alessandro; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Thakur, Mathew L.; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) integrate signal transduction for multiple receptors, regulating cellular proliferation invasion and metastasis in human cancer. Although Src is rarely mutated in human prostate cancer, SFK activity is increased in the majority of human prostate cancers. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms governing prostate cancer bone metastasis, FVB murine prostate epithelium was transduced with oncogenic v-Src. The prostate cancer cell lines metastasized in FVB mice to brain and bone. Gene expression profiling of the tumors identified activation of a CCR5 signaling module when the prostate epithelial cells (PEC) lines were grown in vivo vs. tissue cultures. The whole body, bone and brain metastatic prostate cancer burden was reduced by oral CCR5 antagonist. Clinical trials of CCR5 inhibitors may warrant consideration in patients with CCR5 activation in their tumors. PMID:25452256

  17. Vitamin D deficiency promotes growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer in a rodent model of osteosclerotic bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Li Laine; Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Trivedi, Trupti; Conigrave, Arthur D; Seibel, Markus J; Dunstan, Colin R

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer metastases to bone are common in advanced stage disease. We have recently demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency enhances breast cancer growth in an osteolytic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on tumor growth in an osteosclerotic model of intra-skeletal breast cancer in mice. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] on proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and changes in the expression of genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway (VDR, 1α- and 24-hydroxylase) were examined in vitro. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were injected intra-tibially into vitamin D deficient and vitamin D sufficient mice co-treated with and without osteoprotegerin (OPG). The development of tumor-related lesions was monitored via serial X-ray analysis. Tumor burden and indices of proliferation and apoptosis were determined by histology along with markers of bone turnover and serum intact PTH levels. In vitro, MCF-7 cells expressed critical genes for vitamin D signalling and metabolism. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibited cell growth and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. In vivo, osteosclerotic lesions developed faster and were larger at endpoint in the tibiae of vitamin D deficient mice compared to vitamin D sufficient mice (1.49±0.08 mm(2) versus 1.68±0.15 mm(2), P<0.05). Tumor area was increased by 55.8% in vitamin D deficient mice (0.81±0.13 mm(2) versus 0.52±0.11 mm(2) in vitamin D sufficient mice). OPG treatment inhibited bone turnover and caused an increase in PTH levels, while tumor burden was reduced by 90.4% in vitamin D sufficient mice and by 92.6% in vitamin D deficient mice. Tumor mitotic activity was increased in the tibiae of vitamin D deficient mice and apoptosis was decreased, consistent with faster growth. Vitamin D deficiency enhances both the growth of tumors and the tumor-induced osteosclerotic changes in the tibiae of mice following

  18. Genomic analysis of a spontaneous model of breast cancer metastasis to bone reveals a role for the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Parker, Belinda S; van Laar, Ryan K; Restall, Christina M; Natoli, Anthony L; Tavaria, Michael D; Stanley, Kym L; Sloan, Erica K; Moseley, Jane M; Anderson, Robin L

    2005-01-01

    A clinically relevant model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis to multiple sites, including bone, was characterized and used to identify genes involved in metastatic progression. The metastatic potential of several genetically related tumor lines was assayed using a novel real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay of tumor burden. Based on this assay, the tumor lines were categorized as nonmetastatic (67NR), weakly metastatic to lymph node (168FARN) or lung (66cl4), or highly metastatic to lymph node, lung, and bone (4T1.2 and 4T1.13). In vitro assays that mimic stages of metastasis showed that highly metastatic tumors lines were more adhesive, invasive, and migratory than the less metastatic lines. To identify metastasis-related genes in this model, each metastatic tumor was array profiled against the nonmetastatic 67NR using 15,000 mouse cDNA arrays. A significant proportion of genes relating to the extracellular matrix had elevated expression in highly metastatic tumors. The role of one of these genes, POEM, was further investigated in the model. In situ hybridization showed that POEM expression was specific to the tumor epithelium of highly metastatic tumors. Decreased POEM expression in 4T1.2 tumors significantly inhibited spontaneous metastasis to the lung, bone, and kidney. Taken together, our data support a role for the extracellular matrix in metastatic progression and describe, for the first time, a role for POEM in this process.

  19. Oligodendroglioma metastasis to the bone marrow mimicking multiple myeloma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JIAN, YUAN; GAO, WEN; WU, YIN; LI, YANCHEN; ZHANG, YONG; YANG, GUANGZHONG; CHEN, WENMING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a case of a 59-year-old male suffering from oligodendroglioma that metastasized to the bone marrow (BM). The metastasis was detected 5 years after craniotomy was performed for the resection of the primary tumor; however, it manifested as multiple myeloma (MM)-like bone lesions, a small M component and myeloma cell-like morphology in the BM. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed; evidence from the previously performed oligodendroglioma resection was observed on the scan, but there were no significant findings, which made the diagnosis particularly challenging. The patient exhibited no response to the multiple combination therapies administered targeting MM and oligodendroglioma, and subsequently developed epilepsy and pneumonia, prior to succumbing to multiple organ failure. Among the various tumor types involving the central nervous system, oligodendroglioma is the least likely to metastasize; thus, distant metastases from brain oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic oligodendroglioma presenting with typical MM-like symptoms and without any recurrence in the brain. PMID:27347150

  20. Modifying the osteoblastic niche with zoledronic acid in vivo—Potential implications for breast cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Marie-Therese; Holen, Ingunn; Dear, T. Neil; Hunter, Keith; Brown, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bone metastasis is the most common complication of advanced breast cancer. The associated cancer-induced bone disease is treated with bone-sparing agents like zoledronic acid. Clinical trials have shown that zoledronic acid also reduces breast cancer recurrence in bone; potentially by modifying the bone microenvironment surrounding disseminated tumour cells. We have characterised the early effects of zoledronic acid on key cell types of the metastatic niche in vivo, and investigated how these modify the location of breast tumour cells homing to bone. Methods Female mice were treated with a single, clinically achievable dose of zoledronic acid (100 μg/kg) or PBS. Bone integrity, osteoclast and osteoblast activity and number/mm trabecular bone on 1, 3, 5 and 10 days after treatment were assessed using μCT, ELISA (TRAP, PINP) and bone histomorphometry, respectively. The effect of zoledronic acid on osteoblasts was validated in genetically engineered mice with GFP-positive osteoblastic cells. The effects on growth plate cartilage were visualised by toluidine blue staining. For tumour studies, mice were injected i.c. with DID-labelled MDA-MB-231-NW1-luc2 breast cancer cells 5 days after zoledronic acid treatment, followed by assessment of tumour cell homing to bone and soft tissues by multiphoton microscopy, flow cytometry and ex vivo cultures. Results As early as 3 days after treatment, animals receiving zoledronic acid had significantly increased trabecular bone volume vs. control. This rapid bone effect was reflected in a significant reduction in osteoclast and osteoblast number/mm trabecular bone and reduced bone marker serum levels (day 3–5). These results were confirmed in mice expressing GFP in osteoblastic linage cells. Pre-treatment with zoledronic acid caused accumulation of an extra-cellular matrix in the growth plate associated with a trend towards preferential [1] homing of tumour cells to osteoblast-rich areas of bone, but without

  1. Targeted disruption of TGFBI in mice reveals its role in regulating bone mass and bone size through periosteal bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongrun; Wergedal, Jon E; Zhao, Yongliang; Mohan, Subburaman

    2012-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta induced (TGFBI) and periostin are two closely related proteins in structure as well as in function. A previous study found that periostin positively regulates bone size. Here, we hypothesize that TGFBI has a similar function in bone development. To test this hypothesis, we employed TGFBI-deficient mice, which were generated by targeted disruption of the TGFBI gene. We bred these mice with C57BL/6J mice to generate homozygous TGFBI-deficient (TGFBI(-/-)) mice and homozygous wild-type littermates. All mice were raised to 12 weeks of age. Bone mass parameters were determined by PIXImus and micro-CT, bone strength parameters by three-point bending, and bone formation and resorption parameters by histomorphometry. We found that targeted disruption of TGFBI led to reduced body size, bone mass, bone size, and bone strength. This indicates that, like periostin, TGFBI also positively regulates bone size and that changes in bone size affect bone strength. Furthermore, there was also a significant decrease in periosteal, but not endosteal, bone formation rate of cortical bone in TGFBI(-/-) mice, suggesting that the observed effect of TGFBI on bone mass and bone size was largely caused by the effect of TGFBI on periosteal bone formation.

  2. Roles of Chondrocytes in Endochondral Bone Formation and Fracture Repair.

    PubMed

    Hinton, R J; Jing, Y; Jing, J; Feng, J Q

    2017-01-01

    The formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and its subchondral bone is an important but understudied topic in dental research. The current concept regarding endochondral bone formation postulates that most hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo programmed cell death prior to bone formation. Under this paradigm, the MCC and its underlying bone are thought to result from 2 closely linked but separate processes: chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. However, recent investigations using cell lineage tracing techniques have demonstrated that many, perhaps the majority, of bone cells are derived via direct transformation from chondrocytes. In this review, the authors will briefly discuss the history of this idea and describe recent studies that clearly demonstrate that the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells is common in both long bone and mandibular condyle development and during bone fracture repair. The authors will also provide new evidence of a distinct difference in ossification orientation in the condylar ramus (1 ossification center) versus long bone ossification formation (2 ossification centers). Based on our recent findings and those of other laboratories, we propose a new model that contrasts the mode of bone formation in much of the mandibular ramus (chondrocyte-derived) with intramembranous bone formation of the mandibular body (non-chondrocyte-derived).

  3. Effect of spaceflight on periosteal bone formation in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for 18.5 days aboard the Soviet COSMOS 1129 biological satellite. Tetracycline was administered before and after spaceflight to label areas of bone formation. An inhibition of periosteal bone formation occurred during spaceflight in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, but this defect was corrected during the postflight period. The increased extent of arrest lines at these skeletal sites suggested that periosteal bone formation may have even ceased during spaceflight. The rib exhibited a small but nonsignificant decrease in periosteal bone formation. Endosteal bone resorption was not affected markedly by spaceflight conditions. The observed inhibition of periosteal bone formation may be a result of mechanical unloading, but endocrine factors cannot be ruled out.

  4. Effect of spaceflight on periosteal bone formation in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for 18.5 days aboard the Soviet COSMOS 1129 biological satellite. Tetracycline was administered before and after spaceflight to label areas of bone formation. An inhibition of periosteal bone formation occurred during spaceflight in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, but this defect was corrected during the postflight period. The increased extent of arrest lines at these skeletal sites suggested that periosteal bone formation may have even ceased during spaceflight. The rib exhibited a small but nonsignificant decrease in periosteal bone formation. Endosteal bone resorption was not affected markedly by spaceflight conditions. The observed inhibition of periosteal bone formation may be a result of mechanical unloading, but endocrine factors cannot be ruled out.

  5. Effects of lentivirus-mediated silencing of Periostin on tumor microenvironment and bone metastasis via the integrin-signaling pathway in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Shen, Wen-Zhuang; Deng, Yu; Dai, Yu-Hong; Liao, Yong-De; Yuan, Xiang-Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of Periostin gene silencing on tumor microenvironment and bone metastasis via the integrin-signaling pathway in lung cancer (LC). LC patients were divided into bone metastasis and non-bone metastasis groups; Healthy volunteers were selected as normal group. ELISA was performed to detect serum Periostin levels and plasma calcium ion concentration. SBC-5 cells were assigned into blank group (without transfection), negative control (NC) group (transfected with empty plasmid), si-Periostin group (transfected with si-Periostin plasmid), si-Integrin-αvβ3 group (transfected with Integrin-αvβ3 siRNA plasmid) and si-Periostin+si-Integrin-αvβ3 group (transfected with si-Periostin and si-Integrin-αvβ3 plasmid). qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression of Periostin, metastasis-associated factors of tumor microenvironment and integrin signaling pathway-related proteins. CCK-8, scratch test and transwell assay were applied to detect cell proliferation, migration and invasion respectively. Nude mouse models of LC bone metastasis were established. TRAP Staining was employed to measure the number of osteoclasts. Bone metastasis group exhibited higher levels of Periostin compared to normal and non-bone metastasis groups. Si-Periostin, si-Integrin-αvβ3 and si-Periostin+si-Integrin-αvβ3 groups showed decreased Periostin expression, proliferation rate, migration distance, invasive cells, and expressions of metastasis-associated factors of tumor microenvironment and integrin signaling pathway-related proteins compared to blank and NC groups. Similarly, number of osteoclasts and expression of integrin signaling pathway-related proteins were decreased, and bone injury and calcium ion concentration were reduced. The study demonstrated that down-regulation of Periostin expression modulated tumor microenvironment and inhibited bone metastasis by blocking integrin-signaling pathway in LC

  6. Mechanical stimulation of bone marrow in situ induces bone formation in trabecular explants.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Kreipke, T C; Dolan, E B; Coughlin, T R; Owens, P; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L; McHugh, P E

    2015-04-01

    Low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) loading has been shown to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in vivo. However, the precise mechanical signal imposed on the bone marrow cells by LMHF loading, which induces a cellular response, remains unclear. This study investigates the influence of LMHF loading, applied using a custom designed bioreactor, on bone adaptation in an explanted trabecular bone model, which isolated the bone and marrow. Bone adaptation was investigated by performing micro CT scans pre and post experimental LMHF loading, using image registration techniques. Computational fluids dynamic models were generated using the pre-experiment scans to characterise the mechanical stimuli imposed by the loading regime prior to adaptation. Results here demonstrate a significant increase in bone formation in the LMHF loaded group compared to static controls and media flow groups. The calculated shear stress in the marrow was between 0.575 and 0.7 Pa, which is within the range of stimuli known to induce osteogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Interestingly, a correlation was found between the bone formation balance (bone formation/resorption), trabecular number, trabecular spacing, mineral resorption rate, bone resorption rate and mean shear stresses. The results of this study suggest that the magnitude of the shear stresses generated due to LMHF loading in the explanted bone cores has a contributory role in the formation of trabecular bone and improvement in bone architecture parameters.

  7. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tobie D; Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally Somanathan; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G; Martin, Chelsea K; Werbeck, Jillian L; Rosol, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis.

  8. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Tobie D.; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Werbeck, Jillian L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis. PMID:21374084

  9. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-03-25

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination.

  10. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination. PMID:27023526

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor-1 is Upregulated in Reactive Stroma of Primary Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotun; Wang, Wenbin; True, Lawrence D.; Vessella, Robert L.; Takayama, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate cancer progression is partly facilitated by tumor-stroma interactions. We recently reported that protease-activated receptors (PAR-1 and PAR-2) are overexpressed in prostate cancer, and PAR-1 expression in peritumoral stroma is associated with biochemical recurrence. However, the nature of PAR expression in prostate tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We therefore evaluated PAR-1 and PAR-2 expression in primary prostate cancer and bone metastasis. METHODS PAR-1 and PAR-2 expression in normal, primary prostate cancer and the corresponding bone metastatic tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry, and double-label immunohistochemistry with the use of additional markers. RESULTS PAR-1 was expressed in peritumoral stroma in the majority of primary cancer tissues (83%). Serial sections and double-label immunohistochemistry determined that these PAR-1 expressing stromal cells were predominantly myofibroblasts, the primary cell type in reactive stroma. Analysis of cancer glands revealed that PAR-1 expression was significantly increased in the reactive stroma around higher Gleason grade cancers. PAR-2 was predominantly expressed in the primary cancer cells as well as smooth muscle cells but not in reactive stroma. In bone metastasis, PAR-1 expression in cancer cells was elevated compared to the primary site from the same patient. In the bone reactive stroma, PAR-1 was present in vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts, while both PAR-1 and PAR-2 were expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. CONCLUSIONS In primary prostate cancer and bone metastasis, PAR-1 is upregulated in reactive stroma and PAR-2 is uniformly overexpressed in carcinoma cells, suggesting these receptors may play potentially different roles in prostate cancer development and metastasis. PMID:19170048

  12. Time course of disassociation of bone formation signals with bone mass and bone strength in sclerostin antibody treated ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfei L; Hamang, Matthew; Lucchesi, Jonathan; Bivi, Nicoletta; Zeng, Qianqiang; Adrian, Mary D; Raines, Sarah E; Li, Jiliang; Kuhstoss, Stuart A; Obungu, Victor; Bryant, Henry U; Krishnan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sclerostin antibodies increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. However, human and animal studies show that bone formation increases transiently and returns to pre-treatment level despite ongoing antibody treatment. To understand its mechanism of action, we studied the time course of bone formation, correlating the rate and extent of accrual of bone mass and strength after sclerostin antibody treatment. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with a sclerostin-antibody (Scle-ab) at 20mg/kg sc once weekly and sacrificed at baseline and 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8weeks post-treatment. In Scle-ab treated rats, serum PINP and OCN rapidly increased at week 1, peaked around week 3, and returned to OVX control levels by week 6. Transcript analyses from the distal femur revealed an early increase in bone formation followed by a sustained decrease in bone resorption genes. Lumbar vertebral (LV) osteoblast surface increased 88% by week 2, and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) increased 138% by week 4. Both parameters were below OVX control by week 8. Bone formation was primarily a result of modeling based formation. Endocortical and periosteal BFR/BS peaked around week 4 at 313% and 585% of OVX control, respectively. BFR/BS then declined but remained higher than OVX control on both surfaces through week 8. Histomorphometric analyses showed LV-BV/TV did not further increase after week 4, while BMD continued to increase at LV, mid femur (MF), and femoral neck (FN) through week 8. Biomechanical tests showed a similar improvement in bone strength through 8weeks in MF and FN, but bone strength plateaued between weeks 6 and 8 for LV. Our data suggest that bone formation with Scle-ab treatment is rapid and modeling formation dominated in OVX rats. Although transient, the bone formation response persists longer in cortical than trabecular bone.

  13. Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Antje; Hawighorst, Thomas; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about 74% of triple-negative breast cancers express receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which might be used as a therapeutic target. Recently, we could show that bone-directed invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro is time- and dose-dependently reduced by GnRH analogs. In the present study, we have analyzed whether GnRH analogs are able to reduce metastases of triple-negative breast cancers in vivo. In addition, we have evaluated the effects of GnRH analogs on tumor growth. To quantify formation of metastasis by triple-negative MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancers, we used a real-time PCR method based on detection of human-specific alu sequences measuring accurately the amount of human tumor DNA in athymic mouse organs. To analyze tumor growth, the volumes of breast cancer xenotransplants into nude mice were measured. We could demonstrate that GnRH analogs significantly reduced metastasis formation by triple-negative breast cancer in vivo. In addition, we could show that GnRH analogs significantly inhibited the growth of breast cancer into nude mice. Side effects were not detectable. In conclusion, GnRH analogs seem to be suitable drugs for an efficacious therapy for triple-negative, GnRH receptor-positive human breast cancers to prevent metastasis formation.

  14. Biomimetism, biomimetic matrices and the induction of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2009-09-01

    the induction of bone formation, the emergence of the skeleton, of the vertebrates and of Homo species * Different strategies for the induction of bone formation. Biological significance of redundancy and synergistic induction of bone formation. Biomimetism and biomimetic matrices self-assembling the induction of bone formation The concavity: the shape of life and the induction of bone formation. Influence of geometry on the expression of the osteogenic phenotype. Conclusion and therapeutic perspectives on porous biomimetic matrices with intrinsic osteoinductivity Bone formation by induction initiates by invocation of osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily; when combined with insoluble signals or substrata, the osteogenic soluble signals trigger the ripple-like cascade of cell differentiation into osteoblastic cell lines secreting bone matrix at site of surgical implantation. A most exciting and novel strategy to initiate bone formation by induction is to carve smart self-inducing geometric concavities assembled within biomimetic constructs. The assembly of a series of repetitive concavities within the biomimetic constructs is endowed with the striking prerogative of differentiating osteoblast-like cells attached to the biomimetic matrices initiating the induction of bone formation as a secondary response. Importantly, the induction of bone formation is initiated without the exogenous application of the osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-beta superfamily. This manuscript reviews the available data on this fascinating phenomenon, i.e. biomimetic matrices that arouse and set into motion the mammalian natural ability to heal thus constructing biomimetic matrices that in their own right set into motion inductive regenerative phenomena initiating the cascade of bone differentiation by induction biomimetizing the remodelling cycle of the primate cortico-cancellous bone.

  15. Increased expression of putative cancer stem cell markers in the bone marrow of prostate cancer patients is associated with bone metastasis progression.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Estelle; Mattei, Eve; Dumontet, Charles; Eaton, Colby L; Hamdy, Freddy; van der Pluije, Gabri; Cecchini, Marco; Thalmann, George; Clezardin, Philippe; Colombel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    The number of cells positive for the α-6 and α-2 integrin subunits and the c-Met receptor in primary tumors and bone biopsies from prostate cancer patients has been correlated with metastasis and disease progression. The objective of this study was to quantify disseminated tumour cells present in bone marrow in prostate cancer patients using specific markers and determine their correlation with metastasis and survival. Patients were included at different stage of prostate cancer disease, from localised to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Healthy men were used as a control group. Bone marrow samples were collected and nucleated cells separated. These were stained for CD45, α-2, α-6 integrin subunits and c-Met and samples were processed for analysis and quantification of CD45-/α2+/α6+/c-met + cells using flow cytometry. Clinical and pathological parameters were assessed and survival measured. Statistical analyses were made of associations between disease specific parameters, bone marrow flow cytometry data, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression free survival and bone metastases progression free survival. For all markers, the presence of more than 0.1% positive cells in bone marrow aspirates was significantly associated with the risk of biochemical progression, the risk of developing metastasis and death from prostate cancer. Quantification of cells carrying putative stem cell markers in bone marrow is a potential indicator of disease progression. Functional studies on isolated cells are needed to show more specifically their property for metastatic spread in prostate cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  17. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAIYING; MOLINA, JULIAN; JIANG, JOHN; FERBER, MATTHEW; PRUTHI, SANDHYA; JATKOE, TIMOTHY; DERECHO, CARLO; RAJPUROHIT, YASHODA; ZHENG, JIAN; WANG, YIXIN

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  18. Bone formation and resorption markers as diagnostic tools for bone metastases evaluation.

    PubMed

    Galliera, Emanuela; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Gagliano, Fabio; Colloredo Mels, Ludovica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Drago, Lorenzo

    2012-12-27

    Bone metastases are a frequent complication of several types of cancers. Since bone metastases are difficult to diagnose with the current available approaches, there is a demand for new methods for assessing bone response. In this context, biochemical markers of bone remodeling may provide useful information on bone turnover that, in turn, may reflect disease activity in bone. In this study we tested a panel of bone remodeling markers (distinguishing between bone formation and bone resorption ones) in different groups of cancer patients, so as to evaluate the potential clinical role of the examined bone remodeling markers in the early diagnosis of metastases formation and progression. Among the bone resorption markers, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) resulted the most specific for the metastatic tumor stage. Both the bone formation markers we analyzed displayed a direct correlation (positive for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BAP] and negative for osteocalcin [OC]) with tumor disease progression, ranging from healthy controls to primary tumor and, ultimately, to the metastatic stage. Taken together our results suggest that these markers can be valuable tools to be used, in parallel with traditional methods of metastases diagnosis, in order to monitor more in detail the pathological effect of metastases progression in bone tissue.

  19. Bone Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma is Preprogrammed in the Primary Tumor and Caused by AKT and Integrin α5 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Haber, Tobias; Jöckel, Elke; Roos, Frederik C; Junker, Kerstin; Prawitt, Dirk; Hampel, Christian; Thüroff, Joachim W; Brenner, Walburgis

    2015-08-01

    Bone metastasis develops in 30% of all patients with renal cell carcinoma. We elucidated the mechanisms that lead to and predict bone metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Nine renal cell carcinoma primary cell lines and 30 renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens (normal and tumor tissue) were collected from 3 patients with no metastasis and 10 with lung or bone metastasis within 5 years after nephrectomy. Cell migration was analyzed in a Boyden chamber and proliferation was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Adhesion to fibronectin, and collagen I and IV was determined after cell staining. The expression and/or activity of cellular signaling molecules was quantified by Western blot. Compared to renal cell carcinoma cells from patients without metastasis, the migration of cells from patients with bone metastasis was enhanced 13.5-fold (p = 0.034), and adhesion to fibronectin and collagen I was enhanced 5.8-fold and 6.1-fold (p = 0.002 and 0.014, respectively). In general proliferation was decreased in metastasizing cells. In accordance with these results we detected higher activity of AKT (p = 0.011) and FAK (p = 0.054), higher integrin α5 expression (p = 0.052) and lower PTEN expression in primary cells from patients with bone metastasis compared to nonmetastasizing cells. An almost similarly altered expression pattern was also observed in the renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens and the normal renal tissue of patients with bone metastasis. We describe evidence that molecular predispositions determine the potential for bone metastasis to develop in renal cell carcinoma, which may serve as prognostic markers after initial tumor detection. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Interleukin-6/GP130 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression and its Contribution to Bone Metastasis Morbidity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Chevalier, S . (2002). Androgen ablation promotes neuroendocrine cell differentiation in dog and human prostate. The Prostate 51, 117-125. 20. Ito, T...information The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department...its contribution to bone metastasis morbidity 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Richard Paul Redvers 5d. PROJECT

  1. Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Synthetic TF Antigen Mimic/Galectin-3 Inhibitor Lactulose-l-Leucine1

    PubMed Central

    Glinskii, Olga V; Sud, Sudha; Mossine, Valeri V; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2012-01-01

    Currently incurable, prostate cancer metastasis has a remarkable ability to spread to the skeleton. Previous studies demonstrated that interactions mediated by the cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen (TF-Ag) and the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 play an important role in several rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis such as metastatic cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, and clonogenic survival and growth. This study investigated the ability of a synthetic small-molecular-weight nontoxic carbohydrate-based TF-Ag mimic lactulose-l-leucine (Lac-l-Leu) to inhibit these processes in vitro and, ultimately, prostate cancer bone metastasis in vivo. Using an in vivo mouse model, based on intracardiac injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells stably expressing luciferase, we investigated the ability of Lac-l-Leu to impede the establishment and growth of bone metastasis. Parallel-flow chamber assay, homotypic aggregation assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and clonogenic growth assay were used to assess the effects of Lac-l-Leu on tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium, homotypic tumor cell aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic survival and growth, respectively. We report that daily intraperitoneal administration of Lac-l-Leu resulted in a three-fold (P < .05) decrease in metastatic tumor burden compared with the untreated control. Mechanistically, the effect of Lac-l-Leu, which binds and inhibits galectins by mimicking essential structural features of the TF-Ag, was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of prostate cancer cell adhesion to bone marrow endothelium, homotypic aggregation, transendothelial migration, and clonogenic growth. We conclude that small-molecular-weight carbohydrate-based compounds targeting β-galactoside-mediated interactions could provide valuable means for controlling and preventing metastatic prostate cancer spread to the skeleton. PMID:22355275

  2. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  3. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P

    2003-06-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  4. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  5. Transketolase-Like 1 Expression Is Modulated during Colorectal Cancer Progression and Metastasis Formation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Moralli, Santiago; Tarrado-Castellarnau, Miriam; Alenda, Cristina; Castells, Antoni; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Background Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) induces glucose degradation through anaerobic pathways, even in presence of oxygen, favoring the malignant aerobic glycolytic phenotype characteristic of tumor cells. As TKTL1 appears to be a valid biomarker for cancer prognosis, the aim of the current study was to correlate its expression with tumor stage, probability of tumor recurrence and survival, in a series of colorectal cancer patients. Methodolody/Principal Findings Tumor tissues from 63 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at different stages of progression were analyzed for TKTL1 by immunohistochemistry. Staining was quantified by computational image analysis, and correlations between enzyme expression, local growth, lymph-node involvement and metastasis were assessed. The highest values for TKTL1 expression were detected in the group of stage III tumors, which showed significant differences from the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.000008). Deeper analyses of T, N and M classifications revealed a weak correlation between local tumor growth and enzyme expression (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.029), a significant association of the enzyme expression with lymph-node involvement (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0014) and a significant decrease in TKTL1 expression associated with metastasis (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0004). Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, few studies have explored the association between variations in TKTL1 expression in the primary tumor and metastasis formation. Here we report downregulation of enzyme expression when metastasis appears, and a correlation between enzyme expression and regional lymph-node involvement in colon cancer. This finding may improve our understanding of metastasis and lead to new and more efficient therapies against cancer. PMID:21980427

  6. Lutein, a carotenoid, suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in cultures.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    Lutein, a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, suppressed IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The survival of mature osteoclasts was also suppressed by lutein in cultures. When lutein was added to the cultures of osteoblasts, lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules by elevating BMP2 expression and inhibiting sclerostin expression. Lutein may be beneficial for bone health.

  7. A survey of patterns of practice on palliative radiation therapy for bone metastasis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoonsun; Koom, Woong Sub; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Hee-Chul; Kim, Hak Jae; Yoon, Sang Min; Shin, Sangjin; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the practice patterns of palliative radiation therapy for bone metastasis in Korea among Korean radiation oncologists by survey and to determine the decision factors affecting the prescription of radiation therapy fractionation schedules. An Internet-based survey was performed from October 5 to October 23, 2009, among 177 active full members of the Korean Society for Radiation and Oncology (KOSRO). The survey questionnaire included general information about the respondent, three types of clinical scenario, depending on the life expectancy of the patients, and the decision factors that affected the prescription of a radiation therapy schedule. The most prescribed schedule was 30 Gy in 10 fractions regardless of the life expectancy of the patient. Also, it was found that a single fraction was seldom prescribed routinely in Korea. An increasing number prescribed fewer than 10 fractions as the life expectancy shortened; however, the prescription rate of a single fraction was still low. The general performance (and/or accompanying diseases) of patients and the life expectancy were the most considered factors in deciding the prescription of radiation therapy. Despite the abundant evidence supporting the equivalence of single- and multi-fraction radiation therapy, still, most Korean radiation oncologists continue to prescribe multi-fraction schedules depending on the general performance and life expectancy of the patients. Thus, we confirmed that there was a gap between evidence and practice, and treatment prescriptions can be strongly affected by decision factors other than published literature results.

  8. The role of Tks adaptor proteins in invadopodia formation, growth and metastasis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Abdullah, Christopher; Buschman, Matthew D.; Diaz, Begoña; Courtneidge, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancer cells are characterized by their ability to degrade and invade through extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the Tks adaptor proteins, Tks4 and Tks5, are required for invadopodia formation and/or function in Src-transformed fibroblasts and a number of human cancer cell types. In this study, we investigated the role of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma cell invasion and metastasis. Knockdown of either Tks4 or Tks5 in both mouse and human melanoma cell lines resulted in a decreased ability to form invadopodia and degrade extracellular matrix. In addition, Tks-knockdown melanoma cells had decreased proliferation in a 3-dimensional type l collagen matrix, but not in 2-dimensional culture conditions. We also investigated the role of Tks proteins in melanoma progression in vivo using xenografts and experimental metastasis assays. Consistent with our in vitro results, reduction of Tks proteins markedly reduced subcutaneous melanoma growth as well as metastatic growth in the lung. We explored the clinical relevance of Tks protein expression in human melanoma specimens using a tissue microarray. Compared to non-malignant nevi, both Tks proteins were highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, metastatic melanoma cases showed higher expression of Tks5 than primary melanoma cases. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo, likely via functional invadopodia formation. PMID:27802184

  9. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer, Hematological Malignancy, Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro, silk scaffolds, osteogenic microRNAs...platform to study cancer-bone interactions. Keywords Multiple Myeloma, Blood Cancer, Hematological Malignancy, Bone Metastasis, 3D Model, In vitro... Hematology 3250 BLOOD, 20 NOVEMBER 2014 x VOLUME 124, NUMBER 22 For personal use only.on January 2, 2015. by guest www.bloodjournal.orgFrom

  10. Brief review of models of ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michelle A; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; James, Aaron W

    2012-03-20

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity--distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success.

  11. Design and synthesis of pyrimidinyl acyl thioureas as novel Hsp90 inhibitors in invasive ductal breast cancer and its bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Koca, İrfan; Özgür, Aykut; Er, Muhammet; Gümüş, Mehmet; Açikalin Coşkun, Kübra; Tutar, Yusuf

    2016-10-21

    Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common breast malignancies tumors and has tendency to bone metastases. Many oncogenic client proteins involved in formation of metastatic pathways. Stabilization, regulation, and maintenance of these oncogenic client proteins are provided with Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 perform these processes through its ATP binding and subsequent hydrolysis energy. Therefore, designing Hsp90 inhibitors is a novel cancer treatment method. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors have solubility problems and showed adverse effects in clinical trials. Thus, we designed and synthesized novel pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives to selectively inhibit Hsp90 alpha in human invasive ductal breast (MCF-7) and human bone osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cell lines. In vitro experiments showed that the compounds inhibited cell proliferation, ATP hydrolysis, and exhibited cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines. Further, gene expression was analyzed by microarray studies on MCF-7 cell lines. Several genes that play vital roles in breast cancer pathogenesis displayed altered gene expression in the presence of a selected pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea compound. Molecular docking studies were also performed to determine interaction between Hsp90 ATPase domain and pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives. The results indicated that the compounds are able to interact with Hsp90 ATP binding pocket and inhibit ATPase function. The designed compounds powerfully inhibit Hsp90 by an average of 1 μM inhibition constant. And further, the compounds perturb Hsp90 N terminal domain proper orientation and ATP may not provide required conformational change for Hsp90 function as evidenced by in silico experiments. Therefore, the designed compounds effectively inhibited both invasive ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis. Pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives may provide a drug template for effective treatment of invasive ductal breast carcinoma and its bone metastasis as

  12. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  13. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  14. Inhibition of cortical and trabecular bone formation in the long bones of immobilized monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tetracycline derivatives are administered on three separate occasions to label the sites of bone formation. Determinations are made of the tetracycline-labeling frequency and mineral apposition rate of osteons and trabecular bone surfaces in the humerus and femur. The inhibition of bone formation induced by immobilization is found to be more pronounced in trabecular bone. The immobilized monkeys exhibit a moderate, but statistically nonsignificant, reduction in the percentage of osteons forming bone. Conversely, the dramatic decline in the percentage of trabecular surfaces undergoing bone formation in the monkeys is found to be highly significant. The diminished rate of mineral apposition in osteons is seen as suggesting that osteoblastic activity is impaired in cortical bone during immobilization.

  15. The role of the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in the progression and metastasis of bone sarcomas (Review).

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Cheng-Hao; Zeng, Hui; Zuo, Dong-Qing; Wang, Zhuo-Ying; Yin, Fei; Hua, Ying-Qing; Cai, Zheng-Dong

    2013-12-01

    Bone sarcomas, which comprise less than 1% of all human malignancies, are a group of relatively rare mesenchymal-derived tumors. They are mainly composed of osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. In spite of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and wide surgical resection, prognosis remains poor due to the high propensity for lung metastasis, which is the leading cause of mortality in patients with bone sarcomas. Chemokines are a superfamily of small pro-inflammatory chemoattractant cytokines which can bind to specific G protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokine 12 (CXCL12), also designated as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is able to bind to its cognate receptors, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7), with high affinity. The binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4/CXCR7 stimulates the activation of several downstream signaling pathways that regulate tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, the structure and function of CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, as well as many factors affecting their expression are discussed. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are the two most important downstream pathways regulated by the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 interaction. CXCR4 expression in bone sarcomas, including tumor cells and samples and the correlation between CXCR4/CXCR7 expression and the survival of patients with bone sarcomas are also discussed. In addition, we review the involvement of the CXCL12‑CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in the growth and metastasis of bone sarcomas and the targeting of this axis in preclinical studies.

  16. [Fluoride effect on bone formation--an overview].

    PubMed

    Mohr, H

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate our present knowledge of fluoride effect on bone formation on basis of the literature. It is likely that fluoride affects the remodelling processes of the skeleton as well as growth related bone formation. During bone remodelling the amount of bone and osteoid tissue is increased by alteration of the balance between resorption and formation. This finding may be accompagnied by impaired mineralization. In studies of fluoride effect on growth related bone formation a number of quantitative histologic alterations have been observed. These include reduction in epiphyseal plate thickness and changes in cellular morphology as well as a retardation of mineralization. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind the observed effects and the variation in tissue response are still unexplained. Fluoride may have a direct cellular effect causing disturbances in cell morphology and metabolism, but the effects may also involve local supracellular mechanisms as well as the general homeostasis of the individual.

  17. New bone formation by orthodontic tooth movement for implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Cabbar, Fatih; Nur, Rahime Burcu; Dikici, Burcu; Canpolat, Ceyhun; Capar, Gonca Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Bone defects at the anterior regions of the jaws often cause esthetic problems such as gingival disharmonies and longer crowns than neighboring teeth. Variety of procedures can be used in this region for achieving sufficient bone volume with or without different bone graft materials. All of these procedures has their own advantages and disadventages. New bone formation was defined with orthodontic tooth movement in different regions. In this case we present the use of orthodontic tooth movement, for achieving sufficient bone volume, in anterior maxillary region, for esthetic and functional results. PMID:28299281

  18. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-09-01

    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover.

  19. Efficacy of a cathepsin K inhibitor in a preclinical model for prevention and treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Duong, Le T; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Leung, Patrick; Oballa, Renata; Pickarski, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is essential for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. CatK expression is also detected in breast cancer cells that metastasize to bone. Here, the CatK inhibitor L-235 dosed in prevention (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) or treatment regimen (30 mg/kg) was compared with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZOL, 7.5 μg/kg/wk, s.c.) in the intratibial injection model of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma in nude rats. Progression of osteolysis, skeletal tumor burden, and local metastasis was evaluated by radiography through 42 days and ex vivo μCT and histology. IHC and RT-PCR confirmed the increases in CatK protein and mRNA levels in human breast cancer primary and metastatic tumors. In the experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis, L-235 dosed in preventive mode resulted in a dose-related reduction of osteolysis of 72%, 75%, and 87% respectively, compared with ZOL by 86% versus intact. Similarly, L-235 significantly reduced intratibial tumor volume by 29%, 40%, and 63%, respectively, compared with 56% by ZOL versus vehicle. Efficacy of L-235 and ZOL on reduction of osteolytic lesions and tumor burden was comparable in treatment versus preventive regimens. All L-235 doses inhibited cortical disruption and extraskeletal tumor growth to a level comparable with ZOL. Assessment of local metastasis demonstrated that treatment with the CatK inhibitor was more effective than ZOL in reducing breast cancer invasion. These data support the role of CatK in breast cancer skeletal growth and metastasis and CatK inhibitors may represent a novel oral therapy for treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  20. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models. PMID:27896266

  1. In Vitro Bone Cell Models: Impact of Fluid Shear Stress on Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Wittkowske, Claudia; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Lacroix, Damien; Perrault, Cecile M

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity. Changes in loading, e.g., due to extended periods of bed rest or microgravity in space are associated with altered bone remodeling and formation in vivo. In vitro, it has been reported that bone cells respond to fluid shear stress by releasing osteogenic signaling factors, such as nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. This work focusses on the application of in vitro models to study the effects of fluid flow on bone cell signaling, collagen deposition, and matrix mineralization. Particular attention is given to in vitro set-ups, which allow long-term cell culture and the application of low fluid shear stress. In addition, this review explores what mechanisms influence the orientation of collagen fibers, which determine the anisotropic properties of bone. A better understanding of these mechanisms could facilitate the design of improved tissue-engineered bone implants or more effective bone disease models.

  2. Bone sialoprotein plays a functional role in bone formation and osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malaval, Luc; Wade-Guéye, Ndéyé Marième; Boudiffa, Maya; Fei, Jia; Zirngibl, Ralph; Chen, Frieda; Laroche, Norbert; Roux, Jean-Paul; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Duboeuf, François; Boivin, Georges; Jurdic, Pierre; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Amédée, Joëlle; Vico, Laurence; Rossant, Janet; Aubin, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) are both highly expressed in bone, but their functional specificities are unknown. OPN knockout (−/−) mice do not lose bone in a model of hindlimb disuse (tail suspension), showing the importance of OPN in bone remodeling. We report that BSP−/− mice are viable and breed normally, but their weight and size are lower than wild-type (WT) mice. Bone is undermineralized in fetuses and young adults, but not in older (≥12 mo) BSP−/− mice. At 4 mo, BSP−/− mice display thinner cortical bones than WT, but greater trabecular bone volume with very low bone formation rate, which indicates reduced resorption, as confirmed by lower osteoclast surfaces. Although the frequency of total colonies and committed osteoblast colonies is the same, fewer mineralized colonies expressing decreased levels of osteoblast markers form in BSP−/− versus WT bone marrow stromal cultures. BSP−/− hematopoietic progenitors form fewer osteoclasts, but their resorptive activity on dentin is normal. Tail-suspended BSP−/− mice lose bone in hindlimbs, as expected. In conclusion, BSP deficiency impairs bone growth and mineralization, concomitant with dramatically reduced bone formation. It does not, however, prevent the bone loss resulting from loss of mechanical stimulation, a phenotype that is clearly different from OPN−/− mice. PMID:18458111

  3. Carbon nanotubes with high bone-tissue compatibility and bone-formation acceleration effects.

    PubMed

    Usui, Yuki; Aoki, Kaoru; Narita, Nobuyo; Murakami, Narumichi; Nakamura, Isao; Nakamura, Koichi; Ishigaki, Norio; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Taruta, Seiichi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Saito, Naoto

    2008-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used in various fields as composites with other substances or alone to develop highly functional materials. CNTs hold great interest with respect to biomaterials, particularly those to be positioned in contact with bone such as prostheses for arthroplasty, plates or screws for fracture fixation, drug delivery systems, and scaffolding for bone regeneration. Accordingly, bone-tissue compatibility of CNTs and CNT influence on bone formation are important issues, but the effects of CNTs on bone have not been delineated. Here, it is found that multi-walled CNTs adjoining bone induce little local inflammatory reaction, show high bone-tissue compatibility, permit bone repair, become integrated into new bone, and accelerate bone formation stimulated by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). This study provides an initial investigational basis for CNTs in biomaterials that are used adjacent to bone, including uses to promote bone regeneration. These findings should encourage development of clinical treatment modalities involving CNTs.

  4. Denosumab and Bone Metastasis-Free Survival in Men With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Results of a Global Phase 3, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Coleman, Robert; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Tombal, Bertrand; Miller, Kurt; Sieber, Paul; Karsh, Lawrence; Damião, Ronaldo; Tammela, Teuvo L; Egerdie, Blair; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Chin, Joseph; Morote, Juan; Gómez-Veiga, Francisco; Borkowski, Tomasz; Ye, Zhishen; Kupic, Amy; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that osteoclast inhibition may prevent bone metastases. This phase 3 study evaluated denosumab, a fully human anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody, to prevent bone metastasis or death from any cause in men with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Methods Men with non-metastatic CRPC at high risk for bone metastasis (PSA ≥8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time ≤10.0 months) were enrolled in 319 centers from 30 countries. Patients were randomised 1:1 in blinded fashion using an interactive voice response system to receive monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. The primary endpoint was bone metastasis-free survival, a composite endpoint determined by time to first occurrence of bone metastasis (symptomatic or asymptomatic) or death. Results 1432 patients were randomised, 716 to receive denosumab and 716 to receive placebo. Denosumab significantly increased bone metastasis-free survival by a median of 4.2 months over placebo (hazard ratio 0.85 [0.73–0.98]; P=0.028). Denosumab also significantly delayed time to first bone metastasis (hazard ratio 0.84 [0.71–0.98]; P=0.032). Overall survival was similar between groups (hazard ratio 1.01 [0.85–1.20]; P=0.91). Rates of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were generally similar between groups, except for osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ) and hypocalcemia. Yearly cumulative incidence of ONJ for denosumab was: 1%, 3%, 4% in years 1, 2, 3, respectively; overall, less than 5% (n=33). Hypocalcemia occurred in under 2% (n=12) of denosumab and under 1% (n=2) of placebo patients. The blinded treatment phase has been completed. Conclusion In men with CRPC, denosumab significantly prolonged bone metastasis-free survival and delayed time to bone metastasis. This is the first large randomised study to demonstrate that targeting the bone microenvironment prevents bone metastasis in

  5. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (P<0.001). Event-free survival was significantly shorter in Group B (hazard ratio: 8.31, 95% CI: 1.33-12.14, log-rank test; P<0.05). The groups were also divided by the results of 2 radiologists' visual scan interpretations, and no significant differences were shown in the number of SRE (P=0.82, P=0.10). When correlation analyses were performed between aBSI and bone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, P<0.05). In conclusion, aBSI is proposed as a useful and objective imaging biomarker in the detection of breast-cancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  6. KLF4-dependent perivascular cell plasticity mediates pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Murgai, Meera; Ju, Wei; Eason, Matthew; Kline, Jessica; Beury, Daniel W; Kaczanowska, Sabina; Miettinen, Markku M; Kruhlak, Michael; Lei, Haiyan; Shern, Jack F; Cherepanova, Olga A; Owens, Gary K; Kaplan, Rosandra N

    2017-10-01

    A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites. We used perivascular-cell-specific and pericyte-specific lineage-tracing models to trace the fate of perivascular cells in the pre-metastatic and metastatic microenvironments. We show that perivascular cells lose the expression of traditional vSMC and pericyte markers in response to tumor-secreted factors and exhibit increased proliferation, migration and ECM synthesis. Increased expression of the pluripotency gene Klf4 in these phenotypically switched perivascular cells promoted a less differentiated state, characterized by enhanced ECM production, that established a pro-metastatic fibronectin-rich environment. Genetic inactivation of Klf4 in perivascular cells decreased formation of a pre-metastatic niche and metastasis. Our data revealed a previously unidentified role for perivascular cells in pre-metastatic niche formation and uncovered novel strategies for limiting metastasis.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engineered to Secrete Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Inhibit Tumor Metastasis and the Formation of Malignant Ascites in a Murine Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liping; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Yue, Dan; Ma, Jinhu; Zhao, Da; Hou, Xiaoming; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-03-01

    The therapeutic effects of conventional treatments for advanced colorectal cancer with colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC) and malignant ascites are not very encouraging. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A/vascular permeability factors (VEGF-A/VPF) play key roles in the formation of malignant ascites. In previous work, we demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) antagonized VEGF-A and could repress tumor growth and suppress metastasis in several cancer types. Thus, PEDF may be a therapeutic candidate for treating malignant ascites. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising tools for delivering therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. In the study, MSCs derived from bone marrow were efficiently engineered to secrete human PEDF by adenoviral transduction. Then, intraperitoneal Ad-PEDF-transduced MSCs were analyzed with respect to CRPC and malignant ascites in a CT26 CRPC model. MSCs engineered to secrete PEDF through adenoviral transduction significantly inhibited tumor metastasis and malignant ascites formation in CT26 CRPC mice. Antitumor mechanisms of MSCs-PEDF (MSCs transduced with Ad-PEDF: MOI 500) were associated with inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis, and restoring the VEGF-A/sFLT-1 ratio in ascites. Moreover, MSC-mediated Ad-PEDF delivery reduced production of adenovirus-neutralizing antibodies, prolonged PEDF expression, and induced MSCs-PEDF migration toward tumor cells. As a conclusion, MSCs engineered to secrete PEDF by adenoviral transduction may be a therapeutic approach for suppressing tumor metastasis and inhibiting malignant ascites production in CRPC.

  8. Tumor-environment biomimetics delay peritoneal metastasis formation by deceiving and redirecting disseminated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; Mariën, Lore; Jones, Christopher J; De Craene, Bram; Berx, Geert; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Remon, Jean-Paul; Ceelen, Wim; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Geest, Bruno G; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is life threatening and is the result of an extensive communication between disseminated cancer cells, mesothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). CAFs secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins creating a receptive environment for peritoneal implantation. Considering cancer as an ecosystem may provide opportunities to exploit CAFs to create biomimetic traps to deceive and redirect cancer cells. We have designed microparticles (MP) containing a CAF-derived ECM-surface that is intended to compete with natural niches. CAFs were encapsulated in alginate/gelatine beads (500-750 μm in diameter) functionalised with a polyelectrolyte coating (MP[CAF]). The encapsulated CAFs remain viable and metabolically active (≥35 days), when permanently encapsulated. CAF-derived ECM proteins are retained by the non-biodegradable coating. Adhesion experiments mimicking the environment of the peritoneal cavity show the selective capture of floating cancer cells from different tumor origins by MP[CAF] compared to control MP. MP[CAF] are distributed throughout the abdominal cavity without attachment to intestinal organs and without signs of inflammatory reaction. Intraperitoneal delivery of MP[CAF] and sequential removal redirects cancer cell adhesion from the surgical wound to the MP[CAF], delays peritoneal metastasis formation and prolongs animal survival. Our experiments suggest the use of a biomimetic trap based on tumor-environment interactions to delay peritoneal metastasis.

  9. Targeting L1 cell adhesion molecule expression using liposome-encapsulated siRNA suppresses prostate cancer bone metastasis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Petros, John A.; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Zeng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Wei-Chien; Chung, Leland W. K.; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) has been implicated in tumor progression of many types of cancers, but its role in prostate cancer and its application in targeted gene therapy have not been investigated. Herein, we demonstrated that the L1CAM was expressed in androgen-insensitive and highly metastatic human prostate cancer cell lines. The correlation between L1CAM expression and prostate cancer metastasis was also validated in serum samples of prostate cancer patients. Knockdown of L1CAM expression in prostate cancer cells by RNA interference significantly decreased their aggressive behaviors, including colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro, and tumor formation in a metastatic murine model. These anti-malignant phenotypes of L1CAM-knockdown cancer cells were accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression and nuclear factor NF-κB activation. In vivo targeting of L1CAM expression using liposome-encapsulated L1CAM siRNAs effectively inhibited prostate cancer growth in mouse bone, which was associated with decreased L1CAM expression and cell proliferation by tumor cells. These results provide the first evidence for L1CAM being a major contributor to prostate cancer metastasis and translational application of siRNA-based L1CAM-targeted therapy. PMID:25294816

  10. Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Gao, Yu-Hai; Yan, Juan-Li; Shi, Wen-Gui; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMFs 1.5 h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8 mT SEMFs at 1.5 h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.

  11. Atypical bone metastasis and radiation changes in a colon cancer: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y K; Park, H C; Kim, Y S

    2001-04-01

    We report a unique case of skeletal metastasis with prominent soft tissue extension from a colon cancer in a 44-year-old male patient. Four years after the diagnosis of colon cancer, plain radiographic examinations revealed a prominent soft tissue mass associated with cortical destruction of the right femur. Palliative radiotherapy of the right femur was performed. After completing radiotherapy, massive remineralization was seen in the soft tissue component. With the assistance of pre- and post-radiotherapy computerized tomography images, obtained in the process of planning the radiotherapy, we reached the conclusion that in our case the pre-radiotherapy finding was an extreme case of eccentric expansion of the bony cortex due to the outgrowth of bony metastasis. Retrospectively, the initial prominent soft tissue mass associated with the cortical destruction seems to have been a protruding bone metastasis, extending from the medial aspect of the right femur. This peculiar feature with remineralization after radiotherapy should help explain the phenomenon of atypical bony metastasis from a radiological perspective.

  12. Heterotopic new bone formation causes resorption of the inductive bone matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, O.S.; Persson, P.E.; Ekelund, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The bone matrix of growing rats was labeled by multiple injections of 3H-proline, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was prepared. The DBM was allotransplanted heterotopically into growing rats. New bone formation was induced in and around the implants. The new bone formation was accompanied by a decrease in the content of 3H; 20 and 30 days after implantation, 72% and 46%, respectively, of the activity remained in the implants. Daily injections of indomethacin (2 mg/kg) inhibited calcium uptake by about 20% at 20 and 30 days and inhibited the release of 3H from the DBM to a similar degree. Heterotopic bone induction by DBM is accompanied by matrix resorption, and inhibition of the new bone formation decreases the resorption of DBM.

  13. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-08-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  14. Mechanism of New Bone Formation in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Poddubnyy, Denis; Sieper, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss new evidence explaining the progress from bony inflammation over repair tissue to new bone formation in axial spondyloartrhitis and its correlations in imaging and histology of the bone. Data from imaging, histology and treatment interventions indicates that the disease starts with inflammation, followed by replacement of subchondral bone marrow by repair tissue which presence is crucial for the stimulation of new bone formation. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences of STIR and T1 are currently the most commonly used imaging techniques to follow this process; explanations are offered for the limited sensitivity to detect these bony changes on MRI in their different phases. Early and effective anti-inflammatory treatment is crucial for the prevention of long-term ankylosis. Whether there are currently also treatment options targeting new bone formation in these patients directly is less clear.

  15. In vivo loading increases mechanical properties of scaffold by affecting bone formation and bone resorption rates.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Lambers, Floor M; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Müller, Ralph; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2011-12-01

    A successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails producing bone-scaffold constructs with adequate mechanical properties. Apart from the mechanical properties of the scaffold itself, the forming bone inside the scaffold also adds to the strength of the construct. In this study, we investigated the role of in vivo cyclic loading on mechanical properties of a bone scaffold. We implanted PLA/β-TCP scaffolds in the distal femur of six rats, applied external cyclic loading on the right leg, and kept the left leg as a control. We monitored bone formation at 7 time points over 35 weeks using time-lapsed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The images were then used to construct micro-finite element models of bone-scaffold constructs, with which we estimated the stiffness for each sample at all time points. We found that loading increased the stiffness by 60% at 35 weeks. The increase of stiffness was correlated to an increase in bone volume fraction of 18% in the loaded scaffold compared to control scaffold. These changes in volume fraction and related stiffness in the bone scaffold are regulated by two independent processes, bone formation and bone resorption. Using time-lapsed micro-CT imaging and a newly-developed longitudinal image registration technique, we observed that mechanical stimulation increases the bone formation rate during 4-10 weeks, and decreases the bone resorption rate during 9-18 weeks post-operatively. For the first time, we report that in vivo cyclic loading increases mechanical properties of the scaffold by increasing the bone formation rate and decreasing the bone resorption rate.

  16. VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells promotes bone formation of tissue-engineered bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boling; Li, Xihai; Liang, Guiqing; Liu, Xianxiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo vascularization and bone formation activity of tissue-engineered bone constructed using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of VEGF165 in rat bone marrow MSCs was confirmed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The MSCs were cultured together with nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (NHAC) to form tissue-engineered bone. Untransfected MSCs were used as controls. The mice were sacrificed, and the bone xenografts were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantified for the degree of vascularization and new bone formation. Based on our results, expression of the VEGF165 gene was detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry following transfection and 4 weeks of selection. The co-cultured NHAC- and VEGF-transfected MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared to the controls (P<0.05). In the mice that received the tissue-engineered bone xenografts, clumps of cartilage cells, irregular bone-like tissue and microvessels were observed. The growth of these structures progressed with time. In the control mice, however, only small amounts of bone-like and fibrotic tissue were observed. The differences between the control and experimental groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, VEGF165‑transfected bone marrow MSCs promotes vascularization of tissue-engineered bone and ectopic osteogenesis.

  17. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  18. Biology of Bone Formation, Fracture Healing, and Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Christopher M; Gabrick, Kyle S

    2017-07-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a bone-regenerative process in which an osteotomy is followed by distraction of the surrounding vascularized bone segments, with formation of new bone within the distraction gap. Distraction osteogenesis is efficacious for reconstructing critical sized bony defects in the appendicular and craniofacial skeleton. To provide opportunity to expand applications of distraction osteogenesis, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular biology and physiology of bone development and fracture healing. To accomplish these objectives a review of the literature was performed using search terms "endochondral ossification, intramembranous ossification, craniofacial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, fracture healing, bone development, and distraction osteogenesis." Bones of the craniofacial and appendicular skeleton have distinct mechanisms of embryonic development. The former develops from growth centers of mesenchymal precursors through intramembranous ossification. The latter forms though endochondral ossification in growth plates. However, both endochondral and intramembranous bone share similar master regulatory transcription factors and downstream growth factors. Fracture healing mirrors the pathway by which these bones developed embryonically. In contrast, bone formed by distraction osteogenesis does so by intramembranous ossification, regardless of whether it occurs within the appendicular or craniofacial skeleton. Understanding molecular pathway differences between bone formation by these mechanisms may allow for optimization and expansion of skeletal reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis.

  19. Osteoblast-derived sphingosine 1-phosphate to induce proliferation and confer resistance to therapeutics to bone metastasis-derived prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Leyre; Martin, Claire; Jeannot, Pauline; Ader, Isabelle; Gstalder, Cécile; Andrieu, Guillaume; Bocquet, Magalie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Malavaud, Bernard; Sabbadini, Roger A; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation or survival mainly through its surface G-protein-coupled receptors S1P1-5. Bone represents the major site of metastasis for prostate cancer (CaP) cells, which rely on bone-derived factors to support their proliferation and resistance to therapeutics. In the present work we have found that conditioned medium (CM) from the MC3T3 osteoblastic cell line or primary murine and human osteoblast-like cells, as well as co-culture with MC3T3 stimulate proliferation of CaP lines in S1P-dependent manner. In addition, osteoblastic-derived S1P induces resistance of CaP cells to therapeutics including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. When S1P release from osteoblastic cells is decreased (inhibition of SphK1, knock-down of SphK1 or the S1P transporter, Spns2 by siRNA) or secreted S1P neutralized with anti-S1P antibody, the proliferative and survival effects of osteoblasts on CaP cells are abolished. Because of the paracrine nature of the signaling, we studied the role of the S1P receptors expressed on CaP cells in the communication with S1P secreted by osteoblasts. Strategies aimed at down-regulating S1P1, S1P2 or S1P3 (siRNA, antagonists), established the exclusive role of the S1P/S1P1 signaling between osteoblasts and CaP cells. Bone metastases from CaP are associated with osteoblastic differentiation resulting in abnormal bone formation. We show that the autocrine S1P/S1P3 signaling is central during differentiation to mature osteoblasts by regulating Runx2 level, a key transcription factor involved in osteoblastic maturation. Importantly, differentiated osteoblasts exhibited enhanced secretion of S1P and further stimulated CaP cell proliferation in a S1P-dependent manner. By establishing the dual role of osteoblast-borne S1P on both osteoblastic differentiation and CaP cell proliferation and survival, we uncover the importance of S1P in the bone metastatic microenvironment, which may open

  20. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  1. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris

    2009-04-01

    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. The enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) enhances human tongue carcinoma cells gelatinase production, migration and metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Matti; Suojanen, Juho; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Läärä, Esa; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula

    2008-08-01

    Enamel matrix derivative Emdogain (EMD) is widely used in periodontal treatment to regenerate lost connective tissue and to improve the attachment of the teeth. Gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9) have an essential role in the promotion and progression of oral cancer growth and metastasis formation. We studied the effects of EMD on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-3) cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, EMD (100 microg/ml and 200 microg/ml) remarkably induced the MMP-2 and -9 production from HSC-3 cells analysed by zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMD also slightly induced the MMP-2 and -9 production from benign human mucosal keratinocytes (HMK). Furthermore, EMD clearly induced the transmigration of HSC-3 cells but had no effect on the HMK migration in transwell assays. The in vitro wound closure of HSC-3 cells was notably accelerated by EMD, whereas it had only minor effect on the wound closure of HMKs. The migration of both cell lines was inhibited by a selective cyclic anti-gelatinolytic peptide CTT-2. EMD had no effect on HSC-3 cell proliferation or apoptosis and only a limited effect on cell attachment to various extracellular matrix components. The in vivo mice experiment revealed that EMD substantially induced HSC-3 xenograft metastasis formation. Our results suggest that the use of EMD for patients with oral mucosal carcinomas or premalignant lesions should be carefully considered, possibly avoided.

  3. PSA Converts Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (THrP) from an Osteolytic to an Osteoblastic Factor: Role in Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    metalloproteinases leads to increased trabecular bone mass. J Bone Miner Res. 19:811-822. Granchi S , Brocchi S , Bonaccorsi L, Baldi E, Vinci MC, Forti G...author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...Factor: Role in Bone Metastasis 6. AUTHOR( S ) John M. Chirgwin, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  4. Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

  5. Biomimetic matrices self-initiating the induction of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Roden, Laura C; Ferretti, Carlo; Klar, Roland M

    2011-09-01

    The new strategy of tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine at large, is to construct biomimetic matrices to mimic nature's hierarchical structural assemblages and mechanisms of simplicity and elegance that are conserved throughout genera and species. There is a direct spatial and temporal relationship of morphologic and molecular events that emphasize the biomimetism of the remodeling cycles of the osteonic corticocancellous bone versus the "geometric induction of bone formation," that is, the induction of bone by "smart" concavities assembled in biomimetic matrices of macroporous calcium phosphate-based constructs. The basic multicellular unit of the corticocancellous bone excavates a trench across the bone surface, leaving in its wake a hemiosteon rather than an osteon, that is, a trench with cross-sectional geometric cues of concavities after cyclic episodes of osteoclastogenesis, eventually leading to osteogenesis. The concavities per se are geometric regulators of growth-inducing angiogenesis and osteogenesis as in the remodeling processes of the corticocancellous bone. The concavities act as a powerful geometric attractant for myoblastic/myoendothelial and/or endothelial/pericytic stem cells, which differentiate into bone-forming cells. The lacunae, pits, and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis within the biomimetic matrices are the driving morphogenetic cues that induce bone formation in a continuum of sequential phases of resorption/dissolution and formation. To induce the cascade of bone differentiation, the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor β supergene family must be reconstituted with an insoluble signal or substratum that triggers the bone differentiation cascade. By carving a series of repetitive concavities into solid and/or macroporous biomimetic matrices of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite or biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, we were able to embed smart biologic functions within

  6. De novo alveolar bone formation adjacent to endosseous implants.

    PubMed

    Berglundh, Tord; Abrahamsson, Ingemar; Lang, Niklaus P; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-06-01

    To describe a model for the investigation of different phases of wound healing that are involved in the process resulting in osseointegration. The implants used for the study of early healing had a geometry that corresponded to that of a solid screw implant with an SLA surface configuration. A circumferential trough had been prepared within the thread region (intra-osseous portion) that established a geometrically well-defined wound compartment. Twenty Labrador dogs received 160 experimental devices totally to allow the evaluation of healing between 2 h and 12 weeks. Both ground sections and decalcified sections were prepared from different implant sites. The experimental chamber used appeared to be conducive for the study of early phases of bone formation. The ground sections provided an overview of the various phases of soft and hard tissue formation, while the decalcified, thin sections enabled a more detailed study of events involved in bone tissue modeling and remodeling. The initially empty wound chamber became occupied with a coagulum and a granulation tissue that was replaced by a provisional matrix. The process of bone formation started already during the first week. The newly formed bone present at the lateral border of the cut bony bed appeared to be continuous with the parent bone, but woven bone was also found on the SLA surface at a distance from the parent bone. This primary bone that included trabeculae of woven bone was replaced by parallel-fibered and/or lamellar bone and marrow. Between 1 and 2 weeks, the bone tissue immediately lateral to the pitch region, responsible for primary mechanical stability of the device, became resorbed and replaced with newly formed viable bone. Despite this temporary loss of hard tissue contact, the implants remained clinically stable at all times. Osseointegration represents a dynamic process both during its establishment and its maintenance. In the establishment phase, there is a delicate interplay between bone

  7. Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; la Riva-Pérez, Pablo Antonio de; Calvo-Morón, Cinta; Buján-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montaño, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results.

  8. ANA deficiency enhances bone morphogenetic protein-induced ectopic bone formation via transcriptional events.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kentaro; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Urara; Toita, Sayaka; Izu, Yayoi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Ezura, Yoichi; Mizutani, Shuki; Miyazono, Kohei; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Noda, Masaki

    2009-04-17

    Ectopic bone formation after joint replacement or brain injury in humans is a serious complication that causes immobility of joints and severe pain. However, mechanisms underlying such ectopic bone formation are not fully understood. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) are defined as inducers of ectopic bone formation, and they are regulated by several types of inhibitors. ANA is an antiproliferative molecule that belongs to Tob/BTG family, but its activity in bone metabolism has not been known. Here, we examined the role of ANA on ectopic bone formation activity of BMP. In ANA-deficient and wild-type mice, BMP2 was implanted to induce ectopic bone formation in muscle. ANA deficiency increased mass of newly formed bone in vivo compared with wild-type based on 3D-muCT analyses. ANA mRNA was expressed in bone in vivo as well as in osteoblastic cells in vitro. Such ANA mRNA levels were increased by BMP2 treatment in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Overexpression of ANA suppressed BMP-induced expression of luciferase reporter gene linked to BMP response elements in these cells. Conversely, ANA mRNA knockdown by small interference RNA enhanced the BMP-dependent BMP response element reporter expression. It also enhanced BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation in muscle-derived C2C12 cells. Immunoprecipitation assay indicated that ANA interacts with Smad8. Thus, ANA is a suppressor of ectopic bone formation induced by BMP, and this inhibitory ANA activity is a part of the negative feedback regulation of BMP function.

  9. Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

    2014-02-01

    We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in

  10. Increased expression of a set of genes enriched in oxygen binding function discloses a predisposition of breast cancer bone metastases to generate metastasis spread in multiple organs.

    PubMed

    Capulli, Mattia; Angelucci, Adriano; Driouch, Keltouma; Garcia, Teresa; Clement-Lacroix, Philippe; Martella, Francesco; Ventura, Luca; Bologna, Mauro; Flamini, Stefano; Moreschini, Oreste; Lidereau, Rosette; Ricevuto, Enrico; Muraca, Maurizio; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia

    2012-11-01

    Bone is the preferential site of distant metastasis in breast carcinoma (BrCa). Patients with metastasis restricted to bone (BO) usually show a longer overall survival compared to patients who rapidly develop multiple metastases also involving liver and lung. Hence, molecular predisposition to generate bone and visceral metastases (BV) represents a clear indication of poor clinical outcome. We performed microarray analysis with two different chip platforms, Affymetrix and Agilent, on bone metastasis samples from BO and BV patients. The unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the resulting transcriptomes correlated with the clinical progression, segregating the BO from the BV profiles. Matching the twofold significantly regulated genes from Affymetrix and Agilent chips resulted in a 15-gene signature with 13 upregulated and two downregulated genes in BV versus BO bone metastasis samples. In order to validate the resulting signature, we isolated different MDA-MB-231 clonal subpopulations that metastasize only in the bone (MDA-BO) or in bone and visceral tissues (MDA-BV). Six of the signature genes were also significantly upregulated in MDA-BV compared to MDA-BO clones. A group of upregulated genes, including Hemoglobin B (HBB), were involved in oxygen metabolism, and in vitro functional analysis of HBB revealed that its expression in the MDA subpopulations was associated with a reduced production of hydrogen peroxide. Expression of HBB was detected in primary BrCa tissue but not in normal breast epithelial cells. Metastatic lymph nodes were frequently more positive for HBB compared to the corresponding primary tumors, whereas BO metastases had a lower expression than BV metastases, suggesting a positive correlation between HBB and ability of bone metastasis to rapidly spread to other organs. We propose that HBB, along with other genes involved in oxygen metabolism, confers a more aggressive metastatic phenotype in BrCa cells disseminated to bone.

  11. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  12. Regulation of BMP-induced ectopic bone formation by Ahsg.

    PubMed

    Rittenberg, B; Partridge, E; Baker, G; Clokie, C; Zohar, R; Dennis, J W; Tenenbaum, H C

    2005-05-01

    alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (Ahsg), also known as fetuin is a serum and bone resident glycoprotein, which binds to TGF-beta superfamily members including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and inhibits dexamethasone-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow cultures in vitro. Here we demonstrate that Ahsg reduces cytokine binding to its cognate receptor in HOS osteocyte cells and suppresses intracellular signaling, while in vivo, we test the hypothesis that Ahsg-deficient mice are hyper-responsive to BMP-induced osteogenesis. Human native BMP was implanted into the hindquarter muscles of Ahsg(+/+), Ahsg(+/-) and Ahsg(-/-) mice and 4 weeks later, ossicle formation was analyzed by radiography, bone density scanning (DEXA) and histomorphometry. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was measured in ossicles as a marker for bone cell differentiation, and was significantly higher in Ahsg(-/-) versus Ahsg(+/-) and/or Ahsg(+/+) mice. Ectopic ossicle size in the Ahsg(+/-) mouse was 4-fold greater than that in the wild type (Ahsg(+/+)), and intermediate to that shown in Ahsg(-/-) mouse. Bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the Ahsg(-/+) and Ahsg(-/-) mice compared to Ahsg(+/+) littermates. The ratio of cortical to cancellous bone was found to be >2-fold higher in Ahsg(-/-) mouse in comparison to the Ahsg(+/+) mice with no significant change in the Ahsg(-/+) mouse. Finally, a significantly higher incidence of satellite ossification; small islands of immature bone, was shown in Ahsg(-/-) mice as compared to Ahsg(+/+) mice. Although Ahsg binds to TGF-beta/BMP and blocks receptor signalling, it may also sequester cytokines in matrix, thereby acting as a reservoir of osteoinductive activity when released. This may explain the non-linear relationship between ectopic bone formation characteristics and Ahsg(+/+), Ahsg(+/-) and Ahsg(-/-) genotypes, although the increase in satellite bone formation might also explain this phenomenon. Our results suggest that Ahsg may be useful for prevention of

  13. EGF Receptor Promotes Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Downregulating miR-1 and Activating TWIST1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Yin, Juan Juan; Sheppard-Tillman, Heather; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Yen-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the EGFR signaling axis enhances bone metastases in many solid cancers. However, the relevant downstream effector signals in this axis are unclear. miR-1 was recently shown to function as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells, where its expression correlated with reduced metastatic potential. In this study, we demonstrated a role for EGFR translocation in regulating transcription of miR-1-1, which directly targets expression of TWIST1. Consistent with these findings, we observed decreased miR-1 levels that correlated with enhanced expression of activated EGFR and TWIST1 in a cohort of human prostate cancer specimens and additional datasets. Our findings support a model in which nuclear EGFR acts as a transcriptional repressor to constrain the tumor-suppressive role of miR-1 and sustain oncogenic activation of TWIST1, thereby leading to accelerated bone metastasis. PMID:26071255

  14. Cellulitis-like symptoms manifested by bone metastasis of lung cancer in a patient living with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Jumpei; Okuma, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kageaki; Ajisawa, Atushi; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2016-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at a high risk of cancer compared with the general population. As the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased, non-AIDS-defining cancers have also increased in the past decade. A 61-year-old man with HIV infection on ART developed a painful, erythematous and oedematous lower left leg and an associated fever. He was initially treated with antibiotics for cellulitis but there was no improvement, which warranted further investigation. A translucent lesion was found by X-ray imaging and bone scintigraphy showed bone metastasis from a primary adenocarcinoma of the lung, documented by chest computed tomography and an axillary lymph node biopsy. The patient died three months after the diagnosis despite undergoing chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that physicians should consider metastatic malignancies as a differential diagnoses for diverse skin changes in HIV-infected patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Estrogen maintains trabecular bone volume in rats not only by suppression of bone resorption but also by stimulation of bone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, J; Tobias, J H; Colston, K W; Chambers, T J

    1992-01-01

    Estrogen is generally considered to maintain bone mass through suppression of bone resorption. We have previously demonstrated that administration of pharmacologic doses of estrogen increases bone formation in ovary-intact rats. To assess the effects of physiological concentrations of estrogen on bone formation, estrogen was administered to ovariectomized rats in which bone resorption was suppressed by the bisphosphonate 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP). Animals receiving exogenous 17 beta-estradiol (E2) (1, 10, and 100 micrograms/kg daily for 17 d) showed a dose-dependent increase in trabecular bone volume of 1.9, 25.8, and 43.6%, respectively, compared with those rats treated with AHPrBP alone. The increase in bone volume was associated with an increase in bone formation in E2-treated animals, in which bone resorption had been almost completely suppressed by AHPrBP. Neither ovariectomy, AHPrBP, nor E2 treatment had a significant effect on the volume or rate of formation of cortical bone. Thus, the increased bone resorption, which is a consequence of estrogen-deficiency, entrains increased bone formation, which masks a simultaneous reduction in estrogen-dependent bone formation. Therefore, in addition to the nonspecific effect of estrogen to depress formation via coupling, we have identified a specific effect of estrogen to increase formation independent of coupling. Thus it appears that estrogen maintains bone volume not only through inhibition of bone resorption, but also through stimulation of bone formation. Images PMID:1729283

  16. Bone formation in trabecular bone cell seeded scaffolds used for reconstruction of the rat mandible.

    PubMed

    Schliephake, H; Zghoul, N; Jäger, V; van Griensven, M; Zeichen, J; Gelinsky, M; Szubtarsky, N

    2009-02-01

    This study tested whether different in vitro cultivation techniques for tissue-engineered scaffolds seeded with human trabecular bone cells affect in vivo bone formation when implanted into critical-size defects in rat mandibles. Human trabecular cells were isolated and seeded into three types of scaffolds (porous CaCO(3), mineralized collagen, porous tricalcium phosphate). Four in vitro groups were produced: empty control scaffolds incubated with cell culture medium for 24 h; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated under static conditions for 24 h; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated for 14 days under static conditions; scaffolds seeded with trabecular bone cells, cultivated for 14 days in a continuous flow perfusion bioreactor. The scaffolds were implanted press fit into non-healing defects, 5 mm diameter, in rat mandibles. After 6 weeks the presence of human cells was assessed; none were detected. Histomorphometric evaluation showed that neither seeding human trabecular bone cells nor the culturing technique increased the amount of early bone formation compared with the level provided by osteoconductive bone ingrowth from the defect edges. It is concluded that human bone marrow stroma cells in tissue-engineered scaffolds and associated in vitro technology are difficult to test in the mandible in animal models.

  17. Nuclear co-localization and functional interaction of COX-2 and HIF-1α characterize bone metastasis of human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this article is to identify nuclear co-localization of COX-2 and HIF-1α in human-bone metastasis of breast cancer, index of transcriptionally activated cells and functional for gene expression. In particular, we verified whether hypoxia exerted a direct role on metastasis-gene expression or through COX-2 signaling, due to the relevance for clinical implications to individuate molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy. The experiments were performed in vitro with two metastatic clones, 1833 and MDA-231BO, and the parental MDA-MB231 cells, in vivo (1833-xenograft model), and in human-bone metastasis specimens. In 1833 cells in vitro, COX-2 signaling pathway was critical for nuclear HIF-1α-protein expression/translocation, mechanisms determining HIF-1 activity and gene expression. The data were corroborated by immunohistochemistry in human-bone metastasis specimens. COX-2 and HIF-1α showed wide co-localization in the nucleus, indicative of COX-2-nuclear import in transcriptionally activated metastatic cells and consistent with COX-2-HIF-1α functional interaction. A network of microenvironmental signals controlled COX-2 induction and HIF-1 activation downstream. In fact, hypoxia through HGF and TGF-β1 autoregulatory loops triggered a specific array of transcription factors responsible for COX-2 transactivation. The novelty was that HGF and TGF-β1 biological signals were produced by hypoxic metastatic cells and, therefore, the microenvironment seemed to be modified by metastatic-cell engraftment in the bone. In agreement, HIF-1α expression in bone marrow supportive cells occurred in metastasis-bearing animals. Altogether, the data supported the pre-metastatic-niche theory. Our observations might be useful to design therapies against bone metastasis, by affecting the phenotype changes of metastatic cells occurring at the secondary growth site through COX-2-HIF-1 interaction.

  18. Metastasis of breast cancer cells to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes resistance to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takamitsu; Iwadate, Manabu; Tachibana, Kazunoshin; Waguri, Satoshi; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-22

    Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times. The established metastatic cell lines were assessed for cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion, clonogenic survival, and apoptosis. The established metastatic cell lines possessed an increased proliferative potential in vivo and were more chemotactic, invasive, and resistant to X‑ray-induced clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis in vitro. Breast cancer metastasis to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes radioresistance.

  19. Appositional bone formation in marginal defects at implants.

    PubMed

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Buser, Daniel; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-02-01

    In a previous experiment, it was demonstrated that a wide marginal defect around an implant can heal with a high degree of osseointegration. The present experiment was performed to evaluate the degree and quality of de novo bone formation and osseointegration in marginal defects adjacent to submerged titanium implants. All mandibular premolars and 1st molars were extracted in four Labrador dogs. Four experimental sites were identified in the right side of the mandible. In two sites, custom-made implants with a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface were installed without further ostectomy (control sites). In the two remaining sites (test sites), a specially designed step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. A barrier membrane was used to cover the implants in the defect sites. All implants were submerged. One month later, an identical procedure, including site preparation and implant installation, was performed in the left side of the mandible. Two months following the first implant installation procedure, biopsies were collected and prepared for sectioning. Ostectomy and implant installation in the control location resulted in a series of bone tissue alterations which eventually allowed newly formed bone to establish contact with the SLA surface. The marginal defect lateral to the implant in the test locations gradually became filled with newly formed bone. De novo bone formation started within the walls of the surgically prepared defect. Bone-to-implant contact was first established in the apical portion of the gap. This new bone tissue was in the coronal direction continuous with a dense, non-mineralized 'implant attached' soft tissue which, over time, also became mineralized to increase the height of the zone of bone-to-implant contact. The results suggest that healing of a wide marginal defect around an implant is characterized by appositional bone growth from the lateral and apical bone walls of the defect.

  20. New insights into adhesion signaling in bone formation.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Molly; Jurdic, Pierre; Tuckerman, Jan P; Block, Marc R; Bouvard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized tissues that are protective scaffolds in the most primitive species have evolved and acquired more specific functions in modern animals. These are as diverse as support in locomotion, ion homeostasis, and precise hormonal regulation. Bone formation is tightly controlled by a balance between anabolism, in which osteoblasts are the main players, and catabolism mediated by the osteoclasts. The bone matrix is deposited in a cyclic fashion during homeostasis and integrates several environmental cues. These include diffusible elements that would include estrogen or growth factors and physicochemical parameters such as bone matrix composition, stiffness, and mechanical stress. Therefore, the microenvironment is of paramount importance for controlling this delicate equilibrium. Here, we provide an overview of the most recent data highlighting the role of cell-adhesion molecules during bone formation. Due to the very large scope of the topic, we focus mainly on the role of the integrin receptor family during osteogenesis. Bone phenotypes of some deficient mice as well as diseases of human bones involving cell adhesion during this process are discussed in the context of bone physiology. © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Fractionated Wide-Field Radiation Therapy Followed by Fractionated Local-Field Irradiation for Treating Widespread Painful Bone Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Yongkan; Kim, Wontaek; Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Jeon, Hosang; Park, Dahl; Kim, Dongwon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Wide-field radiation therapy (WFRT) is an effective treatment for widespread bone metastasis. We evaluated local-field irradiation (LFI) after fractionated WFRT (f-WFRT) for treating the patients with multiple painful bone lesions. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2007, 32 patients with multiple bone metastases were treated with fractionated LFI (f-LFI) after f-WFRT. All patients initially received 15 Gy in 5 fractions to a wide field, followed by LFI (9-15 Gy in 3 Gy fractions). Response was assessed by evaluating the degree of pain relief using a visual analog scale before radiotherapy, after f-WFRT, and after f-LFI. Results: Fractionated LFI following f-WFRT yielded an overall relief rate of 93.8% and a complete relief rate of 43.8%. The rate of the appearance of new disease was 6.3% for the patients with complete relief, 20.5% for the patients with a partial relief, and 50% for the patients with no relief. Conclusion: Fractionated LFI after f-WFRT is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for multiple metastatic bone disease.

  2. ALCAM/CD166 is a TGF-β-responsive marker and functional regulator of prostate cancer metastasis to bone.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Amanda G; Arnold, Shanna A; Jiang, Ming; Palmer, Trenis D; Ketova, Tatiana; Merkel, Alyssa; Pickup, Michael; Samaras, Susan; Shyr, Yu; Moses, Harold L; Hayward, Simon W; Sterling, Julie A; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-03-01

    The dissemination of prostate cancer to bone is a common, incurable aspect of advanced disease. Prevention and treatment of this terminal phase of prostate cancer requires improved molecular understanding of the process as well as markers indicative of molecular progression. Through biochemical analyses and loss-of-function in vivo studies, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is actively shed from metastatic prostate cancer cells by the sheddase ADAM17 in response to TGF-β. Not only is this posttranslational modification of ALCAM a marker of prostate cancer progression, the molecule is also required for effective metastasis to bone. Biochemical analysis of prostate cancer cell lines reveals that ALCAM expression and shedding is elevated in response to TGF-β signaling. Both in vitro and in vivo shedding is mediated by ADAM17. Longitudinal analysis of circulating ALCAM in tumor-bearing mice revealed that shedding of tumor, but not host-derived ALCAM is elevated during growth of the cancer. Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. The reduced growth of ALCAM knockdown cells corresponded to an increase in apoptosis (caspase-3) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). Together, these data demonstrate that the ALCAM is both a functional regulator as well as marker of prostate cancer progression.

  3. ALCAM/CD166 is a TGFβ responsive marker and functional regulator of prostate cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Amanda G.; Arnold, Shanna A.; Jiang, Ming; Palmer, Trenis D.; Ketova, Tatiana; Merkel, Alyssa; Pickup, Michael; Samaras, Susan; Shyr, Yu; Moses, Harold L.; Hayward, Simon W.; Sterling, Julie A.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of prostate cancer to bone is a common, incurable aspect of advanced disease. Prevention and treatment of this terminal phase of prostate cancer requires improved molecular understanding of the process as well as markers indicative of molecular progression. Through biochemical analyses and loss-of-function in vivo studies we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule ALCAM is actively shed from metastatic prostate cancer cells by the sheddase ADAM17 in response to TGFβ. Not only is this post-translational modification of ALCAM a marker of prostate cancer progression, the molecule is also required for effective metastasis to bone. Biochemical analysis of prostate cancer cell lines reveal that ALCAM expression and shedding is elevated in response to TGFβ signaling. Both in vitro and in vivo shedding is mediated by ADAM17. Longitudinal analysis of circulating ALCAM in tumor-bearing mice revealed that shedding of tumor, but not host-derived ALCAM is elevated during growth of the cancer. Gene-specific knockdown of ALCAM in bone-metastatic PC3 cells greatly diminished both skeletal dissemination and tumor growth in bone. The reduced growth of ALCAM knockdown cells corresponded to an increase in apoptosis (Caspase-3) and decreased proliferation (Ki-67). Together these data demonstrate that the ALCAM is both a functional regulator as well as marker of prostate cancer progression. PMID:24385212

  4. Osteoprotegerin inhibits osteolysis and decreases skeletal tumor burden in syngeneic and nude mouse models of experimental bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Morony, S; Capparelli, C; Sarosi, I; Lacey, D L; Dunstan, C R; Kostenuik, P J

    2001-06-01

    Certain malignancies, including breast cancer, frequently metastasize to bone, where the tumor cells induce osteoclasts to locally destroy bone. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. We tested the ability of recombinant OPG to inhibit tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteolysis, and skeletal tumor burden in two animal models. In a syngeneic model, mouse colon adenocarcinoma (Colon-26) cells were injected into the left ventricle of mice. Treatment with OPG dose-dependently decreased the number and area of radiographically evident lytic bone lesions, which, at the highest dose, were undetectable. Histologically, OPG also decreased skeletal tumor burden and tumor-associated osteoclasts. In a nude mouse model, OPG treatment completely prevented radiographic osteolytic lesions caused by human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Histologically, OPG decreased skeletal tumor burden by 75% and completely eradicated MDA tumor-associated osteoclasts. In both models, OPG had no effect on metastatic tumor burden in a panel of soft tissue organs. These data indicate that OPG may be an effective therapy for preventing osteolysis and decreasing skeletal tumor burden in patients with bone metastasis.

  5. Bone density, strength, and formation in adult cathepsin K (-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, B; Shea, M; Liu, Q; Masarachia, P; Saftig, P; Rodan, S; Rodan, G; Kimmel, D

    2009-02-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is a cysteine protease expressed predominantly in osteoclasts, that plays a prominent role in degrading Type I collagen. Growing CatK null mice have osteopetrosis associated with a reduced ability to degrade bone matrix. Bone strength and histomorphometric endpoints in young adult CatK null mice aged more than 10 weeks have not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to describe bone mass, strength, resorption, and formation in young adult CatK null mice. In male and female wild-type (WT), heterozygous, and homozygous CatK null mice (total N=50) aged 19 weeks, in-life double fluorochrome labeling was performed. Right femurs and lumbar vertebral bodies 1-3 (LV) were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The trabecular region of the femur and the cortical region of the tibia were evaluated by histomorphometry. The left femur and sixth lumbar vertebral body were tested biomechanically. CatK (-/-) mice show higher BMD at the central and distal femur. Central femur ultimate load was positively influenced by genotype, and was positively correlated with both cortical area and BMC. Lumbar vertebral body ultimate load was also positively correlated to BMC. Genotype did not influence the relationship of ultimate load to BMC in either the central femur or vertebral body. CatK (-/-) mice had less lamellar cortical bone than WT mice. Higher bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were observed at the distal femur in CatK (-/-) mice. Smaller marrow cavities were also present at the central femur of CatK (-/-) mice. CatK (-/-) mice exhibited greater trabecular mineralizing surface, associated with normal volume-based formation of trabecular bone. Adult CatK (-/-) mice have higher bone mass in both cortical and cancellous regions than WT mice. Though no direct measures of bone resorption rate were made, the higher cortical bone quantity is associated with a smaller

  6. Pretreatment Alkaline Phosphatase and Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Predict Poor Prognosis and Response to Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Metachronous Bone-Only Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, ShaSha; Wang, Yan; Peng, Hao; Yang, Lin; Chen, HaiYang; Liang, ShaoBo; Lu, LiXia; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background: The bones are the most common site of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Few prognostic markers are available to guide treatment and sub-classify patients with bone metastasis. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of pretreatment serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) in patients with bone-only metastasis. Methods: A total of 272 patients who developed bone-only metastases after therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized according to pretreatment serum ALP (< or ≥ 110 U/L) and pretreatment plasma EBV DNA (< or ≥ 6,750 copies ml-1). Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: Median OS for the cohort was 34.06 months (range, 2.53-143.87 months). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis verified pretreatment serum ALP and pretreatment plasma EBV DNA were independent prognostic factors for OS. In stratified survival analysis of patients with elevated pretreatment serum ALP and/or plasma EBV DNA, delivery of radiotherapy (RT) to bone metastases provided a significant OS benefit compared to other therapeutic methods (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates two important points: firstly, pretreatment serum ALP and plasma EBV DNA have prognostic value at the first diagnosis of bone-only metastasis in NPC. Secondly, radiotherapy of bone metastasis improves the prognosis of patients with elevated pretreatment serum ALP and plasma EBV DNA. PMID:28261343

  7. [Primary cancellous bone formation around micro-chambered beads].

    PubMed

    Draenert, M E; Draenert, Y; Draenert, K; Pohlemann, T; Erler, M

    2014-01-01

    The question has been raised whether benign bone defects in patients can be treated with bone forming osteoconductive ceramics achieving primarily a cancellous bone scaffold, which is under load from the beginning. Ten reconstructions were performed in 9patients (6women and 3male), with a mean age of 49 (25-65)years, suffering a high variety of epi- and metaphyseal defects, four tibial fractures, two calcaneal fractures, one pathological phalangeal fracture, one chondroma of the distal femur and two open-wedge osteotomies were filled with micro-chambered ceramic beads of 4 and 6mm in diameter. The mean follow up was 22 (7- 8)months. X-rays and CT-scans formed the basis for the evaluation of the reconstruction of the cancellous bone scaffolds. All cancellous structures were rebuilt, if completely filled with bone-forming elements. If the filling was incomplete, no physiological cancellous bone scaffold resulted. The β-TCP micro-chambered beads were completely reabsorbed or sandwich-like incorporated at the time of evaluation. The HA micro-chambered beads revealed a contrast enhancement and were integrated in the osseous construction of the bone scaffold. Primary cancellous bone formation can be achieved with osteoconductive ceramic micro-chambered beads and can be combined with any osteosynthesis for stable fixation. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Pereira, Renata C; Jorgetti, Vanda; Olson, Sarah; Economides, Aris N; Canalis, Ernesto

    2005-02-01

    Skeletal cells synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP antagonists. Gremlin, a BMP antagonist, is expressed in osteoblasts and opposes BMP effects on osteoblastic differentiation and function in vitro. However, its effects in vivo are not known. To investigate the actions of gremlin on bone remodeling in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing gremlin under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Gremlin transgenics exhibited bone fractures and reduced bone mineral density by 20-30%, compared with controls. Static and dynamic histomorphometry of femurs revealed that gremlin overexpression caused reduced trabecular bone volume and the appearance of woven bone. Polarized light microscopy revealed disorganized collagen bundles at the endosteal cortical surface. Gremlin transgenic mice displayed a 70% decrease in the number of osteoblasts/trabecular area and reduced mineral apposition and bone formation rates. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling and marrow stromal cell cultures demonstrated an inhibitory effect of gremlin on osteoblastic cell replication, but no change on apoptosis was detected. Marrow stromal cells from gremlin transgenics displayed a reduced response to BMP on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8 phosphorylation and reduced free cytosolic beta-catenin levels. In conclusion, transgenic mice overexpressing gremlin in the bone microenvironment have decreased osteoblast number and function leading to osteopenia and spontaneous fractures.

  9. Diabetes Enhances Periodontal Bone Loss through Enhanced Resorption and Diminished Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R.; Bal, H.S.; Desta, T.; Krothapalli, N.; Alyassi, M.; Luan, Q.; Graves, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Using a ligature-induced model in type-2 Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat and normoglycemic littermates, we investigated whether diabetes primarily affects periodontitis by enhancing bone loss or by limiting osseous repair. Diabetes increased the intensity and duration of the inflammatory infiltrate (P < 0.05). The formation of osteoclasts and percent eroded bone after 7 days of ligature placement was similar, while four days after removal of ligatures, the type 2 diabetic group had significantly higher osteoclast numbers and activity (P < 0.05). The amount of new bone formation following resorption was 2.4- to 2.9- fold higher in normoglycemic vs. diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Diabetes also increased apoptosis and decreased the number of bone-lining cells, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (P < 0.05). Thus, diabetes caused a more persistent inflammatory response, greater loss of attachment and more alveolar bone resorption, and impaired new bone formation. The latter may be affected by increased apoptosis of bone-lining and PDL cells. PMID:16723646

  10. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  11. Non-Linear Pattern Formation in Bone Growth and Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here – chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) – which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of “group intelligence” exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called “particle swarm optimization” (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating “socially” in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or “feedback” between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the

  12. Milk extracellular vesicles accelerate osteoblastogenesis but impair bone matrix formation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina C; Arntz, Onno J; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; van Lent, Peter L E M; Koenders, Marije I; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; van de Loo, Fons A J

    2016-04-01

    The claimed beneficial effect of milk on bone is still a matter for debate. Recently extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and RNA were discovered in milk, but their effect on bone formation has not yet been determined. We demonstrated previously that bovine milk-derived EVs (BMEVs) have immunoregulatory properties. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of BMEVs on osteogenesis by mice and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Oral delivery of two concentrations of BMEVs to female DBA/1J mice during 7weeks did not alter the tibia trabecular bone area; however, the osteocytes number increased. In addition, the highest dose of BMEVs markedly increased the woven bone tissue, which is more brittle. The exposure of hMSCs to BMEVs during 21days resulted in less mineralization but higher cell proliferation. Interestingly BMEVs reduced the collagen production, but enhanced the expression of genes characteristic for immature osteoblasts. A kinetic study showed that BMEVs up-regulated many osteogenic genes within the first 4days. However, the production of type I collagen and expression of its genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) were markedly reduced at days 21 and 28. At day 28, BMEVs again lead to higher proliferation, but mineralization was significantly increased. This was associated with increased expression of sclerostin, a marker for osteocytes, and reduced osteonectin, which is associated to bone matrix formation. Our study adds BMEVs to the list of milk components that can affect bone formation and may shed new light on the contradictory claims of milk on bone formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Ryohei; Nakata, Ken; Kawano, Fuminori; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Ogasawara, Issei; Nakai, Naoya; Mae, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Tomohiko; Tachibana, Yuta; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    All living tissues and cells on Earth are subject to gravitational acceleration, but no reports have verified whether acceleration mode influences bone formation and healing. Therefore, this study was to compare the effects of two acceleration modes, vibration and constant (centrifugal) accelerations, on bone formation and healing in the trunk using BMP 2-induced ectopic bone formation (EBF) mouse model and a rib fracture healing (RFH) rat model. Additionally, we tried to verify the difference in mechanism of effect on bone formation by accelerations between these two models. Three groups (low- and high-magnitude vibration and control-VA groups) were evaluated in the vibration acceleration study, and two groups (centrifuge acceleration and control-CA groups) were used in the constant acceleration study. In each model, the intervention was applied for ten minutes per day from three days after surgery for eleven days (EBF model) or nine days (RFH model). All animals were sacrificed the day after the intervention ended. In the EBF model, ectopic bone was evaluated by macroscopic and histological observations, wet weight, radiography and microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT). In the RFH model, whole fracture-repaired ribs were excised with removal of soft tissue, and evaluated radiologically and histologically. Ectopic bones in the low-magnitude group (EBF model) had significantly greater wet weight and were significantly larger (macroscopically and radiographically) than those in the other two groups, whereas the size and wet weight of ectopic bones in the centrifuge acceleration group showed no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. All ectopic bones showed calcified trabeculae and maturated bone marrow. Micro-CT showed that bone volume (BV) in the low-magnitude group of EBF model was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (3.1±1.2mm3 v.s. 1.8±1.2mm3 in high-magnitude group and 1.3±0.9mm3 in control-VA group), but BV in the

  14. Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryohei; Nakata, Ken; Kawano, Fuminori; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Ogasawara, Issei; Nakai, Naoya; Mae, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Tomohiko; Tachibana, Yuta; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    All living tissues and cells on Earth are subject to gravitational acceleration, but no reports have verified whether acceleration mode influences bone formation and healing. Therefore, this study was to compare the effects of two acceleration modes, vibration and constant (centrifugal) accelerations, on bone formation and healing in the trunk using BMP 2-induced ectopic bone formation (EBF) mouse model and a rib fracture healing (RFH) rat model. Additionally, we tried to verify the difference in mechanism of effect on bone formation by accelerations between these two models. Three groups (low- and high-magnitude vibration and control-VA groups) were evaluated in the vibration acceleration study, and two groups (centrifuge acceleration and control-CA groups) were used in the constant acceleration study. In each model, the intervention was applied for ten minutes per day from three days after surgery for eleven days (EBF model) or nine days (RFH model). All animals were sacrificed the day after the intervention ended. In the EBF model, ectopic bone was evaluated by macroscopic and histological observations, wet weight, radiography and microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT). In the RFH model, whole fracture-repaired ribs were excised with removal of soft tissue, and evaluated radiologically and histologically. Ectopic bones in the low-magnitude group (EBF model) had significantly greater wet weight and were significantly larger (macroscopically and radiographically) than those in the other two groups, whereas the size and wet weight of ectopic bones in the centrifuge acceleration group showed no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. All ectopic bones showed calcified trabeculae and maturated bone marrow. Micro-CT showed that bone volume (BV) in the low-magnitude group of EBF model was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (3.1±1.2mm3 v.s. 1.8±1.2mm3 in high-magnitude group and 1.3±0.9mm3 in control-VA group), but BV in the

  15. Aberrant presentation of HPA-reactive carbohydrates implies Selectin-independent metastasis formation in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lange, Tobias; Kupfernagel, Mareike; Wicklein, Daniel; Gebauer, Florian; Maar, Hanna; Brügge, Kathrin; Müller, Imke; Simon, Ronald; Schlomm, Thorsten; Sauter, Guido; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of prostate cancer cell surface glycosylation as part of the tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction in prostate cancer metastasis. Glycosyltransferase expression was profiled in metastasis-derived prostate cancer cell lines and compared with primary epithelium. Prostate cancer cells were examined for HPA- and selectin-binding and adhesion to endothelium. Spontaneous metastasis xenograft models were established to test the lectin HPA-binding sites as a marker of metastatic competence and to evaluate E-selectin-binding sites in vivo. The importance of selectins for metastasis formation was analyzed using Sele(-/-)/Selp(-/-) mice. The clinical relevance of HPA- and E-selectin-binding sites in prostate cancer was determined. Glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of common HPA-binding sites are downregulated in prostate cancer cells. An absence of HPA-reactive carbohydrates specifically indicates spontaneous metastatic spread of prostate cancer xenografts in vivo and a poor prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. HPA-binding sites decrease in lymph node metastases compared with corresponding primary tumors. Common selectin ligands are absent on prostate cancer cells, which do not adhere to recombinant selectins or endothelium under shear stress in vitro. Spontaneous metastasis formation is largely independent of selectins in vivo. E-selectin-binding sites are detectable in only 2% of patients with prostate cancer without prognostic significance. Prostate cancer is characterized by an inverse functional and prognostic importance of HPA-binding sites compared with other adenocarcinomas. Accordingly, this study surprisingly shows that the selectin-selectin ligand axis, which is essential for extravasation and thus metastasis formation in several malignancies, can be circumvented in prostate cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  16. Identification of Genes Associated with Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network with a Shortest Path Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao

    2017-02-03

    Tumor metastasis is defined as the spread of tumor cells from one organ or part to another that is not directly connected to it, which significantly contributes to the progression and aggravation of tumorigenesis. Because it always involves multiple organs, the metastatic process is difficult to study in its entirety. Complete identification of the genes related to this process is an alternative way to study metastasis. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify such genes. To test our method, we selected breast cancer bone metastasis. A large network was constructed using human protein-protein interactions. On the basis of the validated genes related to breast and bone cancer, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the network to search for novel genes that may mediate breast cancer metastasis to bone. In addition, further rules constructed using the permutation FDR, the betweenness ratio, and the max-min interaction score were also employed in the method to make the inferred genes more reliable. Eighteen putative genes were identified by the method and were extensively analyzed. The confirmation results indicate that these genes participate in metastasis.

  17. Thyrostimulin Regulates Osteoblastic Bone Formation During Early Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Anne; Logan, John G.; Gogakos, Apostolos; Bagchi-Chakraborty, Jayashree; Murphy, Elaine; van Zeijl, Clementine; Down, Jenny; Croucher, Peter I.; Boyde, Alan; Boelen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The ancestral glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin is a heterodimer of unique glycoprotein hormone subunit alpha (GPA)2 and glycoprotein hormone subunit beta (GPB)5 subunits with high affinity for the TSH receptor. Transgenic overexpression of GPB5 in mice results in cranial abnormalities, but the role of thyrostimulin in bone remains unknown. We hypothesized that thyrostimulin exerts paracrine actions in bone and determined: 1) GPA2 and GPB5 expression in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, 2) the skeletal consequences of thyrostimulin deficiency in GPB5 knockout (KO) mice, and 3) osteoblast and osteoclast responses to thyrostimulin treatment. Gpa2 and Gpb5 expression was identified in the newborn skeleton but declined rapidly thereafter. GPA2 and GPB5 mRNAs were also expressed in primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts at varying concentrations. Juvenile thyrostimulin-deficient mice had increased bone volume and mineralization as a result of increased osteoblastic bone formation. However, thyrostimulin failed to induce a canonical cAMP response or activate the noncanonical Akt, ERK, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38) signaling pathways in primary calvarial or bone marrow stromal cell-derived osteoblasts. Furthermore, thyrostimulin did not directly inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation or mineralization in vitro. These studies identify thyrostimulin as a negative but indirect regulator of osteoblastic bone formation during skeletal development. PMID:26018249

  18. Active multilayered capsules for in vivo bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Facca, S.; Cortez, C.; Mendoza-Palomares, C.; Messadeq, N.; Dierich, A.; Johnston, A. P. R.; Mainard, D.; Voegel, J.-C.; Caruso, F.; Benkirane-Jessel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the development of new sources of transplantable materials for the treatment of injury or disease has led to the convergence of tissue engineering with stem cell technology. Bone and joint disorders are expected to benefit from this new technology because of the low self-regenerating capacity of bone matrix secreting cells. Herein, the differentiation of stem cells to bone cells using active multilayered capsules is presented. The capsules are composed of poly-L-glutamic acid and poly-L-lysine with active growth factors embedded into the multilayered film. The bone induction from these active capsules incubated with embryonic stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. Herein, we report the unique demonstration of a multilayered capsule-based delivery system for inducing bone formation in vivo. This strategy is an alternative approach for in vivo bone formation. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful, as they make production of therapeutic materials simpler and more easily controlled. PMID:20160118

  19. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 engages CCR2+ stromal cells of monocytic origin to promote breast cancer metastasis to lung and bone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Kang, Yibin

    2009-10-16

    Metastatic spread of cancer to distant vital organs, including lung and bone, is the overwhelming cause of breast cancer mortality and morbidity. Effective treatment of systemic metastasis relies on the identification and functional characterization of metastasis mediators to multiple organs. Overexpression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is frequently associated with advanced tumor stage and metastatic relapse in breast cancer. However, the functional mechanism of CCL2 in promoting organ-specific metastasis of breast cancer has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we used organ-specific metastatic sublines of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line to demonstrate that overexpression of CCL2 promotes breast cancer metastasis to both lung and bone. Conversely, blocking CCL2 function with a neutralizing antibody reduced lung and bone metastases. The enhancement of lung and bone metastases by CCL2 was associated with increased macrophage infiltration and osteoclast differentiation, respectively. By performing functional assays with primary cells isolated from the wild type, CCL2 and CCR2 knock-out mice, we showed that tumor cell-derived CCL2 depends on its receptor CCR2 (chemokine, CC motif, receptor 2) expressed on stromal cells to exert its function in promoting macrophage recruitment and osteoclast differentiation. Overall, these data demonstrated that CCL2-expressing breast tumor cells engage CCR2(+) stromal cells of monocytic origin, including macrophages and preosteoclasts, to facilitate colonization in lung and bone. Therefore, CCL2 and CCR2 are promising therapeutic targets for simultaneously inhibiting lung and bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  20. Denosumab and bone metastasis-free survival in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: exploratory analyses by baseline prostate-specific antigen doubling time.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Oudard, Stephane; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Sieber, Paul; Tombal, Bertrand; Damiao, Ronaldo; Marx, Gavin; Miller, Kurt; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Morote, Juan; Ye, Zhishen; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-10-20

    Denosumab, an anti-RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression.

  1. PTH-IGF SIGNALING PROMOTES BONE FORMATION THROUGH GLYCOLYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emel; Lee, Seung-Yon; Wice, Burton M; Long, Fanxin

    2016-01-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant peptide corresponding to amino acids 1-34 of human parathyroid hormone (PTH), has been an effective bone anabolic drug for over a decade. However, the mechanism whereby PTH stimulates bone formation remains poorly understood. Here we report that in cultures of osteoblast-lineage cells, PTH stimulates glucose consumption and lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a hallmark of aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect. Experiments with radioactively labeled glucose demonstrate that PTH suppresses glucose entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). Mechanistically, the increase in aerobic glycolysis is secondary to insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling induced by PTH, whereas the metabolic effect of Igf is dependent on activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Importantly, pharmacological perturbation of glycolysis suppresses the bone anabolic effect of intermittent PTH in the mouse. Thus, stimulation of aerobic glycolysis via Igf signaling contributes to bone anabolism in response to PTH. PMID:25990470

  2. Osteoclastic miR-214 targets TRAF3 to contribute to osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Li, Defang; Dang, Lei; Liang, Chao; Guo, Baosheng; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiaojuan; Cheung, Hilda Y. S.; He, Bing; Liu, Biao; Li, Fangfei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Shaikh, Atik Badshah; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Changwei; Peng, Songlin; Zhang, Zongkang; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Pan, Xiaohua; Xiao, Lianbo; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2017-01-01

    The role of osteoclastic miRNAs in regulating osteolytic bone metastasis (OBM) of breast cancer is still underexplored. Here, we examined the expression profiles of osteoclastogenic miRNAs in human bone specimens and identified that miR-214-3p was significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients with OBM. Consistently, we found increased miR-214-3p within osteoclasts, which was associated with the elevated bone resorption, during the development of OBM in human breast cancer xenografted nude mice (BCX). Furthermore, genetic ablation of osteoclastic miR-214-3p in nude mice prevent the development of OBM. Conditioned medium from MDA-MB-231 cells dramatically stimulated miR-214-3p expression to promote osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, a series of in vitro study showed that miR-214-3p directly targeted Traf3 to promote osteoclast activity and bone-resorbing activity. In addition, osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice showed remarkably increased bone resorption when compared to the littermate controls, which was attenuated after osteoclast-targeted treatment with Traf3 3′UTR-containing plasmid. In BCX nude mice, osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p delivery could recover the TRAF3 protein expression and attenuate the development of OBM, respectively. Collectively, inhibition of osteoclastic miR-214-3p may be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients with OBM. Meanwhile, the intraosseous TRAF3 could be a promising biomarker for evaluation of the treatment response of antagomir-214-3p. PMID:28071724

  3. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Bargouti, Maggie; Liu, Hui; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms driving bone marrow stem cell mobilization are poorly understood. A recent murine study found that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (MOPCs) were recruited to the site of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone formation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its cellular receptor CXCR4 have been shown to mediate the homing of stem cells to injured tissues. We hypothesized that chemokines, such as SDF-1, are also involved with mobilization of bone marrow cells. The CD45(-) fraction is a major source of MOPCs. In this report we determined that the addition of BMP-2 or SDF-1 to collagen implants increased the number of MOPCs in the peripheral blood. BMP-2-induced mobilization was blocked by CXCR4 antibody, confirming the role of SDF-1 in mobilization. We determined for the first time that addition of SDF-1 to implants containing BMP-2 enhances mobilization, homing of MOPCs to the implant, and ectopic bone formation induced by suboptimal BMP-2 doses. These results suggest that SDF-1 increases the number of osteoprogenitor cells that are mobilized from the bone marrow and then home to the implant. Thus, addition of SDF-1 to BMP-2 may improve the efficiency of BMPs in vivo, making their routine use for orthopaedic applications more affordable and available to more patients.

  4. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in prostate cancer patients: influence of Gleason score, treatment and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Vanessa; Maders, Liési D K; Bagatini, Margarete D; Battisti, Iara E; Bellé, Luziane P; Santos, Karen F; Maldonado, Paula A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Schetinger, Maria R C; Morsch, Vera M

    2013-04-01

    The relation between adenine nucleotides and cancer has already been described in literature. Considering that the enzymes ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) act together to control nucleotide levels, we aimed to investigate the role of these enzymes in prostate cancer (PCa). E-NPP and ADA activities were determined in serum and platelets of PCa patients and controls. We also verified the influence of the Gleason score, bone metastasis and treatment in the enzyme activities. Platelets and serum E-NPP activity increased, whereas ADA activity in serum decreased in PCa patients. In addition, Gleason score, metastasis and treatment influenced E-NPP and ADA activities. We may propose that E-NPP and ADA are involved in the development of PCa. Moreover, E-NPP and ADA activities are modified in PCa patients with distinct Gleason score, with bone metastasis, as well as in patients under treatment.

  5. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; ...

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle tomore » establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.« less

  6. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; Kaul, Karen; Brendler, Charles; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2014-12-11

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β- catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Finally, based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis.

  7. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Neill, T; Yang, Y; Hu, Z; Cleveland, E; Wu, Y; Hutten, R; Xiao, X; Stock, S R; Shevrin, D; Kaul, K; Brendler, C; Iozzo, R V; Seth, P

    2015-03-01

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the antitumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia and an increase in the animal survival. Based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for PCa bone metastasis.

  8. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weidong; Neill, Thomas; Yang, Yuefeng; Hu, Zebin; Cleveland, Elyse; Wu, Ying; Hutten, Ryan; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Shevrin, Daniel; Kaul, Karen; Brendler, Charles; Iozzo, Renato V.; Seth, Prem

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels, and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the anti-tumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum TRACP 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia, and an increase in the animal survival. Based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for prostate cancer bone metastasis. PMID:25503693

  9. [Clinical and cytomorphological features of bone marrow metastasis of non-hematological malignant carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Cong, Yulong; Cai, Lili; Deng, Xinli; Guan, Jie

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the clinical manifestations and hematologic parameters and observe the cytomorphological features of metastatic tumors in the bone marrow originating from different primary sites. The clinical data of 77 patients with bone marrow metasta tumors admitted between 2009 and 2014 between 2009 and 2014 in General Hospital of PLA were studied retrospectively to analyze the indications of laboratory examinations (hematological laboratory tests, tumor markers, peripheral blood films, and bone marrow aspirates). Of the 77 patients analyzed, 64.9% were over 50 years of age. The most common clinical characteristics were bone pain (65%), anemia with thrombocytopenia (63.6%) and leukoerythroblastic reaction (61%). The hematological abnormalities included elevation of ESR, ALP, LDH, tumor markers, and hypoproteinemia. Cytological examination of bone marrow aspiration samples revealed different morphological characteristics of the metastatic cells from different primary sites; in most of the cases, scattered or clustered metastatic cells and degenerative tumor cells were found on the edge of the bone marrow smears. Detection of the primary tumor site is difficult by cytological examination of bone marrow aspiration samples, but the cytological findings can be of value in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer (signet ring cell carcinoma). A definite diagnosis of bone marrow metastatic tumor relies on a combined evaluation of the disease history, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings.

  10. Effects Of Stress On Bone-Formation Markers In Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Vasques, Marilyn; Grindeland, Richard E.; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Durnova, Galina

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments involving simultaneous measurement of concentrations, in blood, of two substances indicative of formation of bone in rats. Measurements performed after flight in outer space plus 48 h of postflight environmental stress. Results emphasize critical influences of adrenal status and diet on functions of osteoblasts.

  11. Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiko; Uoshima, Katsumi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2009-08-01

    It is important to know the etiology of implant failure. It has been reported that heat stress during drilling was one of the causes for failure and the threshold was 47 degrees C. However, clinically, we encounter cases in which overheating does not seem to affect osseointegration eventually. The purpose of this study was to assess histologically the spatio-temporal effect of heat stress on bone formation after overheating the bone matrix. Rat calvarial bone was heated to 37 degrees C, 43 degrees C, 45 degrees C and 48 degrees C for 15 min by a temperature stimulator. Paraffin sections were prepared 1, 3 and 5 weeks after heating and investigated histologically under light microscopy. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) enzyme histochemistry were carried out. The area of dead osteocytes was calculated and statistically analyzed. Apoptotic osteocytes were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Along with the temperature increase, the area of dead osteocytes increased and regeneration of the periosteal membrane was delayed. Hsps- and TUNEL-positive cells were only seen in the 48 degrees C group. Spatio-temporal changes of TRAP- and ALP-positive cell numbers were observed, while OPN expression was mostly absent. Even after 48 degrees C stimulation, bone formation on the calvarial surface was observed after 5 weeks. Although there was a temperature-dependent delay in bone formation after heat stress, the 48 degrees C heat stress did not obstruct bone formation eventually. This delay was probably caused by slow periosteal membrane regeneration.

  12. Beta 2-Microglobulin: A Novel Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Human Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-14

    Marshall FF, Zhau HE, and Chung LWK. (2008). Receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) expression is associated with epithelial to mesenchymal...Chu G, Xu J, Shi C, Marshall FF, Zhau HE, and Chung LWK. (2008). Receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) expression is associated with epithelial...M, Eger A et al (2004) Molecular aspects of epithelial cell plasticity: implications for local tumor invasion and metastasis. Mutat Res 566(1):9–20

  13. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  14. [Bronchial carcinoid tumor and scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors: detection of bone metastasis].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Abós, M D; Prats, E; García, F; Freile, E; Razola, P; Escalera, T

    2001-10-01

    Surgery is the treatment of choice for bronchial carcinoid tumor (BCT), whenever the staging is adequate. There is little information about the capability of the somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) to detect bone metastases in the carcinoid tumor. This work has aimed to evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic accuracy of the SRS in the detection of bone metastases in BCT. Based on their clinical indication, the patients were classified into two different groups: Group A (n = 4), staging of a known BCT; and Group B (n = 6), treatment control. The SRS results could be correlated with the CT results in all 4 patients from the group A, and in one patient from the group B, and the SRS results were compared with the clinical follow up during at least one year in the other 5 patients. The SRS scan detected the 4 BCT from the group A; in 2 of them the patient staging was superior when the SRS was used than with the CT, whereas the scan overestimated the tumor stage (BCT + sarcoidosis) in another patient. During the clinical course, one of these patients developed bone and liver metastases. The SRS was normal in 5 asymptomatic patients from group B, whereas the scan showed disseminated metastatic disease (liver, bone, spleen and lymph nodes) in another patient. In the 2 patients with bone metastases, the total number of bone metastases detected by the bone scan was 12, and by the SRS 8. The four lesions that were not detected by SRS were located in the ribs (n = 3) and 12-D (n = 1). The capability of the SRS to detect bone metastases makes it more useful in BCT staging. Over the next few years, the role of the bone scan and SRS in the detection of bone metastases in carcinoid tumors needs to be established.

  15. Development of a bone-targeted pH-sensitive liposomal formulation containing doxorubicin: physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution evaluation in a mouse model of bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Diêgo dos Santos; Faria, Samilla Dornelas; Lopes, Sávia Caldeira de Araújo; Teixeira, Cláudia Salviano; Malachias, Angelo; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Oliveira, Bruno Luis de Jesus Pinto; Guimarães, Alexander Ramos; Caravan, Peter; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Alves, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the treatment of bone tumors remains a major challenge. A possible underlying hypothesis, limitation, and unmet need may be the inability of therapeutics to penetrate into dense bone mineral, which can lead to poor efficacy and high toxicity, due to drug uptake in healthy organs. The development of nanostructured formulations with high affinity for bone could be an interesting approach to overcome these challenges. Purpose To develop a liposomal formulation with high affinity for hydroxyapatite and the ability to release doxorubicin (DOX) in an acidic environment for future application as a tool for treatment of bone metastases. Materials and methods Liposomes were prepared by thin-film lipid hydration, followed by extrusion and the sulfate gradient-encapsulation method. Liposomes were characterized by average diameter, ζ-potential, encapsulation percentage, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Release studies in buffer (pH 7.4 or 5), plasma, and serum, as well as hydroxyapatite-affinity in vitro analysis were performed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and biodistribution was assessed in bone metastasis-bearing animals. Results Liposomes presented suitable diameter (~170 nm), DOX encapsulation (~2 mg/mL), controlled release, and good plasma and serum stability. The existence of interactions between DOX and the lipid bilayer was proved through differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. DOX release was faster when the pH was in the range of a tumor than at physiological pH. The bone-targeted formulation showed a strong affinity for hydroxyapatite. The encapsulation of DOX did not interfere in its intrinsic cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high affinity of this formulation for tumors and reduction of uptake in the heart. Conclusion These results suggest that bone-targeted p

  16. Development of a bone-targeted pH-sensitive liposomal formulation containing doxorubicin: physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution evaluation in a mouse model of bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diêgo Dos Santos; Faria, Samilla Dornelas; Lopes, Sávia Caldeira de Araújo; Teixeira, Cláudia Salviano; Malachias, Angelo; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Oliveira, Bruno Luis de Jesus Pinto; Guimarães, Alexander Ramos; Caravan, Peter; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Alves, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the treatment of bone tumors remains a major challenge. A possible underlying hypothesis, limitation, and unmet need may be the inability of therapeutics to penetrate into dense bone mineral, which can lead to poor efficacy and high toxicity, due to drug uptake in healthy organs. The development of nanostructured formulations with high affinity for bone could be an interesting approach to overcome these challenges. To develop a liposomal formulation with high affinity for hydroxyapatite and the ability to release doxorubicin (DOX) in an acidic environment for future application as a tool for treatment of bone metastases. Liposomes were prepared by thin-film lipid hydration, followed by extrusion and the sulfate gradient-encapsulation method. Liposomes were characterized by average diameter, ζ-potential, encapsulation percentage, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Release studies in buffer (pH 7.4 or 5), plasma, and serum, as well as hydroxyapatite-affinity in vitro analysis were performed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and biodistribution was assessed in bone metastasis-bearing animals. Liposomes presented suitable diameter (~170 nm), DOX encapsulation (~2 mg/mL), controlled release, and good plasma and serum stability. The existence of interactions between DOX and the lipid bilayer was proved through differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. DOX release was faster when the pH was in the range of a tumor than at physiological pH. The bone-targeted formulation showed a strong affinity for hydroxyapatite. The encapsulation of DOX did not interfere in its intrinsic cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high affinity of this formulation for tumors and reduction of uptake in the heart. These results suggest that bone-targeted pH-sensitive liposomes containing DOX can be an interesting

  17. Demineralized Bone Matrix Injection in Consolidation Phase Enhances Bone Regeneration in Distraction Osteogenesis via Endochondral Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Won Joon; Cho, Tae-Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2015-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was used. Twenty-eight animals received DBM 100 mg percutaneously at the end of distraction. Another 22 animals were left without further procedure (control). Plain radiographs were taken every week. Postmortem bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) studies were performed at the third and sixth weeks of the consolidation period and histological analysis was performed. The regenerate bone mineral density was higher in the DBM group when compared with that in the saline injection control group at the third week postdistraction. Quantitative analysis using micro-CT revealed larger trabecular bone volume, higher trabecular number, and less trabecular separation in the DBM group than in the saline injection control group. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness at the sixth week postdistraction, assessed using micro-CT, were greater in the regenerates of the DBM group compared with the control group. Histological evaluation revealed higher trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in the regenerate of the DBM group. New bone formation was apparently enhanced, via endochondral ossification, at the site and in the vicinity of the injected DBM. DBM was absorbed slowly, but it remained until the sixth postoperative week after injection. DBM administration into the distraction gap at the end of the distraction period resulted in a significantly greater regenerate bone area, trabecular number, and cortical thickness in the rabbit tibial DO model. These data suggest

  18. Demineralized Bone Matrix Injection in Consolidation Phase Enhances Bone Regeneration in Distraction Osteogenesis via Endochondral Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Won Joon; Cho, Tae-Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. Methods The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was used. Twenty-eight animals received DBM 100 mg percutaneously at the end of distraction. Another 22 animals were left without further procedure (control). Plain radiographs were taken every week. Postmortem bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) studies were performed at the third and sixth weeks of the consolidation period and histological analysis was performed. Results The regenerate bone mineral density was higher in the DBM group when compared with that in the saline injection control group at the third week postdistraction. Quantitative analysis using micro-CT revealed larger trabecular bone volume, higher trabecular number, and less trabecular separation in the DBM group than in the saline injection control group. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness at the sixth week postdistraction, assessed using micro-CT, were greater in the regenerates of the DBM group compared with the control group. Histological evaluation revealed higher trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in the regenerate of the DBM group. New bone formation was apparently enhanced, via endochondral ossification, at the site and in the vicinity of the injected DBM. DBM was absorbed slowly, but it remained until the sixth postoperative week after injection. Conclusions DBM administration into the distraction gap at the end of the distraction period resulted in a significantly greater regenerate bone area, trabecular number, and cortical thickness in the

  19. Surface microcracks signal osteoblasts to regulate alignment and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J.; Case, Eldon D.; Irwin, Regina K.; Meyer, Sarah E.; Pearson, Craig S.; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Microcracks are present in bone and can result from fatigue damage due to repeated, cyclically applied stresses. From a mechanical point, microcracks can dissipate strain energy at the advancing tip of a crack to improve overall bone toughness. Physiologically, microcracks are thought to trigger bone remodeling. Here, we examine the effect of microcracks specifically on osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, by comparing cell responses on microcracked versus non-microcracked hydroxyapatite (HA) specimens. Osteoblast attachment was found to be greater on microcracked HA specimens (p<0.05). More importantly, we identified the preferential alignment of osteoblasts in the direction of the microcracks on HA. Cells also displayed a preferential attachment that was 75 to 90 μm away from the microcrack indent. After 21 days of culture, osteoblast maturation was notably enhanced on the HA with microcracks, as indicated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression. Furthermore, examination of bone deposition by confocal laser scanning microscope indicated preferential mineralization at microcrack indentation sites. Dissolution studies indicate that the microcracks increase calcium release, which could contribute to osteoblast responses. Our findings suggest that microcracks signal osteoblast attachment and bone formation/healing. PMID:25280696

  20. Associations of Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostate Carcinoma Tissue Gleason Score, and Androgen Receptor Expression with Bone Metastasis in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yehui; Lin, Yun; Nie, Pin; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Yanqing; Yuan, Runqiang; Li, Miaoyuan; Zhao, Shijia; Lin, Huaxin; Li, Penghui; Zhang, Jinxiang; Hu, Zhiwen; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Xusheng

    2017-04-12

    BACKGROUND Prostate carcinoma (PCa) is often not diagnosed until advanced disease with bone metastasis. Predictive factors for bone metastasis are required to improve patient outcomes. The study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bone metastases in newly diagnosed patients with PCa. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 80 patients newly diagnosed with PCa by pathological examination between January 2012 and December 2014. Bone metastases were diagnosed by positron emission computed tomography. Clinical data, serological laboratory results, and pathological examination results were collected. RESULTS Among the 80 patients, 45 (56%) had bone metastases. Age, serum alkaline phosphatase, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PCa tissue Gleason score, androgen receptor (AR) expression, and Ki-67 expression were higher in patients with bone metastasis compared with those without (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that PSA (OR: 1.005; 95%CI: 1.001-1.010; P=0.016), Gleason score (OR: 4.095; 95%CI: 1.592-10.529; P=0.003), and AR expression (OR: 14.023; 95%CI: 3.531-55.6981; P=0.005) were independently associated with bone metastases. Cut-off values for PSA, Gleason score, and AR expression were 67.1 ng/ml (sensitivity: 55.6%; specificity: 97.1%), 7.5 (sensitivity: 75.6%; specificity: 82.9%), and 2.5 (sensitivity: 84.0%; specificity: 91.4%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS PSA, Gleason score, and AR expression in PCa tissues were independently associated with PCa bone metastases. These results could help identifying patients with PCa at high risk of bone metastases.

  1. Conditional deletion of gremlin causes a transient increase in bone formation and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna; Zanotti, Stefano; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Durant, Deena; Economides, Aris N; Canalis, Ernesto

    2007-10-26

    Gremlin is a glycoprotein that binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7, antagonizing their actions. Gremlin opposes BMP effects on osteoblastic differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo, and its overexpression causes osteopenia. To define the function of gremlin in the skeleton, we generated gremlin 1 (grem1) conditional null mice by mating mice where grem1 was flanked by lox(P) sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. grem1 null male mice displayed increased trabecular bone volume due to enhanced osteoblastic activity, because mineral apposition and bone formation rates were increased. Osteoblast number and bone resorption were not altered. Marrow stromal cells from grem1 conditional null mice expressed higher levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Gremlin down-regulation by RNA interference in ST-2 stromal and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells increased the BMP-2 stimulatory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity, on Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and on the transactivation of the BMP/Smad reporter construct 12xSBE-Oc-pGL3. Gremlin down-regulation also enhanced osteocalcin and Runx-2 expression, Wnt 3a signaling, and activity in ST-2 cells. In conclusion, deletion of grem1 in the bone microenvironment results in sensitization of BMP signaling and activity and enhanced bone formation in vivo.

  2. Bone formation is suppressed with multi-stressor military training.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie M; Smith, Martha A; Henning, Paul C; Scofield, Dennis E; Spiering, Barry A; Staab, Jeffery S; Hydren, Jay R; Nindl, Bradley C; Matheny, Ronald W

    2014-11-01

    To determine the effects of US Army Ranger Training, an 8-week, physically demanding program (energy expenditure of 2,500-4,500 kcal/day) with energy restriction (deficit of 1,000-4,000 kcal/day) and sleep deprivation (<4 h sleep/night) on bone metabolism. Blood was collected from 22 men (age 24 ± 4 years) before and after training. Follow-up measurements were made in a subset of 8 subjects between 2 and 6 weeks after training. Serum was analyzed for bone formation biomarkers [bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin (OCN)], bone resorption biomarkers [C-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b)], calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D 25(OH)D increased significantly by 37.3 ± 45.2 % with training [corrected]. A repeated-measures ANOVA with time as the only factor was used to analyze data on the subset of 8 subjects who completed follow-up data collection. BAP and OCN significantly decreased by 22.8 ± 15.5% (pre 41.9 ± 10.1; post 31.7 ± 7.8 ng/ml) and 21.0 ± 23.3% (pre 15.0 ± 3.5; post 11.3 ± 2.1 ng/ml), respectively, with training, suggesting suppressed bone formation. OCN returned to baseline, while BAP remained suppressed 2-6 weeks post-training. TRAP5b significantly increased by 57.5 ± 51.6% (pre 3.0 ± 0.9; post 4.6 ± 1.4 ng/ml) from pre- to post-training, suggesting increased bone resorption, and returned to baseline 2-6 weeks post-training. PTH Increased significantly by 37.3 ± 45.2% with training. No changes in CTX, calcium, or PTH were detected. These data indicate that multi-stressor military training results in increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation, with recovery of bone metabolism 2-6 weeks after completion of training.

  3. BONE FORMATION INDUCED IN MOUSE THIGH BY CULTURED HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. Clarke; Coulter, P. R.

    1967-01-01

    Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. 35S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible 35S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-3H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts. PMID:4226746

  4. Bone formation induced in mouse thigh by cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H C; Coulter, P R

    1967-04-01

    Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. (35)S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible (35)S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-(3)H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts.

  5. Progress in spondylarthritis. Mechanisms of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lories, Rik J U; Luyten, Frank P; de Vlam, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Targeted therapies that neutralize tumour necrosis factor are often able to control the signs and symptoms of spondyloarthritis. However, recent animal model data and clinical observations indicate that control of inflammation may not be sufficient to impede disease progression toward ankylosis in these patients. Bone morphogenetic proteins and WNTs (wingless-type like) are likely to play an important role in ankylosis and could be therapeutic targets. The relationship between inflammation and new bone formation is still unclear. This review summarizes progress made in our understanding of ankylosis and offers an alternative view of the relationship between inflammation and ankylosis.

  6. TGF-Beta Induction of PMEPA1: Role in Bone Metastasis Due to Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    plastic embedded murine phantom before use. Mice were anesthetized, placed on an adhesive tray in a prone position with limbs spread. Total body...compression syndromes and paralysis that drastically reduce quality of life. Moreover, once metastatic cells colonized bone, there is no cure, only...histology. Forelimb and hind limb bones were removed from mice at the time of experimental termination. Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin

  7. A New In Vitro Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Vogler†‡∗ Departments of Materials Science and Engineering†, Bioengineering∗ and Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyΦ Materials Research Institute...Journal of clinical investigation; 89 (1): 46-52 38. Devlin RD, Bone HG, 3rd, Roodman GD (1996) Interleukin-6: A potential mediator of the massive...Apoptosis: A Possible Contributor to Bone Degradation. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2004; 91: 265-276. 8. Santini, D., Gentilucci, U.V

  8. [A rare case of bone metastasis from gastro-intestinal stromal tumour: place of radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Heymann, S; Imperiale, A; Schlund-Schoettel, E; Sauer, B; Dourthe, L-M

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their usual metastatic sites are the liver and the peritoneum, but gastro-intestinal stromal tumours rarely metastasize to the bones. We report the case of a 56-year-old male presenting with bone lesions six years after initial surgical resection. We discuss through this paper the possibilities of management of these lesions and the place of radiotherapy.

  9. The Role of SDF-1 (Alpha) CXCR4/MMP in PC Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    human fetal bone stromal cells. PC-3 cells were seeded in upper chamber and human fetal bone stromal cells were seeded in bottom well. After 16...MAP kinase inhibition. PC-3 cell invasion assay using matrigel- coated transwell culture inserts. CXCL12 was included in the bottom chamber as a...chemoattractant. LY294002 or U0126 was included with the cancer cells in the upper chamber as indicated. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and

  10. Immunolocalization of markers for bone formation during guided bone regeneration in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    TERA, Tábata de Mello; NASCIMENTO, Rodrigo Dias; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; SANTAMARIA, Mauro Pedrine; JARDINI, Maria Aparecida Neves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to evaluate the repair of onlay autogenous bone grafts covered or not covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane using immunohistochemistry in rats with induced estrogen deficiency. Material and Methods Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups: ovariectomized (OVX) and with a simulation of the surgical procedure (SHAM). Each of these groups was again divided into groups with either placement of an autogenous bone graft alone (BG) or an autogenous bone graft associated with an e-PTFE membrane (BGM). Animals were euthanized on days 0, 7, 21, 45, and 60. The specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry for bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ONC), and osteocalcin (OCC). Results All groups (OVX+BG, OVX+BMG, SHAM+BG, and SHAM+BMG) showed greater bone formation, observed between 7 and 21 days, when BSP and ONC staining were more intense. At the 45-day, the bone graft showed direct bonding to the recipient bed in all specimens. The ONC and OCC showed more expressed in granulation tissue, in the membrane groups, independently of estrogen deficiency. Conclusions The expression of bone forming markers was not negatively influenced by estrogen deficiency. However, the markers could be influenced by the presence of the e-PTFE membrane. PMID:25591022

  11. FROM ANEURYSMAL BONE CYST TO TELANGIECTATIC OSTEOSARCOMA WITH METASTASIS IN INGUINAL LYMPH NODES - CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Janevska, Vesna; Spasevska, Liljana; Samardziski, Milan; Nikodinovskai, Violeta; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Trajkovskai, Elizabeta

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign bone lesion composed of blood filled cystic cavities lined by fibrous septa. Its malignant transformation of is a rare event. We report a case of a lesion in the second metatarsal bone in a 29-year-old male, presented as a slight swelling of the right foot. After the curettage had been done, the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was made but the recurrence occurred 4 years later. The biopsy of the recurrent tumor showed compact neoplastic tissue consistent with diagnosis of giant cell tumor with malignancy. The malignant component was recognized as a high grade sarcoma with osteoid production. A tumor mass with the whole II metatarsal bone was extirpated and a resected part of fibula was transplanted. A year later, another recurrence occurred, an amputation was performed and a teleangiectatic osteosarcoma with ingvinal lymph nodes metastases was diagnosed. No other tumor mass was confirmed, either clinically or by imaging techniques at the time of his third operation. He died 4 months later with multiple pulmonary metastases. We emphasize the importance of team work in order to achieve the accurate diagnosis, highlighting careful radiological examinations, good sampling and awareness of unusual cases in bone tumor pathology.

  12. Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in the bone formation response to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Chow, J W

    2000-10-01

    Nitric oxide and prostaglandins are crucial early mediators in mechanically induced bone formation. They are also responsible for the associated induction of gene expression of c-fos and IGF-1 in osteocytes, key mechanosensory cells in bone. Insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying bone formation has important implications for the maintenance of structural competence of bone.

  13. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    PubMed

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells.

  14. Reduced bone formation and relatively increased bone resorption in absorptive hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Heller, H J; Zerwekh, J E; Gottschalk, F A; Pak, C Y C

    2007-04-01

    Absorptive hypercalciuria (AH), a common stone-forming condition characterized biochemically by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and hypercalciuria may be associated with bone loss. In AH type I (AH-1), hypercalciuria persists despite restriction in dietary calcium intake. We therefore hypothesized that the skeleton may contribute to the hypercalciuria in this subgroup of patients. Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest biopsies were performed on nine stone-formers with AH-1 and on nine matched normal subjects. After stabilization on a stone-prevention diet, calcium homeostasis in the stone formers was then evaluated on inpatient constant metabolic diet before and after short-term blockade of bone resorption by alendronate (10 mg daily, 17 days total). Compared with controls, the stone-formers had lower indices of bone formation (osteoblast surface/bone surface 1.8+/-2.1 vs 3.0+/-1.5%, P=0.04; wall thickness 35.8+/-6.9 vs 47.2+/-7.6%, P=0.001) and relatively higher bone resorption (osteoclast surface/bone surface 0.4+/-0.2 vs 0.2+/-0.2%, P=0.05). In the stone-formers, a short-term course of alendronate treatment corrected fasting urinary calcium (0.14+/-0.06 to 0.06+/-0.04 mg Ca/mg Cr, P=0.001) and marginally reduced 24-h urinary calcium by 48 mg/day (P=0.06). Increased intestinal calcium absorption and hypercalciuria persisted, but estimated calcium balance improved (P=0.007). Our results suggest that the hypercalciuria of AH-1 originates primarily from intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium, but bone resorption in excess of bone formation may contribute.

  15. Exercise maintains blood-brain barrier integrity during early stages of brain metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gretchen; Davidson, Sarah J; Wrobel, Jagoda K; Toborek, Michal

    2015-08-07

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier, which is a highly protected microvascular environment fortified with tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ integrity can be regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. There is evidence that exercise can modulate oxidation status within the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell extravasation and metastasis formation. In order to study these events, mature male mice were given access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel (exercise) or access to a locked wheel (sedentary) for five weeks. The average running distance was 9.0 ± 0.2 km/day. Highly metastatic tumor cells (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) were then infused into the brain microvasculature through the internal carotid artery. Analyses were performed at early stage (48 h) and late stage (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer isolated tumor cells extravasating into the brain at both 48 h and 3 weeks post surgery in exercised mice. Occludin protein levels were reduced in the sedentary tumor group, but maintained in the exercised tumor group at 48 h post tumor cell infusion. These results indicate that voluntary exercise may participate in modulating blood-brain barrier integrity thereby protecting the brain during metastatic progression.

  16. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression...

  17. Pharmacological targeting of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in prostate cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Conley-LaComb, M Katie; Semaan, Louie; Singareddy, Rajareddy; Li, Yanfeng; Heath, Elisabeth I; Kim, Seongho; Cher, Michael L; Chinni, Sreenivasa R

    2016-11-03

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis transactivates HER2 and promotes intraosseous tumor growth. To further explore the transactivation of HER2 by CXCL12, we investigated the role of small GTP protein Gαi2 in Src and HER2 phosphorylation in lipid raft membrane microdomains and the significance of CXCR4 in prostate cancer bone tumor growth. We used a variety of methods such as lipid raft isolation, invasion assays, an in vivo model of intratibial tumor growth, bone histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry to determine the role of CXCR4 signaling in lipid raft membrane microdomains and effects of targeting of CXCR4 for bone tumor growth. We determined that (a) CXCL12/CXCR4 transactivation of EGFR and HER2 is confined to lipid raft membrane microdomains, (b) CXCL12 activation of HER2 and Src is mediated by small GTP proteins in lipid rafts, (c) inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis through plerixafor abrogates the initial establishment of tumor growth without affecting the growth of established bone tumors, and (d) inhibition of EGFR signaling through gefitinib leads to inhibition of established bone tumor growth. These data suggest that lipid raft membrane microdomains are key sites for CXCL12/CXCR4 transactivation of HER2 via small GTP binding protein Gαi2 and Src kinase. The initial establishment of prostate cancer is supported by the endosteal niche, and blocking the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of this niche along with its downstream signaling severely compromises initial establishment of tumors in the bone microenvironment, whereas expanding bone tumors are sensitive only to the members of growth factor receptor inhibition.

  18. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Drago, Lorenzo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-15

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. To give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we identified

  19. Multi-protein Delivery by Nanodiamonds Promotes Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L.; Gatica, M.; Kim, H.; Osawa, E.; Ho, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE® for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  20. Transient modulation of calcium and parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andy B; Minami, Kazumasa; Raposo, João F; Matsuura, Nariaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yokota, Hiroki; Ferreira, Hugo G

    2016-10-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone can stimulate bone formation. Parathyroid hormone is a natural hormone that responds to serum calcium levels. In this study, we examined whether a transient increase and/or decrease in the serum calcium can stimulate bone formation. Using a mathematical model previously developed, we first predicted the effects of administration of parathyroid hormone, neutralizing parathyroid hormone antibody, calcium, and EGTA (calcium chelator) on the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone and calcium. The model predicted that intermittent injection of parathyroid hormone and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid transiently elevated the serum parathyroid hormone, while that of parathyroid hormone antibody and calcium transiently reduced parathyroid hormone in the serum. In vitro analysis revealed that parathyroid hormone's transient changes (both up and down) elevated activating transcription factor 4-mediated osteocalcin expression. In the mouse model of osteoporosis, both intermittent administration of calcium and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid showed tendency to increase bone mineral density of the upper limb (ulna and humerus) and spine, but the effects varied in a region-specific manner. Collectively, the study herein supports a common bone response to administration of calcium and its chelator through their effects on parathyroid hormone.

  1. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation.

  2. [Radical surgical treatment for bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Report of four cases].

    PubMed

    Dolores-Velázquez, Rigoberto; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro; Durán-Hernández, Myrna; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Martínez-Said, Héctor

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with thyroid bone metastases have been evaluated in accordance with other sites of disease. Overall survival is impacted and the results with surgery, radiation therapy, or radioactive iodine show variable results. Four cases are presented: three women and one man with an age range of 43-53 years and all with radical surgery. Good local control in three of the patients was observed. All patients had hormonal suppression with levothyroxine. Radical surgery showed an improvement in survival in patients with bone metastases for thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  4. Seasonal variations in indices of bone formation precede appropriate bone mineral changes in normal men

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldstrup, L.; McNair, P.; Jensen, G.F.; Transbol, I.

    1986-01-01

    In 10 normal males aged 23-50 years measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase (s-AP) and the 24-h whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate (WBR), as indices of bone formation, and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio (OHPr:Cr), as an index of bone resorption, were performed monthly from January 1983 to May 1984. Bone mineral content of the distal forearm (BMC) was measured in the middle of each quarter. From January to May BMC exhibited a reproducible, significant average increase of 2.5%, returning to baseline level between May and August. During the first quarter of both 1983 and 1984 a significant increase in s-AP and WBR was seen. Subsequently, during the second quarter of 1983, these variables fell below the mean of the year. Confirming their interrelationship, the deviations of s-AP and WBR were positively correlated throughout the study period (r = 0.51, P less than 0.05). Since the urinary OHPr:Cr ratio remained constant, the reported seasonal changes in bone mass of normal, adult males appear to result from primary changes in bone formation.

  5. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable. PMID:27867255

  6. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student's t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable.

  7. E-/P-selectins and colon carcinoma metastasis: first in vivo evidence for their crucial role in a clinically relevant model of spontaneous metastasis formation in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, S; Ullrich, S; Richter, U; Schumacher, U

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interactions of endothelial selectins with tumour cell glycoconjugates have been shown to have a major role in tumour cell dissemination in previous experiments. However, experiments validating this observation were limited in value, as ‘metastases' in these experiments were artificially induced by i.v. injection rather than developed spontaneously as in true metastases. Methods: Endothelial (E) and platelet (P)-selectin-deficient severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice were generated and human HT 29 colon cancer cells were subcutaneously inoculated in these mice and in wild-type scid mice. Tumour growth, spontaneous metastasis formation in the lung and adherence of HT29 cells to E- and P-selectin under flow were determined. Results: The number of metastases decreased by 84% in E- and P-selectin-deficient scid mice, compared with wild-type scid mice. The remaining 16% metastases in the E- and P-selectin-deficient scid mice grew within the pulmonary artery and not in the alveolar septae as they did in wild-type scid mice. Flow experiments indicate that tumour cells roll and tether on an E- and P-selectin matrix similar to leukocytes; however, firm adhesion is mainly mediated in E-selectin. Conclusion: Our results indicate that E- and P-selectins have a crucial role in spontaneous metastasis formation. As the human HT 29 colon cancer cells are positive for the lectin Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), which identified the metastatic phenotype in earlier clinical studies, these results are of particular clinical relevance. PMID:20010946

  8. Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Jillian; Callon, Karen E; Naot, Dorit; Palmano, Kate P; Banovic, Tatjana; Bava, Usha; Watson, Maureen; Lin, Jian-Ming; Tong, P C; Chen, Qi; Chan, Vincent A; Reid, Helen E; Fazzalari, Nick; Baker, Heather M; Baker, Edward N; Haggarty, Neill W; Grey, Andrew B; Reid, Ian R

    2004-09-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in epithelial secretions, such as milk, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. We found it to be present in fractions of milk protein that stimulated osteoblast growth, so we assessed its effects on bone cell function. Lactoferrin produced large, dose-related increases in thymidine incorporation in primary or cell line cultures of human or rat osteoblast-like cells, at physiological concentrations (1-100 microg/ml). Maximal stimulation was 5-fold above control. Lactoferrin also increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced osteoblast apoptosis by up to 50-70%. Similarly, lactoferrin stimulated proliferation of primary chondrocytes. Purified, recombinant, human, or bovine lactoferrins had similar potencies. In mouse bone marrow cultures, osteoclastogenesis was dose-dependently decreased and was completely arrested by lactoferrin, 100 microg/ml, associated with decreased expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. In contrast, lactoferrin had no effect on bone resorption by isolated mature osteoclasts. Lactoferrin was administered over calvariae of adult mice for 5 d. New bone formation, assessed using fluorochrome labels, was increased 4-fold by a 4-mg dose of lactoferrin. Thus, lactoferrin has powerful anabolic, differentiating, and antiapoptotic effects on osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Lactoferrin is a potential therapeutic target in bone disorders such as osteoporosis and is possibly an important physiological regulator of bone growth.

  9. Osteoblast-derived VEGF regulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kai; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblast-derived VEGF is important for bone development and postnatal bone homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that VEGF affects bone repair and regeneration; however, the cellular mechanisms by which it works are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functions of osteoblast-derived VEGF in healing of a bone defect. The results indicate that osteoblast-derived VEGF plays critical roles at several stages in the repair process. Using transgenic mice with osteoblast-specific deletion of Vegfa, we demonstrated that VEGF promoted macrophage recruitment and angiogenic responses in the inflammation phase, and optimal levels of VEGF were required for coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis in areas where repair occurs by intramembranous ossification. VEGF likely functions as a paracrine factor in this process because deletion of Vegfr2 in osteoblastic lineage cells enhanced osteoblastic maturation and mineralization. Furthermore, osteoblast- and hypertrophic chondrocyte–derived VEGF stimulated recruitment of blood vessels and osteoclasts and promoted cartilage resorption at the repair site during the periosteal endochondral ossification stage. Finally, osteoblast-derived VEGF stimulated osteoclast formation in the final remodeling phase of the repair process. These findings provide a basis for clinical strategies to improve bone regeneration and treat defects in bone healing. PMID:26731472

  10. Evaluation of the pain and local tenderness in bone metastasis treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Motohiro; Kato, Tomonari; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Koizumi, Norihiro

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that MRgFUS has pain palliative effects on the local pain in patients with bone metastasis. In general, a severity of pain has been evaluated using only subjective method with numerical rating scale (NRS) or visual analogue scale (VAS). It is important to evaluate local pain-palliative effects of MRgFUS treatment with objective and quantitative method. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the severity of local pain of bone metastasis before and after MRgFUS treatments, measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) using pressure algometer, and pain intensity using electrical stimulation device (the Pain Vision system) at most painful site of bone metastasis. We have conducted MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastasis for 8 patients, and evaluated the local tenderness quantitatively for 8 patients, and evaluated local pain intensity for 7 patients. Before the treatments, PPTs were 106.3kPa [40.0-431.5] at metastatic site and 344.8 kPa [206.0-667.0] at normal control site, which showed a significant difference. The PPTs at metastatic site shows a significant increase from 106.3 kPa [40.0-431.5] at the baseline to 270.5 kPa [93.5-533.5] at 3 months after the treatment. The NRS score shows a significant decrease from 6.0 [4-8] at baseline to 1 [0-3] at 3 months after the treatment. Similarly, the pain intensity shows a significant decrease 245 [96.3-888.7] at baseline to 55.9 [2.8-292] at 3 months after the treatment. The results of our study illustrate the pain-relieving effects of MRgFUS for the treatment of painful bone metastasis. PPT might be a useful parameter not only for assessing a treatment's effect, but also for the decision of the painful area to treat with MRgFUS. Pain Vision seems to be useful for quantitative and objective evaluation of local pain of painful bone metastasis.

  11. High-dose therapy improves the bone remodelling compartment canopy coverage and bone formation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hinge, Maja; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2015-11-01

    Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling. Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed that a good response to anti-myeloma treatment increased the extent of formative bone surfaces with canopy, and reduced the extent of eroded surfaces without canopy, reverting the uncoupled bone remodelling, while improving canopy coverage. The association between improved coupling and the canopy coverage supports the notion that canopies are critical for the coupling of bone formation to resorption. Furthermore, this study supports the observation that systemic bone disease in MM can be reversed in MM patients responding to anti-myeloma treatment.

  12. Calcification preceding new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix gelatin.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Takagi, T

    1992-03-01

    Demineralized bone matrix gelatin (BMG) was implanted into the skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley (S.D.) rats, and histological changes were examined 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days later. Before bone formation, a specific calcification process was found in most of the BMG from day 5 and 7 after implantation. The heterotopic calcified sites were not always consistent with the sites of the alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that this calcification progresses without any cellular components, and we distinguished this type of calcification as "acellular mineral deposition" from the calcification which occurs in new bone formation. This "acellular mineral deposition" was first observed as small spherical calcified deposits in the BMG on day 7 after implantation; these deposits then gradually grew and fused with each other. Some multinucleated cells appeared near the site of calcification on day 7 after implantation, but osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells were scarcely observed around the calcified deposits in BMG until day 7. Vascularization was often observed near the "acellular mineral deposition" and the new bone formation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the calcified deposits in BMG were composed of hydroxyapatite, carbonateapatite and other calcium phosphate components, and that the first two components became prominent with time. It is believed that the "acellular mineral deposition" is due to the deposition of calcium and phosphate into the BMG by a process of heterogenic nucleation that does not involve osteoblasts or matrix vesicles. Bone formation induced by the BMG occurred after the "acellular mineral deposition." The experimental calcification shown in this paper seems a useful model for the study of biocalcification.

  13. Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of jaw metastasis diagnosed in a bone scan.

    PubMed

    Noriega, E; Sabaté-Llobera, A; Benítez, A; Martínez, G A; Rodríguez-Rubio, J; Mora, J

    2016-01-01

    In many cases, numb chin syndrome (NCS) may represent a banal pathology. However, as it can be associated with malignant processes, its presence should alert the clinician of a possible occult disease. In patients already diagnosed with cancer, it often represents an ominous sign that indicates poor prognosis, due to the rapid progress of the disease. The case is presented of a 62-year-old man diagnosed with synchronous lung and bladder cancer, who suddenly complained of numbness in the chin. The bone scan confirmed the suspicion of metastastic bone disease, and the patient died two months after the appearance of this sign. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-05

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  15. miR-409-3p/-5p promotes tumorigenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and bone metastasis of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Josson, Sajni; Gururajan, Murali; Hu, Peizhen; Shao, Chen; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Liu, Chunyan; Lao, Kaiqin; Lu, Chia-Lun; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Lichterman, Jake; Nandana, Srinivas; Li, Quanlin; Rogatko, Andre; Berel, Dror; Posadas, Edwin M.; Fazli, Ladan; Sareen, Dhruv; Chung, Leland W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose miR-409-3p/-5p is a microRNA expressed by embryonic stem cells and its role in cancer biology and metastasis is unknown. Our pilot studies demonstrated elevated miR-409-3p/-5p expression in human prostate cancer bone metastatic cell lines, therefore we defined the biological impact of manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p in prostate cancer progression and correlated the levels of its expression with clinical human prostate cancer bone metastatic specimens. Experimental Design miRNA profiling of prostate cancer bone metastatic EMT cell line model was performed. Gleason score human tissue array was probed for validation of specific miRNAs. Additionally, genetic manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p was performed to determine its role in tumor growth, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and bone metastasis in mouse models. Results Elevated expression of miR-409-3p/-5p was observed in bone metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissues with higher Gleason scores. Elevated miR-409-3p expression levels correlated with prostate cancer patient progression free survival. Orthotopic delivery of miR-409-3p/-5p in the murine prostate gland induced tumors where the tumors expressed, EMT and stemness markers. Intracardiac inoculation (to mimic systemic dissemination) of miR-409-5p inhibitor treated bone metastatic ARCaPM prostate cancer cells in mice, led to decreased bone metastasis and increased survival compared to control vehicle-treated cells. Conclusion miR-409-3p/-5p plays an important role in prostate cancer biology by facilitating tumor growth, EMT and bone metastasis. This finding bear’s particular translational importance since miR-409-3p/-5p appears to be an attractive biomarker and/or possibly a therapeutic target to treat bones metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:24963047

  16. A short-term zinc-deficient diet decreases bone formation through down-regulated BMP2 in rat bone.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takako; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of a short-term dietary zinc deficiency on bone metabolism. Zinc deficiency increased the mRNA expression of zinc uptake transporters such as Zip1, Zip13, and Zip14 in bone. However, zinc deficiency might not maintain zinc storage in bone, resulting in a decrease in bone formation through downregulation of the expression levels of ost