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Sample records for bone scan abnormalities

  1. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  2. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D; Williamson, S; Alazraki, N

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding. PMID:6262000

  3. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, D.; Williamson, S.; Alazraki, N.

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding.

  4. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  5. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care.

  6. Radionuclide bone scanning in giant cell tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Madewell, J.E.; McNiesh, L.M.; Kyle, R.W.; Sweet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Radionuclide bone scan findings are described and correlated with pathology in 23 patients with giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. The degree of radionuclide activity was markedly increased in 20 (87%), minimally increased in three (13%), and decreased in none of the patients. Of the 23 patients with increased radioactivity, the pattern was diffuse in 11 (48%) and doughnut in 12 (52%). Extended patterns of radioactivity were present in 19 of 22 patients; however, none were associated with true tumor extension. Bone scanning did not aid in the detection of GCT, was nonspecific, and did not differentiate benign from malignant GCT. Although radioactivity extended beyond the radiographic abnormality in the majority of patients, this was most likely secondary to other bony abnormalities or local and/or regional hyperemia, and caution should be taken in ascribing this extension to either tumor or metastasis.

  7. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  8. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  9. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  10. Skeletal blood flow: implications for bone-scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The dispersion of the skeleton throughout the body and its complex vascular anatomy require indirect methods for the measurement of skeletal blood flow. The results of one such method, compartmental analysis of skeletal tracer kinetics, are presented. The assumptions underlying the models were tested in animals and found to be in agreement with experimental observations. Based upon the models and the experimental results, inferences concerning bone-scan interpretation can be drawn: decreased cardiac output produces low-contrast (technically poor) scans; decreased skeletal flow produces photon-deficient lesions; increase of cardiac output or of generalized systemic blood flow is undetectable 1 to 2 h after dose; increased local skeletal blood flow results from disturbance of the bone microvasculature and can occur from neurologic (sympatholytic) disorders or in association with focal abnormalities that also incite the formation of reactive bone (e.g., metastasis, fracture, etc.). Mathematical solutions of tracer kinetic data thus become relevant to bone-scan interpretation.

  11. Bone scanning in patients with early breast carcinoma: should it be a routine staging procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.

    1981-02-01

    Bone scanning is a sensitive test for the detection of metastatic breast cancer, but not all abnormal findings on bone scan are diagnostic of skeletal metastasis. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate (less than or equal to 5%) of abnormal scans in patients with Stage I and II breast cancers, and only half of those with positive scans subsequently had documented bony metastasis. The overwhelming clinical experiences summarized here question the value of including bone scanning as part of the routine work-up of patients with early breast cancers.

  12. [Differential diagnosis of reduced uptake images revealed by bone scan: about a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bahadi, Nisrine; Biyi, Abdelhamid; Oueriagli, Salah Nabih; Doudouh, Abderrahim

    2016-01-01

    If increased uptake during bone scan usually bring to light many bone pathologies, reduced uptakes are a rare occurrence and they require careful analysis to avoid erroneous interpretations. We report the case of a 17-year old admitted with diffuse bone pain, hypercalcemia and thrombopenia. Bone scan showed areas of low uptakes. Bone marrow tests allowed the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case report aims to discuss the main differential diagnoses based on such bone scan abnormalities. PMID:27642484

  13. Diagnosis of thyroid disease on bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Peterdy, A.E.

    1985-03-01

    Three cases are reported in which visualization of the thyroid occurred during Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone scans. All were found to be hyperthyroid with elevated serum thyroid hormone and two patients also had elevated 4-hour radioactive iodine uptakes.

  14. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-12-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan.

  15. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  16. Bone scans and the timing of treatment for condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P D; Harris, K; Coghlan, K C; Altman, K

    1990-08-01

    Bone scintiscans comparing the uptake of technetium 99 in the normal and affected condyles of 10 patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia were recorded at or after the time when overall growth had ceased. The scans of 6 patients demonstrated persisting increased growth activity at this time. In 2 of these cases where the abnormal condyles showed uptakes of 240% and 170% with respect to the normal side, the nature and timing of treatment were changed when the results of the scans were known. PMID:2120367

  17. Radionuclide liver and bone scanning in the evaluation of patients with endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Garcia, J.F.; Baldwin, M.H.; Wicks, J.D.; Bartow, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Staging bone scans or skeletal surveys were obtained of 97 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Of the 77 patients with Stage I or II disease, no metastases were identified at staging. Three patients in the entire series demonstrated bony metastases; all of these metastases were detectable by radionuclide bone scan and radiographic bone survey. Eighty-nine patients were examined with radionuclide liver/spleen scanning at the time of staging. Four of the 89 initial scans were interpreted as demonstrating hepatocellular disease, and all four patients had abnormal liver function studies. Only one patient demonstrated a possible hepatic metastasis at initial diagnosis. This patient also had abnormal liver function studies. Based on these results, bone surveys and radionuclide bone scans are not indicated as screening procedures in endometrial carcinoma. It is suggested that screening for liver metastases in patients with endometrial carcinoma is not warranted in patients with normal liver function studies.

  18. Dental and bone abnormalities in patients with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Carl, W; Herrera, L

    1987-01-01

    Dental and bone abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible are present in approximately 80% of patients with familial polyposis coli. The dental abnormalities include impacted teeth (other than third molars), supernumerary teeth, congenitally missing teeth, fused roots of first and second molars, and unusually long and tapered roots of posterior teeth. The bone lesions consist mostly of osteomas, either isolated or in clusters, in the maxilla and mandible or of exostoses with lateral and/or lingual extensions. Since dental and bone abnormalities are already present early in life there is a strong suggestion that they may be used as diagnostic features in the recognition of familial polyposis coli.

  19. Role of bone and liver scans in surveying patients with breast cancer for metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.M.; Wright, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate the presence of bone and liver metastases in patients with breast cancer with respect to the results of bone and liver scans, axillary nodal status, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. One hundred ninety-seven patients with breast cancer treated by modified radical mastectomy between the years 1978 and 1981 were studied. Fifty-nine (30%) of the total group had distant metastases during the course of observation of 60 to 96 months; of 35 patients in whom bone metastases developed, 30 had normal preoperative bone scan results. Of 21 patients who had liver metastases, 19 had normal preoperative liver scans. Nineteen (70%) of the 27 patients with abnormal bone scans had normal alkaline phosphatase levels. Seven (63%) of the 11 patients who had abnormal liver scans had a normal alkaline phosphatase. The study supports the concept that preoperative bone and liver scans are ineffective indicators of metastatic involvement. Selection of patients for screening by bone and liver scans according to alkaline phosphatase determinations was not supported by this study. The appropriate use of bone scans for screening in patients with breast carcinoma is suggested as a follow-up device in patients with positive lymph nodes.

  20. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  1. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  2. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  3. Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis. CT and bone marrow scan findings

    SciTech Connect

    Urman, M.; O'Sullivan, R.A.; Nugent, R.A.; Lentle, B.C. )

    1991-06-01

    This case concerns a patient with intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) suspected on a CT scan and subsequently confirmed with In-111 chloride and Tc-99m SC bone marrow scans. The bone marrow scans also provided additional information by demonstrating other sites of EH in the paravertebral tissues and bone marrow expansion into the distal extremities.

  4. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  5. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  6. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  7. Bone scanning in the detection of occult fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Batillas, J.; Vasilas, A.; Pizzi, W.F.; Gokcebay, T.

    1981-07-01

    The potential role of bone scanning in the early detection of occult fractures following acute trauma was investigated. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained in patients with major clinical findings and negative or equivocal roentgenograms following trauma. Bone scanning facilitated the prompt diagnosis of occult fractures in the hip, knee, wrist, ribs and costochondral junctions, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx. Several illustrative cases are presented. Roentgenographic confirmation occurred following a delay of days to weeks and, in some instances, the roentgenographic findings were subtle and could be easily overlooked. This study demonstrates bone scanning to be invaluable and definitive in the prompt detection of occult fractures.

  8. Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

  9. Evaluation of bone-marrow scanning with technetium-99m sulfur colloid in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A R; Oseas, R S; Wellman, H N; Doerr, D R; Baehner, R L

    1979-05-01

    Eighty-six technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) bone-marrow scans in 56 pediatric oncology patients were reviewed. The distribution of the sulfur colloid was similar to that in adult bone marrow in normal children older than 10 yr, and involved progressively more marrow of the extremities in normal children under 10 years of age. After irradiation or chemotherapy there was an extension of the Tc-SC to peripheral marrow sites. There was also diminished uptake of the tracer in sites corresponding to irradiated areas. In most patients there was recovery of these defects by 6 mo after completion of therapy. Tumor replacement of the marrow was reflected in the scans, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the course of the disease. In four patients, despite normal bone scans and radiographs, marrow-scan abnormalities due to tumor replacement were present and confirmed by needle aspiration and/or biopsy. In two other patients, the marrow-scan abnormality preceded radiographic and histologic evidence of tumor metastasis. Two patients who responded clinically showed persistent defects; biopsy in one revealed fibrosis. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone-marrow scanning appears to be a sensitive monitor of marrow alteration caused by metastases, irradiation damage, or tissue fibrosis in children receiving treatment for cancer.

  10. Bone Positron Emission Tomography with or without CT Is More Accurate than Bone Scan for Detection of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Materials and Methods Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Results In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% = 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p < 0.05). In the lesion-based analysis (43 lesions in 14 patients; 31 malignant and 12 benign), the sensitivity of bone PET (100% = 31/31) was significantly greater than that of bone scan (38.7% = 12/31) (p < 0.01), and the specificity of bone PET (75.0% = 9/12) was also significantly higher than that of bone scan (8.3% = 1/12) (p < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that bone PET was significantly more accurate than the bone scan in the patient (p = 0.0306) and lesion (p = 0.0001) based analyses. Conclusion Na18F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation. PMID:23690722

  11. Radioisotope bone scanning in a case of sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cinti, D.C.; Hawkins, H.B.; Slavin, J.D. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The application of radioisotope scanning to osseous involvement from systemic sarcoidosis has been infrequently described in the scientific literature. Most commonly, the small bones of the hands and feet are affected if sarcoidosis involves the skeleton. Nonetheless, there are also occasional manifestations of sarcoid in the skull, long bones, and vertebral bodies. This paper describes a case of sarcoid involving the lung parenchyma with multiple lesions in the skull and ribs demonstrated by bone scanning with Tc-99m MDP. Following treatment with steroids, the bone scan showed complete resolution of the rib lesions and almost complete resolution of the lesions in the calvarium.

  12. Computer-aided quantitative bone scan assessment of prostate cancer treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew S.; Chu, Gregory H.; Kim, Hyun J.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin; Poon, Cheryce; Bridges, Juliette; Vidovic, Adria; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Ho, Judy; Morris, Michael J.; Larson, Steven M.; Scher, Howard I.; Goldin, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The development and evaluation of a computer-aided bone scan analysis technique to quantify changes in tumor burden and assess treatment effects in prostate cancer clinical trials. Methods We have developed and report on a commercial fully automated computer-aided detection system. Using this system, scan images were intensity normalized, then lesions identified and segmented by anatomic region-specific intensity thresholding. Detected lesions were compared against expert markings to assess the accuracy of the computer-aided detection system. The metrics Bone Scan Lesion Area, Bone Scan Lesion Intensity, and Bone Scan Lesion Count were calculated from identified lesions, and their utility in assessing treatment effects was evaluated by analyzing before and after scans from metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: 10 treated and 10 untreated. In this study, patients were treated with cabozantinib, a MET/VEGF inhibitor resulting in high rates of resolution of bone scan abnormalities. Results Our automated computer-aided detection system identified bone lesion pixels with 94% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and 89% accuracy. Significant differences in changes from baseline were found between treated and untreated groups in all assessed measurements derived by our system. The most significant measure, Bone Scan Lesion Area, showed a median (interquartile range) change from baseline at week 6 of 7.13% (27.61) in the untreated group compared with −73.76% (45.38) in the cabozantinib-treated group (P = 0.0003). Conclusions Our system accurately and objectively identified and quantified metastases in bone scans, allowing for interpatient and intrapatient comparison. It demonstrates potential as an objective measurement of treatment effects, laying the foundation for validation against other clinically relevant outcome measures. PMID:22367858

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Corre, J; Mahtouk, K; Attal, M; Gadelorge, M; Huynh, A; Fleury-Cappellesso, S; Danho, C; Laharrague, P; Klein, B; Rème, T; Bourin, P

    2007-05-01

    Recent literature suggested that cells of the microenvironment of tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression profiling and phenotypic and functional studies in three groups of individuals: patients with MM, patients with monoclonal gamopathy of undefined significance (MGUS) and healthy age-matched subjects. Gene expression profile independently classified the BMMSCs of these individuals in a normal and in an MM group. MGUS BMMSCs were interspersed between these two groups. Among the 145 distinct genes differentially expressed in MM and normal BMMSCs, 46% may account for a tumor-microenvironment cross-talk. Known soluble factors implicated in MM pathophysiologic features (i.e. IL (interleukin)-6, DKK1) were revealed and new ones were found which are involved in angiogenesis, osteogenic differentiation or tumor growth. In particular, GDF15 was found to induce dose-dependent growth of MOLP-6, a stromal cell-dependent myeloma cell line. Functionally, MM BMMSCs induced an overgrowth of MOLP-6, and their capacity to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage was impaired. Thus, MM BMMSCs are abnormal and could create a very efficient niche to support the survival and proliferation of the myeloma cells.

  14. New Drug for Use in Bone Scans Approved

    Cancer.gov

    The FDA has approved a New Drug Application (NDA) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, for a new strength of a previously approved drug, Sodium Fluoride F18, for use in bone scans. In contrast to Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has been the only approved radioactive tracer for bone scans, Sodium Fluoride F18 is not subject to the supply problems that have led to recent nationwide shortages of Tc-99m.

  15. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  16. Diverse bone scan abnormalitites in "shin splints".

    PubMed

    Spencer, R P; Levinson, E D; Baldwin, R D; Sziklas, J J; Witek, J T; Rosenberg, R

    1979-12-01

    Four young patients who presented with pain over the anterior compartment of the legs, gave a recent athletic history suggesting stress fractures. Although radiographs were initially normal in all four cases, the bone scintigrams were positive. The individual findings, however, were quite different. In one there was a single focal area of increased radioactivity in each of the tibias; the second patient had uneven uptake of radiotracer and several foci of accumulation in the fibulas; the third showed diffuse linear tibial uptake suggesting periosteal lesions; and the fourth case revealed uptake in the lateral malleolus and in bones of the foot.

  17. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  18. Gallium scanning in Paget's disease of bone: effect of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, A.D.; McKee, D.; Siemsen, J.K.; Singer, F.R.

    1980-02-01

    Calcitonin has been used in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone, and serum alkaline phosphatase level and 24 hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion have been used to follow therapeutic response. The radionuclide bone scan has been used as a visual indicator; however, there is some uncertainty as to its value in following changes in disease activity. Four patients with both serial technetium phosphate bone scans and serial gallium studies were studied. In each case the beneficial effect of calcitonin was demonstrated more accurately with gallium than with technetium diphosphonate. Since biochemical changes in Paget's disease are believed to be mediated at the cellular level and gallium uptake depends on cellular activity, it is proposed that gallium uptake is more appropriate measure of the activity of Paget's disease than a noncellular marker such as a technetium-containing bone scan agent.

  19. Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumor localization of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Podrasky, A.E.; Stark, D.D.; Hattner, R.S.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Of 42 radionuclide bone scans in 35 children with neuroblastoma, 21 were abnormal for the presence of skeletal metastases. Of the 21 abnormal scans, 16 were corroborated by positive bone-marrow biopsy or clinical data. The false-negative and false-positive rates for bone scanning were 4.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Calcification of the primary tumor was seen on pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) scans in 24 (89%) of 27 cases, while only 13 (48%) of 27 were detectable by plain radiographs. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphate /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) by the primary tumor occurred in 20 of 27 cases, but correlation between tumor uptake and calcification was not statistically significant. All children with markedly elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid exhibited primary tumor uptake. Survival was not affected independently by primary tumor uptake.

  20. [Clinical evaluation for abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism in ESKD].

    PubMed

    Yano, Shozo

    2016-09-01

    In patients with end-stage kidney disease(ESKD), bone disorders are characterized by cortical porosity and by abnormal turnover of bone metabolism:adynamic(low turnover)bone disease and high turnover bone due to various degrees of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Abnormalities of bone metabolism are generally assessed by interview, X-ray, bone mineral density(BMD), serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels, and bone metabolic markers. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that high turnover bone representing elevated bone metabolic markers and low BMD are independent risks of bone fractures as well as mortality among this population. Treatment of bone disorders in ESKD patients should be aiming at the normalization of mineral metabolism and the maintenance and/or improvement of BMD. PMID:27561341

  1. Spleen Uptake on Bone Scan After Frequent Platelet and RBC Transfusions.

    PubMed

    De Marini, Pierre; Laplace, Annegret; Matuszak, Julien; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2016-10-01

    A 21-year-old man, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient, was referred to our nuclear medicine department for a suspicion of knee osteonecrosis. Bone scan with Tc-HMDP did not show abnormal bone uptake but an intense spleen accumulation. F-FDG PET/CT performed on the same day showed no pathological spleen uptake. The patient had secondary hemochromatosis resulting from frequent transfusions in the setting of a chronic graft versus host disease with hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. The last RBC and platelet transfusions were performed 9 and 2 days before the examination, respectively. Secondary hemochromatosis and recent transfusions may explain our findings.

  2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  3. Abnormal Bone Mechanical and Structural Properties in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Study with Finite Element Analysis and Structural Model Index.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, K Y; Zhu, T Y; Yu, F W P; Hung, V W Y; Lee, K M; Qin, L; Cheng, J C Y; Lam, T P

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies found adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and abnormal bone quality, whilst the association between AIS and their bone strength is unknown. From high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-generated images, bone mechanical properties can be evaluated with finite element analysis (FEA), and trabecular rod-plate configuration related to trabecular bone strength can be quantified by structure model index (SMI). This study aimed to compare trabecular configuration and bone mechanical properties between AIS and the controls. 95 AIS girls aged 12-14 years and 97 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited. Bilateral femoral necks and non-dominant distal radius were scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for areal BMD and HR-pQCT for SMI and FEA, respectively. Subjects were further classified into osteopenic and non-osteopenic group based on their areal BMD. Bone mechanical properties (stiffness, failure load and apparent modulus) were calculated using FEA. Linear regression model was used for controlling age, physical activity and calcium intake. AIS was associated with lower failure load and apparent modulus after adjusting for age, whereas AIS was associated with lower apparent modulus after adjusting for all confounders. Osteopenic AIS was associated with more rod-like trabeculae when compared with non-osteopenic AIS, whereas no difference was detected between osteopenic and non-osteopenic controls. This might be the result of abnormal regulation and modulation of bone metabolism and bone modelling and remodelling in AIS which will warrant future studies with a longitudinal design to determine the significance of micro-architectural abnormalities in AIS.

  4. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  5. Liver uptake on bone scanning: a diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Al-Katib, Sayf; Al-Faham, Zaid; Balon, Helena

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we present a case of liver uptake seen on a bone scan that was due to diffuse metastatic disease from breast carcinoma. We discuss possible etiologies for the uptake and offer an algorithm to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  6. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. The Angle of Louis. A potential pitfall (''Louie's Hot Spot'') in bone scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Shapiro, E.E.

    1984-06-01

    Evaluation of 100 consecutive Tc-99m MDP bone scans revealed in 36 patients a well defined area of increased accumulation of radiotracer at the Angle of Louis--the palpable ridge along the anterior surface of the sternum at the fibrocartilaginous junction of the sternum and manubrium. Twenty-five of the 36 patients had comparison radiographs; all were normal. None had sternal pain or a prior history of chest trauma. Increased uptake at the Angle of Louis (''Louie's Hot Spot'') is a relatively common finding (36%) and should be recognized as a normal bone scan finding. It should not be confused with increased uptake due to an osseous abnormality, i.e., metastasis, degenerative disease, trauma, etc.

  8. Bone scanning with 99mtechnetium phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Matteson, S R; Proffit, W R; Terry, B C; Staab, E V; Burkes, E J

    1985-10-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with 99mtechnetium phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected. PMID:3864094

  9. TC MDP bone scan in evaluation of painful scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Nilegaonkar, Sujit; Sonar, Sameer; Ranade, Ashish; Khadilkar, Madhav

    2010-04-01

    A 18-year-old male presented with low back ache. The patient was investigated and was diagnosed to have painful scoliosis. X-ray and other examinations could not reveal any diagnosis. The patient was referred to undergo bone scan on clinical suspicion of osteoid osteoma and to rule out stress fracture if any. Planar bone scan was performed, which showed a lesion in L3 vertebra and was further evaluated with SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) study to characterize the lesion. On SPECT examination, the classical features of osteoid osteoma, the double density sign (11), was noted in the pars interarticularis region. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which showed a sclerotic lesion in pars interarticularis of L3 vertebra. The patient was posted for operation and was relieved of symptoms in the postoperative follow-up.

  10. Low bone density and abnormal bone turnover in patients with atherosclerosis of peripheral vessels.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, P; Signorelli, S S; Riccobene, S; Celotta, G; Di Pino, L; La Malfa, T; Fiore, C E

    2004-05-01

    Patients with vascular calcifications often have low bone mineral density (BMD), but it is still uncertain if osteoporosis and peripheral vascular disease (VD) are interrelated and linked by a common pathomechanism. Moreover, data on bone turnover in patients with advanced atherosclerosis are lacking. We measured BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS), as well as the serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand RANKL, and the urinary concentration of the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CrossLaps), in 36 patient (20 male and 16 female) with serious atherosclerotic involvement of the carotid and/or femoral artery to investigate the underlying mechanism of vascular and osseous disorders. Thirty age-matched and gender matched healthy individuals served as controls. After adjustment for age, BMD was significantly reduced at the lumbar spine in 23/36 (63%) patients (mean T score -1.71+/-1.42) and at the proximal femur in 34/36 (93%) patients (neck mean T score -2.5+/-0.88). Ten patients (27%) had abnormal QUS parameters. Gender and diabetes had no effect on the relationship between vascular calcification and bone density at any site measured. VD subjects had OC and BAP serum levels lower than controls (13.3+/-3.1 vs 27.7+/-3.3 ng/ml, P<0.01, and 8.4+/-2.3 vs 12.5+/-1.4 microg/l, P<0.01, respectively). Urinary CrossLaps excretion was not significantly different in patients with VD and in controls (257.9+/-138.9 vs 272.2+/-79.4 micro g/mmol Cr, respectively). Serum OPG and RANKL levels were similar in patients and in controls (3.5+/-1.07 vs 3.4+/-1.05 pmol/l, and 0.37+/-0.07 vs 0.36+/-0.06 pmol/l, respectively). We proved high occurrence of osteoporosis in VD, with evidence of age and gender independence. Negative bone remodelling balance would be a consequence of reduced bone formation, with no apparent increased activation of the OPG-RANKL system

  11. Visualizing bone porosities using a tabletop scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, D.; DaPonte, J.; Broadbridge, C. C.; Daniel, D.; Alter, L.

    2010-04-01

    Pores are naturally occurring entities in bone. Changes in pore size and number are often associated with diseases such as Osteoporosis and even microgravity during spaceflight. Studying bone perforations may yield great insight into bone's material properties, including bone density and may contribute to identifying therapies to halt or potentially reverse bone loss. Current technologies used in this field include nuclear magnetic resonance, micro-computed tomography and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) 2, 5. However, limitations in each method limit further advancement. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a new generation of analytical instruments, the TM-1000 tabletop, SEM with back-scatter electron (BSE) detector, to analyze cortical bone porosities. Hind limb unloaded and age-based controlled mouse femurs were extracted and tested in vitro for changes in pores on the periosteal surface. An important advantage of using the tabletop is the simplified sample preparation that excludes extra coatings, dehydration and fixation steps that are otherwise required for conventional SEM. For quantitative data, pores were treated as particles in order to use an analyze particles feature in the NIH ImageJ software. Several image-processing techniques for background smoothing, thresholding and filtering were employed to produce a binary image suitable for particle analysis. It was hypothesized that the unloaded bones would show an increase in pore area, as the lack of mechanical loading would affect bone-remodeling processes taking place in and around pores. Preliminary results suggest only a slight different in frequency but not in size of pores between unloaded and control femurs.

  12. Thallium-technetium parathyroid scan. A useful noninvasive technique for localization of abnormal parathyroid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Manni, A.; Basarab, R.M.; Plourde, P.V.; Koivunen, D.; Harrison, T.S.; Santen, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied the usefulness of the thallium-technetium scan in 60 patients with suspected parathyroid disorders. The scan correctly localized abnormal parathyroid tissue in 82% of patients with surgically proved primary hyperparathyroidism due to a single adenoma and in 60% of patients operated on for primary hyperplasia. The scan was particularly useful in patients who had undergone previous neck explorations, since it successfully identified residual adenomatous or hyperplastic tissue in six of seven patients. False-positive images were consistently produced in all patients with coexisting thyroid disease. We conclude that the thallium-technetium scan is useful for localizing abnormal parathyroid tissue. We recommend its routine use in patients with persistent or recurrent hypercalcemia following neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism who have no evidence of thyroid disorders.

  13. Periodontal and alveolar bone abnormalities associated with pachydermoperiostosis.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, B G; Seçkin, T

    2001-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is an unusual syndrome manifested clinically by finger clubbing, extremity enlargement, hypertrophic skin changes, and periosteal bone formation. A rare case of pachydermoperiostosis (primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy) with oral manifestations in a 47-year-old man is presented. The possible correlation between physiological mechanisms of this disease and their influence on oral periodontal tissues and alveolar bone is discussed.

  14. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  15. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  16. Colon visualization on (99m)Tc-HDP whole-body bone scan due to sigmoid colon cancer-related enterovesical fistula.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, Bong-Il; Won, Kyoung Sook

    2015-01-01

    An abnormally increased uptake of the bone-seeking agent is rarely observed in structures other than the bone and urinary track on bone scintigraphy. The general etiologies of soft tissue uptake can be explained by heterotopic ossification or dystrophic and metastatic calcification. We report a case of serendipitous visualization of the entire colon on bone scintigraphy. Diffuse colonic uptake was detected on the whole-body bone scan in a patient with biopsy-proven sigmoid colon cancer. Additional imaging studies clearly showed direct bladder invasion of the sigmoid colon cancer. Imaging findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article.

  17. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  18. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

  19. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  20. Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Abnormalities in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frontiera, Michael; Myers, Adam M.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing the peripheral hematologic manifestations, bone marrow changes and clinical course in 41 consecutive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), frequent findings included anemia (95%), leukopenia (76%), bone marrow hypercellularity (73%) and pancytopenia (41%). These hematologic abnormalities were not clearly associated with specific clinical manifestations of AIDS, but support the conclusion that the hematopoietic system is a target organ in AIDS. The mechanisms of these abnormalities still need to be evaluated. Clinicians should be aware of these commonly encountered changes. Images PMID:3660772

  1. Automated alignment of serial thoracic scans using bone structure descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    In this manuscript we present an automated algorithm for the alignment of thoracic scans using descriptors of bone structures. Bone structures were utilized because they are expected to be less susceptible to sources of errors such as patient positioning and breath hold. The algorithm employed the positioning of ribs relative to the spinal cord along with a description of the scapula. The spinal cord centroid was detected by extracting local maxima of the distance transform followed by point tracing along consecutive slices. Ribs were segmented using adaptive thresholding followed by the watershed algorithm to detach ribs from the vertebra, and by imposing requirements of rib proximity to the lung border. The angles formed between the spinal cord centroid and segmented rib centroids were used to describe rib positioning. Additionally, the length of the scapula was extracted in each slice. A cost function incorporating the difference of features from rib positioning and scapula length between two slices was derived and used to match slices. The method was evaluated on a set of 12 pairs of full and partial CT scans acquired on the same day. Evaluation was based on whether the slices showing a nodule at its maximum diameter in each scan were matched. Full-to-partial and partial-to-full alignment were performed. Results showed that the proposed metric matched nodule slices within an average distance of 1.08 and 1.17 slices from the target for full-to-partial and partial-to-full alignment respectively. These preliminary results are encouraging for using this method as a first step in an overall process of temporally analyzing CT lung nodules.

  2. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  3. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Falchook, Aaron D.; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system. PMID:9001936

  5. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  6. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O C; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1-LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1 may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1((-/-)) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1((-/-)) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1((-/-)) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology.

  7. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  8. A Comparative Study of Bone Scan Findings and Serum Levels of Tumor Marker CA15-3 in Patients with Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghadge, Meera S; Naik, Purva P; Tiwari, Bijaynath P; Hegde, Ruprekha M; Matale, Tanaji J

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world. Available staging procedures to detect breast cancer are bone scan, chest X-ray, liver ultrasonography, computerized tomography, estimation of tumor markers like carbohydrate antigen (CA15-3) and carcino embryonic antigen. These procedures are expensive and may not be required in all cases. Out of 70 patients studied, 55 had normal CA15-3 and 15 had elevated levels of Ca15-3. Eight (14.5%) of the 55 patients with normal CA15-3 had abnormal bone scan. Fifteen patients had CA15-3 levels above the normal range and among these 9 (60%) had abnormal bone scan. While prime facie it would appear that a high level of CA15-3 correlate with abnormal bone scan, it is also true that the numbers are small at present and conclusions about the validity of CA15-3 as marker of bone metastasis may be premature.

  9. Abnormal bone mineral density and bone turnover marker expression profiles in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lixin; Hou, Shengcai; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Liqiang; Miao, Jinbai; Wang, Yang; Li, Tong; Zhang, Zhenkui; You, Bin; Pang, Baosen; Liang, Yufang; Zhao, Yi; Hao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and the role of bone biomarkers, including bone formation marker procollagen type I aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) and N-terminal midmolecule fragment osteocalcin (N-MID), bone resorption marker b-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (b-CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) in the pathogenesis of PSP. Methods Eighty-three consecutive primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) patients (PSP group) and 87 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this study. General data, including gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), were recorded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and ELISA were used to evaluate bone mineral density and expression levels of bone metabolism markers, including PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, N-MID, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH VD). Results Mean height was significantly greater in the PSP group compared with the control group, whereas weight and BMI were lower. Patients in the PSP group had significantly lower average bone mineral density, which mainly manifested as osteopenia (11/12, 91.7%); however, only one patient (8.3%) developed osteoporosis. Serum overexpression of PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, and N-MID were found in PSP patients. Expression of 25-OH VD was low in PSP patients. Bone resorption markers showed positive linear relationships with bone formation markers in all participants; whereas only TRACP5b expression negatively correlated with 25-OH VD. Expression levels of all bone turnover markers negatively correlated with BMI. Regression analysis identified risk factors of PSP as age, height, weight, and TRACP5b and 25-OH VD expression levels; whereas gender and PINP, b-CTX, and N-MID expression levels were not significantly associated with the onset of PSP. Conclusions It had lower bone mineral density in PSP patients. Bone formation marker PINP, N-MID and bone resorption marker b-CTX, TRACP5b were upregulated in

  10. High phosphate feeding promotes mineral and bone abnormalities in mice with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wei Ling; Linnes, Michael; Chu, Emily Y.; Foster, Brian L.; Bartley, Bryan A.; Somerman, Martha J.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic syndrome characterized by imbalances in mineral homeostasis, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and ectopic calcification. The mechanisms underlying this syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not yet clear. Methods We examined the effect of normal phosphate (NP) or high phosphate (HP) feeding in the setting of CKD on bone pathology, serum biochemistry and vascular calcification in calcification-prone dilute brown non-agouti (DBA/2) mice. Results In both NP and HP-fed CKD mice, elevated serum parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were observed, but serum phosphorus levels were equivalent compared with sham controls. CKD mice on NP diet showed trabecular alterations in the long bone consistent with high–turnover ROD, including increased trabecular number with abundant osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Despite trabecular bone and serum biochemical changes, CKD/NP mice did not develop vascular calcification. In contrast, CKD/HP mice developed arterial medial calcification (AMC), more severe trabecular bone alterations and cortical bone abnormalities that included decreased cortical thickness and density, and increased cortical porosity. Cortical bone porosity and trabecular number strongly correlated with the degree of aortic calcification. Conclusions HP feeding was required to induce the full spectrum of CKD-MBD symptoms in CKD mice. PMID:23045434

  11. Comparison of bone scans and radiography for detecting bone neoplasms in dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Merickel, B.S.; Rebar, A.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    Radioisotopic bone scans and radiography were used to detect bone neoplasms in 144 dogs that inhaled alpha-particle-emitting /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles. Radiography was used routinely to survey the skeleton of the dogs. Nineteen dogs developed bone neoplasms; 17 of these were studied with bone scans and radiography; both methods showed a high degree of success in detecting bone neoplasms. Predominant regions of occurrence have been the lumbar region of the spine and the humerus. The bone scanning method used gamma-camera detection of IV injected 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate. All neoplasms detected radiographically also were identified by bone scans. In addition, 3 lesions confirmed histologically as osteosarcomas were detected by bone scanning, but were missed by radiography. Bone scanning was a more sensitive means for the detection of bone neoplasms than were routine radiographic procedures.

  12. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  13. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  14. Abnormalities in biomarkers of mineral and bone metabolism in kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Kasiske, Bertram L; Kumar, Rajiv; Kimmel, Paul L; Pesavento, Todd E; Kalil, Roberto S; Kraus, Edward S; Rabb, Hamid; Posselt, Andrew M; Anderson-Haag, Teresa L; Steffes, Michael W; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J; Singh, Ravinder J; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that kidney donors may have abnormalities of mineral and bone metabolism typically seen in chronic kidney disease. This may have important implications for the skeletal health of living kidney donors and for our understanding of the pathogenesis of long-term mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease. In this prospective study, 182 of 203 kidney donors and 173 of 201 paired normal controls had markers of mineral and bone metabolism measured before and at 6 and 36 months after donation (ALTOLD Study). Donors had significantly higher serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (24.6% and 19.5%) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (9.5% and 8.4%) at 6 and 36 months, respectively, as compared to healthy controls, and significantly reduced tubular phosphate reabsorption (-7.0% and -5.0%) and serum phosphate concentrations (-6.4% and -2.3%). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower (-17.1% and -12.6%), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D (21.4% and 19.4%) concentrations were significantly higher in donors compared to controls. Moreover, significantly higher concentrations of the bone resorption markers, carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (30.1% and 13.8%) and aminoterminal cross-linking telopeptide of bone collagen (14.2% and 13.0%), and the bone formation markers, osteocalcin (26.3% and 2.7%) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (24.3% and 8.9%), were observed in donors. Thus, kidney donation alters serum markers of bone metabolism that could reflect impaired bone health. Additional long-term studies that include assessment of skeletal architecture and integrity are warranted in kidney donors.

  15. Alveolar bone grafting in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and bisphosphonate-induced abnormal bone turnover in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Ogose, Akira; Oguri, Yoshimitsu; Ubaidus, Sobhan; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-09-01

    A case is presented of extensive alveolar bone grafting in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient previously underwent bisphosphonate therapy. Because of an abnormal and often decreased bone turnover caused by the fibrous dysplasia and the bisphosphonate therapy, bone grafting in such a patient poses several potential difficulties. In addition, the histomorphometric analysis of the bone grafts showed markedly decreased bone turnover. However, alveolar bone grafting using the iliac crest was performed successfully. Sufficient occlusion was achieved by postoperative low-loading orthodontic treatment.

  16. Biochemical and morphological changes associated with long bone abnormalities in silicon deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, E M

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate long bone changes in silicon deficiency more extensively and under a new set of conditions. Long bone abnormalities have been produced in silicon-deficient chicks fed a casein-based rather than amino acid-based diet and under an entirely new set of conditions. As demonstrated previously feeding amino acid diets, the long bones of cockerels fed a silicon-supplemented basal diet and sacrificed at 4 weeks had a significantly greater amount of articular cartilage and water content as compared with the silicon-deficient group. Biochemical analyses of tibia for bone mineral, non-collagenous protein, hexosamine and collagen demonstrated that tibia from supplemented chicks had a significantly greater percentage and total amount of hexosamine and greater percentage of collagen than deficient chicks, the difference being greater for hexosamines than collagen. Tibia from silicon-deficient chicks also showed marked lesions, profound changes being demonstrated in epiphyseal cartilage, especially striking in the proliferative zone. The disturbed epiphyseal cartilage sequences resulted in defective endochondral bone growth indicating that silicon is involved in the metabolic chain of events required for the normal growth of bone.

  17. Histologically proven pressure sore-related osteomyelitis in the setting of negative technetium bone scans. Case report.

    PubMed

    Burdge, D R; Gribble, M J

    1993-12-01

    Pressure sores are common in patients with spinal cord injury, stroke or debilitating medical illness. Contiguous osteomyelitis is a well recognized complication of pressure ulcers, but remains a challenging diagnostic and management problem. Technetium bone scan is purported to be an extremely sensitive, although nonspecific diagnostic test for osteomyelitis. Indeed, a negative bone scan is thought to virtually exclude bone infection. We report three cases of pressure sore-related polymicrobial osteomyelitis where technetium bone scan was normal, yet bone biopsy demonstrated characteristic histopathologic changes of osteomyelitis. These cases raise questions regarding the sensitivity of bone scanning in the setting of pressure sores, and they demonstrate the need for further investigation into the correlation between nuclear medicine scan results and bone biopsy histopathology. Bone biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of osteomyelitis, which can be present in bone underlying a pressure ulcer, even in the setting of a normal bone scan.

  18. Technetium phosphate bone scan in the diagnosis of septic arthritis in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, S.B.; Savage, J.P.; Foster, B.K. )

    1989-09-01

    The technetium phosphate bone scans of 106 children with suspected septic arthritis were reviewed to determine whether the bone scan can accurately differentiate septic from nonseptic arthropathy. Only 13% of children with proved septic arthritis had correct blind scan interpretation. The clinically adjusted interpretation did not identify septic arthritis in 30%. Septic arthritis was incorrectly identified in 32% of children with no evidence of septic arthritis. No statistically significant differences were noted between the scan findings in the septic and nonseptic groups and no scan findings correlated specifically with the presence or absence of joint sepsis.

  19. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  20. Combined bone scintigraphy and indium-111 leukocyte scans in neuropathic foot disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Burt, R.W.; Mock, B.H.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-10-01

    It is difficult to diagnose osteomyelitis in the presence of neurotrophic osteoarthropathy. We performed combined (99mTc)MDP bone scans and indium-111 (111In) leukocyte studies on 35 patients who had radiographic evidence of neuropathic foot disease and clinically suspected osteomyelitis. The (111In)leukocyte study determined if there was an infection and the bone scan provided the anatomic landmarks so that the infection could be localized to the bone or the adjacent soft tissue. Seventeen patients had osteomyelitis and all showed increased (111In)leukocyte activity localized to the bone, giving a sensitivity of 100%. Among the 18 patients without osteomyelitis, eight had no accumulation of (111In)leukocytes, seven had the (111In)leukocyte activity correctly localized to the soft tissue, two had (111In)leukocyte activity mistakenly attributed to the bone, and one had (111In)leukocyte accumulation in a proven neuroma which was mistakenly attributed to bone. These three false-positive results for osteomyelitis reduced the specificity to 83%. Considering only the 27 patients with a positive (111In)leukocyte study, the combined bone scan and (111In)leukocyte study correctly localized the infection to the soft tissues or bone in 89%. Uninfected neurotrophic osteoarthropathy does not accumulate (111In)leukocytes. We found the combined bone scan and (111In) leukocyte study useful for the detection and localization of infection to soft tissue or bone in patients with neuropathic foot disease.

  1. Is there still a place for bone scanning in Ewing's sarcoma: concise communication. [/sup 99/Tc, /sup 18/Fl

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.; McNeil, B.J.; Zufall, E.; Treves, S.

    1980-01-01

    In this retrospective study, 28 cases of Ewing's sarcoma are reviewed for the onset of metastasis. Bone scans demonstrated bone metastasis in three out of 28 patients at presentation. Of the 22 patients free of metastases at presentation, ten subsequently developed bone metastases. In six of these patients, the bone scan was the earliest demonstrator of metastatic disease. Bone scans are recommended at presentation and periodically during follow-up.

  2. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  3. Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

  4. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  5. Bone scan: Indium-WBC correlation in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, B.; Wrege, S.S.; Altman, M.I.; Moore, J.W. )

    1989-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 20 podiatric cases using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate three-phase bone scans along with indium-111 oxine leukocyte scans, as needed, to determine the presence and extent of osteomyelitis of the foot. Using criteria developed at our institution, the authors attempt to provide a mechanism to make a reliable diagnosis for osteomyelitis that has been supported by surgical/pathologic confirmation of long-term clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, using bone scans alone, was 100%, and specificity was 47%. Correlating bone and indium-111 leukocyte scans yielded a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity raised to 81%. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were used in 40% of cases when a definitive diagnosis for osteomyelitis could not be made on the basis of the three-phase bone scan or clinical presentation alone. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were also helpful in delineating the extent of the disease process. The authors present a standard technique for a 5-hour delayed imaging in the three-phase bone scan, as well as marking the foot in the indium-111 leukocyte scan with three routine views obtained for each imaging procedure, to ensure clinical accuracy.

  6. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  7. Neurologic, neuropsychologic, and computed cranial tomography scan abnormalities in 2- to 10-year survivors of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B E; Becker, B; Goff, W B; Petronas, N; Krehbiel, M A; Makuch, R W; McKenna, G; Glatstein, E; Ihde, D C

    1985-12-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between neurologic function and cranial irradiation, 20 patients treated on National Cancer Institute (NCI) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) trials who were alive and free of cancer 2.4 to 10.6 years (median, 6.2) from the start of therapy were studied. All were tested with a neurologic history and examination, mental status examination, neuropsychologic testing, and review of serial computed cranial tomography (CCT) scans. Fifteen patients had been treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), two patients with therapeutic cranial irradiation, and three received no cranial irradiation. All patients but one were ambulatory and none were institutionalized. Fifteen patients (75%) had neurologic complaints, 13 (65%) had abnormal neurologic examinations, 12 (60%) had abnormal mental status examinations, 13 (65%) had abnormal neuropsychologic testing, and 15 (75%) had abnormal CCT scans. Compared with those given low-dose maintenance chemotherapy during PCI using 200 to 300 rad per fraction, patients who were given high-dose induction chemotherapy during the time of cranial irradiation or large radiotherapy fractions (400 rad) were more likely to have abnormal mental status examinations (6/6 v 4/9) and abnormal neuropsychologic tests (6/6 v 4/9), but no major difference in CCT findings was present. CCT scans in the majority of cases (11/18) showed progressive ventricular dilatation or cerebral atrophy up to 8 years after stopping therapy. We conclude neurologic abnormalities are common in long-term survivors of SCLC, and may be more prominent in patients given high-dose chemotherapy during cranial irradiation or treated with large radiotherapy fractions. The CCT scan abnormalities are common and progressive years after prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy are stopped.

  8. Conditional expression of human bone Gla protein in osteoblasts causes skeletal abnormality in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Maruyama, Yojiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-07-20

    Bone Gla protein (BGP), also known as osteocalcin, is one of the most abundant γ-carboxylated noncollagenous protein in bone matrix and plays important roles in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. BGP is synthesized specifically in osteoblasts; however, its precise function in bone metabolism has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the in vivo function of human BGP (hBGP), we generated CAG-GFP(floxed)-hBGP transgenic mice carrying a transgene cassette composed of the promoter and a floxed GFP linked to hBGP cDNA. The mice were crossed with ColI-Cre mice, which express the Cre recombinase driven by the mouse collagen type 1a1 gene promoter, to obtain hBGP(ColI) conditional transgenic mice that expressed human BGP in osteoblasts. The hBGP(ColI) mice did not survive more than 2days after birth. The analysis of the 18.5-day post coitum fetuses of the hBGP(ColI) mice revealed that they displayed abnormal skeletal growth such as deformity of the rib and short femur and cranium lengths. Moreover, increased BGP levels were detected in the serum of the neonates. These findings indicate that hBGP expression in osteoblasts resulted in the abnormal skeletal growth in the mice. Our study provides a valuable model for understanding the fundamental role of BGP in vivo.

  9. Comparison of bone scan with carbohydrate antigen 15-3 for evaluation of bone metastasis of brest cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, M; Alikhah, H; Zareh, A G A

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed at comparing the bone scan and CA15-3 titer in patients with breast cancer for evaluation of bone metastasis. Thirty five patients with definite diagnosis of breast cancer were evaluated in Tabriz Imam Khomeini Hospital from 2007 to 2008. Bone scan (99 mTc-MDP) performed in all patients. The serum CA15-3 was measured by ECLIA method. The increased level was considered as >30 U mL(-1). The serum level of CA15-3 was compared between the patients with and without bone metastasis, as well as its correlation with the extent of bone involvement. Thirty five patients with the mean age of 51.69 +/- 10.77 (34-81) years were enrolled in the study. According to bone scan results, 24 (68.8%) patients revealed bone metastasis. The mean level of serum CA15-3 was significantly higher in patents with bone metastasis than patients without metastasis (26.37 +/- 4.74 U mL(-1) vs. 19.09 +/- 1.99 U mL(-1); p<0.001). There was not significant relation between the serum level of CA15-3 and the extent of bone metastasis (rho = -0.063, p = 0.769). Coordinates of the curve study yielded a cut-off point > 21.8 U mL(-1) for the serum level of CA15-3 in our patients, with a sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 and 91%, respectively. Serum level of CA15-3 is higher in the patients with bone metastatic breast cancer; however, the recommended cut-off point might not be suitable for Iranian patients. Further studies with large sample sizes are recommended.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features. PMID:20890172

  11. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Veronique; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Lupi-Pégurier, Laurence; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on their macro- and microscopy study of bone lesions made by a sharp force instrument (a single blade knife), and a sharp-blunt instrument classified as a chopping weapon (a hatchet). The aim of this work was to attempt to identify the instrument by analyzing the general class characteristics of the cuts. Each weapon was used on human bones. The results indicate that macroscopic analysis is more problematic. The microscopic analysis assessed that characteristics examined were effective in distinguishing sharp from sharp-blunt injury to the bone. The microscope facilitates analysis unachievable with macroscopic methods, some three-dimensional characteristics not visible to the naked eye being clearly defined with its use. Emphasis has been placed on the value of SEM as an anthropologist's tool in bone lesion injuries.

  13. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  14. Abnormal WT1 expression in the CD34-negative compartment in myelodysplastic bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Knops, Gertrudis H J N; Van De Locht, Louis T F; Menke, Aswin L; Jansen, Joop H; Mensink, Ewald J B M; Raymakers, Reinier A P; De Witte, Theo

    2002-09-01

    In normal bone marrow, WT1 expression is restricted to CD34+ cells. We assessed WT1 mRNA expression levels with quantitative, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in normal, myelodysplastic (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML) bone marrow subfractions, based on differentiation status. The highest WT1 expression was observed in the primitive CD34+ rhodamine-123 (rho) dull cells, both in healthy donors and MDS or sAML patients. In contrast to normal CD34-negative bone marrow cells, WT1 was present in CD34-negative bone marrow cells in 12 out of 13 MDS patients and two sAML samples. Further analysis of this aberrant WT1 expression was performed in the CD34-negative subfractions of three MDS patients. In one of these, WT1 expression was found exclusively in the erythroid cells. This patient was completely transfusion dependent and showed morphological dyserythropoiesis. In another MDS patient, WT1 expression was found in a non-erythroid compartment. We conclude that abnormal WT1 expression may contribute to the disturbed differentiation of haematopoietic cells in MDS patients.

  15. Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

    2014-03-01

    Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

  16. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma might mimic metastatic bone lesions: a case with bone scan and FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Umayahara, Kenji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Shunji

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 53-year-old woman with osteosarcoma of the skull who underwent radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumor. She had a history of uterine endometrial cancer treated with chemotherapy and surgery 9 years previously. FDG PET/CT for surveillance showed nodular accumulation at the right suprainguinal region and very avid accumulation at the left side of the occipital bone. Bone scan showed increased accumulation at the same portion of the occipital bone. The occipital tumor was surgically removed and diagnosed as radiation-induced osteosarcoma.

  17. The clinical significance of radionuclide bone and gallium scanning in osteomyelitis of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C.; Greyson, N.D.; Wortzman, G.; Jazrawy, H.; Freeman, J.L.; Blair, R.L.; Chapnik, J.S.

    1984-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the head and neck remains a difficult clinical problem both in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review our clinical experience with 25 cases of osteomyelitis distributed evenly among the temporal bone and skull base, the paranasal sinuses, and the mandible. Radionuclide bone and gallium scan images accurately depicted the biologic activity of the disease process and permitted accurate treatment evaluation and patient monitoring. This work demonstrates the potentials and limitations of radionuclide imaging with bone and gallium scan agents and attempts to define a role for their contemporary use in the management of osteomyelitis of the head and neck.

  18. Mineral and bone disorders in kidney transplant recipients: reversible, irreversible, and de novo abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hirukawa, Takashi; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Michio; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    Given the advances in medical technologies related to kidney transplantation, the post-transplant graft survival rate and quality of life have improved dramatically. Nevertheless, post-transplant mortality rate still remains high as compared to the general population due to the development of cardiovascular events. It has recently been widely recognized that chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) significantly contribute to such poor prognosis at least in part. In the majority of kidney recipients, abnormal serum parameters for mineral and bone disorder (MBD), such as phosphorus, calcium, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23, gradually return toward acceptable levels following the re-establishment of kidney function after transplantation; however, some irreversible abnormalities, developed as the result of long-term dialysis, persist, require treatment, or even progress after kidney transplantation. Thus, better management of CKD-MBD during pre-dialysis and dialysis period as well as after kidney transplantation is highly appreciated. PMID:25931403

  19. Bone scanning in assessing viability of vascularized skeletal tissue transplants. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, R.A.; Dief, H.; Greyson, N.D.; Kawano, H.; Gross, A.E.; Langer, F.; Halloran, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and eight bone scans using /sup 99m/Technetium methylene diphosphonate (MDP) were performed in rats undergoing vascularized and nonvascularized syngeneic and allogeneic transplants of the hind limb, and in control animals. A six-level system of grading the radionuclide uptake in the graft was used to evaluate healing or complications of the transplantation. Bone scanning was superior to other modalities in assessing viability of the graft. Bone scans were able to: (1) immediately confirm vascular patency, thus obviating angiography; (2) demonstrate differences in the rate of repair in syngeneic and allogeneic nonvascularized grafts; (3) sequentially assess vascularized allograft rejection; and (4) document long-term effects, such as bone atrophy due to disuse and early epiphyseal maturity.

  20. Immune Dysfunction Associated with Abnormal Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells in Senescence Accelerated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Guo, Kequan; Adachi, Yasushi; Ikehara, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Senescence accelerated mice (SAM) are a group of mice that show aging-related diseases, and SAM prone 10 (SAMP10) show spontaneous brain atrophy and defects in learning and memory. Our previous report showed that the thymus and the percentage of T lymphocytes are abnormal in the SAMP10, but it was unclear whether the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMMSCs) were abnormal, and whether they played an important role in regenerative medicine. We thus compared BMMSCs from SAMP10 and their control, SAM-resistant (SAMR1), in terms of cell cycle, oxidative stress, and the expression of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Our cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle arrest occurred in the G0/G1 phase in the SAMP10. We also found increased reactive oxygen stress and decreased PI3K and MAPK on the BMMSCs. These results suggested the BMMSCs were abnormal in SAMP10, and that this might be related to the immune system dysfunction in these mice. PMID:26840301

  1. The use of dynamic bone scanning in the evaluation of wrist and hand pain

    SciTech Connect

    Gandsman, E.J.; Deutsch, S.D.; Catalozzi, K.; Herndon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complaints of wrist and/or hand pain were evaluated using a quantitative technique of dynamic (blood flow analysis) and static bone scan. The patients were divided in two groups according to their clinical history. Group A included 13 patients with a history of trauma. Seven patients had scaphoid fracture and 6 of them were scanned to determine non-union and/or avascular necrosis of the joint. One patient was scanned to determine the viability of a graft for non-union fracture. In all cases the scan gave a correct diagnosis as confirmed by later x-ray changes. Six patients in this group had negative x-rays. The scan demonstrated 4 cases of occult fractures, 4 had early Kienbock's Disease (KD) and 1 a soft tissue tumor. Group B included 14 patients with no known history of trauma. Nine had positive x-rays including 3 with KD that were scanned to determine their viability for surgical replacement of the lunate. The scan could distinguish between isolated involvement of the lunate and secondary degenerative changes of the surrounding carpal bones and radiocarpal joint. Two patients with tumor were correctly diagnosed by the scan, one as benign and one malignant. Four other patients with nonspecific changes on x-ray showed early arthritis (3 cases) and a cyst of the triquetrum ( 1 case) on the bone scan. Four patients in Group B had negative x-rays and the scan showed degenerative changes (3 cases) and an occult fracture of the hamate (1 case). The use of dynamic and static bone scanning appears to be a very valuable technique in the evaluation of patients with wrist and hand pain.

  2. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  3. Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine. For the study, the researchers surveyed doctors, radiologists and imaging technologists about radiation exposure from CT scans. They found the vast majority knew that one abdominal-pelvic CT increases patients' risk for cancer. But many didn't know how the dose ...

  4. Negative bone scans of joints after aspiration or arthrography: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Traughber, P D; Manaster, B J; Murphy, K; Alazraki, N P

    1986-01-01

    It has long been suspected anecdotally that needle aspiration or contrast arthrogram before bone scan may cause a false-positive bone scan. This dictum often directs the sequence of events in the clinical workup of joint disease, yet data to support or refute this are lacking. This study was undertaken to generate such data. Fifty-six joints in mature dogs were examined, including hips, knees, elbows, and shoulders. The joints were examined in pairs; one joint was injected with Conray 60 for an arthrogram, and the contralateral joint was injected with an equal volume of normal saline to simulate a joint aspiration. Confirmation of needle placement and injection into the joints was made with fluoroscopic and digital subtraction imaging. Numbers of attempts required for aspiration and quantity of contrast material extravasated were noted for each joint. Baseline 99mTc-HDP or 99mTc-MDP bone scans were done before the experimental joint aspirations, with follow-up scans at 24 and 96 hr. The scans showed no significant change from baseline after either needle aspiration or arthrogram. When the diagnostic workup suggests the need for such a procedure, it should be performed. In contradiction to popular belief, joint aspiration and/or arthrogram did not affect a subsequent bone scan. PMID:3484417

  5. Bone and gallium scanning in the pre-op evaluation of the infected dysvascular foot

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Dillon, A.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of bone and gallium scans in predicting healing levels in the dysvascular foot with an infection requiring amputation. Healing requires amputation at a level both free of infection and with adequate blood flow. Forty-one such patients had bone and gallium scans and Doppler studies prior to amputation at a level selected by the surgeon. Eight patients required multiple surgeries before healing was obtained. Bone and soft tissue infections were determined from scans and healing levels predicted (SPHL) as the most distal amputation level free from infection: toectomy, Reye's, transmetatarsal, calcanectomy, Syme's, below knee. Doppler healing levels (DPHL) were predicted using a standard ischemic index. Doppler alone predicted the final healing level (FHL) in 41% with 59% needing more proximal amputation. Scans alone predicted FHL in 64% with 26% needing more proximal amputation. Ten percent were distal to the SPHL and all healed. These scans showed infection at transition sites between amputation levels, and the more proximal level had been predicted. Using the more proximal of the DPHL and SPHL the FHL was predicted in 78% with another 12% having more proximal amputation for nursing reasons. In 10% amputation was performed between DPHL and SPHL or at the more distal level. In no case was successful surgery performed distal to the more distal SPHL or DPHL. Bone and gallium scans used with Doppler studies are useful in optimizing the choice of amputation level in the infected, dysvascular foot.

  6. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  7. Occult gastric bleeding demonstrated by bone scan and Tc-99m-DTPA renal scan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Leiter, B.E.; Weitzman, F.; Shapiro, J.H.

    1981-10-01

    A patient is described who had coagulopathy and clinically intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding. The bleeding site was clearly shown on renal and bone imaging performed at a time when the patient was considered clinically to have stopped bleeding. A bleeding gastric ulcer was subsequently demonstrated by radionuclide and contrast angiography, and at surgery.

  8. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, C.; Siliqi, D.; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon resolution. This favorable combination has been applied for the first time to biopsies of dwarfism syndrome and Paget's disease to shed light onto the cortical structure of natural bone in healthy and pathologic sections. PMID:22666538

  9. Basic bone radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

  10. Precision of cortical bone reconstruction based on 3D CT scans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Ye, Ming; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Chengtao

    2009-04-01

    The precision and accuracy of human cortical bone reconstruction using 3D CT scans was evaluated using machined bone segments. Both linear and angular errors were measured. Cadaver adult femoral and tibial cortical bone segments were obtained and machined in six orthogonal planes with a precision milling machine. CT scans were then obtained and the bone segments were reconstructed as digital replicas. Dimensional and angular measurements errors were evaluated for the machined bone segments and the results were compared with known dimensions based on milling machine settings to calculate errors due to scanning and model reconstruction. The model dimensional error in the coronal, sagittal and axial directions had a mean of 0.21 mm, with standard a deviation of 0.12 mm and a maximum error of 0.47 mm. The mean percent error was 0.74% and the maximum percent error was 1.9%. The angular error of models in the coronal, sagittal and axial directions was calculated, yielding a mean of 0.47 degrees with a standard deviation of 0.37 degrees and a maximum of 1.33 degrees. The error in the cross-sectional axial direction had a mean of 0.54 mm with a maximum error of 0.83 mm, depending on the slice interval. The main error source was of the image processing, which was about 70% of the total error. We found that machining cortical bone segments prior to CT scanning is an effective method for accuracy evaluation of CT-based bone reconstruction. This method can provide a reference for assessing the sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of CT-based applications in the study of movement, finite element modeling, and prosthesis construction.

  11. Predictive value of an abnormal hepatobiliary scan in patients with severe intercurrent illness

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Froelich, J.W.; Lloyd, R.; Thrall, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients had severe intercurrent illness and the gallbladder could not be seen on a hepatobiliary scan. In 4, surgery and pathological examination showed that the gallbladder was normal; 1 had chronic cholecystitis and 5 had acute acalculous cholecystitis. This study indicates that a positive hepatobiliary scan may not be indicative of acute gallbladder disease in the seriously ill patient.

  12. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduces mineral and bone abnormalities in rats with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen; Secker, Roger; Shen, Victor; Lorenzo, Victor; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background. Lanthanum carbonate (FOSRENOL®, Shire Pharmaceuticals) is an effective non-calcium, non-resin phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we used a rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) to examine the long-term effects of controlling serum phosphorus with lanthanum carbonate treatment on the biochemical and bone abnormalities associated with CKD–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD). Methods. Rats were fed a normal diet (normal renal function, NRF), or a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 3 weeks to induce CRF. NRF rats continued to receive normal diet plus vehicle or normal diet supplemented with 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate for 22 weeks. CRF rats received a diet containing 0.1% adenine, with or without 2% (w/w) lanthanum carbonate. Blood and urine biochemistry were assessed, and bone histomorphometry was performed at study completion. Results. Treatment with 0.75% adenine induced severe CRF, as demonstrated by elevated serum creatinine. Hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, elevated calcium × phosphorus product and secondary hyperparathyroidism were evident in CRF + vehicle animals. Treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in CRF animals (P < 0.05), and had little effect in NRF animals. Bone histomorphometry revealed a severe form of bone disease with fibrosis in CRF + vehicle animals; lanthanum carbonate treatment reduced the severity of the bone abnormalities observed, particularly woven bone formation and fibrosis. Conclusions. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduced the biochemical and bone abnormalities of CKD–MBD in a rat model of CRF. PMID:21098011

  13. Technetium-99m APD compared with technetium-99m MDP as a bone scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Degrossi, O.J.; Oliveri, P.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Labriola, R.; Artagaveytia, D.; Degrossi, E.B.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have investigated the possibilities of technetium-99m-(-3-aminohydroxypropylidene)-1-1-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)APD) as a bone scanning agent in 14 normal subjects and 28 patients. Similar studies in the same normal subjects and patients were carried out with /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)MDP). The compounds were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by means of an electrolytical method; the free pertechnetate content was always under 1%. The (/sup 99m/Tc)APD T1/2 of the third component of the disappearance plasma curve in six normal subjects was 152 +/- 46 min (mean +/- s.d.), while the 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) was 17.6% +/- 4.6. The (99mTc)MDP value of the 24-hr WBR was 28.6% +/- 3.9. The bone/soft-tissue ratio (B/ST) was investigated in eight control subjects on the eleventh thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebrae. The B/ST ratios were similar for both APD and MDP studies. In 28 patients with suspected bone metastasis or primary bone disease, bone scintigraphy was carried out; both compounds showed similar findings and the same number of positive results. In five of these patients, the lesion/normal bone ratio was determined with values of 4.6 +/- 2.0 in APD studies and 4.8 +/- 2.3 with MDP. APD was also used in 126 patients; no adverse reactions were observed. The APD dose used i.v. for bone scanning was 200-fold less than those employed by mouth per day, for the treatment of bone disease for long periods. In our experience, APD appears to be an adequate agent for bone scintigraphy.

  14. Circulation, bone scans, and tetracycline labeling in microvascularized and vascular bundle implanted rib grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, D.H.; Williams, H.B.; Rosenthall, L.; Viloria, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    The circulation in microvascularized rib grafts has been compared with that in conventional rib grafts and in those augmented by a direct vascular bundle implantation into the bone grafts. A new experimental model has been designed to correlate vascular perfusion, bone scan patterns, tetracycline labeling, and histological findings in these bone grafts. Posterior microvascularized rib grafts were found to have a circulatory pattern identical to that of the normal rib. Failed microvascularized rib grafts were revascularized more slowly than conventional rib grafts. Vascular bundles implanted into rib grafts remained patent and increased the rate of revascularization. The stripping or preservation of periosteum had no observable effects on the rate or pattern of conventional rib graft revascularization. The circulation in rib grafts was accurately reflected in technetium 99 bone scans, as was the patency of the anastomoses of microvascularized rib grafts and of implanted vascular bundles. In contrast, tetracycline labeling was repeatedly observed in avascular areas of bone grafts and, therefore, is not a reliable indicator of bone graft circulation.

  15. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  16. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  17. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  18. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  19. Three-dimensional assessment of bone turnover using computed microtomography and laser-scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevrhal, Sven; Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny; Genant, Harry K.

    2000-06-01

    Objective: Metabolic activity in trabecular bone is an important indicator in the therapy of bone diseases like osteoporosis. It is reflected by the amount of osteoid (young, not yet mineralized bone) and young calcified tissue (YCT). Our aim was to replace standard 2D histomorphometry with a 3D approach for osteoid and YCT measurement. Measurement Methods: Excised lumbar vertebrae of 5 ovariectomized (OVX) and 5 control rats were 3D-scanned with computed micro-tomography ((mu) CT, isotropic spatial resolution 20 micrometer3) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, 20X magnification, 1X1X2 micrometer3 spatial resolution). (mu) CT shows trabecular bone structure; LSCM shows osteoid and YCT by fluorescent light. Image Processing Methods: The fraction of bone to tissue volume (BV/TV) and the number of trabeculae (Tb.N) were calculated from globally thresholded (mu) CT images. LSCM images were enhanced using top-hat transform, globally thresholded and morphologically closed. Separate regions were labeled by volume growing. We measured feature volume to background volume ratio and number of features per unit volume. Results and Conclusions: In the specimens obtained from the OVX rats, a significant increase in the volume fractions of osteoid and YCT could be seen. The (mu) CT-LSCM approach presents a significant improvement over time-consuming, standard histomorphometry. The image processing for both modalities could be achieved automatically.

  20. The role of angular reflection in assessing elastic properties of bone by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Puchegger, S; Fix, D; Pilz-Allen, C; Roschger, P; Fratzl, P; Weinkamer, R

    2014-01-01

    For an assessment of the mechanical performance of bone, a quantitative description of its mechanical heterogeneity is necessary. Previously, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) was used as a non-destructive method to estimate bone stiffness on the micrometer scale. While up to now only the normal incidence of acoustic waves is taken into account, we extend in our study the evaluation procedure by considering the full opening of the acoustic lens. The importance of this technical aspect is demonstrated by determining the contrast in Young's modulus between newly formed osteons and the surrounding higher mineralized interstitial bone. Several regions of human cortical bone of a femur in cross-section were imaged. For all the regions quantitative backscattered-electron imaging (qBEI) to estimate the local mass density was combined with SAM measurements. These measurements reveal a non-monotonic dependence between acoustic reflectivity and Young's modulus, which shows that it is actually necessary to consider the lens opening in a quantitative way. This problem was experimentally and theoretically approached by using lenses with two different opening angles operated at different frequencies (52° at 400MHz and 80° at 820MHz) to image the same specimen. The mass density of bone in osteons was found to be 1930kg/m(3) on average, while the higher mineral content in interstitial bone results in a 9% increase of the density. The contrast in the effective Young's modulus E, as determined through SAM, is more pronounced, with an average value of 14GPa in osteons and a more than 60% increase in interstitial bone. Additionally, SAM maps show oscillations in E with a periodicity of the typical bone lamella thickness of approximately 7µm in both osteons and interstitial bone. This mechanical heterogeneity can be explained by the varying orientation of the mineralized collagen fibers.

  1. Numb chin syndrome as a manifestation of jaw metastasis diagnosed in a bone scan.

    PubMed

    Noriega, E; Sabaté-Llobera, A; Benítez, A; Martínez, G A; Rodríguez-Rubio, J; Mora, J

    2016-01-01

    In many cases, numb chin syndrome (NCS) may represent a banal pathology. However, as it can be associated with malignant processes, its presence should alert the clinician of a possible occult disease. In patients already diagnosed with cancer, it often represents an ominous sign that indicates poor prognosis, due to the rapid progress of the disease. The case is presented of a 62-year-old man diagnosed with synchronous lung and bladder cancer, who suddenly complained of numbness in the chin. The bone scan confirmed the suspicion of metastastic bone disease, and the patient died two months after the appearance of this sign.

  2. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    PubMed

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  3. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  4. Scanning electron microscope studies of bone samples: Influence of simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rahul; Chowdhury, Parimal; Ali, Nawab

    2007-08-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with backscatter and secondary electron emission detectors plus a Si(Li) detector for photon yield measurements was used to study bone samples from skull and leg of mice and rats. These animals were either suspended by their tail to induce simulated microgravity, characterized as hind-limb suspension (HLS) or not suspended (control). Analyses of the SEM images and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectra using Si(Li) detector indicate variation in the lattice structures, and in intensities of the characteristics X-rays, produced from the exposed bone surface due to its interaction with the electron beam. Using Flame software, the X-ray spectra were analyzed and normalized ratios of the elements determined. The elemental analysis indicated a variation in the density of calcium, potassium, and oxygen near the knee joints and near the sutures in the skull bones. The comparison of simulated microgravity subjected samples of the rat skull bones with that of the control samples revealed that in the suture region there was a large increase in the ratio of calcium, and to some degree for phosphorus, suggesting simulated microgravity affects distribution of these elements. Elemental composition for control samples with depth (within the cross section of the leg bones) revealed decrease of oxygen and increase of calcium in the first millimeter of the bone depth after which the relative percentage of elements stayed constant.

  5. Bone Cysts After Osteochondral Allograft Repair of Cartilage Defects in Goats Suggest Abnormal Interaction Between Subchondral Bone and Overlying Synovial Joint Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L.; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCA) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12 months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCA and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral (ScB) and trabecular (TB) bone structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCA was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCA was lower than Non-Op and other OCA. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCA did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCA contained “basal” cysts, localized to deeper regions, some “subchondral” cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  6. Imaging microfractures and other abnormalities of bone using a supercontinuum laser source with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Leproux, Philippe; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-02-01

    Many areas of the body such as the tibia have minimal tissue thickness overlying bone. Near-infrared (NIR) optical windows may be used to image more deeply to reveal abnormalities hidden beneath tissue. We report on the potential application of a compact Leukos supercontinuum laser source (model STM-2000-IR) with wavelengths in the four NIR optical windows (from 650 nm to 950 nm, 1,100 nm to 1,350 nm, 1,600 to 1,870, and 2,100 nm to 2,300 nm, respectively) and between 200 - 500 microwatt/nm power, with InGaAs (Goodrich Sensors Inc. SU320- 1.7RT) and InSb detectors (Teledyne Technologies) to image microfractures and abnormalities of bone hidden beneath tissue.

  7. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... must have the test while breastfeeding, you should pump and throw away the breast milk for the next 2 days. The amount of radiation injected into your vein is very small. All radiation is gone from the body within ...

  8. Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Cooper, Cyrus; Tobias, Jonathan H.

    2013-01-01

    A finding of high BMD on routine DXA scanning is not infrequent and most commonly reflects degenerative disease. However, BMD increases may also arise secondary to a range of underlying disorders affecting the skeleton. Although low BMD increases fracture risk, the converse may not hold for high BMD, since elevated BMD may occur in conditions where fracture risk is increased, unaffected or reduced. Here we outline a classification for the causes of raised BMD, based on identification of focal or generalized BMD changes, and discuss an approach to guide appropriate investigation by clinicians after careful interpretation of DXA scan findings within the context of the clinical history. We will also review the mild skeletal dysplasia associated with the currently unexplained high bone mass phenotype and discuss recent advances in osteoporosis therapies arising from improved understanding of rare inherited high BMD disorders. PMID:23445662

  9. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  10. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur (TVS) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia.

  11. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients

  12. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  13. Correction of step artefact associated with MRI scanning of long bones.

    PubMed

    Rathnayaka, Kanchana; Cowin, Gary; Schuetz, Michael A; Sahama, Tony; Schmutz, Beat

    2013-07-01

    3D models of long bones are being utilised for a number of fields including orthopaedic implant design. Accurate reconstruction of 3D models is of utmost importance to design accurate implants to allow achieving a good alignment between two bone fragments. Thus for this purpose, CT scanners are employed to acquire accurate bone data exposing an individual to a high amount of ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a potential alternative to computed tomography (CT) for scanning of volunteers for 3D reconstruction of long bones, essentially avoiding the high radiation dose from CT. In MRI imaging of long bones, the artefacts due to random movements of the skeletal system create challenges for researchers as they generate inaccuracies in the 3D models generated by using data sets containing such artefacts. One of the defects that have been observed during an initial study is the lateral shift artefact occurring in the reconstructed 3D models. This artefact is believed to result from volunteers moving the leg during two successive scanning stages (the lower limb has to be scanned in at least five stages due to the limited scanning length of the scanner). As this artefact creates inaccuracies in the implants designed using these models, it needs to be corrected before the application of 3D models to implant design. Therefore, this study aimed to correct the lateral shift artefact using 3D modelling techniques. The femora of five ovine hind limbs were scanned with a 3T MRI scanner using a 3D vibe based protocol. The scanning was conducted in two halves, while maintaining a good overlap between them. A lateral shift was generated by moving the limb several millimetres between two scanning stages. The 3D models were reconstructed using a multi threshold segmentation method. The correction of the artefact was achieved by aligning the two halves using the robust iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, with the help of the overlapping

  14. Microwave bone imaging: a preliminary scanning system for proof-of-concept

    PubMed Central

    Cuccaro, Antonio; Solimene, Raffaele; Brancaccio, Adriana; Basile, Bruno; Ammann, Max J.

    2016-01-01

    This Letter introduces a feasibility study of a scanning system for applications in biomedical bone imaging operating in the microwave range 0.5–4 GHz. Mechanical uncertainties and data acquisition time are minimised by using a fully automated scanner that controls two antipodal Vivaldi antennas. Accurate antenna positioning and synchronisation with data acquisition enables a rigorous proof-of-concept for the microwave imaging procedure of a multi-layer phantom including skin, fat, muscle and bone tissues. The presence of a suitable coupling medium enables antenna miniaturisation and mitigates the impedance mismatch between antennas and phantom. The three-dimensional image of tibia and fibula is successfully reconstructed by scanning the multi-layer phantom due to the distinctive dielectric contrast between target and surrounding tissues. These results show the viability of a microwave bone imaging technology which is low cost, portable, non-ionising, and does not require specially trained personnel. In fact, as no a-priori characterisation of the antenna is required, the image formation procedure is very conveniently simplified. PMID:27733930

  15. Assessment of the increased calcification of the jaw bone with CT-Scan after dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the changes of jaw bone density around the dental implant after placement using computed tomography scan (CT-Scan). Materials and Methods This retrospective study consisted of 30 patients who had lost 1 posterior tooth in maxilla or mandible and installed dental implant. The patients took CT-Scan before and after implant placement. Hounsfield Unit (HU) was measured around the implants and evaluated the difference of HU before and after implant installation. Results The mean HU of jaw bone was 542.436 HU and 764.9 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). The means HUs for male were 632.3 HU and 932.2 HU and those for female 478.2 HU and 645.5 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). Also, the jaw bone with lower density needed longer period for implant procedure and the increased change of HU of jaw bone was less in the cases which needed longer period for osseointegration. Conclusion CT-Scan could be used to assess the change of bone density around dental implants. Bone density around dental implant was increased after placement. The increased rate of bone density could be determined by the quality of jaw bone before implant placement. PMID:21977476

  16. Multimodal imaging of the human temporal bone: A comparison of CT and optical scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voie, Arne H.; Whiting, Bruce; Skinner, Margaret; Neely, J. Gail; Lee, Kenneth; Holden, Tim; Brunsden, Barry

    2003-10-01

    A collaborative effort between Washington University in St. Louis and Spencer Technologies in Seattle, WA has been undertaken to create a multimodal 3D reconstruction of the human cochlea and vestibular system. The goal of this project is to improve the accuracy of in vivo CT reconstructions of implanted cochleae, and to expand the knowledge of high-resolution anatomical detail provided by orthogonal-plane optical sectioning (OPFOS). At WUSL, computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea are used to determine the position of cochlear implant electrodes relative to target auditory neurons. The cochlear implant position is determined using pre- and post-operative CT scans. The CT volumes are cross-registered to align the semicircular canals and internal auditory canal, which have a unique configuration in 3-D space. The head of a human body donor was scanned with a clinical CT device, after which the temporal bones were removed, fixed in formalin and trimmed prior to scanning with a laboratory Micro CT scanner. Following CT, the temporal bones were sent to the OPFOS Imaging Lab at Spencer Technologies for a further analysis. 3-D reconstructions of CT and OPFOS imaging modalities were compared, and results are presented. [Work supported by NIDCD Grants R44-03623-5 and R01-00581-13.

  17. The os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Collier, B D; Carrera, G F

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  18. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  19. Novel, near-infrared spectroscopic, label-free, techniques to assess bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis and bone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-02-01

    Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.

  20. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  1. Supplementation of L-arginine prevents glucocorticoid-induced reduction of bone growth and bone turnover abnormalities in a growing rat model.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Pietra; D'Alcamo, Maria Antonia; Leonetti, Concetta; Clementi, Anna; Cutuli, Vincenza Maria; Riccobene, Stefania; Parisi, Natalia; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral density in the growing rat. Because of the recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) can counteract prednisolone-induced bone loss in mature rats, we examined the effect on bone of the NO donor L: -arginine in young male rats, in which bone mass is increased by the same biological mechanism as in children and adolescents. Thirty-six 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to six groups of six animals each, and treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle (once a week subcutaneous injection of 100 microl of sesame oil); prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week by intramuscular injection (i.m.); L-arginine, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day; prednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-arginine 10 mg/kg i.p. once a day; or prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-NAME 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (RatLaps) were measured at baseline conditions and after 2 and 4 weeks. Prior to treatment, and after 2 and 4 weeks, the whole body, vertebral, pelvic, and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Prednisolone and prednisolone+L-NAME treated rats had significantly lower ALP and osteocalcin levels than controls at 2 and 4 weeks, and significantly higher levels of Rat-Laps than controls at 4 weeks. Prednisolone, L-NAME, and prednisolone+L-NAME produced a significant inhibition of bone accumulation and bone growth at all sites measured. Supplementation with L-arginine appeared to prevent the inhibition of bone growth and increase in bone resorption induced by prednisolone. These data would suggest, for the first time, that supplementation

  2. An Abnormal Bone Lesion of the Scapula in a Collegiate Basketball Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Matthew S.; Donnell, Allison; Miller, Jason; Iven, Val Gene; Pascale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a bone lesion of the scapula in a collegiate basketball player. Background: A 19-year-old National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male basketball player presented with pain in the posterior region of the right shoulder. During practice, he was performing a layup when his arm was forced into hyperflexion by a defender. Evaluation revealed a bone lesion involving the scapular spine and base of the acromion. Differential Diagnosis: Acromioclavicular joint sprain, subacromial bursitis, subscapular bursitis, humeral head contusion, acromial fracture. Treatment: The patient was treated for 2 months with therapeutic modalities and rehabilitation exercises. Because of persistent pain and the risk of a pathologic fracture, open surgical biopsy and bone grafting were then undertaken. Uniqueness: Most simple bone cysts affect the proximal humerus and femur, whereas our patient's lesion was in the acromial complex. Conclusions: Athletic trainers should be alert to the unusual possibility of bone cysts, which are usually identified incidentally when radiographs are obtained for other reasons. Most simple bone cysts are asymptomatic, but a pathologic fracture can occur with trauma. PMID:23725460

  3. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  4. Osteochondrosis and epiphyseal bone abnormalities associated with copper deficiency in bison calves.

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, M R; Feist, M S; Clark, E G; Haigh, J C

    1999-01-01

    Two bison calves were submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine to confirm suspected copper deficiency. In addition to clinical signs, there were pathologic changes in the cartilage and subchondral bone of several joints. Water analysis indicated high levels of sulfate in the drinking water, contributing to a secondary copper deficiency. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10646064

  5. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  6. [Bone scanning with sodium 18F-fluoride PET and PET/CT. German guideline Version 1.0.].

    PubMed

    Hellwig, D; Krause, B-J; Schirrmeister, H; Freesmeyer, M

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, bone scanning is based on the principle of scintigraphy using bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals which accumulate in sites of increased bone formation. From a historical point of view, (18)F-fluoride was one of the first osteotropic tracers which was replaced by (99m)Tc-labelled polyphosphonates. With the development of modern PET equipment the superior diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoride PET for the detection and characterization of osseous lesions was proven in comparison to conventional bone scanning. Recently, its importance as a substitute of conventional skeletal scintigraphy increased in a time with limited availability of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. To ensure health care during this period, (18)F-fluoride PET currently became part of common outpatient care. This guideline comprehends recommendations on indications, protocols, interpretation and reporting of (18)F-fluoride PET and PET/CT. PMID:20838734

  7. Prevalence of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities and Factors Affecting Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sathish Kumar; Gopal, Gopinath Kango; Rangasami, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease of wasting with airflow limitation, associated with a variety of systemic manifestations such as reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD). There is a paucity of Indian studies on the effects of COPD on BMD. Aim This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in COPD patients and the correlation between bone density and severity of COPD classified according to GOLD Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines (GOLD). Materials and Methods A prospective study of 60 patients diagnosed to have COPD, was conducted in the outpatient department of Respiratory Medicine, at a tertiary care hospital in Southern India, between September 2012 and September 2013. BMD was measured using ultrasound bone densitometer (ACHILLES GE HEALTH CARE). Patients with a T-score between -1 and -2.5 were considered to be osteopenic while patients with a T score less than -2.5 were considered to be osteoporotic (WHO criteria). Results Overall, 40 (67%) patients had an abnormal bone mineral density. A total of 21 (35%) patients were osteoporotic while 19 (33%) were osteopenic. BMD levels correlated with severity of obstruction (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.02), age (p=0.05) and number of pack years (p=0.001). Conclusion Patients with COPD are at an increased risk for lower BMD and osteoporotic fractures and the risk appears to increase with disease severity. Further studies are required to assess whether routine BMD measurements in COPD patients is beneficial to diagnose osteoporosis and reduce morbidity. PMID:27790490

  8. Metastatic mimics on bone scan: “All that glitters is not metastatic”

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    In this pictorial review, cases where benign diseases caused a diagnostic dilemma on bone scan are illustrated. This review highlights the value of correlative imaging- single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging in solving the diagnostic problem by exact localization and characterization of the lesions. All these eventually lead to increased diagnostic confidence, better and more accurate reporting and avoidance of delay in initiation of treatment due to equivocal results. The imaging features of these benign pathologies – which are “mimics of metastatic disease,” are elaborated so that the reader can incorporate them while reporting so as to avoid mis-interpretations. PMID:27385887

  9. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies.

  10. Do abnormal hemipelvic bone stresses contribute to loosening and migration of screw-threaded cups?

    PubMed

    Learmonth, I D; Spirakis, A

    1994-03-01

    Excellent long-term results have been reported with the Charnley low-friction arthroplasty. Failure of the cemented acetabular component has been identified as a problem in the longer term, while cemented hip replacements in active young patients have exhibited a disconcerting incidence of early clinical or radiological failure. This resulted in the development of the cementless arthroplasty. Bone responds favourably to an optimal stress window and reacts dynamically to metal implants that have a greatly differing modulus of elasticity. This study represents a comparative qualitative analysis of the peri-acetabular hemipelvic stresses after loading two cementless (press-fit and screw-threaded) acetabular components inserted into identical bone models. A simplified model of the artificial hip joint was constructed and the very sensitive stress analysis technique of holographic interferometry was used for the investigation. Peri-acetabular stress concentrations were noted with the screw-threaded cup. This may predispose to bone resorption and it is suggested that these could be implicated in the migration of these cups described in published reports.

  11. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    PubMed

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E; Conover, Cheryl A; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin; Overgaard, Michael T; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5-3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6-0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  12. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B.; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5–3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6–0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  13. Noninvasive determination of bone stiffness for distraction osteogenesis by quantitative computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Harp, J H; Aronson, J; Hollis, M

    1994-04-01

    Apparent density of canine tibial specimens was correlated to measured quantitative computed tomography (QCT) numbers, and a conversion equation was derived. Finite element analysis models of canine tibiae were constructed using spatial coordinates of converted QCT data. Two QCT-derived finite elemental analysis models were constructed for a pair of matched tibiae: one lengthened 15% by distraction osteogenesis and one contralateral control. Two equations relating the modulus of elasticity to apparent density were used. These models were then verified mechanically by measuring strains of the two specimens under applied load. Equation I correlated best with measured strains in the less-dense regenerate bone of the distracted tibia (R2 = 0.914, p = 0.0028, n = 6); Equation II performed best in the denser control tibia (R2 = 0.820, p = 0.0129, n = 6). These results demonstrate that the stiffness of tubular bones, including cortical and heterogenous cancellous structure, can be accurately predicted by a noninvasive QCT scan.

  14. Strontium and bone nanostructure in normal and ovariectomized rats investigated by scanning small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Mathias H; Oxlund, Hans; Hansen, Toke K; Sørensen, Søren; Bibby, Bo M; Thomsen, Jesper S; Langdahl, Bente L; Besenbacher, Flemming; Pedersen, Jan S; Birkedal, Henrik

    2010-04-01

    The effect of SrCl(2) treatment on bone nanostructure in a rat ovariectomy model was studied using scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS). Twelve 6-month-old female Wistar rats were used. Six animals were ovariectomized (+ovx) and six were left intact after sham surgery (-ovx). Six animals, three +ovx and three -ovx, were treated with 4 mmol SrCl(2) (aq)/kg/day (+Sr), whereas the remaining six received placebo (-Sr) for 140 days. Rats were labeled with flourochromes at days 7, 126, and 136. Femoral cross sections were studied using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and sSAXS. The SAXS data comprised about 5,500 measurements and provided information about mineral crystal thickness and orientation in new and old bone. The newly formed bone contained higher levels of Sr(2+) in +Sr than in -Sr animals, indicating that the Sr(2+) was incorporated into the new bone. Mineral plates were significantly thicker in old bone, 2.62 nm (95% CI 2.58-2.66), than in new bone, 2.41 nm (95% CI 2.36-2.46). Surprisingly, mineral plates in new bone were significantly thicker (2.52 [95% CI 2.47-2.57] nm vs. 2.41 [95% CI 2.36-2.46] nm, P = 0.017) in +ovx rats than in -ovx rats. However, no significant effect of SrCl(2) on mineral plate thicknesses in new bone was observed. The statistical model yielded estimates of the difference in bone mineral plate thickness induced by Sr. The estimated effect of Sr was -0.09 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.03) and 0.02 (95% CI -0.10 to 0.14) nm for new bone in -ovx and +ovx rats, respectively. PMID:20221590

  15. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  16. CT scan evaluation of glenoid bone and pectoralis major tendon: interest in shoulder prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Peyron, Christelle; Boyer, Etienne; Menu, Gauthier; Loisel, François; Aubry, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The shoulder arthroplasty brings satisfaction to patients in terms of quality of life and indolence. However whether anatomic implant or reverse, it does not escape from the loosening of the glenoid component. Moreover, optimal implantation is required to ensure the functional outcome without shortening of the arm. The purpose of this study is obtain CT scan evaluation of the glenoid bone stock in order to optimize glenoid component implantation and obtain a reference to determine optimal humeral component placement in case of humeral proximal fracture. Materials and methods: Between 2010 and 2011 we have analyzed 200 intact shoulder’s CT. We measured maximal and minimal width in the transverse plane of the glenoid, the distance from the pectoralis major (PM) tendon to the humeral head, the greater tubercle, change of curvature and the anatomical neck. Results: Mean maximum width was 27.4 ± 3.4 mm and mean minimum width was 15.5 ± 2.8 mm. Distances between upper edge of PM tendon to: humeral head, greater tubercle, change of curvature and anatomical neck were respectively: 67.6 ± 9.98 mm, 57.8 ± 10.3 mm, 28.7 ± 9 mm, and 34.2 ± 9.7 mm. Conclusion: Our study has produced an assessment of glenoid bone stock for optimal positioning of the glenoid implant but also to obtain a reference to determine the ideal location of the humeral component in the case of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:27716461

  17. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Ding, M; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-03-01

    Volume fraction, the single most important parameter in describing trabecular microstructure, can easily be calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT images. This study sought to quantify the accuracy of this measurement. One hundred and sixty human cancellous bone specimens which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner supplied algorithm (method I). A significant deviation of volume fraction from method I was found: both the y-intercept and the slope of the regression line were significantly different from those of the Archimedes-based volume fraction (p < 0.001). New individual thresholds were determined based on a calibration of volume fraction to the Archimedes-based volume fractions (method II). The mean thresholds of the two methods were applied to segment 20 randomly selected specimens. The results showed that volume fraction using the mean threshold of method I was underestimated by 4% (p = 0.001), whereas the mean threshold of method II yielded accurate values. The precision of the measurement was excellent. Our data show that care must be taken when applying thresholds in generating 3-D data, and that a fixed threshold may be used to obtain reliable volume fraction data. This fixed threshold may be determined from the Archimedes-based volume fraction of a subgroup of specimens. The threshold may vary between different materials, and so it should be determined whenever a study series is performed. PMID:10093033

  18. Comparison of DXA Scans and Conventional X-rays for Spine Morphometry and Bone Age Determination in Children.

    PubMed

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Knoop, Kai; Semler, Oliver; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hellmich, Martin; Schoenau, Eckhard; Koerber, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Conventional lateral spine and hand radiographs are the standard tools to evaluate vertebral morphometry and bone age in children. Beside bone mineral density analyses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements with lower radiation exposure provide high-resolution scans which are not approved for diagnostic purposes. Data about the comparability of conventional radiographs and DXA in children are missing yet. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate whether conventional hand and spine radiographs can be replaced by DXA scans to diminish radiation exposure. Thirty-eight children with osteogenesis imperfecta or secondary osteoporosis or short stature (male, n=20; age, 5.0-17.0 yr) were included and assessed once by additional DXA (GE iDXA) of the spine or the left hand. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to express agreement between X-ray and iDXA assessment. Evaluation of the spine morphometry showed reasonable agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC for fish-shape, 0.75; for wedge-shape, 0.65; and for compression fractures, 0.70). Bone age determination showed excellent agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC, 0.97). IDXA-scans of the spine in a pediatric population should be used not only to assess bone mineral density but also to evaluate anatomic structures and vertebral morphometry. Therefore, iDXA can replace some radiographs in children with skeletal diseases.

  19. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  20. Abnormality in face scanning by children with autism spectrum disorder is limited to the eye region: evidence from multi-method analyses of eye tracking data.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Fan, Yuebo; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Huang, Dan; Li, Jiao; Mao, Guoquan; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy regarding whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TD) show different eye movement patterns when processing faces. We investigated ASD and age- and IQ-matched TD children's scanning of faces using a novel multi-method approach. We found that ASD children spent less time looking at the whole face generally. After controlling for this difference, ASD children's fixations of the other face parts, except for the eye region, and their scanning paths between face parts were comparable either to the age-matched or IQ-matched TD groups. In contrast, in the eye region, ASD children's scanning differed significantly from that of both TD groups: (a) ASD children fixated significantly less on the right eye (from the observer's view); (b) ASD children's fixations were more biased towards the left eye region; and (c) ASD children fixated below the left eye, whereas TD children fixated on the pupil region of the eye. Thus, ASD children do not have a general abnormality in face scanning. Rather, their abnormality is limited to the eye region, likely due to their strong tendency to avoid eye contact. PMID:23929830

  1. Long-Term Administration of High-Fat Diet Corrects Abnormal Bone Remodeling in the Tibiae of Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Liu, Bo; Liu, Di; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiuchun; Cui, Jian; Yimin; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diet-induced obesity on IL-6 deficiency-induced bone remodeling abnormality. Seven-week-old IL-6(-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were fed a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks. Lipid formation and bone metabolism in mice tibiae were investigated by histochemical analysis. Both IL-6(-/-) and WT mice fed the HFD showed notable body weight gain, thickened cortical bones, and adipose accumulation in the bone marrow. Notably, the HFD normalized the bone phenotype of IL-6(-/-) mice to that of their WT counterpart, as characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the presence of an obliquely arranged, plate-like morphology in the trabecular bone. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expressions were attenuated in both genotypes after HFD feeding, especially for the IL-6(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was inhibited, osteoclast apoptosis rate down-regulated (revealed by TUNEL assay), and the proportion of cathepsin K (CK)-positive osteoclasts significantly increased in IL-6(-/-) mice on a HFD as compared with IL-6(-/-) mice on standard chow. Our results demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity reverses IL-6 deficiency-associated bone metabolic disorders by suppressing osteoblast activity, upregulating osteoclastic activity, and inhibiting osteoclast apoptosis. PMID:26416243

  2. The nanometre-scale physiology of bone: steric modelling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of collagen-mineral structure.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Benjamin; Daulton, Tyrone L; Genin, Guy M; Lipner, Justin; Pasteris, Jill D; Wopenka, Brigitte; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-08-01

    The nanometre-scale structure of collagen and bioapatite within bone establishes bone's physical properties, including strength and toughness. However, the nanostructural organization within bone is not well known and is debated. Widely accepted models hypothesize that apatite mineral ('bioapatite') is present predominantly inside collagen fibrils: in 'gap channels' between abutting collagen molecules, and in 'intermolecular spaces' between adjacent collagen molecules. However, recent studies report evidence of substantial extrafibrillar bioapatite, challenging this hypothesis. We studied the nanostructure of bioapatite and collagen in mouse bones by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Additionally, we developed a steric model to estimate the packing density of bioapatite within gap channels. Our steric model and STEM results constrain the fraction of total bioapatite in bone that is distributed within fibrils at less than or equal to 0.42 inside gap channels and less than or equal to 0.28 inside intermolecular overlap regions. Therefore, a significant fraction of bone's bioapatite (greater than or equal to 0.3) must be external to the fibrils. Furthermore, we observe extrafibrillar bioapatite between non-mineralized collagen fibrils, suggesting that initial bioapatite nucleation and growth are not confined to the gap channels as hypothesized in some models. These results have important implications for the mechanics of partially mineralized and developing tissues.

  3. [Total body MRI in early detection of bone metastasis and its indication in comparison to bone scan and other imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Luna, Antonio; Vilanova, Joan C; Alcalá Mata, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases are a recognized prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer. Currently, Tc99 bone scan is the most frequently used imaging technique for their detection, showing a high sensitivity but a limited specificity. Thus, new morphological and mainly functional imaging techniques based on PET and MRI, or hybrid techniques such as PET-CT or PET-MRI have been introduced to improve metastases detection, estimation of total tumor load and for therapeutic monitoring. In this clinical scenario, total body MRI has arisen as a very promising technique in detection and therapeutic monitoring of bone metastases of prostate cancer, because it neither uses ionizing radiation nor needs the administration of contrast media. The incorporation of MR diffusion to the morphologic total body MRI protocols provides functional information, improving the sensitivity in oncological lesions detection in general and osteolytic bone metastases of PCa in particular. Its integration in protocols with morphological sequences and its quantification through ADC maps enables us to better understand metastatic bone disease patterns and their changes with different therapies. Total body D MRI enables the early classification of the response to treatment with evident advantages over other imaging techniques and the purely morphological approach with MRI. In any case, prospective and cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to establish the role of total-body D MRI in the management of patients with PCa.

  4. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Caldarella, Carmelo; Treglia, Giorgio; Giordano, Alessandro; Giovanella, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients' prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline) and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer: bone scintigraphy remains the mainstay for the detection of bone metastases in current clinical practice. PMID:23861598

  5. The potential use of 99mTc-MDP bone scans to plan high-activity 186Re-HEDP targeted therapy of bony metastases from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Binnie, David; Divoli, Antigoni; McCready, V Ralph; Dearnaley, David; Flux, Glenn

    2005-04-01

    Patients with skeletal metastases from hormone-refractory prostate cancer have shown variable responses to high-activity therapy with (186)Re-HEDP and peripheral stem cell support. In this paper, we report on the use of a novel technique to compare sequential planar images acquired post-(186)Re-HEDP therapy administration with pretherapy diagnostic (99m)Tc-MDP scans, to evaluate the turnover of the radiopharmaceutical in normal and abnormal bone. It was found that the activity in normal (i.e., disease-free) segments of the spine demonstrates a faster effective decay than that of the metastases, with the latter showing only physical decay. This study showed, for the first time, a detailed correlation in the behavior of the (99m)Tc-MDP and (186)Re-HEDP images, encouraging the possibility of using the pretherapy 99mTc-MDP scan for estimations of absorbed doses to be delivered by prescribed activities of (186)Re-HEDP.

  6. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (P<0.001). Event-free survival was significantly shorter in Group B (hazard ratio: 8.31, 95% CI: 1.33-12.14, log-rank test; P<0.05). The groups were also divided by the results of 2 radiologists' visual scan interpretations, and no significant differences were shown in the number of SRE (P=0.82, P=0.10). When correlation analyses were performed between aBSI and bone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, P<0.05). In conclusion, aBSI is proposed as a useful and objective imaging biomarker in the detection of breast-cancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  7. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Nishikant A; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Praveen; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. PMID:24019656

  8. Protocol of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound, and triple phase bone scans in the evaluation of the painful pediatric hip

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.E.; Seibert, J.J.; Aronson, J.; Williamson, S.L.; Glasier, C.M.; Rodgers, A.B.; Corbitt, S.L.

    1988-04-01

    A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography. If an effusion was present, the joint was aspirated for diagnosis. If no effusion was present by US or if no diagnosis was reached by aspiration, triple phase radionuclide bone scans were performed. Fifty patients were evaluated by this prospective protocol, and the diagnosis was reached in 48 of the 50 cases (10 by plain radiographs, 16 by US, and aspiration of the joint, and 22 by triple phase bone scans). Hip effusions were found in 20 patients by US, with no false positives or false negatives. Previous studies for detecting effusions by US have emphasized absolute measurements of the capsular width, but we report a typical appearance of the hip capsule when fluid is present (a bulging convex capsule). When no effusion is present, the capsule is concave and parallels the long axis of the femoral neck.

  9. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  10. Comparative study on measured variables and sensitivity to bone microstructural changes induced by weightlessness between in vivo and ex vivo micro-CT scans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lian Wen; Wang, Chao; Pu, Fang; Li, De Yu; Niu, Hai Jun; Fan, Yu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the experimental design, micro-CT can be used to examine bones either in vivo or ex vivo (excised fresh or formalin-fixed). In this study we investigated if differences exist in the variables measured by micro-CT between in vivo and ex vivo scans and which kind of scan is more sensitive to the changes of bone microstructure induced by simulated weightlessness. Rat tail suspension was used to simulate the weightless condition. The same bone from either normal or tail-suspended rats was scanned by micro-CT both in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed by formalin). Then, bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructural characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that no significant differences existed in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone among in vivo, fresh, and formalin-fixed bone scans from both femurs and tibias, although BMD exhibited differences. On the other hand, most parameters of the tail-suspended rats measured by micro-CT deteriorated compared with controls. Ex vivo scanning appeared to be more sensitive to bone microstructural changes induced by tail suspension than in vivo scanning. In general, the results indicate that values obtained in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed) are comparable, thus allowing for meaningful comparison of experimental results from different studies irrespective of the type of scans. In addition, this study suggests that it is better to use ex vivo scanning when evaluating bone microstructure under weightlessness. However, researchers can select any type of scan depending upon the objective and the demands of the experiment.

  11. Thymic abnormalities and enhanced apoptosis of thymocytes and bone marrow cells in transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase: implications for Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Peled-Kamar, M; Lotem, J; Okon, E; Sachs, L; Groner, Y

    1995-01-01

    The copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) gene resides on chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome (DS) patients. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice with elevated levels of CuZnSOD were used to determine whether, as in DS, overexpression of CuZnSOD was also associated with thymus and bone marrow abnormalities. Three independently derived transgenic CuZnSOD strains had abnormal thymi showing diminution of the cortex and loss of corticomedullary demarcation, resembling thymic defects in children with DS. Transgenic CuZnSOD mice were also more sensitive than control mice to in vivo injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), reflected by an earlier onset and enhanced apoptotic cell death in the thymus. This higher susceptibility to LPS-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased production of hydrogen peroxide and a higher degree of lipid peroxidation. When cultured under suboptimal concentrations of interleukin 3 or in the presence of tumour necrosis factor, bone marrow cells from transgenic CuZnSOD mice produced 2- to 3-fold less granulocyte and macrophage colonies than control. The results indicate that transgenic CuZnSOD mice have certain thymus and bone marrow abnormalities which are similar to those found in DS patients, and that the defects are presumably due to an increased oxidative damage resulting in enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7588627

  12. Bone Scintigraphic Findings in MRSA Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Patricia; Mandell, Gerald A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is a severe form of infection characterized by multifocal or multiple segmental osseous involvement and subperiosteal abscess formation with increased frequency of extraosseous complications including pyomyositis, septic thrombus, and septic arthritis. Bone scan showed long segment and/or multifocal involvement in 4 of 5 patients with areas of abnormal increased and decreased uptake. The clinical presentations included limp and/or pain. Joint involvement was seen in 4 cases. Bone scan abnormalities correlated well with MRI findings of severe and extensive bone disease, abscess formation, muscle, as well as joint and soft tissue involvement.

  13. Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines.

    PubMed

    Korac, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kusec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A

    2005-12-01

    The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease.

  14. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  15. Shared clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in aberrant mast cells and leukemic myeloid blasts detected by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based whole-genome scanning.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, John K; Shao, Lina; Bixby, Dale L; Ross, Charles W

    2016-04-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by a clonal proliferation of aberrant mast cells within extracutaneous sites. In a subset of SM cases, a second associated hematologic non-mast cell disease (AHNMD) is also present, usually of myeloid origin. Polymerase chain reaction and targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization studies have provided evidence that, in at least some cases, the aberrant mast cells are related clonally to the neoplastic cells of the AHNMD. In this work, a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-A) was used to characterize the cytogenetics of the aberrant mast cells from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and concomitant mast cell leukemia associated with a KIT D816A mutation. The results demonstrate the presence of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the mast cells and myeloid blasts, as well as additional abnormalities within mast cells (copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) not detectable by routine karyotypic analysis. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of SNP-A whole-genome scanning to the detection of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the two components of a case of SM-AHNMD. The findings provide additional evidence of a frequent clonal link between aberrant mast cells and cells of myeloid AHNMDs, and also highlight the importance of direct sequencing for identifying uncommon activating KIT mutations.

  16. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  17. CT scans and 3D reconstructions of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) heads and ear bones.

    PubMed

    Chapla, Marie E; Nowacek, Douglas P; Rommel, Sentiel A; Sadler, Valerie M

    2007-06-01

    The auditory anatomy of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was investigated using computerized tomography (CT), three-dimensional reconstructions, and traditional dissection of heads removed during necropsy. The densities (kg/m3) of the soft tissues of the head were measured directly using the displacement method and those of the soft tissues and bone were calculated from CT measurements (Hounsfield units). The manatee's fatty tissue was significantly less dense than the other soft tissues within the head (p<0.05). The squamosal bone was significantly less dense than the other bones of the head (p<0.05). Measurements of the ear bones (tympanic, periotic, malleus, incus, and stapes) collected during dissection revealed that the ossicular chain was overly massive for the mass of the tympanoperiotic complex.

  18. CT scans and 3D reconstructions of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) heads and ear bones.

    PubMed

    Chapla, Marie E; Nowacek, Douglas P; Rommel, Sentiel A; Sadler, Valerie M

    2007-06-01

    The auditory anatomy of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was investigated using computerized tomography (CT), three-dimensional reconstructions, and traditional dissection of heads removed during necropsy. The densities (kg/m3) of the soft tissues of the head were measured directly using the displacement method and those of the soft tissues and bone were calculated from CT measurements (Hounsfield units). The manatee's fatty tissue was significantly less dense than the other soft tissues within the head (p<0.05). The squamosal bone was significantly less dense than the other bones of the head (p<0.05). Measurements of the ear bones (tympanic, periotic, malleus, incus, and stapes) collected during dissection revealed that the ossicular chain was overly massive for the mass of the tympanoperiotic complex. PMID:17420106

  19. Non-invasive assessment of bone quantity and quality in human trabeculae using scanning ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yi

    Fractures and associated bone fragility induced by osteoporosis and osteopenia are widespread health threat to current society. Early detection of fracture risk associated with bone quantity and quality is important for both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and consequent complications. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is an engineering technology for monitoring bone quantity and quality of humans on earth and astronauts subjected to long duration microgravity. Factors currently limiting the acceptance of QUS technology involve precision, accuracy, single index and standardization. The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy and precision of an image-based QUS technique for non-invasive evaluation of trabecular bone quantity and quality by developing new techniques and understanding ultrasound/tissue interaction. Several new techniques have been developed in this dissertation study, including the automatic identification of irregular region of interest (iROI) in bone, surface topology mapping (STM) and mean scattering spacing (MSS) estimation for evaluating trabecular bone structure. In vitro results have shown that (1) the inter- and intra-observer errors in QUS measurement were reduced two to five fold by iROI compared to previous results; (2) the accuracy of QUS parameter, e.g., ultrasound velocity (UV) through bone, was improved 16% by STM; and (3) the averaged trabecular spacing can be estimated by MSS technique (r2=0.72, p<0.01). The measurement errors of BUA and UV introduced by the soft tissue and cortical shells in vivo can be quantified by developed foot model and simplified cortical-trabecular-cortical sandwich model, which were verified by the experimental results. The mechanisms of the errors induced by the cortical and soft tissues were revealed by the model. With developed new techniques and understanding of sound-tissue interaction, in vivo clinical trail and bed rest study were preformed to evaluate the performance of QUS in

  20. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  1. Semiautomated three-dimensional segmentation software to quantify carpal bone volume changes on wrist CT scans for arthritis assessment.

    PubMed

    Duryea, J; Magalnick, M; Alli, S; Yao, L; Wilson, M; Goldbach-Mansky, R

    2008-06-01

    Rapid progression of joint destruction is an indication of poor prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography (CT) has the potential to serve as a gold standard for joint imaging since it provides high resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of bone structure. The authors have developed a method to quantify erosion volume changes on wrist CT scans. In this article they present a description and validation of the methodology using multiple scans of a hand phantom and five human subjects. An anthropomorphic hand phantom was imaged with a clinical CT scanner at three different orientations separated by a 30-deg angle. A reader used the semiautomated software tool to segment the individual carpal bones of each CT scan. Reproducibility was measured as the root-mean-square standard deviation (RMMSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV) between multiple measurements of the carpal volumes. Longitudinal erosion progression was studied by inserting simulated erosions in a paired second scan. The change in simulated erosion size was calculated by performing 3D image registration and measuring the volume difference between scans in a region adjacent to the simulated erosion. The RMSSD for the total carpal volumes was 21.0 mm3 (CoV = 1.3%) for the phantom, and 44.1 mm3 (CoV = 3.0%) for the in vivo subjects. Using 3D registration and local volume difference calculations, the RMMSD was 1.0-3.0 mm3 The reader time was approximately 5 min per carpal bone. There was excellent agreement between the measured and simulated erosion volumes. The effect of a poorly measured volume for a single erosion is mitigated by the large number of subjects that would comprise a clinical study and that there will be many erosions measured per patient. CT promises to be a quantifiable tool to measure erosion volumes and may serve as a gold standard that can be used in the validation of other modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Altered biodistribution and incidental findings on gallium and labeled leukocyte/bone marrow scans.

    PubMed

    Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Gallium-67 citrate and labeled leukocyte imaging are established procedures for diagnosing inflammation and infection. Knowledge of the normal biodistribution of these tracers, variations, and unusual disease presentations improves the accuracy of their interpretation. During the first 24 hours after injection, the principal excretory pathway of gallium is renal; subsequently, excretion is primarily colonic. By 72 hours, approximately 75% remains in the body, equally distributed among soft tissues, liver, and bone/bone marrow. This normal distribution is subject to considerable variation. Nasopharyngeal and lacrimal gland uptake can be prominent. Breast uptake, generally faint and symmetric, is intense in hyperprolactinemic states such as pregnancy. Colonic uptake is very variable. Normally healing surgical incisions concentrate gallium for variable amounts of time. In patients receiving multiple transfusions renal, bladder, and bone activity are increased; liver and colon uptake are decreased. The contrast agent gadolinium exerts similar effects. At 24 hours after injection, the normal biodistribution of indium labeled leukocytes is limited to liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The normal biodistribution of technetium-labeled leukocytes includes, in addition to the reticuloendothelial system, colon, urinary tract, and occasionally gall bladder. Images obtained shortly after injection of labeled leukocytes show intense pulmonary activity, which decreases over time. Except in cystic fibrosis, segmental or lobar pulmonary activity indicates bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake is associated with various conditions but rarely with bacterial pneumonia. Labeled leukocytes do not accumulate in surgical wounds that heal by primary intention. They do accumulate in wounds healing by secondary intention, such as ostomies and skin grafts. Because labeled leukocytes accumulate in the bone marrow, complementary bone marrow imaging helps differentiate marrow activity from

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  4. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Normal Variation in Heel Bone Ultrasound Measures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M.; Choh, A.C.; Williams, K.D.; Schroeder, V.; Dyer, T.D.; Blangero, J.; Cole, S.A.; Chumlea, WM.C.; Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, R.J.; Siervogel, R.M.; Towne, B.; Czerwinski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) traits are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD), but predict risk for future fracture independent of BMD. Only a few studies, however, have sought to identify specific genes influencing calcaneal QUS measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing normal variation in QUS traits. QUS measures were collected from a total of 719 individuals (336 males and 383 females) from the Fels Longitudinal Study who have been genotyped and have at least one set of QUS measurements. Participants ranged in age from 18.0 to 96.6 years and were distributed across 110 nuclear and extended families. Using the Sahara ® bone sonometer, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (QUI) were collected from the right heel. Variance components based linkage analysis was performed on the three traits using 400 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers spaced approximately 10 cM apart across the autosomes to identify QTL influencing the QUS traits. Age, sex, and other significant covariates were simultaneously adjusted. Heritability estimates (h2) for the QUS traits ranged from 0.42 to 0.57. Significant evidence for a QTL influencing BUA was found on chromosome 11p15 near marker D11S902 (LOD = 3.11). Our results provide additional evidence for a QTL on chromosome 11p that harbors a potential candidate gene(s) related to BUA and bone metabolism. PMID:22237995

  5. Assessment of Microelastic Properties of Bone Using Scanning Acoustic Microscopy: A Face-to-Face Comparison with Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupin, Fabienne; Saïed, Amena; Dalmas, Davy; Peyrin, Françoise; Haupert, Sylvain; Raum, Kay; Barthel, Etienne; Boivin, Georges; Laugier, Pascal

    2009-07-01

    The current work aimed at comparing, on site-matched cortical bone tissue, the micron-level elastic modulus Ea derived from 200 MHz-scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) acoustic impedance (Z) combined with bone mineral density (assessed by synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography, SR-µCT) to nanoindentation modulus En. A good correlation was observed between En and Z (R2=0.67, p<0.0001, root mean square error RMSE=1.9 GPa). The acoustical elastic modulus Ea derived from Z showed higher values of E compared to nanoindentation moduli. We assumed that the discrepancy between Ea and En values may likely be due to the fixed assumed value of Poisson's ratio while values comprised between 0.15 and 0.45 have been reported in the literature. Despite these differences, a highly significant correlation between Ea and En was found (R2=0.66, p<0.001, RMSE=1.8 GPa) suggesting that SAM can reliably be used as a modality to quantitatively map the local variations of tissue-level bone elasticity.

  6. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  7. Distant subcutaneous recurrence of a parathyroid carcinoma: abnormal uptakes in the (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Soo; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Lee, Soo Hyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju

    2014-05-01

    We report a rare case of distant subcutaneous parathyroid carcinoma recurrence. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of sustained hypercalcemia despite surgical removal of a parathyroid carcinoma. A focal uptake in the upper mediastinal area was detected in a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated a subcutaneous mass. She underwent tumor resection, and the pathological findings were consistent with a parathyroid carcinoma. The postoperative serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level remained within normal limits. However, a new palpable solitary mass was identified in the upper portion of the left breast 1 year postoperatively. Both a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging revealed an abnormal lesion in the upper breast, and subsequent pathology reports confirmed parathyroid carcinoma metastasis. Serum PTH and calcium levels fell within normal ranges after tumor resection. Two subcutaneous recurrent lesions appeared likely due to tumor seeding during the previous endoscopic operation at a local hospital.

  8. Exome sequencing identifies a nonsense mutation in Fam46a associated with bone abnormalities in a new mouse model for skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Diener, Susanne; Bayer, Sieglinde; Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Wieland, Thomas; Mentrup, Birgit; Przemeck, Gerhard K H; Rathkolb, Birgit; Graf, Elisabeth; Hans, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Helmut; Horsch, Marion; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopocki, Eva; Jakob, Franz; Strom, Tim M; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    We performed exome sequencing for mutation discovery of an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea)-derived mouse model characterized by significant elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in female and male mutant mice, originally named BAP014 (bone screen alkaline phosphatase #14). We identified a novel loss-of-function mutation within the Fam46a (family with sequence similarity 46, member A) gene (NM_001160378.1:c.469G>T, NP_001153850.1:p.Glu157*). Heterozygous mice of this mouse line (renamed Fam46a (E157*Mhda)) had significantly high ALP activities and apparently no other differences in morphology compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, homozygous Fam46a (E157*Mhda) mice showed severe morphological and skeletal abnormalities including short stature along with limb, rib, pelvis, and skull deformities with minimal trabecular bone and reduced cortical bone thickness in long bones. ALP activities of homozygous mutants were almost two-fold higher than in heterozygous mice. Fam46a is weakly expressed in most adult and embryonic tissues with a strong expression in mineralized tissues as calvaria and femur. The FAM46A protein is computationally predicted as a new member of the superfamily of nucleotidyltransferase fold proteins, but little is known about its function. Fam46a (E157*Mhda) mice are the first mouse model for a mutation within the Fam46a gene. PMID:26803617

  9. Increasing body fat mass reverses bone loss in osteopenia as detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, William P.; Bukhari, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Low body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and is part of the FRAX™ 10-year fracture risk stratification tool for predicting fragility fractures. Little is known regarding the effects of changing body composition on bone mineral density (BMD). However, increasing fat mass (FM) improves BMD in young women with anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to assess whether changes in FM over time affected BMD in the general population. Material and Methods Data was collected from patients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessment between 2004 and 2011. Patients were included if they had multiple scans, including FM measurements. Our scanners limited these to scans of the lumbar spine. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between changes in FM and BMD. Backwards stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to identify confounding factors, including sex, risk factors, previous fractures, and baseline BMI. Results In this study, 23,239 patients were included, of which 702 met the inclusion criteria. There were 609 (86%) females and 93 (13%) males with a mean age of 64.5 (SD 11.2) years at first scan. We identified a strong positive correlation between increasing FM and BMD between scans (coefficient 28.4; p<0.01; 95% CI, 26.6–30.1). Previous pelvic and femur fractures and a history of inflammatory diseases were also associated with increasing FM (p<0.05). This relationship was true regardless of patients BMI at their first scan. Conclusion These findings suggest that patients at high risk of fragility fractures should be encouraged to increase their FM as long as they are at a low risk for disease states related to high FM. PMID:27708960

  10. Abnormal bone composition in female juvenile American alligators from a pesticide-polluted lake (Lake Apopka, Florida).

    PubMed Central

    Lind, P Monica; Milnes, Matthew R; Lundberg, Rebecca; Bermudez, Dieldrich; Orberg, Jan A; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive disorders have been found in pesticide-exposed alligators living in Lake Apopka, Florida (USA). These disorders have been hypothesized to be caused by exposure to endocrine- disruptive estrogen-like contaminants. The aim of this study was to expand our analysis beyond previous studies by investigating whether bone tissue, known to be affected by sex steroid hormones, is a potential target of endocrine disruptors. Long bones from 16 juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka (pesticide-contaminated lake) and Lake Woodruff (control lake) were evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We observed significant differences in bone composition, with female alligators from the contaminated lake having greater trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), total BMD, and trabecular mineral content compared with females from the control lake (p < 0.05). Increased trabecular and total BMD measurements suggest that juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka were exposed to contaminants that created an internal environment more estrogenic than that normally observed. This estrogenic environment could be caused by both natural and anthropogenic compounds. Effects on BMD indicate interference with bone homeostasis. We hypothesize that contaminants present in the lake inhibit the natural and continuous resorption of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone mass. Although this is the only study performed to date examining effects of environmental estrogenic compounds on alligator bones, it supports previous laboratory-based studies in rodents. Further, this study is important in demonstrating that the alterations in morphology and physiology induced in free-ranging individuals living in environments contaminated with endocrine-active compounds are not limited to a few systems or tissues; rather, effects can be observed in many tissues affected by these hormones. PMID:14998753

  11. Now & Then: From Cashier to Scan Coordinator; From Stones to Bones to PC Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the changes in the scanning of food and the current use of computer technology and UPC bar codes in a grocery store and traces the history of calculating tools from the use of fingers, abacus, slide rule, calculators, and computers. Includes reproducible student activity sheets. (MKR)

  12. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in density. The mean osteon total area, osteon bone area and vascular space area of both classes A and B were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all three parameters) in the endosteal than in the periosteal half-cortex. The significant differences between the two layers of the cortex suggest that the osteoclast activity is distributed throughout the whole cortical thickness, with more numerous excavations in the external layer, but larger resorption lacunae closer to the marrow canal. A randomly selected population of 109 intact

  13. Frostbite and bone scanning: the use of 99mTc-labeled phosphates in demarcating the line of viability in frostbite victims

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, G.; dos Santos, P.A.; Yamaguchi, K.T.; Stroh-Recor, C.; Ibello, R.

    1986-09-01

    Early diagnosis of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage is a very important step in treating a frostbite victim. The diagnostic use of Tc-99m-phosphates in assessing the viability of soft tissue and bone in frostbite was evaluated in the early post-thaw period. Four patients were treated with a combination of warm baths, rehydration, vasodilators, epidural block, fasciotomy, and debridement. Six scans were done to stage involvement. In three of the four cases, final involvement could be determined as early as the third day. When a specific level of soft tissue or bone uptake was determined, future scanning showed either improvement, or no change in three of the four patients. In our experience, Tc-99m-phosphate scans represent an improvement over other diagnostic tests for viability of tissues.

  14. NF1 frameshift mutation (c.6520_6523delGAGA) association with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Su, S Y; Zhou, X; Pang, X M; Chen, C Y; Li, S H; Liu, J L

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body and multiple dermatofibromas. A brain glioma and multiple nerve sheath tumors inside and outside the vertebral canal were identified by magnetic resonance imaging, which also showed multiple intercostal nerve schwannomas and hydrocephalies above the cerebellar tentorium. Talipes equinus was also apparent. A mutation analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 43, consisting of a heterozygous deletion of four nucleotides (GAGA) between positions 6520 and 6523. No NF1 mutations were detected in the patient's parents or younger brother. These results extend the list of known mutations in this gene. The absence of the NF1 mutation in the healthy family members suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this frameshift mutation represents a novel NF1 case, and may be associated with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities. PMID:27173220

  15. Detection of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint by bone scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Bloom, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nine patients with facial pain were evaluated with limited bone scans. The scintigrams correlated with microscopy in all patients, although radiographs correlated with microscopy in only five patients. The degenerative disease process in the temporomandibular joint was more extensive in the patients with radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities than in those with scintigraphic abnormalities alone. The limited bone scan appears useful in detecting early degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint.

  16. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

  17. Cyclin D1 and E2F-1 immunoreactivity in bone marrow biopsy specimens of multiple myeloma: relationship to proliferative activity, cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA ploidy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C S; Butch, A W; Lai, R; Medeiros, L J; Sawyer, J R; Barlogie, B; McCourty, A; Kelly, K; Brynes, R K

    2001-03-01

    Cyclin D1, encoded by the CCND1 gene, is immunohistochemically detectable in up to one-third of cases of multiple myeloma (MM). To examine the mechanism of cyclin D1 overexpression, we compared cyclin D1 immunoreactivity with the results of conventional cytogenetics to determine if the t(11;14)(q13;q32) or other abnormalities of 11q11-14 explained cyclin D1 overexpression. Karyotypic abnormalities were found in 45 out of 67 (67%) MM cases; the t(11;14) was present in seven cases (10%). Additional 11q11-14 abnormalities were not identified. The t(11;14) correlated with cyclin D1 upregulation in low to intermediately proliferative MM, but was not present in highly proliferative tumours (assessed using bromodeoxyuridine labelling index). Cyclin D1 indirectly activates the transcription factor E2F-1. In the bone marrow biopsy specimens of MM cases, E2F-1 was concurrently expressed with cyclin D1 (P = 0.001), indicating that cyclin D1 is functional. However, as neither E2F-1 nor cyclin D1 expression correlated with proliferative activity, the speculation that t(11;14) upregulates the CCND1 gene to induce higher proliferation and possibly more aggressive disease is not supported. We conclude that in low to intermediately proliferative MM cases, cyclin D1 is probably upregulated by t(11;14), but an alternative mechanism is more probable in highly proliferative MM.

  18. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma.

  19. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model.

    PubMed

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R; Hoffman, Michael D; Vella, Joseph B; Benoit, Danielle S W; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-07-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing.

  20. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model.

    PubMed

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R; Hoffman, Michael D; Vella, Joseph B; Benoit, Danielle S W; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-07-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing. PMID:26203392

  1. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Vella, Joseph B.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-01-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing. PMID:26203392

  2. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  3. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a ... the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique ...

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  5. Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human cadaver calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yixian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Rubin, Clinton; Gruber, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Microgravity and aging induced bone loss is a critical skeleton complication, occurring particularly in the weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provide a unique method for evaluating bone strength and density. Using a newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, QUS assessment for bone quality in the real body region was evaluated. A total of 19 human cadaver calcanei, age 66 to 97 years old, were tested by both SCAD and nonscan mode. The scanning region covered an approximate 40×40 mm2 with 0.5 mm resolution. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), energy attenuation (ATT, dB), and ultrasound velocity (UV, m/s) were measured. The QUS properties were then correlated to the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA. Correlations between BMD and QUS parameters were significantly improved by using SCAD as compared to nonscan mode, yielding correlations between BMD and SCAD QUS parameters as R=0.82 (BUA), and R=0.86 (est. BMD). It is suggested that SCAD is feasible for in vivo bone quality mapping. It can be potentially used for monitoring instant changes of bone strength and density. [Work supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (TD00207), and New York Center for Biotechnology.

  6. Splenic concentration of bone imaging agents in functional asplenia

    SciTech Connect

    Dhekne, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    Three cases of sickle cell disease associated with functional asplenia are described. The spleen was not visualized on routine Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scan. The bone scan performed with Tc-99m-phosphate compounds revealed abnormal splenic activity in all three cases. The previous case reports and the literature on this subject are reviewed.

  7. Cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma: poor prognosis linked to concomitant detection in random and focal lesion bone marrow samples and associated with high-risk gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Nair, Bijay; Shaughnessy, John D; Cartron, Marie-Astrid; Haessler, Jeff; Anaissie, Elias; van Rhee, Frits; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2009-06-01

    The clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) present in randomly sampled (RS) or focal lesion (FL) bone marrow sites was examined in 419 untreated myeloma patients. Among 290 patients with gene expression profiling (GEP) data generated from RS sites, GEP-defined high-risk was present in 52% of the RS+/FL+ group but in only 9% of the remainder (P < 0.001). The RS+/FL+ constellation (18%) was an independent predictor of poor survival, also after adjusting for GEP-derived risk and TP53 status (Hazard ratio = 2.42, P = 0.004). The prevalence of high-risk myeloma in the RS+/FL+ group may reflect a dissemination-prone condition not shared by the other three groups. PMID:19344415

  8. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E.; Paolo, David Di; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), such difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements. PMID:25683520

  9. Measuring muscle and bone in individuals with neurologic impairment; lessons learned about participant selection and pQCT scan acquisition and analysis.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, L M; Gibbs, J C; Craven, B C

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can be used to examine bone strength outcomes and muscle size and fatty infiltration. Our research team and others have used it to examine bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the high prevalence of restricted lower extremity range of motion, spasticity, edema, excessive muscle atrophy, or severe osteoporosis necessitates changes to standard protocols for screening, positioning during scan acquisition, and analysis methods. This manuscript outlines the challenges that we experienced using pQCT in individuals with SCI, and provides solutions, ones that may also be applicable when using pQCT in individuals with other chronic conditions or in older adults. Suggestions for participant screening, positioning individuals for scanning while in a wheelchair, scan site selection, need for attendant assistance, and considerations in the presence of secondary complications, such as contracture, spasticity, and paralysis, are presented. In the presence of very low bone mineral density or severe muscle atrophy, the default analysis modes provided by the manufacturer may not provide valid estimates of bone or muscle indices; we propose alternates. We have used watershed segmentation methods to determine muscle size and density based on lower precision error compared to threshold-based edge-detection segmentation, particularly for adults with SCI, where more fatty infiltration was present. By presenting our "lessons learned," we hope to reduce the learning curve for researchers using pQCT in the future. PMID:27026329

  10. Predictive value of excretory urography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and liver and bone scan in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanash, K.A.; Bissada, N.K.; Abla, A.; Esmail, D.; Dowling, A.

    1984-07-01

    The role of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and radioisotopic scanning in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer has not been reported previously. Forty patients with invasive bladder cancer seen at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between January 1978 and June 1981 underwent complete preoperative workup for staging of their tumors prior to radical cystectomy. The preoperative radiologic investigations included excretory urography (IVP), ultrasonography (US), CT of the pelvis, and liver and bone scans. The results of these investigations were compared with the operative and pathologic staging. Ninety-three percent of the patients with bilharzial cancer had evidence of ureteric obstruction on IVP compared with 22% of the nonbilharzial cancer patients. The presence of ureteric obstruction in these patients did not correlate with the stage of the disease with 83% of the patients with superficial tumors (T1 and T2) having hydroureteronephrosis. Ultrasonography and CT had an 83% accuracy in the staging of superficial tumors. Stage T3 tumors were understaged in 14% of the cases. Ultrasonography did not differentiate Stages T3 and T4 tumors while CT scan differentiated these two stages in 57% of the cases. Bone scan failed to reveal evidence of metastatic disease in any of the bilharzial cancer patients. Liver scan was suspicious for liver metastases in two patients with bilharzial cancers in whom open liver biopsy revealed only hepatic bilharziasis. Of all the radiographic studies, US or preferably CT scan seem to be of some value in the staging of bilharzial tumors localized to the bladder. Bone and liver scans are probably of no cost effective benefit.

  11. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na18F− PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUVm(t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUVm(ti) − SUVm(tj))/(ti − tj), for pairs of time values ti and tj. A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOIp(ti)/VOIe(ti))−(VOIp(tj)/VOIe(tj)))/(ti − tj), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUVm slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, rs = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and rs = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min−1 or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of −0.06 min−1 usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  12. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... may also be ordered to monitor the disease: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  13. Bone and Gallium scintigraphy in primary malignant and benign bone tumors of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Sepahdari, S.; Martin, W.B.; Ryan, J.; Simon, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-05-01

    A six yer prospective evaluation of 129 patients suspected of having a primary bone tumor included Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy followed by Ga-67 imaging at 48-72 hours. Blood pool images were part of bone scintigraphy in nearly half of the patients. Extent and intensity of tracer uptake in tumor and adjacent bone and joints were recorded for each tracer by two observers blind to the diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained in every patient by biopsy or tumor excision after scintigraphy, revealed 72 malignant and 57 benign bone tumors. The bone scan was positive in 95% (69/72) of malignancies. The scintigraphic intensity of benign and malignant lesions was comparable with both Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67. On the other hand, bone scintigraphy showed 72% (52/72) of bone malignancies to have abnormal proximal and distal bone/joint uptake whereas the Ga-67 images revealed this in only 6% (4/65) of malignancies. Benign lesions manifested this enhanced contiguous bone/joint uptake on only 8% (5/55) of bone and 0% of Ga-67 scans. This study concludes positive bone, blood pool, or Ga-67 images have less specificity for malignancy than the presence of increased Tc-99m MDP deposition in a contiguous bone/joint, but negative scintigraphic results strongly favor a benign lesion. Ga-67 was more accurate than Tc-99m MDP in portraying intraosseous extent of malignant tumors; however, this is now preferably done with C.T.

  14. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Risks Allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals may occur but are extremely rare and are usually mild. Nevertheless, you should inform the nuclear medicine personnel of any allergies you may have ...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Benign (noncancerous) bone tumors include: Bone cyst Fibroma Osteoblastoma Osteoid osteoma Cancerous tumors include: Ewing sarcoma Multiple myeloma Osteosarcoma Other types of cancer that may have spread to the bone Abnormal ...

  16. Bone Scan "Hot Spot" at the Superior Lateral Orbital Margin Fronto-zygomatic Suture Uptake Characterized with Tc-99m MDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Thang, S P; Tan, A E H; Goh, A S W

    2011-07-01

    Findings of a solitary "hot spot" at the superior lateral orbital margin on bone scan scintigraphy is not uncommonly seen, and is often dismissed as a benign lesion. However, the exact etiology is indeterminate. We present two cases in which hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging was able to characterize and localize this uptake, demonstrating correlation to the right fronto-zygomatic suture.

  17. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the presence of soft-tissue infection and radiologic evidence of osseous abnormalities: Value of leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.F.; Harley, J.D.; Lipsky, B.A.; Pecoraro, R.E. )

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy for identifying osteomyelitis in the presence of soft-tissue infection, the author prospectively studied 45 bone sites adjacent to soft-tissue infection in patients with abnormal findings on radiographs and 99mTc bone scans that were suggestive of osteomyelitis. 111In-leukocyte scans were analyzed in terms of the intensity of abnormal uptake and its location relative to bone. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis was established from results of percutaneous bone biopsy culture (n = 35), histologic examination of surgical specimens (n = 8), and clinical follow-up (n = 2). Osteomyelitis was present at 22 sites, including 16 of 18 sites with increased leukocyte uptake in bone, resulting in a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 91%, and positive predictive value of 89% for this finding. Osteomyelitis was present at four of 17 sites with predominantly soft-tissue localization of leukocyte activity in the region of bone, none of seven sites with normal leukocyte scans, and two of three sites with diminished leukocyte uptake in bone. Although not helpful in distinguishing infectious from noninfectious bone abnormalities, 3- and especially 24-hr bone scans viewed in conjunction with leukocyte studies provided important correlation to aid in estimating the location of focal abnormal leukocyte uptake. The finding of soft-tissue infection with increased uptake of labeled leukocytes that extends to involve adjacent bone strongly suggests concurrent osteomyelitis. When the presence of abnormal leukocyte uptake in bone is uncertain, additional imaging and possibly biopsy may be required to establish or exclude the diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

  18. Recurrent surgical site infection of the spine diagnosed by dual (18)F-NaF-bone PET/CT with early-phase scan.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Jeong Won; Jeon, Min Hyok; Lee, Sang Mi

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of a 31-year-old man who showed recurrently elevated level of the serum inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) after spinal operation. He underwent (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and dual (18)F-sodium-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT with an additional early-phase scan to find a hidden inflammation focus. Only mildly increased (18)F-FDG was found at the surgical site of T11 spine on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, dual (18)F-NaF bone PET/CT with early-phase scan demonstrated focal active inflammation at the surgical site of T11 spine. After a revision operation of the T11 spine, serum CRP level decreased to the normal range without any symptom or sign of inflammation. Inflammatory focus in the surgical site of the spine can be detected with using dual (18)F-NaF bone PET/CT scan with early-phase scan.

  19. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na(18)F(-) PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUV m (t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUV m (t i ) - SUV m (t j ))/(t i - t j ), for pairs of time values t i and t j . A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOI p (t i )/VOI e (t i ))-(VOI p (t j )/VOI e (t j )))/(t i - t j ), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUV m slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, r s = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and r s = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min(-1) or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of -0.06 min(-1) usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  20. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6 h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060 μg/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  1. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  2. Use of A-scan for penetration control during dual-frequency ultrasound thermal therapy of superficial tissues overlaying bone and lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Eduardo G.; Straube, William L.; Fan, Xiaobing

    1999-05-01

    An ultrasonic system capable of Lateral Power Conformability, Penetration Depth Control (PDC), and the ability to deliver hyperthermia concomitantly with external beam radiation is being developed. PDC is achieved by simultaneously insonating with beams of low (1 MHz) and high (5 MHz) frequency. This paper presents a sono-thermal numerical evaluation of the impact of PDC on thermal dose in the treatment of chest wall volumes. The main goal is to assess the potential advantages of impedance-mismatched interface depth-mapping, using therapy transducers in A-scan mode, to select optimal relative output intensities of the beams as a function of bone and lung depths. Simulation results for a representative chest wall anatomy showed that there exists a strong relationship between optimal relative output intensities and bone/lung depth for maximum thermal dose and minimum muscle-bone interface temperature. Consequently, interface depth-mapping prior to a dual- frequency ultrasound hyperthermia treatment would provide patient-specific data useful for selecting PDC parameters that maximize thermal dose and minimize bone heating.

  3. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND OXIDE ETHYLENE STERILIZATION ON CORTICAL AND CANCELLOUS RAT BONE: A LIGHT AND ELECTRON SCANNING MICROSCOPY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; da Silva, Juliano Voltarelli F.; Frezarim Thomazini, José Armendir; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, under microscopic examination, the structural changes displayed by the trabecular and cortical bones after being processed chemically and sterilized by ethylene oxide. Methods: Samples of cancellous and cortical bones obtained from young female albinus rats (Wistar) were assigned to four groups according to the type of treatment: Group I- drying; Group II- drying and ethylene oxide sterilization; III- chemical treatment; IV- chemical treatment and ethylene oxide sterilization. Half of this material was analyzed under ordinary light microscope and the other half using scanning electron microscopy. Results: In all the samples, regardless the group, there was good preservation of the general morphology. For samples submitted to the chemical processing there was better preservation of the cellular content, whereas there was amalgamation of the fibres when ethylene oxide was used. Conclusion: Treatment with ethylene oxide caused amalgamation of the fibers, possibly because of heating and the chemical treatment contributed to a better cellular preservation of the osseous structure. PMID:26998450

  4. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    PubMed

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (p<0.001). As expected, BMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice. PMID:15616862

  5. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

  6. Menopause and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You reach your highest bone mass (size and density) at about age 30. Then, sometime between age ... your bones, your doctor may do a bone density test (DEXA scan). This test gives exact measurements ...

  7. Primitive Sca-1 Positive Bone Marrow HSC in Mouse Model of Aplastic Anemia: A Comparative Study through Flowcytometric Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Basak, Pratima; Das, Prosun; Das, Madhurima; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Dutta, Ranjan Kumar; Chaklader, Malay; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are responsible for reconstitution of all blood cell lineages. Sca-1 is the “stem cell antigen” marker used to identify the primitive murine HSC population, the expression of which decreases upon differentiation to other mature cell types. Sca-1+ HSCs maintain the bone marrow stem cell pool throughout the life. Aplastic anemia is a disease considered to involve primary stem cell deficiency and is characterized by severe pancytopenia and a decline in healthy blood cell generation system. Studies conducted in our laboratory revealed that the primitive Sca-1+ BM-HSCs (bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell) are significantly affected in experimental Aplastic animals pretreated with chemotherapeutic drugs (Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide) and there is increased Caspase-3 activity with consecutive high Annexin-V positivity leading to premature apoptosis in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell population in Aplastic condition. The Sca-1bright, that is, “more primitive” BM-HSC population was more affected than the “less primitive” BM-HSC Sca-1dim  population. The decreased cell population and the receptor expression were directly associated with an empty and deranged marrow microenvironment, which is evident from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The above experimental evidences hint toward the manipulation of receptor expression for the benefit of cytotherapy by primitive stem cell population in Aplastic anemia cases. PMID:21048851

  8. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  9. Bone and bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified.

  10. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Scanning electrochemical microscopy at the surface of bone-resorbing osteoclasts: evidence for steady-state disposal and intracellular functional compartmentalization of calcium.

    PubMed

    Berger, C E; Rathod, H; Gillespie, J I; Horrocks, B R; Datta, H K

    2001-11-01

    Osteoclast resorptive activity occurs despite the presence of extremely high levels of ionized calcium ([Ca2+]) within the osteoclast hemivacuole, which is generated as a by-product of its resorptive activity. Previous in vitro observations have shown that increases in extracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]e) in the surrounding medium can inhibit the osteoclast resorptive activity. Therefore, it has been suggested that the osteoclast acts as a "sensor" for [Ca2+]e, and that high [Ca2+]e leads to an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), thereby inhibiting osteoclasts in a negative feedback manner. In this report we have carried out an experimental and theoretical analysis of calcium disposal during osteoclast activity to evaluate how in vitro models relate to in vivo osteoclast activity, where it is possible that high [Ca2+]e may be present in the hemivacuole but not over the nonresorbing surface of the cell. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of [Ca2+] and superoxide anion (O2.-) generation by bone-resorbing osteoclasts on the surface of a bovine cortical bone slice were compared with microspectofluorometric measurements of the levels of [Ca2+]i in single osteoclasts and the effect of [Ca2+]i on various aspects of osteoclast function. The generation of O2.- by the osteoclasts has been shown to be positively correlated with osteoclast resorptive function and can therefore serve as an index of acute changes in osteoclast activity. The SECM of bone-resorbing osteoclasts at the surface of a bone slice revealed a continuous steady-state release of Ca2+. Even after prolonged incubation lasting 3 h the near-surface [Ca2+]e in the solution above the cell remained <2 mM. The SECM real-time measurement data were consistent with the osteoclast acting as a conduit for continuous Ca2+ disposal from the osteoclast-bone interface. We conclude that the osteoclast distinguishes [Ca2+]e in the hemivacuole and in the extracellular fluid above the cell which we denote [Ca2

  13. Exceptional case of bone resorption in an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, S.; Falcinelli, G.; Pintucci, S. )

    1990-01-01

    This article reports the findings of investigations on an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis in an eye that was enucleated owing to severe complications 12 years after implantation. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed extensive resorption of the bone that was used as a supporting element in the kind of transcorneal prosthesis developed by Strampelli. The destructive process, in addition to surgical trauma, has been associated with the early and recurrent bacterial infections relating to the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The need to control the occurrence of primary bacterial infections in traumatized tissues during operations as well as further infectious situations, given the enhanced antibiotic-resistence of bacteria, is emphasized.

  14. Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khor, Ee-Cheng; Fanshawe, Bruce; Qi, Yue; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Purtell, Louise; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K; Croucher, Peter I; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA's (snoRNA). Recently, micro-deletions in humans identified the snoRNA Snord116 as a critical contributor to the development of PWS exhibiting many of the classical symptoms of PWS. Here we show that loss of the PWCR which includes Snord116 in mice leads to a reduced bone mass phenotype, similar to that observed in humans. Consistent with reduced stature in PWS, PWCR KO mice showed delayed skeletal development, with shorter femurs and vertebrae, reduced bone size and mass in both sexes. The reduction in bone mass in PWCR KO mice was associated with deficiencies in cortical bone volume and cortical mineral apposition rate, with no change in cancellous bone. Importantly, while the length difference was corrected in aged mice, consistent with continued growth in rodents, reduced cortical bone formation was still evident, indicating continued osteoblastic suppression by loss of PWCR expression in skeletally mature mice. Interestingly, deletion of this region included deletion of the exclusively brain expressed Snord116 cluster and resulted in an upregulation in expression of both NPY and POMC mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. Importantly, the selective deletion of the PWCR only in NPY expressing neurons replicated the bone phenotype of PWCR KO mice. Taken together, PWCR deletion in mice, and specifically in NPY neurons, recapitulates the short stature and low BMD and aspects of the hormonal imbalance of PWS individuals. Moreover, it demonstrates for the first time, that a region encoding non-translated RNAs, expressed solely within the brain, can regulate bone mass in health and disease

  15. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF BASELINE [18F] FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY AND 99mTc-MDP BONE SCAN IN PROGRESSING METASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gustavo S.P.; Schöder, Heiko; Ravizzini, Gregory C.; Gönen, Mithat; Humm, John; Morris, Michael J.; Scher, Howard I.; Larson, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic and prognostic value of FDG PET and bone scans (BS) in the assessment of osseous lesions in patients with progressing prostate cancer. Experimental Design In a prospective imaging trial, 43 patients underwent FDG PET and BS prior to experimental therapies. Bone scan index (BSI) and standardized uptake value (SUV) on FDG PET were recorded. Patients were followed until death (n=36) or at least 5 years (n=7). Imaging findings were correlated with survival. Results Osseous lesions were detected in 39 patients on BS and 32 on FDG PET (p=0.01). Follow-up was available for 105 FDG-positive lesions, and 84 (80%) became positive on subsequent BS. Prognosis correlated inversely with SUV (median survival 14.4 vs. 32.8 mos if SUVmax > 6.10 vs. ≤ 6.10, p=0.002) and BSI (14.7 vs. 28.2 mos if BSI >1.27 vs. < 1.27; p=0.004). Only SUV was an independent factor in multivariate analysis. In castrate resistant patients combining a nomogram for progressive prostate cancer with SUV dichotomized patients into a high vs. low risk group (median survival 14.4 vs. 34.6 mos, p=.015) more prognostic than either nomogram or SUV alone. Conclusion The current study of progressive prostate cancer confirms earlier work that BSI is a strong prognostic factor. Most FDG-only lesions at baseline become detectable on follow-up BS, suggesting their strong clinical relevance. FDG SUV is an independent prognostic factor and provides complementary prognostic information. PMID:20975102

  16. Unexplained high BMD in DXA-scanned patients is generalized throughout the skeleton and characterized by thicker cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, S; Amstrup, A K; Moser, E; Jakobsen, N F B; Mosekilde, L; Vestergaard, P; Rejnmark, L

    2015-04-01

    Unexplained high bone mineral density (BMD) is a rare condition and the mechanisms responsible are yet to be described in detail. The aim of the study was to identify patients with unexplained high BMD from a local DXA database and compare their radiological phenotype with an age- and a gender-matched group of population-based controls. We defined high BMD as a DXA Z-score ≥ + 2.5 at the total hip and lumbar spine. We characterized the findings as "unexplained" if no osteodegenerative changes, bone metabolic disease, or arthritis at the hip or lumbar spine was observed. All participants were investigated with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), QCT, DXA, fasting blood samples, a 24-h urine sample, and questionnaires. The DXA database contained data on 25,118 patients. Initially, 138 (0.55%) potential participants with high BMD were identified, and during the study ten additional cases were identified from new DXA scans. Sixty-seven patients accepted to participate in the study, and among these we identified 15 women and one man with unexplained high BMD. These 15 women had higher BMD throughout the skeleton relative to controls, similar area/volume at the hip and the distal extremities, a higher number of trabeculae, which was thicker than in the controls, and a higher finite element estimated bone strength. The 15 women were heavier and had a higher fat mass then controls. We conclude that patients with unexplained high BMD have a generalized high BMD phenotype throughout their skeleton, which is characterized with a denser microarchitecture.

  17. A scanning electron microscopic study of in vitro toxicity of ethylene-oxide-sterilized bone repair materials.

    PubMed

    Zislis, T; Martin, S A; Cerbas, E; Heath, J R; Mansfield, J L; Hollinger, J O

    1989-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) have been under investigation for use in the management of hard- and soft-tissue wounds. Current research has included the incorporation of osteo-inductive substances into a PLA-PGA copolymer alloplastic implant material for enhancement of the healing of osseous defects. Conventional methods of sterilization--such as dry heat, steam heat, or 60Co--tend either to destroy or attenuate osteo-inductive activity and alter polymer biodegradation. Ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization is currently being tested as an alternate method. This study examined the relationship of EO-induced cytotoxicity to the length of time of polymer aeration following EO sterilization. Three groups of copolymer implant discs were studied: (1) 50:50 PLA-PGA copolymer, (2) PLA-PGA polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), and (3) PLA-PGA with autolyzed, antigen-extracted (AA) bone particles. Polymer discs, as well as particulate HA and AA bone controls, were sterilized with EO for 12 hours. Following periods of two weeks, one week, one day, or no subsequent vacuum aeration, samples were placed into 24-well culture plates. A suspension of human fibroblasts was added to each well. Cell growth and attachment were permitted for 24 hours. Medium was then removed, and solutions for cell fixation, buffer washing, and dehydration were added to each well. SEM examination revealed changes in cell growth with increasing periods of aeration suggestive of increasing cell vitality. Cells growing on discs having no aeration were small, round, and lobulated, whereas those of seven to 14 days' aeration were more numerous, and flattened with many microvilli, pseudopodia, and dendritic processes, features consistent with normal cell morphology. These results suggest that EO-sterilized polymer implants should be aerated for least seven to 14 days prior to surgical use. PMID:2561372

  18. A study on the evaluation of usefulness depending on the image reconstruction method in bone SPECT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. K.; Cho, J. H.; Joo, K. J.; Dong, K. R.

    2013-05-01

    The recent advances in image-processing techniques have led to the development of many methods to reduce the scan time without degrading the image quality. In particular, tomography has improved image reconstruction methods with the concomitant improvement of high-quality images. In this study, PRECEDENCE 16 was used to reconstruct images using the filtered back projection method, which is generally used, and the Astonish method and three-dimensional ordered-subsets expectation maximization method, which are based on repetition techniques. In qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reconstructed images, a comparison was made between images with different acquisition times and between images with the same acquisition time, which aimed at determining the optimal method for reconstructing high-quality images. A blind test for qualitative analysis confirmed almost no difference in image quality depending on the image acquisition time. Furthermore, in quantitative analysis, there was no significant difference in image quality depending on the image acquisition time. On the other hand, the results of the analysis in the image reconstruction method with the same acquisition time demonstrated a significant difference. The images reconstructed by the Astonish method, which uses a repetition technique, are believed to be excellent because they have high resolution and provide clinical diagnostic information. This study confirmed that the reconstruction method with a repetition technique could be used to improve image quality and reduce the scan time, despite not being in general use until recently due to the lengthy time needed for image reconstruction and lack of storage space.

  19. A novel NF1 mutation in a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait macule in neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

    PubMed

    Tong, H-X; Li, M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, J; Lu, W-Q

    2012-08-29

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; OMIM#162200) is a common neurocutaneous disorder that is characterized by multiple café-au-lait, skinfold freckling, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas. Mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the neurofibromin protein, have been identified as the pathogenic gene of NF1. In this study, we present a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with giant café-au-lait in NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body, axillary freckling, and multiple subcutaneous neurofibromas. He also had a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormalities. The germline mutational analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 13. It is a novel heterozygous nucleotide G>A transition at position 2241 of the NF1 gene. We found no mutation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor DNA from this patient. This expands the database for NF1 gene mutations in NF1. Its absence in the normal chromosomes suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first case of giant café-au-lait macule in NF1 associated with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and bone abnormality.

  20. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  3. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  4. Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

  5. Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

  6. Flow cytometric differentiation of abnormal and normal plasma cells in the bone marrow in patients with multiple myeloma and its precursor diseases.

    PubMed

    Tembhare, Prashant R; Yuan, Constance M; Venzon, David; Braylan, Raul; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Zuchlinsky, Diamond; Calvo, Katherine; Kurlander, Roger; Bhutani, Manisha; Tageja, Nishant; Maric, Irina; Mulquin, Marcia; Roschewski, Mark; Kwok, Mary; Liewehr, David; Landgren, Ola; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometric (FC) enumeration of abnormal plasma cells (APCs) for diagnosis and prognostication of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) is challenging. We studied antigen expression in normal plasma cells (NPC) (N = 34) and APC in a series of unselected PCD (N = 59). NPC subpopulations often demonstrated CD19(-), CD20(+), CD45(-) or dim and CD56(+), an immunophenotype observed in PCD. However abnormal CD81 was only observed in APCs (APC detection sensitivity 95%; specificity 100%). We evaluated differences in antigen expression patterns among MGUS (N = 14), SMM (N = 35) and MM (N = 10), finding the combination of CD45 and CD56 helpful in differentiating MGUS from SMM and MM (p = 0.0002). PMID:24462038

  7. Soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal: Subject review of CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chakeres, D.W.; Kapila, A.; LaMasters, D.

    1985-07-01

    The authors review the normal anatomy and discuss characteristic findings of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal (EAC). The indications for computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone have been significantly expanded with the inclusion of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external ear and the auditory canal. CT scans of 25 patients who had soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC were reviewed. The clinical data were correlated with the radiographic findings. They conclude that CT is the best overall radiographic modality for evaluating the extent and character of soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC. Significant clinical information that is helpful in patient management decisions is added by this technique.

  8. Dental Abnormalities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous CTSK Mutations.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Wang, L; Xia, D; Li, Q; Gao, S; Dong, M; Cai, T; Shi, S; He, L; Hu, K; Mao, T; Duan, X

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is an important protease responsible for degrading type I collagen, osteopontin, and other bone matrix proteins. The mutations in the CTSK gene can cause pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800), a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia. Patients with pycnodysostosis have been reported to present specific dental abnormalities; however, whether these dental abnormalities are related to dysfunctional CTSK has never been reported. Here we investigated the histologic changes of cementum and alveolar bone in a pycnodysostosis patient, caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CTSK gene (c.87 G>A p.W29X and c.848 A>G p.Y283C). The most impressive manifestations in tooth were extensive periradicular high-density clumps with unclear periodontal space by orthopantomography examination and micro-computed tomography scanning analysis. Hematoxylin/eosin and toluidine blue staining and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the cementum became significantly thickened, softened, and full of cementocytes. The disorganized bone structure was the main character of alveolar bone. The p.W29X mutation may represent the loss-of-function allele with an earlier termination codon in the precursor CTSK polypeptide. Residue Y283 is highly conserved among papain-like cysteine proteases. Three-dimensional structure modeling analysis found that the loss of the hydroxybenzene residue in the Y283C mutation would interrupt the hydrogen network and possibly affect the self-cleavage of the CTSK enzyme. Furthermore, p.Y283C mutation did not affect the mRNA and protein levels of overexpressed CTSK in COS-7 system but did reduce CTSK enzyme activity. In conclusion, the histologic and ultrastructural changes of cementum and alveolar bone might be affected by CTSK mutation via reduction of its enzyme activity (clinical trial registration: ChiCTR-TNC-10000876).

  9. Abnormal radioiodine uptake on post-therapy whole body scan and sodium/iodine symporter expression in a dermoid cyst of the ovary: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Campennì, Alfredo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Tuccari, Giovanni; Fogliani, Simone; Ruggeri, Rosaria M; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer, the whole-body scan (WBS) with 131-radioiodine, especially when performed after a therapeutic activity of 131I, represents a sensitive procedure for detecting thyroid remnant and/or metastatic disease. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of potentially pitfalls has been reported. Herein we describe a 63-year-old woman affected by follicular thyroid cancer, who was accidentally found to have an abdominal mass at post-dose WBS (pWBS). pWBS showed abnormal radioiodine uptake in the upper mediastinum, consistent with lymph-node metastases, and a slight radioiodine uptake in an abdominal focal area. Computed tomography revealed an inhomogeneous mass in the pelvis, previously unrecognized. The lesion, surgically removed, was found to be a typical dermoid cyst of the ovary, without any evidence of thyroid tissue. By immunohistochemistry, a moderate expression of the sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) was demonstrated in the epithelial cells, suggesting a NIS-dependent uptake of radioiodine by the cyst. PMID:26331324

  10. Monitoring the glioma tropism of bone marrow–derived progenitor cells by 2-photon laser scanning microscopy and positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbach, Kathy; Wiehr, Stefan; Herrmann, Caroline; Mannheim, Julia; Cay, Funda; von Kürthy, Gabriele; Bolmont, Tristan; Grathwohl, Stefan A.; Weller, Michael; Lengerke, Claudia; Pichler, Bernd J.; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral experimental gliomas attract intravenously injected murine or human bone marrow–derived hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HPC) in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, indicating that these progenitor cells might be suitable vehicles for a cell-based delivery of therapeutic molecules to malignant gliomas. With regard to therapeutic application, it is important to investigate cell fates in vivo (i.e., the time-dependent intratumoral and systemic distribution after intravenously injection). Conventional histological analysis has limitations in this regard because longitudinal monitoring is precluded. Here, we used 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), positron emission tomography (PET), and MRI to study the fate of intravenously injected HPC carrying fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET reporter genes in glioma-bearing mice. Our 2PLSM-based monitoring studies revealed that HPC homing to intracerebral experimental gliomas occurred already within the first 6 h and was most efficient within the first 24 h after intravenous injection. The highest PET signals were detected in intracerebral gliomas, whereas the tracer uptake in other organs, notably spleen, lung, liver, and muscle, remained at background levels. The results have important implications for designing schedules for therapeutic cell-based anti-glioma approaches. Moreover, the PET reporter-based imaging technique will allow noninvasive monitoring of cell fate in future cell-based therapeutic antiglioma approaches. PMID:22298526

  11. TU-C-12A-12: Differentiating Bone Lesions and Degenerative Joint Disease in NaF PET/CT Scans Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Perk, T; Bradshaw, T; Muzahir, S; Jeraj, R; Meyer, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]NaF PET can be used to image bone metastases; however, tracer uptake in degenerative joint disease (DJD) often appears similar to metastases. This study aims to develop and compare different machine learning algorithms to automatically identify regions of [F-18]NaF scans that correspond to DJD. Methods: 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients received whole body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans prior to treatment. Image segmentation resulted in 852 ROIs, 69 of which were identified by a nuclear medicine physician as DJD. For all ROIs, various PET and CT textural features were computed. ROIs were divided into training and testing sets used to train eight different machine learning classifiers. Classifiers were evaluated based on receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). We also assessed the added value of including CT features in addition to PET features for training classifiers. Results: The training set consisted of 37 DJD ROIs with 475 non-DJD ROIs, and the testing set consisted of 32 DJD ROIs with 308 non-DJD ROIs. Of all classifiers, generalized linear models (GLM), decision forests (DF), and support vector machines (SVM) had the best performance. AUCs of GLM (0.929), DF (0.921), and SVM (0.889) were significantly higher than the other models (p<0.001). GLM and DF, overall, had the best sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, and gave a significantly better performance (p<0.01) than all other models. PET/CT GLM classifiers had higher AUC than just PET or just CT. GLMs built using PET/CT information had superior or comparable sensitivities, specificities and PPVs to just PET or just CT. Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms trained with PET/CT features were able to identify some cases of DJD. GLM outperformed the other classification algorithms. Using PET and CT information together was shown to be superior to using PET or CT features alone. Research supported by the Prostate

  12. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low-dose x- ...

  13. Advances in noninvasive bone measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Vetter, J.; Ettinger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Several noninvasive measurement methods are used for evaluation of metabolic disease. Single-photon (/sup 125/I) scans of the peripheral skeleton are useful in some diseases but are ineffective in osteoporosis (even on the distal radius or os calcis) because they cannot predict spinal or femoral density. Also, peripheral measurements show high percentages of false negatives, that is many patients with fractures have normal peripheral density. Dual-photon (/sup 153/Gd) scans of the spine, femur, and total skeleton are precise and accurate (2% error) and provide direct measurements of bone strength at fracture sites. This gives the best discrimination of abnormality and the most sensitive monitoring. Quantitative computed computed tomography (QCT) allows measurement of the spine but not the critical proximal femur area. QCT has a large accuracy error because (a) the limited area measured (under 5 cm3) fails to represent the total vertebral body, (b) technical errors, and (c) variable fat and osteoid influence the results. 25 references.

  14. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  15. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  16. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  17. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  18. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  19. Microstructural and Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Human Cortical Bone with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunju; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in OI bone have been of significant research interest. To further investigate the mechanism of OI disease and bone mineralization, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) are used in the present study to describe the structural and compositional differences between OI and healthy bone. OI bone exhibits more porous, fibrous features, abnormal collagen fibrils, and abnormal mineral deposits. Likewise, photoacoustic-FTIR experiments indicate an aberrant collagen structure and an altered mineral structure in OI. In contrast, there is neither significant difference in the non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) composition observed nor apparent change in the crystal structure between OI and healthy bone minerals as shown in XRD and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results. This observation indicates that the biomineralization process is more controlled by the bone cells and non-collagenous phosphorylated proteins. The present study also confirms that there is an orientational influence on the stoichiometry of the mineral in OI bone. Also, a larger volume of the hydrated layer in the transverse plane than the longitudinal plane of the mineral crystal structure is proposed. The appearance of a new C-S band in the FTIR spectra in OI bone suggests the substitution of glycine by cysteine in collagen molecules or/and an increased amount of cysteine-rich osteonectin that relates to mineral nucleation and mineral crystal formation.

  20. OSTEOBLAST ADHESION OF BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaki Miyasaka; Robyn R. Mercer; Andrea M. Mastro; Ken L. Telschow

    2005-03-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone. Upon colonizing bone tissue, the cancer cells stimulate osteoclasts (cells that break bone down), resulting in large lesions in the bone. The breast cancer cells also affect osteoblasts (cells that build new bone). Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adherer in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cell adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days, and then assayed with a mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope (SAM). The SAM indicated that in normal medium the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were firmly attached to their plastic substrate. However, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium displayed both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The cells were fixed and stained to visualize cytoskeletal components using optical microscopic techniques. We were not able to observe these differences until the cells were quite confluent after 7 days of culture. However, using the SAM, we were able to detect these changes within 2 days of culture with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium

  1. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    PubMed

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in plasma-cell myeloma: a prospective study of 70 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bataille, R.; Chevalier, J.; Rossi, M.; Sany, J.

    1982-12-01

    Radiography and scintigraphy were correlated in 70 patients with recently diagnosed, untreated multiple myeloma, including 59 with and 11 without primary lytic bone lesions. A site-by-site comparison showed that scintigraphy was more sensitive than radiography in only 18% of cases, whereas radiography was more sensitive in 38% (p<0.001). Patients whose bone scan was as sensitive or more so than the radiograph (''hot'' myeloma) had more active disease than those with the ''cold'' form. Remission was indicated by significant regression or disappearance of scintigraphic abnormalities in 90% of cases. The authors conclude that scintigraphy is not helpful in detecting myelomatous bone lesions, but does have prognastic value for diagnosis and chemotherapy: a positive bone scan indicates initial or residual activity.

  3. Bone scintigraphy in plasma-cell myeloma. A prospective study of 70 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bataille, R.; Chevalier, J.; Rossi, M.; Sany, J.

    1982-12-01

    Radiography and scintigraphy were correlated in 70 patients with recently diagnosed, untreated multiple myeloma, including 59 with and 11 without primary lytic bone lesions. A site-by-site comparison showed that scintigraphy was more sensitive than radiography in only 18% of cases, whereas radiography was more sensitive in 38% (p less than 0.001). Patients whose bone scan was as sensitive or more so than the radiograph (hot myeloma) had more active disease than those with the cold form. Remission was indicated by significant regression or disappearance of scintigraphic abnormalities in 90% of cases. The authors conclude that scintigraphy is not helpful in detecting myelomatous bone lesions, but does have prognostic value for diagnosis and chemotherapy: a positive bone scan indicates initial or residual activity.

  4. The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end –products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Results Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (P<0.05). Doxycycline was also effective in reducing bone loss as documental by histopathological study. Conclusion The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the

  5. Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Bone Scan 骨扫描 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Bone Scan 骨骼掃描 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - ...

  6. Aesthetic recovery of alveolar atrophy following autogenous onlay bone grafting using interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) and resorbable poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid screws: case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Onlay bone grafting techniques have some problems related to the limited volume of autogenous grafted bone and need for surgery to remove bone fixing screws. Here, we report a case of horizontal alveolar ridge atrophy following resection of a maxillary bone cyst, in which autogenous onlay bone grafting with interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) and bioresorbable poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid (PLLA-PGA) screws was utilized. Case presentation A 51-year-old man had aesthetic complications related to alveolar atrophy following maxillary bone cyst extraction. We performed onlay grafting for aesthetic alveolar bone recovery using IP-CHA to provide adequate horizontal bone volume and PLLA-PGA screws for bone fixing to avoid later damage to host bone during surgical removal. During the operation, an autogenous cortical bone block was collected from the ramus mandibular and fixed to the alveolar ridge with PLLA-PGA screws, then the gap between the bone block and recipient bone was filled with a granular type of IP-CHA. Post-surgery orthopantomograph and CT scan findings showed no abnormal resorption of the grafted bone, and increased radiopacity, which indicated new bone formation in the area implanted with IP-CHA. Conclusion Our results show that IP-CHA and resorbable PLLA-PGA screws are useful materials for autogenous onlay bone grafting. PMID:24889647

  7. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  8. Bone and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H E

    1991-07-01

    There are several lines of evidence which provide support for an important relationship between immune cells and bone. Clinical studies of immunodeficiency syndromes have shown that abnormalities in bone shape are evident on x-rays, and peculiarities in the structure of the growth plate have been identified by histopathology. Studies of bone histology, and quantitation of cellular abnormalities, are scarce. Abnormalities in bone turnover, have, however, been identified in the nude mouse model. Many lines of evidence derived from in vitro bone studies have shown that lymphokines and monokines can influence bone formation and bone resorption. Some clinical studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis have indicated the possible presence of immune cell changes in this condition. Although several hypotheses have been formed regarding the exact mechanisms of the effect of immune cytokine on bone, this is clearly a very large area of study and there is a need for additional carefully controlled experiments with special emphasis on bone cells and bone matrix, especially in the human. As knowledge progresses regarding immunology and hematology, a clearer understanding of the lineages of the osteoblast and osteoclast will emerge and we will better understand how specialized bone cells interact with and react to their immune cell neighbors in the bone marrow and to immune system signals. These findings will have especially important implications for the local bone loss seen in rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease, and chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:2068116

  9. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  10. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  11. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  12. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A large amount of this enzyme is present ... abnormal bone tissue. Because high levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing children and adolescents, this ...

  13. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Shikare, S; Samsi, A B; Tilve, G H

    1997-01-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  14. [Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

  15. Evolution of the Cranial Computed Tomography Scan in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical charts for 34 children with a diagnosis of child abuse, who had cranial computed tomography scans performed, revealed that some scans initially interpreted as normal were subsequently reinterpreted as abnormal, and some children's repeat scannings were interpreted as abnormal, modifying the medical and legal…

  16. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, ... fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone graft, it provides a framework for growth of new, ...

  17. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  18. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility.

  19. Bone's mechanostat: a 2003 update.

    PubMed

    Frost, Harold M

    2003-12-01

    The still-evolving mechanostat hypothesis for bones inserts tissue-level realities into the former knowledge gap between bone's organ-level and cell-level realities. It concerns load-bearing bones in postnatal free-living bony vertebrates, physiologic bone loading, and how bones adapt their strength to the mechanical loads on them. Voluntary mechanical usage determines most of the postnatal strength of healthy bones in ways that minimize nontraumatic fractures and create a bone-strength safety factor. The mechanostat hypothesis predicts 32 things that occur, including the gross anatomical bone abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta; it distinguishes postnatal situations from baseline conditions at birth; it distinguishes bones that carry typical voluntary loads from bones that have other chief functions; and it distinguishes traumatic from nontraumatic fractures. It provides functional definitions of mechanical bone competence, bone quality, osteopenias, and osteoporoses. It includes permissive hormonal and other effects on bones, a marrow mediator mechanism, some limitations of clinical densitometry, a cause of bone "mass" plateaus during treatment, an "adaptational lag" in some children, and some vibration effects on bones. The mechanostat hypothesis may have analogs in nonosseous skeletal organs as well. PMID:14613308

  20. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  1. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  2. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid bone

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Noor; Cresswell, Manuela; Sharma, Rishi; Maheshwar, Arcot

    2014-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia, and a mass in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was found on CT scan. The patient underwent examination under anaesthesia showing a mass arising from the ethmoid, apparently from the nasal septum. Biopsies taken showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient opted against surgery and has been managed conservatively. A second CT scan 4 years later showed significant increase in size. PMID:24706701

  3. Fiber-matrix interface studies on bioabsorbable composite materials for internal fixation of bone fractures. II. A new method using laser scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Slivka, M A; Chu, C C

    1997-12-01

    In this study, a new visual characterization method was developed using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to study morphologic properties, particularly at the fiber-matrix interface, by optical sectioning of bioabsorbable single-fiber composites. The interface gap width (IGW) between the fiber and matrix, and the changes in IGW after in vitro hydrolysis, named the gap rate (Rg), were measured from images obtained using the LSCM. Higher values for IGW and Rg showed faster degradation of the fiber-matrix interface. These parameters were used to investigate the effects of strain, wicking, different reinforcing fibers, and gamma-irradiation on the fiber-matrix interface morphology. The component materials used were nonbioabsorbable AS4 carbon (C) fibers, bioabsorbable calcium phosphate (CaP), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), and chitin fibers, and bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix. The application of strain on CaP/PLLA composites increased the IGW up to about 15%, after which there was no change up to 25%. The Rg for CaP/PLLA composites with the fiber ends exposed in vitro (permitting wicking) was greater than for CaP/PLLA with the fiber ends embedded completely within the matrix (preventing wicking). Open-end C/PLLA composites had the slowest rate of interface degradation in vitro, followed by chitin/PLLA, PGA/PLLA, and CaP/PLLA. The exposure of closed-end CaP/PLLA composites to 4 Mrad of gamma-irradiation, in air at room temperature or in vaccuum at 77K, accelerated the rate of interface degradation in vitro. In conclusion, an effective new visual characterization method was developed using LSCM, and it was used to show that (a) moderate strain could accelerate the degradation of the interface, (b) fiber-matrix interface wicking could accelerate the rate of degradation of the interface, (c) the rate of interface degradation depends on the type of fiber used, and (d) gamma-irradiation could accelerate the rate of interface degradation. Furthermore, the

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  5. Significance of abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 in chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Swarts, S J; Neff, J R; Johansson, S L; Nelson, M; Bridge, J A

    1998-04-01

    Tumor specific chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in several histologic subtypes of benign and malignant bone tumors. These anomalies have proven to be useful diagnostically. Characterization of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities also has provided direction for molecular investigations of pathogenetically important genes. Cytogenetic reports of chondroblastoma, a rare benign bone tumor, are few. Cytogenetic analysis of a benign and a malignant chondroblastoma in this study revealed the following abnormal chromosomal complements: 47,XY,+5,t(5;5)(p10;q10) and 45, XY,del(2)(p23),del(3)(q23q27),dup(8)(q12q21.), del(11) (q14q23), -13, add (17) (q25) x 2, respectively. Although a specific chromosomal abnormality has not yet emerged for chondroblastoma, abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 8 have been reported previously in this neoplasm, suggesting preferential involvement of these two chromosomes. PMID:9584382

  6. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  7. SPECT bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and management of mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hodder, S C; Rees, J I; Oliver, T B; Facey, P E; Sugar, A W

    2000-04-01

    Isotope bone scans have been used for a number of years to assess growth activity in the mandibular condyle in patients who present with facial asymmetry. The aim is to distinguish normal bone growth within the condyle from increased activity that may be the cause of the asymmetry. Previous studies have, however, relied only on planar images. SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) has been used with quantitative assessments of one mandibular condyle to clivus or lumbar spine, but we have compared one condyle with the other, which is more sensitive and accurate in detecting abnormal activity. A relative percentage uptake of 55% or more in the affected mandibular condyle is considered to be abnormal, and this has been validated by comparison with an age-matched control group. We have used SPECT as an aid to diagnosis and treatment in 18 patients with asymmetrical growth and have constructed a therapeutic algorithm to aid the treatment of these patients. PMID:10864700

  8. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  9. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  11. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  12. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte scan ... will be taken from one of your veins. White blood cells are separated from the rest of the blood ... 111. These cells are considered tagged. The tagged white blood cells are injected back into your body through a ...

  13. Diphosphonates in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Smith, M L

    1982-03-01

    The bone scan may be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. However the superiority of the bone scan when compared to radiology in conditions such as renal osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, and osteoporosis requires substantiation with the newer radiopharmaceuticals which have a higher affinity for bone. Two methods of quantitating skeletal uptake of tracer have been assessed to try to remove the subjective aspect of bone scan evaluation. Measurements of bone to soft tissue ratios have proved clinically disappointing, but 24 hour whole body retention of diphosphonate appears to provide a sensitive index of increased bone turnover.

  14. Automated trabecular bone histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides and the relationship between bone tumor incidence and the local dosimetry of radionuclides in bone are investigated. The microdistributions of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the trabecular bone from the proximal humerus, distal humerus, proximal ulna, proximal femur, and distal femur of six young adult beagles injected with Am-241 (three with 2.8 micro-Ci/kg and three with 0.9 micro-Ci/kg) are estimated using a computer-controlled microscope photometer system; the components of the University of Utah Optical Track Scanner are described. The morphometric parameters for the beagles are calculated and analyzed. It is observed that the beagles injected with 0.9 micro-Ci of Am-241/kg showed an increase in the percentage of bone and trabecular bone thickness, and a reduction in the width of the bone marrow space and surface/volume ratio. The data reveal that radiation damage causes abnormal bone structure.

  15. Chronic kidney disease and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Matsuo, Koji; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a syndrome defined as a systemic mineral metabolic disorder associated with CKD, and the term renal osteodystrophy indicates a pathomorphological concept of bone lesions associated with CKD-MBD. Cortical bone thinning, abnormalities in bone turnover and primary/secondary mineralization, elevated levels of circulating sclerostin, increased apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes, disturbance of the coupling phenomenon, iatrogenic factors, accumulated micro-crackles, crystal/collagen disorientation, and chemical modification of collagen crosslinks are all possible candidates found in CKD that could promote osteopenia and/or bone fragility. Some of above factors are the consequences of abnormal systemic mineral metabolism but for others it seem unlikely. We have used the term uremic osteoporosis to describe the uremia-induced bone fragility which is not derived from abnormal systemic mineral metabolism. Interestingly, the disease aspect of uremic osteoporosis appears to be similar to that of senile osteoporosis. PMID:25653092

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  17. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  18. Structural analysis of rat bone explants kept in vitro in simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, F; Steimberg, N; Dreossi, D; Mazzoleni, G

    2009-04-01

    Skeletal abnormalities reported in humans and laboratory animals after spaceflight, include cancellous osteopenia, decreased cortical and cancellous bone formation, aberrant matrix ultrastructure, decreased mineralization and reduced bone strength. Although considerable effort has been made up to now to understand the skeletal effects of spaceflight, in order to estimate health risk, our knowledge in this area is still largely incomplete. It is widely accepted that the mechanical strength of cancellous bone is related not only to the mineral content, but also to the trabecular micro-architecture arrangement. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of bone volumes has been shown to be an important tool in this field. The Cell Method, a recently introduced numerical method, has been applied to static analysis of structures obtained from 3D reconstruction of micro-computed tomography scans performed at the Elettra Synchrotron facility (Trieste, Italy) in order to quantify changes in trabecular bone architecture. In the present study, the Cell Method model is used to compare the micro-tomographed structure of fragments of rats bone explants (tibial proximal epiphyses) harvested after 3 days and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of culture in the RCCS bioreactor, which represents the unique existing bioreactor, operating on the Earth's surface, capable of successfully reproducing, in vitro, optimal conditions in order to simulate a microgravity environment. Although preliminary, our results seem to suggest that the exposure of tibial bone explants to simulated microgravity conditions obtained by the RCCS bioreactor, are consistent with skeletal changes observed after spaceflight. PMID:19627820

  19. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  2. Abnormal scintigraphic evolution in AA hepatic amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lomena, F.; Rosello, R.; Pons, F.; Grau, M.; Garcia, A.; Catafau, A.; Setoain, J.

    1988-03-01

    A patient with AA amyloidosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis showed intense liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone imaging. The biopsy showed hepatic amyloid deposition. A repeat bone scan with Tc-99m MDP 1 year later was negative, although the clinical signs and liver function tests of the patient had not changed. A mechanism might exist, other than the affinity of amyloid to calcium, which would explain the extraosseous uptake of pyrophosphates and diphosphonates in organs and soft tissues affected by systemic amyloidosis.

  3. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered.

  4. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Stress Muga (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  5. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  6. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  7. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Morita, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Muranaka, A.; Tomomitsu, T.; Yanagimoto, S.; Sone, T.; Fukunaga, M.

    1985-04-01

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue.

  8. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common types of primary bone cancer are: • Multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone cancer. It ... Any bone can be affected by this cancer. Multiple myeloma affects approximately six people per 100,000 each ...

  9. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  10. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  11. Perineal scanning.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; d'Alton, M; Romero, R; Hobbins, J C

    1986-10-01

    Although various techniques have been described to aid in the ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa and incompetent cervix, these maneuvers depend on the precise identification of the internal cervical os, a feat which is notoriously difficult to accomplish consistently. In an attempt to get a closer view of the cervix we tried another approach. This simple technique of perineal scanning has the potential to help considerably with these problems. PMID:3530265

  12. Thyroid hormones and bone development.

    PubMed

    Combs, C E; Nicholls, J J; Duncan Bassett, J H; Williams, G R

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical determinants of postnatal skeletal development. Thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in children results in severe abnormalities of linear growth and bone maturation. These clinical observations have been recapitulated in mutant mice and these models have facilitated studies of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in the developing skeleton. In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved.

  13. Adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome and bone marrow necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, C.B.; Redmond, J. III

    1984-11-01

    A case is reported of adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome in which massive bone marrow necrosis developed, a previously undescribed complication. Technetium-99m minicolloid scanning and indium-111 bone marrow scans were used to demonstrate lack of bone marrow activity in the patient. 11 references, 2 figures.

  14. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  16. Isochromosome 20p associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Alan E; Ashworth, Michael; Hawe, Jed; Pilling, David; Pauling, Margaret; Maye, Una

    2005-01-01

    A second case of tetrasomy 20p due to an additional isochromosome 20p is reported. This resulted in a spontaneous intrauterine death with multiple congenital abnormalities. In keeping with the previous report, the foetus had poor ossification resulting in multiple long bone fractures.

  17. BoneJ: Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Doube, Michael; Kłosowski, Michał M; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Dougherty, Robert P; Jackson, Jonathan S; Schmid, Benjamin; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2010-12-01

    Bone geometry is commonly measured on computed tomographic (CT) and X-ray microtomographic (μCT) images. We obtained hundreds of CT, μCT and synchrotron μCT images of bones from diverse species that needed to be analysed remote from scanning hardware, but found that available software solutions were expensive, inflexible or methodologically opaque. We implemented standard bone measurements in a novel ImageJ plugin, BoneJ, with which we analysed trabecular bone, whole bones and osteocyte lacunae. BoneJ is open source and free for anyone to download, use, modify and distribute.

  18. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... malalignment of joint surfaces, should be depicted from study and observation of all available data,...

  19. Bone loss in chronic kidney disease: Quantity or quality?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Mei; Zheng, Jin-Quan; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Chien-Lin; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Yung-Ho, Hsu; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chiu, I-Jen; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience bone loss and fracture because of a specific CKD-related systemic disorder known as CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The bone turnover, mineralization, and volume (TMV) system describes the morphological bone lesions in renal osteodystrophy related to CKD-MBD. Bone turnover and bone volume are defined as high, normal, or low, and bone mineralization is classified as normal or abnormal. All types of bone histology related to TMV are responsible for both bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients. This review focuses on current bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients and finally discusses potential therapeutic measures. PMID:27049042

  20. Effect of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite bone cement on bone remodeling following hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo X; Lin, Jian H; Chiu, Peter K Y; Li, Zhao Y; Lu, William W

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether the use of bioactive bone cement has any beneficial effect on local bone adaptation following hip replacement. In this study, twelve goats underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty unilaterally, with either PMMA bone cement or strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bioactive bone cement. Nine months later, the femoral cortical bones at different levels were analyzed by microhardness testing and micro-CT scanning. Extensive bone remodeling was found at proximal and mid-levels in both PMMA and Sr-HA groups. However, with regard to the differences of bone mineral density, cortical bone area and bone hardness between implanted and non-implanted femur, less decreases were found in Sr-HA group than PMMA group at proximal and mid-levels, and significant differences were shown for bone area and hardness at proximal level. The results suggested that the use of Sr-HA cement might alleviate femoral bone remodeling after hip replacement. PMID:19728042

  1. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  2. Abnormal Skeletal Strength and Microarchitecture in Women With Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Halley; Leib, Alexa; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Nishiyama, Kyle; Guo, X. Edward; Lewis, Suzanne; Green, Peter H.; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Osteoporosis is often a presenting sign of celiac disease (CD). Whether skeletal fragility in CD is associated with microarchitectural abnormalities is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate microarchitecture and biomechanical properties of bone in CD. Design: This was a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital outpatient facility. Patients: Patients included premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (n = 33) and healthy controls (n = 33). Main Outcome Measures: Areal bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was measured as was trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia. Whole-bone stiffness estimated by finite element analysis. PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and bone turnover markers were also measured. Results: Groups had similar age, race, and body mass index. Both groups had sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D and normal calcium and PTH. Areal bone mineral density was lower in CD. By high-resolution peripheral computed tomography, CD had lower trabecular vBMD, fewer, more widely, and irregularly spaced trabeculae at both the radius and tibia (8%–33%). At the tibia, they also had lower total density (8%) and thinner cortices (10%). Whole-bone stiffness and failure load were lower (11%–21%) in CD at both sites. Biomechanical deficits were associated with trabecular abnormalities. Conclusions: Women with CD had abnormal vBMD and microarchitecture at both the radius and tibia. Trabecular bone was preferentially affected. These deficits were associated with lower estimates of skeletal strength. These findings suggest a potential structural mechanism for skeletal fragility in CD and support further research into the pathogenesis of fracture in this population. PMID:25867815

  3. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  5. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  6. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  7. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  8. Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

    1980-08-01

    Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

  9. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  10. Bone Disease after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Salam, Syrazah; Delanaye, Pierre; Eastell, Richard; Khwaja, Arif

    2016-07-01

    Bone and mineral disorders occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients and are associated with a high risk of fracture, morbidity, and mortality. There is a broad spectrum of often overlapping bone diseases seen after transplantation, including osteoporosis as well as persisting high- or low-turnover bone disease. The pathophysiology underlying bone disorders after transplantation results from a complex interplay of factors, including preexisting renal osteodystrophy and bone loss related to a variety of causes, such as immunosuppression and alterations in the parathyroid hormone-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 axis as well as changes in mineral metabolism. Management is complex, because noninvasive tools, such as imaging and bone biomarkers, do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect these abnormalities in bone structure and function, whereas bone biopsy is not a widely available diagnostic tool. In this review, we focus on recent data that highlight improvements in our understanding of the prevalence, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of mineral and bone disorders in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26912549

  11. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  12. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  13. Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Venema, Henk W.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2004-10-01

    In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose.

  14. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  16. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  17. The electron microscope appearance of the subchondral bone plate in the human femoral head in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOHUA; MARSHALL, DEBORAH; ROE, MARTIN; ASPDEN, RICHARD M.

    1999-01-01

    The subchondral bone plate supports the articular cartilage in diarthrodial joints. It has a significant mechanical function in transmitting loads from the cartilage into the underlying cancellous bone and has been implicated in the destruction of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) and its sparing in osteoporosis (OP), but little is known of its composition, structure or material properties. This study investigated the microscopic appearance and mineral composition of the subchondral bone plate in femoral heads from patients with OA or OP to determine how these correspond to changes in composition and stiffness found in other studies. Freeze-fractured full-depth samples of the subchondral bone plate from the femoral heads of patients with osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or a matched control group were examined using back scattered and secondary emission scanning electron microscopy. Other samples were embedded and polished and examined using back-scattered electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The appearances of the samples from the normal and osteoporotic patients were very similar, with the subchondral bone plate overlayed by a layer of calcified cartilage. Osteoporotic samples presented a more uniform fracture surface and the relative thicknesses of the layers appeared to be different. In contrast, the OA bone plate appeared to be porous and have a much more textured surface. There were occasional sites of microtrabecular bone formation between the trabeculae of the underlying cancellous bone, which were not seen in the other groups, and more numerous osteoclast resorption pits. The calcified cartilage layer was almost absent and the bone plate was apparently thickened. The appearance of the osteoarthritic subchondral bone plate was, therefore, considerably different from both the normal and the osteoporotic, strongly indicative of abnormal cellular activity. PMID:10473297

  18. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  19. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  20. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: enamel abnormalities and oral clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Ilaria; Nucci, Cesare; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Alkhamis, Nadia; Marchionni, Silvia; Piana, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a genetic disorder related to alterations in bones and teeth formation, due to low levels of phosphate in blood. Oral findings in XLH have been enamel and dentine abnormalities, high pulp horns, large pulp chambers, and some cases of periapical abscesses related to teeth without caries or traumatic injuries. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of enamel alterations, such as microclefts and/or structure defects in patients with XLH and give guidelines of prevention of XLH dental complications. History taking, oral clinical and radiological examination in 10 young patients affected by XLH (average age of 9) and in 6 patients without XLH (average age of 8). Impressions were performed on the vestibular surfaces of teeth in order to obtain replicas. The replicas were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared to replicas of control group. The images of replicas of XLH patients showed deep microclefts and irregular enamel surface structure compared to replicas of control group. The replica of a patient with spontaneous periapical abscesses showed numerous enamel crater-shaped depressions and deep microcleavages penetrating into the enamel thickness. In absence of caries or fractures, the abscesses pathogenesis may be related to microcleavages of the enamel and dentin, which allow bacterial invasion of the pulp. There could be a relationship between XLH disease and enamel abnormalities. PMID:24677288

  1. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  2. Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Schuepbach, Jonas; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Demard, Francois

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. Methods In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. Results In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the bone with high accuracy (p < 10-6) and a sensitivity that was superior to the sensitivity of clinical monitoring (92% and 75% respectively). Conclusion When performing bone scintigraphy during the first three postoperative days, it not only helps to detect complications with high accuracy, as described in earlier studies, but it is also an additional reliable monitoring tool to decide whether or not microvascular revision surgery should be performed. Bone scans were especially useful in buried free flaps where early postoperative monitoring depended exclusively on scans. According to our experience, we recommend bone scans as soon as possible after surgery and immediately in cases suspicious of vascularized bone graft failure. PMID:17448223

  3. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  4. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  5. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  6. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  7. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  8. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  9. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... creates detailed pictures of the body, including the pelvis and areas near the pelvis. The test may ...

  10. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  11. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  12. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Klein-Nulend, J; Bacabac, R G; Veldhuijzen, J P; Van Loon, J J W A

    2003-01-01

    mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  13. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  14. Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangiomas of the bone

    SciTech Connect

    Lenane, P.

    1986-09-01

    Labeled red blood cells (RBCs) have already been proven useful in the detection and localization of many vascular abnormalities. One such abnormality is that of a cavernous hemangioma. Cavernous hemangiomas have a distinct circulation and have been found in many areas of the body. The ability to utilize this unique circulation is important to consider when choosing a diagnostic exam. This paper reports a case demonstrating the usefulness of labeled red blood cells for the detection and localization of cavernous hemangioma of the bone. A 31-yr-old female present with a history of persistent generalized headaches for many years. About 1 yr prior to the exam, she noticed that her headaches had become more localized to the right side of her head. Physical examination revealed a palpable lump developing on the right side of her head which was sensitive to the touch. The patient was then scheduled for a CT scan to be followed by both a bone scan and a /sup 99m/Tc blood-pool scan. A flow study using 15 mCi /sup 99m/Tc labeled RBCs was performed in the right lateral position at 1.5 sec/frame for 32 frames. Immediate blood-pool images 30-min, and 1-hr delayed images were recorded.

  15. Sweet Bones: The Pathogenesis of Bone Alteration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients have increased fracture risk. The pathogenesis underlying the status of bone alterations in diabetes mellitus is not completely understood but is multifactorial. The major deficits appear to be related to a deficit in mineralized surface area, a decrement in the rate of mineral apposition, deceased osteoid surface, depressed osteoblast activity, and decreased numbers of osteoclasts due to abnormal insulin signaling pathway. Other prominent features of diabetes mellitus are an increased urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and oxidative stress leading to sweet bones (altered bone's strength, metabolism, and structure). Every diabetic patient should be assessed for risk factors for fractures and osteoporosis. The pathogenesis of the bone alterations in diabetes mellitus as well as their molecular mechanisms needs further study. PMID:27777961

  16. Bone cells, sclerostin, and FGF23: what's bred in the bone will come out in the flesh.

    PubMed

    Ott, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    Bone metabolism is linked to systemic diseases, and new research shows that the bone cells have endocrine functions that affect multiple organs. They secrete sclerostin, FGF23, prostaglandins, and osteocalcin. Pereira et al. examined gene expression of cells grown from bone biopsies of adolescents with renal osteodystrophy, as a first step to understanding how the bone-cell abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular and metabolic problems in these patients. PMID:25723633

  17. CT scanning analysis of Megantereon whitei (Carnivora, Machairodontinae) from Monte Argentario (Early Pleistocene, central Italy): evidence of atavistic teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Sardella, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    CT scanning analysis applied to vertebrate palaeontology is providing an increasing number of data of great interest. This method can be used in many branches of palaeontology such as the investigation of all the fossilized elements in a hard matrix and the hidden structures in the bones. A large number of pathologies are "hidden", completely or partially invisible on the external surface of the bones because their development took place within the bones. However, the study of these diseases and abnormalities plays a crucial role in our understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes of extinct taxa. The analysis of a partial skeleton of the sabre-toothed felid Megantereon whitei from the Early Pleistocene karst filling deposits of Monte Argentario (Tuscany, Italy) has been carried out. The CT scanning analysis put in evidence the presence of supernumerary teeth (P2) and the absence of P3 in the mandible. The occurrence of P2 can be considered as an evidence of atavism. Such an archaic feature is recorded for the first time in Megantereon.

  18. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  19. Are Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Bone Micro-Architecture Associated with Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Elisa M. S.; Yu, Fiona W. P.; Hung, Vivian W. Y.; Liu, Zhen; Liu, King Lok; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Lee, Simon K. M.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Lam, Tsz-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The underlying etiology and how it may relate to the development of osteopenia remains unknown. Leptin has been postulated as one of the etiologic factors of AIS because of its profound effects on bone metabolism and pubertal growth. Its modulator, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), may affect leptin bioavailability and signaling. This study aimed to investigate whether serum leptin and sOB-R levels may be associated with bone quality, and whether these relationships may differ between young adolescent girls with and without AIS. Methods This was a case-control study involving 94 newly diagnosed AIS girls (Cobb angle 12–48°) aged 12 to 14 years old and 87 age and gender-matched normal controls. Subjects with BMI>23.0 Kg/m2 were excluded. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height, arm span and sitting height were taken. Serum total leptin and sOB-R were assayed with ELISA. Non-dominant distal radius was scanned with High Resolution pQCT for assessing bone quality in terms of bone morphometry, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and trabecular bone micro-architecture. Results Compared with normal controls, AIS girls had numerically higher sOB-R (p = 0.006), lower average vBMD (p = 0.048), lower cortical vBMD (p = 0.029), higher cortical bone perimeter (p = 0.014) and higher trabecular area (p = 0.027), but none remained statistically significant after the Hochberg-Benjamini procedure. Correlation analysis on serum leptin level indicated that distinctive correlations with trabecular bone parameters occurred only in AIS. Conclusion This study showed that bone quality in AIS girls was deranged as compared with controls. In addition, the distinct differences in correlation pattern between leptin and trabecular bone parameters indicated possible abnormalities in bone metabolism and dysfunction of the leptin signaling pathway in AIS. PMID:24516571

  20. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Erguen, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecting demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

  1. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecing demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

  2. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  3. A Boon for Bone Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA studies for astronaut health in long-term space missions led to the development of the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), a research tool for astronaut disuse, osteoporosis and related bone disorders among the general population. Ames Research Center and Stanford University generated a workable device and with Gait Scan, Inc., refined and commercialized it. The MRTA is a portable dsinstrument that measures the bending stiffness of bones using electrically-induced vibration and detects and analyzes the frequencies of the resonating bone. Unlike some other methods, the MRTA uses no radiation and is fast, simple and relatively inexpensive.

  4. The Development of Automated Systems for Metaphase Location in Cytogenetic Preparations of Human Bone Marrow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Neal

    1990-01-01

    Cytogenetic evaluation of human bone marrow cells is one of the principal sources of diagnostic and prognostic information in the evaluation of the myeloid leukemias. In the majority of cases, these diseases are characterized by non-random chromosomal changes in the cells of the malignant clone. The chromosomal abnormalities are present only in the leukemic cells, which are distributed along with normal cells in the bone marrow and throughout the circulation. The objective of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that suitable criteria could be established for automated metaphase detection using human bone marrow preparations. This involved computerized, low resolution scanning of a specimen slide, and the measurement of object features which allowed metaphases to be adequately distinguished from nuclei and debris. Two approaches were investigated. The first used a line-scanning system, in which microscope slides were scanned line by line with a linear CCD detector, and focussing was performed automatically. Eighteen signal features were measured for each detected object. Three group discriminant function analysis was performed on objects from a large number of slides from both types of preparations, in order to distinguish metaphases from nuclei and debris. The second method evaluated the use of a frame scanning system. Objects were detected in a frame-by-frame scan of microscope slides, using a two dimensional CD camera. Feature measurements were performed for all objects within a specified area range, and three group discriminant function analysis was performed on data from a large number of slides. In both approaches, the performance of the discriminant functions was evaluated on independent samples collected from a number of patients, in order to determine the operational error rates of the systems. The sensitivity of the line scan system for metaphase detection was 86%, compared to 92% for the frame scanning system, while the specificity was 84% for the line

  5. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    , and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  6. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  7. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  8. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  9. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  12. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  13. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  14. Multiple atypical bone involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mañá, J; Segarra, M I; Casas, R; Mairal, L; Fernández-Nogués, F

    1993-02-01

    We describe a patient with right paratracheal and left hilar lymph nodes detected by chance on chest radiography that followed a spontaneous remission. However, a few months later she complained of multiple scalp nodules. Skull roentgenogram and computerized tomogram scan showed multiple osteolytic lesions with increased uptake in bone and gallium scans. Lytic lesions were also detected in her right mandibular bone and right clavicle. Noncaseating granulomas were demonstrated in skull and cervical lymph node biopsies. PMID:8474084

  15. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  16. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Klein-Nulend, J

    1998-05-01

    Bone cells, in particular osteocytes, are extremely sensitive to mechanical stress, a quality that is probably linked to the process of mechanical adaptation (Wolff's law). The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely a flow of an interstitial fluid along the surface of the osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin synthesis and expression of inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS-2 or inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2), an enzyme that mediates the induction of bone formation by mechanical loading in vivo. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, as well as on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained simply as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under weightlessness conditions. However, under microgravity conditions, the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered, as gravity has been shown to determine the pattern of microtubular orientation assembled in vitro. Therefore, it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under microgravity conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to the disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In vitro experiments on the International Space Station should test this hypothesis experimentally.

  17. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  18. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  19. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  20. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  1. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  3. [Vertebral trabecular bone in various age groups and in osteoporosis-- morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Diebold, J; Bätge, B; Stein, H; Müller, P K; Löhrs, U

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral trabecular bone was analysed by morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry. Trabecular bone volume (TBV) and mean trabecular plate thickness (MTPT) decreased with age. TBV was significantly correlated with MTPT and mean trabecular plate density (MTPD). The individual structure of trabecular bone could be described by both MTPT and MTPD together, but changes of these parameters, that were pathognomonic for osteopenia, were not found. By measuring TBV 3 cases of severe osteopenia were identified (TBV less than 2s of controls); 2 of them showed matrix abnormalities so far not described. In one case (a 67 year old woman without risk factors for osteoporosis) an abnormal high content of type III collagen was found, in the other case (a 44 year old woman with acromegaly) bone matrix analysis atypically revealed a significant fraction of type II collagen. Further studies will be needed to assess the pathogenetic or diagnostic importance of these new findings.

  4. Evaluating bone quality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Malluche, Hartmut H.; Porter, Daniel S.; Pienkowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Bone of normal quality and quantity can successfully endure physiologically imposed mechanical loads. Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) adversely affects bone quality through alterations in bone turnover and mineralization, whereas bone quantity is affected through changes in bone volume. Changes in bone quality can be associated with altered bone material, structure, or microdamage, which can result in an elevated rate of fracture in patients with CKD–MBD. Fractures cannot always be explained by reduced bone quantity and, therefore, bone quality should be assessed with a variety of techniques from the macro-organ level to the nanoscale level. In this Review, we demonstrate the importance of evaluating bone from multiple perspectives and hierarchical levels to understand CKD–MBD-related abnormalities in bone quality. Understanding the relationships between variations in material, structure, microdamage, and mechanical properties of bone in patients with CKD–MBD should aid in the development of new modalities to prevent, or treat, these abnormalities. PMID:24100399

  5. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  6. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases. PMID:27442377

  7. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  8. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  9. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  10. Abnormal EEG and calcification of the pineal gland in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities. We reported recently an association between pineal calcification (PC) and cortical and prefrontal cortical atrophy, and third ventricular size on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. These findings indicate that in schizophrenia PC is associated with the morphological brain abnormalities associated with the disease. If PC is, indeed, related to organic cerebral pathology, then one would expect a higher prevalence of pineal gland pathology among patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities by comparison to those with a normal EEG. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the prevalence of PC on CT scan in a sample of 52 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (29 men, 23 women, mean age: 51.3 years SD = 9.1), of whom 10 (19.2%) had an abnormal EEG. The prevalence of PC in patients with EEG abnormalities was significantly greater by comparison to those with a normal EEG (90.0% vs. 54.8%, X2 = 4.24, p < .05). Since both groups did not differ on any of the historical and demographic data, and since PC was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure, these findings suggest that in schizophrenia PC may be related to the disease process and that it may be a marker of subcortical pathology. PMID:1342008

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  12. Markers of bone turnover in patients with epilepsy and their relationship to management of bone diseases induced by antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2016-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and prospective studies revealed that patients with epilepsy and on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk for metabolic bone diseases. Bone diseases were reported in about 50% of patients on AEDs. Low bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, altered concentration of bone turnover markers and fractures were reported with phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. The mechanisms for AEDs-induced bone diseases are heterogeneous and include hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and direct acceleration of bone loss and/or reduction of bone formation. This article reviews the evidence, predictors and mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone abnormalities and its clinical implications. For patients on AEDs, regular monitoring of bone health is recommended. Prophylactic administration of calcium and vitamin D is recommended for all patients. Treatment doses of calcium and vitamin D and even anti-resorptive drug therapy are reserved for patients at high risk of pathological fracture.

  13. Value of nuclear bone imaging in advanced prostatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pollen, J.J.; Gerber, K.; Ashburn, W.L.; Schmidt, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    The nuclear bone scan is a highly sensitive means of detecting skeletal metastasis in patients with prostatic cancer. Serial bone imaging provides an accurate method to follow the response of osseous metastases to treatment and to detect relapsing disease in the skeleton. In selected instances the nuclear bone scan can provide information about vertebral metastases that can be important for planning palliative treatment of pain.

  14. Ophthalmologic abnormalities on FDG-PET/CT: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Razi; Shousha, Mohamed A.; Sarajlic, Lejla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) diagnoses, stages, and restages many cancers and is often better than anatomic imaging alone. However, abnormalities within the orbit present a challenge in evaluation, mainly due to the subtle findings on PET/computed tomography (CT). In addition, this region is typically at the edge of the field of view for the standard base of skull to upper thigh FDG-PET/CT scans. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate several subtle and apparent abnormalities within the orbit that can have a profound impact on patient management and follow-up. PMID:23524026

  15. Metastatic Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Disease cont. Page ( 4 ) MBD vs. Primary Bone Cancer The diagnosis of metastatic bone disease should not ... from an unknown primary carcinoma or a primary bone cancer (sarcoma). For example, if an area of bone ...

  16. Spinal computed tomography scanning in the evaluation of metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Spring, D.B.; Munderloh, S.H.; George, C.B.; Mansour, R.P.; Volk, S.A.

    1984-07-15

    Twenty patients with known metastatic cancer or high-risk primary cancer developed new lesions on Tc/sup 99m/ bone scans and had normal plain radiographs. Spinal computed tomography (CT) was performed on all new bone-scan-positive lesions in minimal examination time. Fifteen patients had extensive metastatic vertebral disease and received local radiotherapy. One patient with new metastatic vertebral disease on CT was treated only with chemotherapy and developed acute spinal cord compression. Four patients had discogenic disease or degenerative disease but no evidence of metastases. Radionuclide bone scans are more sensitive but less specific than plain radiographs in detecting early bone metastases. Early and accurate diagnosis of metastasis is particularly important in the axial spine to prevent epidural compression and fracture. Spinal CT is valuable for identifying the presence and extent of vertebral metastases, as well as the presence of benign disease in cancer patients.

  17. An optimal set of landmarks for metopic craniosynostosis diagnosis from shape analysis of pediatric CT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos S.; Safdar, Nabile; Myers, Emmarie; Kittisarapong, Tanakorn; Rogers, Gary F.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Craniosynostosis (premature fusion of skull sutures) is a severe condition present in one of every 2000 newborns. Metopic craniosynostosis, accounting for 20-27% of cases, is diagnosed qualitatively in terms of skull shape abnormality, a subjective call of the surgeon. In this paper we introduce a new quantitative diagnostic feature for metopic craniosynostosis derived optimally from shape analysis of CT scans of the skull. We built a robust shape analysis pipeline that is capable of obtaining local shape differences in comparison to normal anatomy. Spatial normalization using 7-degree-of-freedom registration of the base of the skull is followed by a novel bone labeling strategy based on graph-cuts according to labeling priors. The statistical shape model built from 94 normal subjects allows matching a patient's anatomy to its most similar normal subject. Subsequently, the computation of local malformations from a normal subject allows characterization of the points of maximum malformation on each of the frontal bones adjacent to the metopic suture, and on the suture itself. Our results show that the malformations at these locations vary significantly (p<0.001) between abnormal/normal subjects and that an accurate diagnosis can be achieved using linear regression from these automatic measurements with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0.97.

  18. [Fractures of carpal bones].

    PubMed

    Lögters, T; Windolf, J

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the carpal bones are uncommon. On standard radiographs fractures are often not recognized and a computed tomography (CT) scan is the diagnostic method of choice. The aim of treatment is to restore pain-free and full functioning of the hand. A distinction is made between stable and unstable carpal fractures. Stable non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively. Unstable and displaced fractures have an increased risk of arthritis and non-union and should be stabilized by screws or k‑wires. If treated adequately, fractures of the carpal bones have a good prognosis. Unstable and dislocated fractures have an increased risk for non-union. The subsequent development of carpal collapse with arthrosis is a severe consequence of non-union, which has a heterogeneous prognosis.

  19. [Mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Kulicki, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is characterized by at least one ofthefollowing: 1. biochemical abnormalities in calcium, phosphate, parathormone (PTH) and vitamin D metabolism; 2. renal osteodystrophy; and 3. cardiovascular or other soft tissue calcifications. All these abnormalities are interrelated and significantly contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. PMID:25782203

  20. Osteoblast dysfunctions in bone diseases: from cellular and molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierre J

    2015-04-01

    Several metabolic, genetic and oncogenic bone diseases are characterized by defective or excessive bone formation. These abnormalities are caused by dysfunctions in the commitment, differentiation or survival of cells of the osteoblast lineage. During the recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the osteoblast dysfunctions in osteoporosis, skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors. This led to suggest novel therapeutic approaches to correct these abnormalities such as the modulation of WNT signaling, the pharmacological modulation of proteasome-mediated protein degradation, the induction of osteoprogenitor cell differentiation, the repression of cancer cell proliferation and the manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms. This article reviews our current understanding of the major cellular and molecular mechanisms inducing osteoblastic cell abnormalities in age-related bone loss, genetic skeletal dysplasias and primary bone tumors, and discusses emerging therapeutic strategies to counteract the osteoblast abnormalities in these disorders of bone formation.

  1. Fibrillin microfibrils in bone physiology.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The severe skeletal abnormalities associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) underscore the notion that fibrillin assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) play a critical role in bone formation and function in spite of representing a low abundance component of skeletal matrices. Studies of MFS and CCA mice have correlated the skeletal phenotypes of these mutant animals with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that reflect the contextual contribution of fibrillin-1 and -2 scaffolds to TGFβ and BMP signaling during bone patterning, growth and metabolism. Illustrative examples include the unique role of fibrillin-2 in regulating BMP-dependent limb patterning and the distinct impact of the two fibrillin proteins on the commitment and differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings have important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive age- and injury-related processes of bone degeneration.

  2. 11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Cristina; Zamagni, Elena; Cavo, Michele; Rubello, Domenico; Tacchetti, Paola; Pettinato, Cinzia; Farsad, Mohsen; Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Gian Carlo; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Franchi, Roberto; Fanti, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B cell neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities. Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS), Magnetic resonance (MR) and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients. Aim As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake; the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients affected with MM. Methods Ten patients affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and SUVmax of lesions. Results Four patients (40%) had a negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two patients (20%) had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40%) had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of 3.8 (P = 0.042). Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected 37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8). Conclusion According to these preliminary data, 11C-Choline PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11C-Choline may be considered a more appropriate functional imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging. PMID:17584499

  3. Bone biopsy in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce B

    2004-01-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse manifestations in bone cells and structure as well as the rate of bone turnover. In ESRF when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology named renal osteodystrophy (ROD). On the other hand, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased with improved dialytic therapy and the resultant increased duration of dialysis has led to a rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because this metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH levels are commonly used to assess bone turnover in dialyzed patients. However, it is found that serum PTH levels between 65 and 450 pg/ml seen in the majority of dialysis patients are not predictive of the underlying bone disease. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide important information on precisely the type of renal osteodystrophy affecting patients, the degree of severity of the lesions, and the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposition in bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered as an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven as safe and free from major complications besides pain, haematoma or wound infections, but the operator's experience and skill is important in minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be pursued, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to hold sufficient diagnostic performance related to the bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. At present however, the transiliac bone biopsy remains the golden standard in the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15735537

  4. I-123 Iofetamine SPECT scan in children with neurological disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R. )

    1990-10-01

    I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging.

  5. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  6. [Pili annulati. A scanning electron microscopy study].

    PubMed

    Lalević-Vasić, B; Polić, D

    1988-01-01

    A case of ringed hair studied by light and electron microscopy is reported. The patient, a 20-year old girl, had been presenting with the hair abnormality since birth. At naked eye examination the hairs were dry, 6 to 7 cm long, and they showed dull and shining areas giving the scalp hair a scintillating appearance (fig. 1). Several samples of hair were taken and examined by light microscopy under white and polarized light. Hair shafts and cryo-fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS. 1. Light microscopy. Lesions were found in every hair examined. There were abnormal, opaque and fusiform areas alternating with normal areas all along the hair shaft (fig. 2). The abnormal areas resulted from intracortical air-filled cavities. Fractures similar to those of trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the opaque areas of the distal parts of the hairs. 2. Scanning electron microscopy. A. Hair shaft surface. The abnormal areas showed a longitudinal, "curtain-like" folding of the cuticular cells which had punctiform depressions on their surface and worn free edges (fig. 4, 5, 6); trichorrhexis-type fractures were seen in the distal parts of the hair shafts (fig. 7, 8). Normal areas regularly presented with longitudinal, superficial, short and non-systematized depressions (fig. 9); the cuticular cells were worn, and there were places where the denuded cortex showed dissociated cortical fibres (fig. 10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  8. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  9. Detection of abnormalities in tissues equivalent phantoms by multi-probe laser reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, P. S.; Kumaravel, M.; Singh, Megha

    2007-07-01

    The optical parameters of tissue-equivalent phantoms are determined by matching the normalized backscattering intensity (NBI) profiles iteratively with that obtained by Monte Carlo simulation procedure. Tissue equivalent optical phantoms (control and with abnormality) were prepared by mixing measured quantities of paraffin wax with wax colors. Abnormalities to be placed in the phantoms were prepared by controlling the absorption and scattering coefficients. The NBI profiles of the phantoms are obtained by an automatic non-contact scanning multi-probe laser reflectometer and are displayed as gray level images after processing. The NBI variations from the abnormality phantoms have distinct variations based on the optical characteristics of the abnormality embedded at various locations and depths. There is a considerable decrease or increase in the NBI variations for different detector probes based on the increase or decrease in absorption and scattering coefficients of abnormalities, respectively. From the profile of subtracted image the peak corresponds to the location of the abnormality and from the full width at half maximum the size of the abnormality is obtained. By further scanning of the image of the phantom with abnormality the depth of the embedded abnormality is obtained.

  10. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  11. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  12. Karyotypic abnormalities in myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Joris; Demory, Jean Loup; Caulier, Marie Thérèse; Agape, Philippe; Wetterwald, Marc; Bauters, Francis; Laï, Jean Luc

    2003-01-15

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by an increase of total red cell volume; in 10% to 15% of cases, bone marrow fibrosis complicates the course of the disease after several years, resulting in a hematologic picture mimicking myelofibrosis with myelocytic metaplasia (MMM). This condition is known as post polycythemic myelofibrosis (PPMF). Among 30 patients with PPMF followed in Northern France, 27 (90%) expressed one or two abnormal clones in myelocytic cell cultures. Of these, 19 (70%) had partial or complete trisomy 1q. This common anomaly either resulted from unbalanced translocations with acrocentric chromosomes, that is, 13, 14, and 15, or other chromosomes, that is, 1, 6, 7, 9, 16, 19, and Y, or from partial or total duplication of long arm of chromosome 1. A single patient had an isochromosome 1q leading to tetrasomy 1q. In all cases, a common trisomic region spanning 1q21 to 1q32 has been identified. Given that most patients had previously received chemotherapy or radio-phosphorus to control the polycythemic phase of their disease, this study illustrates the increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities after such treatments: 90% versus 50% in de novo MMM. Moreover, karyotype can be used to distinguish PPMF-where trisomy 1q is the main anomaly-from primary MMM where trisomy 1q is rare and deletions 13q or 20q are far more common. Whether trisomy 1q is or is not a secondary event remains a matter of debate, as well as the role of cytotoxic treatments. PMID:12645649

  13. Bone formation following lenalidomide-dexamethasone combination therapy in cases of multiple myeloma refractory to high-dose chemotherapy with bortezomib and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Tomita, Shigeki; Izumi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ohta, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with the chief complaint of right hip pain that had persisted for 6 months. F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging showed FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone. A bone biopsy specimen from the site revealed findings suggestive of a plasma cell tumor. Bone marrow examination and serum and urine immunofixation tests showed no abnormalities. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having non-secretory multiple myeloma. FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone diminished following four cycles of weekly bortezomib and concomitant dexamethasone therapy. Tandem autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, followed by monthly bortezomib/dexamethasone maintenance therapy. A further FDG-PET/CT scan 9 months after the start of therapy indicated that FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone had worsened. Consequently, the therapy was switched to twice-weekly bortezomib/dexamethasone as remission re-induction therapy. New FDG uptake in the right hip bone was noted after six cycles of the therapy, and plain X-ray examination revealed osteolytic changes. The patient was then administered eight cycles of combined lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy, which resulted in a marked decrease of the FDG accumulation in the right pubic bone and disappearance of uptake in the right hip bone. There was radiographic evidence of bone formation at these sites. This is only the second reported case in which treatment with the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide and concomitant dexamethasone has been found to induce bone formation. PMID:26464727

  14. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  15. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  16. Bone marrow hypoplasia in a cat treated with griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Rottman, J B; English, R V; Breitschwerdt, E B; Duncan, D E

    1991-02-01

    Three weeks after initiation of griseofulvin treatment for dermatophytosis (40 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h), an 8-yr-old domestic shorthair cat developed depression, vomiting, and pyrexia. Abnormalities found during physical examination included bilateral mydriasis, visual impairment, grade-II/V systolic murmur and multiple areas of alopecia. The cat was pancytopenic; serum biochemical abnormalities included hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia, and urinalysis revealed proteinuria, glycosuria, and bilirubinuria. Examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed profound hypoplasia of all precursors. Griseofulvin toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of the temporal relationship of drug administration with onset of clinical, hematologic, and biochemical abnormalities and failure to identify an infective or neoplastic cause for the bone marrow hypoplasia. The condition was refractory to treatment and the cat was euthanatized. Pathologic changes in the bone marrow were consistent with severe hypoplasia of all bone marrow precursors.

  17. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  18. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  19. Value of gallium scans and lymphangiography in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, N.; Kondo, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-12-15

    In 37 patients with seemingly localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring (WR-NHL), lymphangiography (LAG) and/or gallium-67 scans (Ga-67 scans) were done. Before these procedures, 20 patients were diagnosed as Stage I, and 17 as Stage II. LAG was done for 30, and Ga-67 scans for 32, 25 of whom had both. Five patients (16%) were upstaged to Stage III or IV by Ga-67 scans. Only one (3%) had abnormal LAG findings, in whom Ga-67 scans also showed abnormal accumulation in the para-aortic region. Because of this low positive rate, LAG is not recommended for staging of WR-NHL.

  20. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Wang, Chen-Chie; Lu, Dai-Hua; Hsu, Li-Ho; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2012-06-01

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery.

  1. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  2. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  3. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  4. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  5. Association between Bone Mass and Dental Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, J T; Elfrink, M E C; Vucic, S; Heppe, D H M; Veerkamp, J S J; Jaddoe, V W V; Rivadeneira, F; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Wolvius, E B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) and hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs)/molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 6-y-old children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, starting from fetal life until adulthood in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were used to score the intraoral photographs on the presence or absence of HSPMs and MIH. Bone mass was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Intraoral photographs and DXA scans were available in 6,510 6-y-old children. Binary logistic regression models were used to study the association between the bone mass and HSPMs/MIH. In total, 5,586 children had their second primary molars assessed and a DXA scan made; 507 children were diagnosed with HSPM. Of 2,370 children with data on their permanent first molars, 203 were diagnosed with MIH. In the fully adjusted model, children with lower BMC (corrected for bone area) were more likely to have HSPMs (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.26 per 1-standard deviation decrease). A lower BMC (corrected for bone area) was not associated with MIH (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.20 per 1-standard deviation decrease). We observed a negative association between BMC (corrected for bone area) and HSPMs. No association was found between BMC (corrected for bone area) and MIH. Future research should focus on investigating the mechanism underlying the negative association between the bone mass and HSPMs. Our study, in a large population of 6-y-old children, adds the finding that BMC (corrected for bone size) is associated with HSPMs but not with MIH in childhood. PMID:26747420

  6. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  8. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  11. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  12. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  13. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  14. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Thiryayi, W A; Thiryayi, S A; Freemont, A J

    2008-07-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the "bone marrow oedema syndrome". Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched. PMID:18337044

  15. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's ...

  16. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  17. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  18. Processing and characterization of diatom nanoparticles and microparticles as potential source of silicon for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Duy Hanh; Bonani, Walter; Speranza, Giorgio; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Ceccato, Riccardo; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Silicon plays an important role in bone formation and maintenance, improving osteoblast cell function and inducing mineralization. Often, bone deformation and long bone abnormalities have been associated with silica/silicon deficiency. Diatomite, a natural deposit of diatom skeleton, is a cheap and abundant source of biogenic silica. The aim of the present study is to validate the potential of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons as silicon-donor materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Raw diatomite (RD) and calcined diatomite (CD) powders were purified by acid treatments, and diatom microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by fragmentation of purified diatoms under alkaline conditions. The influence of processing on the surface chemical composition of purified diatomites was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diatoms NPs were also characterized in terms of morphology and size distribution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS), while diatom MPs morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface area and microporosity of the diatom particles were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption methods. Release of silicon ions from diatom-derived particles was demonstrated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES); furthermore, silicon release kinetic was found to be influenced by diatomite purification method and particle size. Diatom-derived microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) showed limited or no cytotoxic effect in vitro depending on the administration conditions.

  19. Processing and characterization of diatom nanoparticles and microparticles as potential source of silicon for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Duy Hanh; Bonani, Walter; Speranza, Giorgio; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Ceccato, Riccardo; Maniglio, Devid; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Silicon plays an important role in bone formation and maintenance, improving osteoblast cell function and inducing mineralization. Often, bone deformation and long bone abnormalities have been associated with silica/silicon deficiency. Diatomite, a natural deposit of diatom skeleton, is a cheap and abundant source of biogenic silica. The aim of the present study is to validate the potential of diatom particles derived from diatom skeletons as silicon-donor materials for bone tissue engineering applications. Raw diatomite (RD) and calcined diatomite (CD) powders were purified by acid treatments, and diatom microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by fragmentation of purified diatoms under alkaline conditions. The influence of processing on the surface chemical composition of purified diatomites was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Diatoms NPs were also characterized in terms of morphology and size distribution by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS), while diatom MPs morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface area and microporosity of the diatom particles were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption methods. Release of silicon ions from diatom-derived particles was demonstrated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES); furthermore, silicon release kinetic was found to be influenced by diatomite purification method and particle size. Diatom-derived microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) showed limited or no cytotoxic effect in vitro depending on the administration conditions. PMID:26652398

  20. [Endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure - part II].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, and volume regulation. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. The ways in which chronic renal failure affects function of endocrine organs include impaired secretion of kidney-derived hormones, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, accumulation of hormone inhibitors, as well as abnormal target organ responsiveness. Apart from secondary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid dysfunction and impaired growth, reviewed in our previous study, endocrine disturbances that most frequently affect this group of patients include: abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal axes, bone loss and gynecomastia. The clinical picture and laboratory findings of these endocrine disturbances depend on the treatment strategy.

  1. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  2. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  3. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  4. Contralateral Cochlear Labyrinthine Concussion without Temporal Bone Fracture: Unusual Posttraumatic Consequence

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, D.; Silva, J. M. Duque; del Álamo, P. Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Labyrinthine concussion is a term used to describe a rare cause of sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular symptoms occurring after head trauma. Isolated damage to the inner ear without involving the vestibular organ would be designated as a cochlear labyrinthine concussion. Hearing loss is not a rare finding in head trauma that involves petrous bone fractures. Nevertheless it generally occurs ipsilateral to the side of the head injury and extraordinarily in the contralateral side and moreover without the presence of a fracture. Case Report. The present case describes a 37-year-old patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus in his right ear after a blunt head trauma of the left-sided temporal bone (contralateral). Otoscopy and radiological images showed no fractures or any abnormalities. A severe sensorineural hearing loss was found in his right ear with a normal hearing of the left side. Conclusion. The temporal bone trauma requires a complete diagnostic battery which includes a neurotologic examination and a high resolution computed tomography scan in the first place. Hearing loss after a head injury extraordinarily occurs in the contralateral side of the trauma as what happened in our case. In addition, the absence of fractures makes this phenomenon even more unusual. PMID:27738540

  5. Skeletal abnormalities of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Guilherme Monteiro; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) type I is a rare genetic disorder related to the TRPS1 gene mutation in chromosome 8, characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and disturbances in formation and maturation of bone matrix. The hallmarks are sparse and brittle hair, tendency to premature baldness, bulbous nose called pear-shaped, long and flat filter and low ear implantation. The most noticeable skeletal changes are clinodactyly, phalangeal epiphyses of the hands appearing as cone-shaped, short stature and hip joint malformations. We report a case of a teenager boy diagnosed with TRPS and referred for rheumatologic evaluation due to joint complaints. PMID:27267340

  6. [A new (?) multiple abnormality complex similar to the Poland syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gugliantini, P; Saguì, L; Parri, C; Seganti, G; Cavalletti, P

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a case Poland's Syndrome - like in which the hypoplasia of the left major pectoralis muscle was associated with: subtotal aplasia of sternal body, severe hypoplasia of the ipsilateral scapula, humerus and forearm bones, tetradactyly in the ipsilateral hand, partial defect of the diaphragm with thoracic migration of the left hepatic lobe and secondary dextrocardia (false dextrocardia). Syndactyly was absent. The contribution is aimed to join out the radiological characteristics of the syndrome as well as the specific contribution provided in the case by Ultrasounds and aortography. Furthermore, the analysis of the case seems to indicate a strict relationship between the abnormalities of diaphragm, pectoralis muscle and homolateral upper limb.

  7. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered. PMID:27026958

  8. Digital radiographic localization for CT scanning of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.; Rauch, R.F.

    1983-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx is the preferred method for staging laryngeal carcinoma and assessing the extent of injury from trauma. The standard method of examination consists of 5 mm contiguous scans throughout the larynx in quiet respiration. Scans are performed with the patient supine with the neck slightly extended allowing the long axis of the larynx to be perpendicular to the scanning plane. A complete examination requires scanning from the supraglottic region (level of hyoid bone) to the subglottic region (level of cricoid cartlage). In the authors' experience when this method is used, multiple scans are performed cephalad to the level of interest because no upper limit of the examination is established before transaxial scans are done. We have used the lateral digital radiograph of the neck to identify specific landmarks so that the upper and lower limets of the examination can be established before scanning.

  9. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19+/CD117− immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19+/CD117− bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  10. Abnormal focal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lung--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Halimi Asl, Ali Asghar; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Extrarenal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA is a rare finding, which has been described in some unusual conditions as bone metastasis, aortic aneurysm and hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to present two cases of abnormal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lungs, which remained unexplained even after radiologic assessment.

  11. Late infantile autosomal recessive myotonia, mental retardation, and skeletal abnormalities: a new autosomal recessive syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Richieri-Costa, A; Garcia da Silva, S M; Frota-Pessoa, O

    1984-01-01

    Four sibs of non-consanguineous parents who had myotonia from late infancy are described. Mild to moderate mental retardation, severe bone abnormalities of the vertebral column (mainly in the thoracolumbar region), and short stature were also observed. Autosomal recessive inheritance is demonstrated. These cases are compared with reported cases of the Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Images PMID:6716408

  12. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored. PMID:20840252

  13. Abnormal thallium 201 scintigraphy during low-dose vasopressin infusions

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, R.; Kaplan, K.; Bines, A.; Spies, S.; Reed, M.T.; Lesch, M.

    1986-12-01

    Thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scans were obtained in 16 patients just prior to the discontinuation of a vasopressin infusion (.1 to .2 units/min) administered for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeat scintigraphy was performed two to three hours after the vasopressin was stopped. Eleven of the 16 patients (69 percent) demonstrated areas of decreased myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake that resolved after the infusion was stopped. Heart rate-blood pressure product was significantly lower at the time of the second scan. Autopsies were secured in three of 11 scan-positive patients: one had severe coronary artery obstruction, one nonsignificant disease, and another had normal coronary arteries. Vasopressin, even at low doses, can induce abnormalities in myocardial perfusion that are probably mediated by a direct effect on the coronary circulation. They are usually not detectable by routine monitoring techniques and conceivably form the basis for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with the use of this agent.

  14. Short- and long-term effects of vertebroplastic bone cement on cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Quan, Renfu; Ni, Yueming; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Jinwei; Zheng, Xuan; Yang, Disheng

    2014-07-01

    Vertebroplasty using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is the most common method to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures. However, several questions of interest remain to be clarified, including how does PMMA affect the cement-bone interface area and surrounding bone tissue, can damaged bone tissues be repaired, how will PMMA change the bone interface over the long-term, and what happens to PMMA itself? The purpose of this study is to investigate these concerns and provide a basis for clinical evaluation. We made bone defects in the lumbar vertebrae of New Zealand rabbits as a model of osteoporosis and injected them with bone cement. A mechanical testing machine was used to perform axial compression, three-point bending, and twisting resistance tests to observe and investigate the short- and long-term biomechanical properties of PMMA after implantation. Optical, fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation were used to observe the changes in the interface microstructure. PMMA can rapidly establish the strong support with stable function in the near future. Biomechanical experiments showed that biomechanical property of bone cement group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05) biomechanical property of bone cement group may decline with the time, but it's still better than that of OP in the control group (P<0.05). Histomorphological observation result shows that under osteoporosis state the bone grows slower, also bone's rebuilding time extended. And in the later period, main bone's continuous osteoporosis has some impact on the interface. Nano-indentation testing shows that the young modulus and stiffness of the interface among bone, material and interface were significantly differences (P<0.05). Bone cement had gave the best nano indentation hardness, then was interface and bone tissue. PMMA bone cement was able to quickly support and stabilize the defect in the short term, and bone growth restarted at

  15. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may have been exposed to small metal fragments should receive a skull x-ray. This is ... due to: Cancer or tumor Infection in the bones of the sinuses (osteomyelitis) Infection of the tissues ...

  16. Comparison of single- and dual-photon absorptiometry in postmenopausal bone mineral loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nilas, L.; Borg, J.; Gotfredsen, A.; Christiansen, C.

    1985-11-01

    The authors describe a single photon absorptiometric (SPA) technique, which enables differential estimation of the rates of loss from trabecular and cortical bone. Ten scans are obtained in the forearm: six in an area with about 7% trabecular bone and four scans in the adjacent distal area with a trabecular bone content of 25%. By comparing bone masses of these two sites in 19 postmenopausal and 53 premenopausal women, the postmenopausal trabecular bone loss was estimated to be approximately seven times greater than cortical loss within the first years of cessation of regular vaginal bleeding. On a group basis the bone loss at the distal forearm scan site (by SPA) corresponded closely to the spinal bone loss (by dual-photon absorptiometry). The reproducibility of the two scan sites in the forearm was 1-1.5% (CV%), which makes the method suitable for longitudinal studies. Corrections for variations in fatty tissue covering can be made without deterioration of the reproducibility.

  17. Dynamic CT scanning of spinal column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Cann, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Dynamic sequential computed tomographic scanning with automatic table incrementation uses low milliampere-second technique to eliminate tube cooling delays between scanning slices and, thus, markedly shortens examination times. A total of 25 patients with spinal column trauma involving 28 levels were studied with dynamic scans and retrospectively reviewed. Dynamic studies were considerably faster than conventional spine examinations and yielded reliable diagnosis. Bone disruption and subluxation was accurately evaluated, and the use of intrathecal metrizamide in low doses allowed direct visualization of spinal cord or radicular compromise. Multiplanar image reformation was aided by the dynamic incrementation technique, since motion between slices (and the resulting misregistration artifact on image reformation) was minimized. A phantom was devised to test spatial resolution of computed tomography for objects 1-3 mm in size and disclosed minimal differences for dynamic and conventional computed tomographic techniques in resolving medium-to-high-contrast objects.

  18. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  19. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  20. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  1. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  2. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies.

  3. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  4. Negative radionuclide scan in osteoid osteoma. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Fehring, T.K.; Green, N.E.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in radionuclide imaging have facilitated the accurate diagnosis and surgical excision of osteoid osteoma. While radionuclide imaging has been inconsistent in the diagnosis of certain problems, its accuracy in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma has been frequently stressed. To date, no case of a negative bone scan in the presence of a histologically proven osteoid osteoma has been reported. The present case report emphasizes that a negative bone scan does not preclude the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Clinical suspicion remains the most sensitive indicator of this lesion.

  5. Advanced glycation end products suppress lysyl oxidase and induce bone collagen degradation in a rat model of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Chiharu; Uto, Kenta; Honda, Kazuho; Kato, Yoshiharu; Oda, Hideaki

    2013-11-01

    Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a major problem in patients with renal insufficiency. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of bone collagen changes and osteoblast differentiation in a rat model of ROD pathogenesis induced by adenine. Typical characteristics of renal failure, including increased serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, inorganic phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone levels, and decreased serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, were observed in adenine-induced rats. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the femur in adenine-induced rats showed decreased bone mineral density and osteoporotic changes, confirmed by the three-point bending test. The cancellous bone histomorphometric parameters of the tibia showed increased osteoblast number, decreased osteoclast surface with peritrabecular fibrosis, and increased osteoid tissue, indicating a severe mineralization disorder similar to clinical ROD. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed irregular alignment and increased diameter of bone collagen fibrils in adenine-induced rats. Protein expression analysis showed greater accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in peritrabecular osteoblasts of adenine-induced rats than in the controls. In contrast, suppressed expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), and lysyl oxidase (Lox) mRNA levels, particularly the amount of active LOX protein, were observed. In in-vitro experiments, mineralizing MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells stimulated with AGE-modified bovine serum albumin had attenuated the expression of Spp1 mRNA levels and active LOX protein, with a decrease in extracellular nodules of mineralization. These observations provide clues to ROD pathogenesis, as they indicate that the suppression of osteoblast differentiation and decreased active LOX protein associated with accumulation of AGEs in osteoblasts caused structural abnormalities of bone collagen fibrils and

  6. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  7. [Osteoplastic effectiveness of mineralized bone matrix].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment conducted on 50 Wistar rats, the peculiarities of the reparative osteogenesis were studied using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray electron-probe microanalysis and histological techniques. Granulated mineralized bone matrix (MBM) obtained without thermal and demineralizing treatment, was implanted into the tibial defect. MBM was found to possess marked osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. It induced a prolonged activation of reparative osteogenesis after the implantation, as well as deep bone tissue ingrowth into the implant, acceleration of organotypic remodeling of regenerated bone, intense angiogenesis and early restoration of the damaged

  8. [Osteoplastic effectiveness of mineralized bone matrix].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment conducted on 50 Wistar rats, the peculiarities of the reparative osteogenesis were studied using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray electron-probe microanalysis and histological techniques. Granulated mineralized bone matrix (MBM) obtained without thermal and demineralizing treatment, was implanted into the tibial defect. MBM was found to possess marked osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. It induced a prolonged activation of reparative osteogenesis after the implantation, as well as deep bone tissue ingrowth into the implant, acceleration of organotypic remodeling of regenerated bone, intense angiogenesis and early restoration of the damaged PMID:23805618

  9. Bone Densitometry: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Nicola; Ward, Kate

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the concept of what determines bone strength and fracture risk and how this can be quantified using current technologies. We describe bone densitometry measurement techniques that are currently available and consider the strengths and limitations of each technique, with particular emphasis on paediatric scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging is reviewed, as it is one of the newer technologies applied to assessment of the growing skeleton. The role of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography in the clinical assessment of bone health in children is considered, and their current diagnostic application is reviewed. PMID:26138836

  10. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Fränzle, Andrea Giske, Kristina; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  11. Bone image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

    1999-05-01

    Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible.

  12. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  13. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting. PMID:24683664

  14. Volumetric bone mineral density and bone structure in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wetzsteon, Rachel J; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S; Foster, Bethany J; Griffin, Lindsay; Strife, C Frederic; Foerster, Debbie L; Jean-Pierre, Darlene K; Leonard, Mary B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased fracture risk and skeletal deformities. The impact of CKD on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical dimensions during growth is unknown. Tibia quantitative computed tomographic scans were obtained in 156 children with CKD [69 stages 2 to 3, 51 stages 4 to 5, and 36 stage 5D (dialysis)] and 831 healthy participants aged 5 to 21 years. Sex-, race-, and age- or tibia length-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular BMD (TrabBMD), cortical BMD (CortBMD), cortical area (CortArea) and endosteal circumference (EndoC). Greater CKD severity was associated with a higher TrabBMD Z-score in younger participants (p < .001) compared with healthy children; this association was attenuated in older participants (interaction p < .001). Mean CortArea Z-score was lower (p < .01) in CKD 4-5 [-0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.80, -0.18)] and CKD 5D (-0.49, 95% CI -0.83, -0.15) compared with healthy children. Among CKD participants, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were positively associated with TrabBMD Z-score (p < .01), and this association was significantly attenuated in older participants (interaction p < .05). Higher levels of PTH and biomarkers of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) and resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen) were associated with lower CortBMD and CortArea Z-scores and greater EndoC Z-score (r = 0.18-0.36, all p ≤ .02). CortBMD Z-score was significantly lower in CKD participants with PTH levels above versus below the upper limit of the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) CKD stage-specific target range: -0.46 ± 1.29 versus 0.12 ± 1.14 (p < .01). In summary, childhood CKD and secondary hyperparathyroidism were associated with significant reductions in cortical area and CortBMD and greater TrabBMD in younger children. Future studies are needed to establish the fracture implications of these

  15. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  16. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  17. Assessment of gallium-67 scanning in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, H.L.; Gushue, G.F.; Park, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium-67 scans have been widely employed in patients with sarcoidosis as a means of indicating alveolitis and the need for corticosteroid therapy. Observation of 32 patients followed 3 or more years after gallium scans showed no correlation between findings and later course: of 10 patients with pulmonary uptake, 7 recovered with minor residuals; of 18 patients with mediastinal of extrathoracic uptake, 10 had persistent or progressive disease; of 4 patients with negative initial scans, 2 had later progression. The value of gallium-67 scans as an aid to diagnosis was studied in 40 patients with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. In 12 patients, abnormal lacrimal, nodal, or pulmonary uptake aided in selection of biopsy sites. Gallium-67 scans and serum ACE levels were compared in 97 patients as indices of clinical activity. Abnormal gallium-67 uptake was observed in 96.3% of the tests in active disease, and ACE level elevation occurred in 56.3%. In 24 patients with inactive or recovered disease, abnormal gallium-67 uptake occurred in 62.5% and ACE level elevation in 37.5%. Gallium-67 scans have a limited but valuable role in the diagnosis and management of sarcoidosis.

  18. New bone formation by murine osteoprogenitor cells cultured on corticocancellous allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ehren R; Huang, Zhinong; Ma, Ting; Lindsey, Derek; Jacobs, Christopher; Smith, Robert L; Goodman, Stuart B

    2008-12-01

    The gold standard for bone grafting in orthopedics is autograft, however autograft has a limited supply and is associated with significant morbidity at the harvest site. One alternative, allograft bone, provides an osteoconductive scaffold, is in less limited supply, and it does not require a harvest from the patient. However, allograft lacks both osteogenic cells and osteoinductive proteins that make autograft bone so advantageous. This study provides a model to investigate strategies for augmentation of corticocancellous allograft bone discs with bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) plus exogenous growth factors in vitro. In this model, allograft bone discs were created by cutting 1-mm thick slices from the distal femur and proximal tibia of euthanized mice. The allografts were sterilized and scanned by micro-computed tomography (microCT) to provide the pre-culture graft volume and trabecular characteristics. The discs were then seeded with OPCs harvested from murine bone marrow. The seeded grafts were placed in organ culture until harvest, after which they were re-scanned by microCT and the data compared to the corresponding pre-culture data. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7, also know as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and OP-1 combined with bFGF were added on a daily basis to the cultures. After final microCT scanning, all grafts were sectioned and evaluated histologically after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. microCT scans of cultured allografts with cells at 3, 5, and 9 weeks showed a time-dependent, statistically significant increase in bone volume. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.) of grafts, from both groups that were augmented with OP-1, showed a statistically significant increase in trabecular thickness of allografts with OPCs. These data suggest that bone marrow-derived OPCs adhere to, and produce, new bone on corticocancellous allograft in vitro. When exogenous OP-1 is added to

  19. A patient with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, David Kyle; Zadeh, Touran; Nugent, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Familial bone marrow failure has been associated with a variety of chromosomal aberrations. Chromosome 8 abnormalities have been described in association with neoplastic and hematologic disorders; however, to our knowledge, inversion of the long arm of chromosome 8 has not been described in the context of familial bone marrow failure. We describe a 9-year-old female with familial bone marrow failure and an inversion of chromosome 8 [inv (8) (q22, q24.3)]. Given the importance of considering the genetic determinants of familial bone marrow failure, the potential role of chromosome 8 abnormalities in the development of marrow failure is discussed.

  20. Detection of musculoskeletal infection with the indium-III leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, C.L.; Kahen, H.L.; Blend, M.J.; Barmada, R.

    1987-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans were performed on 39 patients with suspected musculoskeletal infections to assess the usefulness of this study in detecting bone and joint infections. Results of these scans, as well as results of technetium-99m bone scans, were correlated with the patients' final diagnoses. The indium scan had an overall sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 69%, and an accuracy of 72%. In 10 patients with a duration of symptoms of six weeks or less, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 75%. In 29 patients with symptoms of greater than six weeks, the sensitivity and specificity were lower at 50% and 71% respectively. Technetium-99m bone scans were performed on 23 patients; sensitivity for infection was 100% while specificity was 60%. Our results suggest that the indium-111 leukocyte scan is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of acute musculoskeletal infections, but may be inconclusive in chronic infections.

  1. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  2. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  3. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  4. Synergistic combination of clinical and imaging features predicts abnormal imaging patterns of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Jaster-Miller, Kirsten; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We designed and tested a novel hybrid statistical model that accepts radiologic image features and clinical variables, and integrates this information in order to automatically predict abnormalities in chest computed-tomography (CT) scans and identify potentially important infectious disease biomarkers. In 200 patients, 160 with various pulmonary infections and 40 healthy controls, we extracted 34 clinical variables from laboratory tests and 25 textural features from CT images. From the CT scans, pleural effusion (PE), linear opacity (or thickening) (LT), tree-in-bud (TIB), pulmonary nodules, ground glass opacity (GGO), and consolidation abnormality patterns were analyzed and predicted through clinical, textural (imaging), or combined attributes. The presence and severity of each abnormality pattern was validated by visual analysis of the CT scans. The proposed biomarker identification system included two important steps: (i) a coarse identification of an abnormal imaging pattern by adaptively selected features (AmRMR), and (ii) a fine selection of the most important features from the previous step, and assigning them as biomarkers, depending on the prediction accuracy. Selected biomarkers were used to classify normal and abnormal patterns by using a boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier. For all abnormal imaging patterns, an average prediction accuracy of 76.15% was obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed biomarker identification approach is promising and may advance the data processing in clinical pulmonary infection research and diagnostic techniques. PMID:23930819

  5. Pathogenesis and management of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, N J

    1985-01-01

    In the prepubertal child, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis is functional and extremely sensitive to negative feedback inhibition by low circulating levels of sex steroids. This feedback system may be under the control of unknown CNS inhibitory mechanisms. Clinical signs of puberty are preceded by increased pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropin secretion, particularly LH, increases in both sexes, especially during sleep, resulting in gonadal stimulation, secretion of sex steroids, and progressive physical maturation. When any phase of the H-P-G axis malfunctions, abnormal puberty can result. Abnormal puberty may be precocious or delayed. When puberty is precocious it may be isosexual or heterosexual, complete or partial, intermittent (unsustained), or progressive. True (central) precocious puberty is usually progressive, and hormonally reflective of normal puberty, although occurring at an earlier age, whereas intermittent or unsustained precocious puberty usually is associated with immature patterns of gonadotropin secretion, or with complete gonadotropin suppression as in precocious pseudopuberty (ovarian or adrenal tumors). Cranial axial tomography, gonadotropin response to GnRH, and pelvic ultrasound in girls are useful tools to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Intermittent, or unsustained, puberty in girls is usually self-limited, requiring no medical or surgical intervention. True progressive central precocity may now be managed with GnRH analogues, which effectively arrest pubertal changes as well as slow rapid linear growth and skeletal maturation. Although a maturation lag usually explains most patterns of delayed puberty, it is often challenging to exclude other conditions that may contribute to slow pubertal progression, such as chronic illness, excessive exercise, emotional stress, anorexia, or drug use. Elevated

  6. Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation.

  7. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  8. Study of Imaging Pattern in Bone Marrow Oedema in MRI in Recent Knee Injuries and its Correlation with Type of Knee Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Kulamani; Saha, Pramod; Dodia, Jainesh Valjibhai; Raj, Vinay Rajappa; Bhairagond, Shweta Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The knee is a major weight bearing joint that provides mobility and stability during physical activity as well as balance while standing. If the knee is exposed to forces beyond its physiologic range, risk of injury to bone or soft tissue structures increases. A thorough understanding of knee injury patterns and their mechanisms may help in achieving more accurate assessment of injuries. Aim To identify imaging pattern in bone marrow oedema and to correlate the pattern of bone marrow oedema retrospectively with type of knee injury from clinical history. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on all patients referred to Krishna Hospital, Karad for MRI knee with history of recent (< 6 weeks) knee injury. Study was conducted between May 2014 to September 2015 with a sample size of 200 patients. Plain radiograph of knee was done in all patients and they were scanned using 1.5 Tesla Seimens Avanto (Tim + Dot) with Tx/Rx 15 channel knee coil # Tim. Results Among the 200 cases, bone marrow contusion was noted in 138 cases (69%) and absent contusion in 62 cases (31%). Bone marrow contusion showed five patterns (according to Sanders classification) i.e., Clip injury in 39 cases (28.3%), Pivot shift injury in 78 cases (56.5%), Dashboard injury in eight cases (5.8%), Hyperextension injury in four cases (2.9%), Lateral patellar dislocation in three cases (2.2%). In six cases (4.3%) no pattern of bone marrow contusion could be explained and was categorized as unclassified pattern. Conclusion Pivot shift pattern is most common contusion pattern and the most common type/mode of sports related injury. By analysing bone marrow contusion pattern, type/mode can be determined in most of the cases. By applying a biomechanical approach in MR interpretation, it is possible to detect lesions like ligament rupture and osseous contusion, to predict subtle but it might overlook important abnormalities. PMID:27190914

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    George, J C; Buckwalter, K A; Cohen, M D; Edwards, M K; Smith, R R

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 12 pathologically proven lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of bone were reviewed retrospectively. MR identified all lesions, three of which were not identified on plain radiographs. In all cases, MR showed greater abnormality than did plain radiographs. With one exception, all lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The lesions and associated soft tissue abnormalities were very conspicuous on short TI inversion sequences and T1-weighted post-contrast images. Follow-up MR studies in two patients after chemotherapy showed decreased size and enhancement of lesions compared with baseline studies.

  10. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  11. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  12. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  13. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  14. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P < 0.05) and more with D-D (P < 0.01), while age, sex, type of AL, WBC count, Plt count and abnormality of cytogenetics did not correlate with abnormal blood coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated

  15. Volumetric brain abnormalities in polysubstance use disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Noyan, Cemal Onur; Kose, Samet; Nurmedov, Serdar; Metin, Baris; Darcin, Aslı Enez; Dilbaz, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Aim Polysubstance users represent the largest group of patients seeking treatment at addiction and rehabilitation clinics in Turkey. There is little knowledge about the structural brain abnormalities seen in polysubstance users. This study was conducted to examine the structural brain differences between polysubstance use disorder patients and healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Methods Forty-six male polysubstance use disorder patients in the early abstinence period and 30 healthy male controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed to examine gray matter (GM) abnormality differences. Results Polysubstance use disorder patients displayed significantly smaller GM volume in the thalamus, temporal pole, superior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, gyrus rectus, occipital lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusion A widespread and smaller GM volume has been found at different regions of the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, and anterior cingulate cortex in polysubstance users. PMID:27358566

  16. Kinetic constants of abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel with a purity of 99.5 at % during non-isothermal annealing was experimentally investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystalline nickel was prepared by electrodeposition and had an average grain size of approximately 20 nm. It was shown that, at a temperature corresponding to the calorimetric signal peak, abnormal grain growth occurs with the formation of a bimodal grain microstructure. Calorimeters signals were processed within the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism. This made it possible to determine the exponent of the corresponding equation, the frequency factor, and the activation energy of the grain growth, which was found to be equal to the activation energy of the vacancy migration. The reasons for the abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel were discussed.

  17. Frontal bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Marinheiro, Bruno Henrique; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and complications of frontal bone fractures associated, or not, with other facial fractures. This evaluation also sought to minimize the influence of the surgeon's skills and the preference for any rigid internal fixation system. The files from 3758 patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, from March 2004 to November 2011 and presented with facial trauma were scanned, and 52 files were chosen for the review. Eleven (21.15%) of these patients had pure fractures of the frontal bone, and trauma incidence was more prevalent in men (92.3%), whites (61.53%), and adults (50%). Despite the use of helmets at the moment of the trauma, motorcycle crashes were the most common etiological factor (32.69%). Fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with displacement was the main injury observed (54.9%), and the most common treatment was internal fixation with a plate and screws (45.09%). Postoperative complications were observed in 35.29% of the cases. The therapy applied was effective in handling this type of fracture, and the success rate was comparable to that reported in other published studies. PMID:25377971

  18. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  19. Bone biopsy as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, G B

    2004-11-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse modifications in bone cells, bone structure and the rate of bone turnover. In end stage renal failure (ESRF) when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Moreover, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased because of therapeutic improvement and the resultant increase in duration of dialysis has led to a further rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH and various bone markers are commonly used to assess bone changes in ESRF patients, but the diagnosis of underlying bone disease is still rather uncertain. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide precise information on the type and severity of renal osteodystrophy, and on the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposited in the bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven to be safe and free from major complications, but the operator's experience and skill is important in further minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be sought, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to be sufficient in diagnostic performance related to bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. Hence, transiliac bone biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15636048

  20. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411