Science.gov

Sample records for boom clay formation

  1. Hollow Cylinder Simulation Experiments of Galleries in Boom Clay Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiouse, Vincent; Sauthier, Claire; You, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste disposal in clay formations, laboratory experiments were performed to study at reduced scale the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) induced by the construction of galleries in the Boom clay formation. For this purpose, thick-walled hollow cylindrical samples were subjected (after recovery of in situ stress conditions) to a decrease in the inner confining pressure aiming at mimicking a gallery excavation. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) scans of the specimens were carried out through the testing cell before and after the mechanical unloading and allowed to quantify the displacements undergone by the clay as a result of the mechanical unloading. The deformation of the hollow cylinders and the inferred extent of the damaged zone around the central hole are found to depend on the orientation of the specimen with respect to the bedding planes and show a great similarity with in situ observations around galleries and boreholes at Mol URL in the Boom clay formation. In the experiments performed on samples cored parallel to the bedding, the damaged zone is not symmetrical with respect to the hole axis and extends more in the direction parallel to the bedding. It is the same for the radial convergence of the hole walls which is larger in the direction parallel to bedding than in the perpendicular one. In contrast, a test on a sample cored perpendicularly to the bedding did not show any ovalisation of the central hole after the mechanical unloading. These observations confirm the significance of the pre-existing planes of weakness (bedding planes) in Boom clay and the need for a correct consideration of the related mechanical anisotropy.

  2. Numerical investigation of the seismic detectability of carbonate thin beds in the Boom Clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Gei, Davide

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluates the capacity of the Boom Clay as a host rock for disposal purposes, more precisely its seismic characterization, which may assess its long-term performance to store radioactive wastes. Although the formation is relatively uniform and homogeneous, there are embedded thin layers of septaria (carbonates) that may affect the integrity of the Boom Clay. Therefore, it is essential to locate these geobodies. The seismic data to characterize the Boom Clay has been acquired at the Kruibeke test site. The inversion, which allowed us to obtain the anisotropy parameters and seismic velocities of the clay, is complemented with further information such as log and laboratory data. The attenuation properties have been estimated from equivalent formations (having similar composition and seismic velocities). The inversion yields quite consistent results although the symmetry of the medium is unusual but physically possible, since the anisotropy parameter ɛ is negative. According to a time-domain calculation of the energy velocity at four frequency bands up to 900 Hz, velocity increases with frequency, a behaviour described by the Zener model. Then, we use this model to describe anisotropy and anelasticity that are implemented into the equation of motion to compute synthetic seismograms in the space-time domain. The technique is based on memory variables and the Fourier pseudospectral method. We have computed reflection coefficients of the septaria thin layer. At normal incidence, the P-wave coefficient vanishes at specific thicknesses of the layer and there is no conversion to the S wave. For example, calculations at 600 Hz show that for thicknesses of 1 m the septarium can be detected more easily since the amplitudes are higher (nearly 0.8). Converted PS waves have a high amplitude at large offsets (between 30° and 80°) and can be useful to identify the target on this basis. Moreover, we have investigated the effect of septaria embedded in the Boom

  3. Boom clay borehole water, home of a diverse bacterial community

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, Katinka; Moors, Hugo; Leys, Natalie

    2013-07-01

    For over two decades, Boom Clay has been studied in the framework of geological disposal of nuclear waste thereby mainly addressing its geochemical properties. Today, also the microbiological properties and the possibility of microbes interacting with radionuclides or repository components including the waste form, in a host formation like Boom Clay are considered [2,3]. In the past, a reference composition for synthetic Boom Clay pore water (BCPW) was derived, based on interstitial water sampled from different layers within the Boom clay [1]. Similarly, the primary aim of this microbiological study was to determine the core BCPW bacterial community and identify representative water samples for future microbial directed lab experiments. In this respect, BCPW was sampled from different Boom Clay layers using the Morpheus piezometer and subsequently analysed by microscopy and molecular techniques, in search for overall shared and abundant micro-organisms. (authors)

  4. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  5. Dissolution Behaviour of UO{sub 2} in Anoxic Conditions: Comparison of Ca-Bentonite and Boom Clay

    SciTech Connect

    Mennecart, Thierry; Cachoir, Christelle; Lemmens, Karel

    2007-07-01

    In order to determine in how far the clay properties influence the dissolution of spent fuel, experiments were carried out with depleted UO{sub 2} in the presence of either compacted dry Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay groundwater (KB-BCW) or compacted dry Boom Clay with Boom Clay groundwater (BC-BCW). The leach tests were performed at 25 deg. C in anoxic atmosphere for 2 years. The U concentrations in the clay water were followed during these 2 years, and the amount of U in the clay was determined after 2 years in order to determine the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate. The uranium concentration after 0.45 {mu}m filtration was 50 times higher in the Boom Clay with Boom Clay water (2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}) than in Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay water (6.5 x 10{sup -9} mol.L{sup -1}), probably due to colloid formation in the Boom Clay system. Most released uranium was found in the clay. The fraction of uranium, dissolved from the UO{sub 2} pellet and found on the clay represents about 42 % of total uranium release in the system BC-BCW and more than 76 % in the system KB-BCW. The higher uranium retention of Boom Clay goes together with a higher dissolution rate. Global dissolution rates were estimated at about 2.0 x 10{sup -2} {mu}g.cm{sup -2}.d{sup -1} for the BCBCW system and 3.4 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g.cm{sup -2}.d{sup -1} for the KB-BCW system. This is not much lower than for similar tests with spent fuel, reported in literature. (authors)

  6. In situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Boom Clay at the Mol underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavito, A. M.; De Cannière, P.; Kooi, H.

    Studies on the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate- bearing bituminized radioactive waste have recently raised a particular interest for osmosis-induced effects in this reference formation in Belgium. Indeed, water flow and solute transport may be associated with several types of driving forces, or gradients (chemical, electrical, thermal), in addition to the hydraulic forces, resulting in the so-called coupled flows. Fluid flow caused by driving forces different than hydraulic gradients is referred to as osmosis. Chemical osmosis, the water flow induced by a chemical gradient across a semi-permeable membrane, can generate pressure increase. The question thus arises if there is a risk to create high pore pressures that could damage the near-field of medium-level waste (MLW) galleries, if osmotically driven water flows towards the galleries are produced by the release of large amounts of NaNO 3 (750 t) in the formation. To what extent a low-permeability clay formation such as the Boom Clay acts as an osmotic membrane is thus a key issue to assess the relevance of osmosis phenomena for the disposal of medium-level waste. An in situ osmosis experiment has been conducted at the H ADES underground research laboratory to determine the osmotic efficiency of Boom Clay at the field scale. A recently developed chemical osmosis flow continuum model has been used to design the osmosis experiment, and to interpret the water pressure measurements. Experimental data could be reproduced quite accurately by the model, and the inferred parameter values are consistent with independent determinations for Boom Clay. A rapid water pressure increase (but limited to about a 2 m water column) was observed after 12 h in the filter containing the more saline water. Then, the osmotically induced water pressure slowly decays on several months. So, the experimental results obtained in situ confirm the occurrence of non-hydraulic flow phenomena (chemical osmosis) in a low

  7. Thermal Impact on Damaged Boom Clay and Opalinus Clay: Permeameter and Isostatic Tests with μCT Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. J.; Maes, T.; Vandervoort, F.; Sillen, X.; Van Marcke, P.; Honty, M.; Dierick, M.; Vanderniepen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the TIMODAZ project, permeameter tests and isostatic tests were performed on Boom Clay and Opalinus Clay in order to assess the impact of temperature, pore water composition, and confining stress on the sealing of damaged samples of Boom Clay and Opalinus Clay. A microfocus X-ray computed tomography technique was used to visualize the evolution of the sealing process. Compared to the fast sealing of Boom Clay, the sealing of Opalinus Clay was much slower. The heating showed a significant, favorable impact on the sealing behavior of Opalinus Clay under permeameter test conditions, while the sealing behavior of Boom Clay appeared to be unaffected. Tests performed under isostatic conditions did not reveal a significant influence of a heating-cooling cycle on the sealing behavior of these clays. The reappearance of the fractures or holes in the samples after dismantling confirms earlier observations which showed that after sealing, the original mechanical properties are not recovered. In other words, a heating cycle does not seem to induce healing.

  8. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    SciTech Connect

    Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    1999-07-01

    SCK{center{underscore}dot}CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240{micro}m deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials.

  9. Regional aquifer geochemistry below the Boom Clay (NE-Belgium): data analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Leterme, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    For more than 35 years, SCK•CEN has been investigating the possibility of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium, including the study of the regional hydrogeology and geochemistry of the aquifer systems surrounding the Boom Clay. This study presents the analysis and modelling of groundwater geochemistry in the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium. This so-called deep aquifer system includes, with increasing depth, parts of the Oligocene Aquifer System, The Bartoon Aquitard System and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian Aquifer System. At the end of the Neogene period, during which several marine transgressions and regressions took place, the sea definitely drew back after having deposited shallow marine and estuarine sands and some clay. The original seawater in the pores of the sediments was in first instance gradually diluted as the aquifer was flushed by recharge (fresh) water. Afterwards, water-rock interactions, including cation exchange, began to play a role in the deep aquifer system. This led to changes in groundwater composition over time. Geochemical data (major ions, stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases) have been collected at a regional scale from the piezometric network in the deep aquifer system. Several measurement campaigns have been performed between 1980 and 2010. Groundwater is currently mainly of Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl type water, and because of the low groundwater velocity, re-equilibration with the host formations generally occurs. The main geochemical indicators (salinity, stable isotopes) point to a mixture between saline water (to the NW) and fresh recharge water (from SE). SE-NW gradients of ion concentrations are observed and can be explained in agreement with the pattern of natural groundwater flow. Building on the concepts emerging from the geochemical data analysis and recent groundwater modelling, a geochemical model was developed in PhreeqC, using geochemical and

  10. Conceptual model analysis of interaction at a concrete-Boom Clay interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanheng; Jacques, Diederik; Govaerts, Joan; Wang, Lian

    In many concepts for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste, cementitious materials are used in the engineered barriers. For example, in Belgium the engineered barrier system is based on a considerable amount of cementitious materials as buffer and backfill in the so-called supercontainer embedded in the hosting geological formation. A potential hosting formation is Boom Clay. Insight in the interaction between the high-pH pore water of the cementitious materials and neutral-pH Boom Clay pore water is required. Two problems are quite common for modeling of such a system. The first one is the computational cost due to the long timescale model assessments envisaged for the deep disposal system. Also a very fine grid (in sub-millimeter), especially at interfaces has to be used in order to accurately predict the evolution of the system. The second one is whether to use equilibrium or kinetic reaction models. The objectives of this paper are twofold. First, we develop an efficient coupled reactive transport code for this diffusion-dominated system by making full use of multi-processors/cores computers. Second, we investigate how sensitive the system is to chemical reaction models especially when pore clogging due to mineral precipitation is considered within the cementitious system. To do this, we selected two portlandite dissolution models, i.e., equilibrium (fastest) and diffusion-controlled model with precipitation of a calcite layer around portlandite particles (diffusion-controlled dissolution). The results show that with shrinking core model portlandite dissolution and calcite precipitation are much slower than with the equilibrium model. Also diffusion-controlled dissolution smooths out dissolution fronts compared to the equilibrium model. However, only a slight difference with respect to the clogging time can be found even though we use a very small diffusion coefficient (10-20 m2/s) in the precipitated calcite layer.

  11. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  12. Booms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Containment booms are used to control the spread of oil to reduce the possibility of polluting shorelines and other resources. They also concentrate oil in thicker surface layers, making recovery easier. They may also be used to divert and channel slicks.

  13. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  14. A hydrogeological study of the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium: combining a piezometric analysis with groundwater modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Gedeon, Matej

    2013-04-01

    For more than 35 years, SCKCEN has been investigating the possibility of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay in north-eastern Belgium. This research, defined in the long term management programme for high-level and/or long-lived waste of ONDRAF/NIRAS, includes studying the regional hydrogeology of the aquifer systems surrounding the Boom Clay. In this context, a hydrogeological study of the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay was performed. To properly address the conceptual uncertainties related to the poorly characterized domain featuring large uncertainty in the forcing data, a combination of a piezometric data analysis and hydrogeological modelling was used. The study area represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium. This so-called deep aquifer system includes, with increasing depth, parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge to the deep aquifer system, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. The analysis of the piezometry of the confined deep aquifer system allowed gaining more insight on the system response to the intensive pumping. Since the Oligocene aquifer has a significantly lower permeability compared to the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer, the Oligocene pumping triggers only local effects on groundwater levels. Hence, the regional effects (constant decrease of groundwater levels) in the Oligocene aquifer are presumably caused by pumping in the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer, whereby the hydraulically isolating Maldegem Formation (Bartoon aquitard) dampens these effects. The amount of this dampening is given by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic properties of the Maldegem Formation and/or its variable thickness. For the

  15. Palaeoceanographic approach to the Kimmeridge Clay Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G. )

    1988-08-01

    The Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) is northern Europe's premier source rock and can be understood using a new but relatively simple oceanographic model. This explains or accommodates most current observations about the KCF and its depositional environment and draws upon paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, geochemical, sedimentological, and paleontological evidence.

  16. Comparison of the bulk geochemical features and thermal reactivity of kerogens from Mol (Boom Clay), Bure (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) and Tournemire (Toarcian shales) underground research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Deniau, I; Devol-Brown, I; Derenne, S; Behar, F; Largeau, C

    2008-01-25

    Deep argillaceous formations are potential repositories for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste because of their low permeability and high sorption capacity with respect to radioelements and heavy metals. Such sedimentary rocks contain organic matter, mostly macromolecular and insoluble (kerogen). Upon temperature elevation related to high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal, the kerogen may release significant quantities of gaseous and liquid effluents, especially oxygen-containing ones, which may influence the ability of the clay to retain radionuclides. The aim of the present study is to assess the global geochemical features and the thermal reactivity of the kerogens isolated from samples collected in the Bure and Tournemire sites, France (Callovo-Oxfordian Clay and Toarcian Shales, respectively) and to draw comparisons with data previously obtained for the Mol site, Belgium (Boom Clay). The study is based on a combination of elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, solid state (13)C NMR) and pyrolytic (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analyses. Different levels of maturity and resulting differences in the relative abundance of oxygen-containing groups were thus observed for the three kerogens. This is linked with differences in their ability to generate CO(2) and various oxygen-containing, low molecular weight, water-soluble compounds under thermal stress, decreasing from Mol to Bure and to Tournemire.

  17. Clay stabilization in low-permeability formations

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.E.; Vinson, E.F.; Simon, D.E. )

    1991-08-01

    The most popular clay stabilizers used recently in well-treating solutions are classified as cationic organic polymers (COP's). This paper reports on studies that have shown these stabilizers to be ineffective in microdarcy to low-millidarcy sandstones. Recent research led to the development of a stabilizer applicable to formations with permeabilities of 0.010 md and higher that also provides enhanced load-water recovery and more efficient placement from gelled-water solutions.

  18. Ground-Recorded Sonic Boom Signatures of F-18 Aircraft in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the tail shock of the upper F-18 (called tail-canopy). The second formation had the canopy of the lower F- 18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft . An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  19. Clay mineral formation and transformation in rocks and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Three mechanisms for clay mineral formation (inheritance, neoformation, and transformation) operating in three geological environments (weathering, sedimentary, and diagenetic-hydrothermal) yield nine possibilities for the origin of clay minerals in nature. Several of these possibilities are discussed in terms of the rock cycle. The mineralogy of clays neoformed in the weathering environment is a function of solution chemistry, with the most dilute solutions favoring formation of the least soluble clays. After erosion and transportation, these clays may be deposited on the ocean floor in a lateral sequence that depends on floccule size. Clays undergo little reaction in the ocean, except for ion exchange and the neoformation of smectite; therefore, most clays found on the ocean floor are inherited from adjacent continents. Upon burial and heating, however, dioctahedral smectite reacts in the diagenetic environment to yield mixed-layer illite-smectite, and finally illite. With uplift and weathering, the cycle begins again. Refs.

  20. Ground-recorded sonic boom signatures of F-18 aircraft formation flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  1. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na(+) and Ca(2).

    PubMed

    Durce, D; Maes, N; Bruggeman, C; Van Ravestyn, L

    2016-01-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca(2+) promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC.

  2. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na+ and Ca2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, D.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Ravestyn, L.

    2016-02-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca2 + promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC.

  3. Impact-Induced Clay Mineral Formation and Distribution on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Craig, P. I.

    2015-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified in the central peaks and ejecta blankets of impact craters on Mars. Several studies have suggested these clay minerals formed as a result of impact induced hydrothermalism either during Mars' Noachian era or more recently by the melting of subsurface ice. Examples of post-impact clay formation is found in several locations on Earth such as the Mjolnir and Woodleigh Impact Structures. Additionally, a recent study has suggested the clay minerals observed on Ceres are the result of impact-induced hydrothermal processes. Such processes may have occurred on Mars, possibly during the Noachian. Distinguishing between clay minerals formed preor post-impact can be accomplished by studying their IR spectra. In fact, showed that the IR spectra of clay minerals is greatly affected at longer wavelengths (i.e. mid-IR, 5-25 micron) by impact-induced shock deformation while the near-IR spectra (1.0-2.5 micron) remains relatively unchanged. This explains the discrepancy between NIR and MIR observations of clay minerals in martian impact craters noted. Thus, it allows us to determine whether a clay mineral formed from impact-induced hydrothermalism or were pre-existing and were altered by the impact. Here we study the role of impacts on the formation and distribution of clay minerals on Mars via a fully 3-D Monte Carlo cratering model, including impact- melt production using results from modern hydrocode simulations. We identify regions that are conducive to clay formation and the location of clay minerals post-bombardment.

  4. Transport of Organic Solutes in Clay Formations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is a pilot investigation for the SERDP (Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, DoD) founded project, Impact of Clay-DNAPL Interactions on Transport and Storage of Chlorinated Solvents in Low Permeability Zones, from 2010-2012. The report tries to s...

  5. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  6. Octachlorodibenzodioxin formation on Fe(III)-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are ubiquitous and highly toxic environmental contaminants found in surface and subsurface soils and in clay deposits. Interestingly, the congener profiles of such PCDDs are inexplicably dissimilar to those of known anthropogenic (e.g., pesticide manufacture, waste incineration) or natural (e.g., forest fire) sources. Characteristic features of soil or clay-associated PCDDs are the dominance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) as the most abundant congener and very low levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). These propensities led to the hypothesis of in situ PCDD formation in soils and geologic clay deposits. In this study, we demonstrate the formation of OCDD on the naturally occurring and widely distributed clay mineral montmorillonite under environmentally relevant conditions. When pentachlorophenol (PCP)was mixed with Fe(III)-montmorillonite, significant amounts of OCDD were rapidly (minutes to days) formed (approximately 5 mg OCDD/kg clay) at ambient temperature in the presence of water. This reaction is initiated by single electron transfer from PCP to Fe(III)-montmorillonite thereby forming the PCP radical cation. Subsequent dimerization, dechlorination, and ring closure reactions result in formation of OCDD. This study provides the first direct evidence for clay-catalyzed formation of OCDD supporting the plausibility of its in situ formation in soils.

  7. New insights to pore space morphologies in Boom Clay - results from 2D BIB-SEM investigations and mercury injection porosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemes, S.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    BIB-SEM investigations on Boom Clay (Mol-Dessel reference site for radioactive waste disposal, Belgium) of different grain sizes yield new insights to pore space morphologies and pore-size distributions down to the resolution of state-of-the-art SEM. Non-clay minerals embedded into a clay matrix form the overall fabric of the different samples investigated. We identified four main porous mineral phases: clay, pyrite, mica and fossils. Regardless of the origin and the grain-size distribution of samples, characteristic pore morphologies were found for each different mineral phase. Our approach allows segmenting pores with a practical pore resolution of 25-30 nm in pore size (equivalent radius, ER) resulting in total porosities of 10-20 % and log-normal pore-size distributions at the scale of observation. Detailed studies of segmented porosities within the clay matrices point to a power-law distribution of pore-areas over three orders of magnitude, interpreted as self-similarity of the pore space. Moreover, two classes of pore-sizes were distinguished within the clay-matrix: biggest pores were found within the first 100 nm from non-clay mineral grain-boundaries, whereas pores smaller than 100 nm (ER) are homogeneously distributed within the clay matrix. Our calculations show clearly that the median pore-size value of the biggest pores is linked to the grain size parameter, which suggests that the grain- size and the amount of non-clay minerals is controlling the contribution of the largest pore-size fraction to the overall porosity. Bulk porosities measured by mercury injection porosimetry (MIP) are between 26-33 %. The comparison of our microstructural investigations inferred by BIB-SEM with MIP data, indicates that a significant pore fraction is not detected by using the BIB-SEM method (about 10-15 % of the total porosity), corresponding to pores smaller than 30 nm (ER). However, the extrapolation of power-law pore-size distributions, inferred for pores within the

  8. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstricht, J.; Areias, L.; Bastiaens, W.; Li, X. L.

    2010-06-01

    Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure), or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes) in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter). Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  9. Freeze-agglomeration: An alternative mechanism for clay film formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriented clay coatings (argillans, clay cutans, clay films, lamellae) are often interpreted to be caused by illuviation (pervection, lessivage) of fine clay particles. In montane meadow soils (Typic Humaquepts) of the northern Sierra Nevada Range, prominent clay cutans occur on ped faces of a paleos...

  10. Biogenic smectite clay formation in subsurface granitic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuck, V.; Edyvean, R.; West, J.; Bateman, K.; Coombs, P.; Milodowski, A.

    2003-04-01

    Many bacteria and biofilms in groundwater environments are able to adsorb and accumulate soluble components from an aqueous environment and exert a strong influence on the attenuation and transport of a significant range of dissolved species including many pollutants. They can also act as catalysts or nucleation sites for authigenic mineral phases such as metal sulphides or complex silicates. The processes involved are not well defined, but appear to range from large-scale interactions altering bulk groundwater chemistry to very small-scale interactions involving geochemical and physical alterations within biofilms and at the mineral surface. The purpose of this research program is to investigate biologically-induced and unusually rapid formation of smectite and chlorite clays. The work expands on experiments conducted by the British Geological Survey designed to simulate rock-water/microbial interactions, radionuclide mobility and groundwater redox-buffering capacity in the vicinity of the Äspö Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Sweden. Packed-columns were set up containing crushed Äspö granodiorite, saline groundwater (simulating Äspö’s) and either single or combined inoculations of two bacteria species isolated from the Äspö URL, an iron-reducer Shewanella putrefaciens and a sulphate-reducer Desulfovibrio aespoeensis. Flow was maintained at 12ml/day to mimic that in the Äspö region, and strict anaerobic/reducing conditions were maintained throughout the experiments. Results showed that the iron-reducing bacteria S. putrefaciens quickly attached to surfaces and formed extensive filamentous biofilm meshes across porespaces. Neoformed smectite and chlorite clays also appeared on or near the biofilaments along with a calcium sulphate precipitate. Both of these processes (clay formation and the production of a mesh-like biofilm) served to cause total blockage of the pores, rendering the aggregate impermeable and thus cutting off the flow of

  11. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.

  12. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE PAGES

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; ...

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more » in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  13. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, J C; Schwenzer, S P; Leveille, R; Westall, F; Wiens, R C; Mangold, N; Bristow, T; Edwards, P; Berger, G

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO2-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ∽7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component. PMID:26213668

  14. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Bridges, J C; Schwenzer, S P; Leveille, R; Westall, F; Wiens, R C; Mangold, N; Bristow, T; Edwards, P; Berger, G

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO2-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10-50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100-1000, pH of ∽7.5-12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.

  15. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  16. Clay and Magnetite Formation at Yellowknife Bay, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2014-09-01

    Sheepbed mudstone contains a clay-magnetite assemblage formed by dissolution of approximately 70% amorphous phase, 20% olivine, 10% host rock mixture, by a pore fluid at moderate W/R ratio. The clay is similar to Lafayette's ferric saponite and gel.

  17. Formation of stable nanocomposite clays from small peptides reacted with montmorillonite and illite-smectite mixed layer clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; LeBlanc, J.; Peña, S.; Gottlieb, P.

    2015-12-01

    at the clay platelet edges to induce exfoliation and subsequent formation of stable nanocomposite clays.

  18. Clay Formation and Fabric Development in the DFDP-1 Borehole, Central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, A.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Toy, V.; van der Pluijm, B.

    2015-12-01

    Samples retrieved by shallow drilling into two principal slip zones of the central Alpine Fault, New Zealand, offer an excellent opportunity to investigate clay formation, fabric development and fluid-rock interaction in an active fault zone. Here, we provide lithological and structural observations of five samples from borehole DFDP-1B, drilled during Phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) in 2011. Each sample's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the preferred orientation of the clays was analyzed by x-ray texture goniometry (XTG). The dominant clay mineral phases are illite and chlorite/kaolinite. Newly formed smectitic clays are observed solely in the cm-thick zones of fault gouge, indicating that these mineral reactions are restricted to the fault zone. We observe that smectite forms by transformation of very fine-grained material produced by cataclasis during slip. Clay fabric intensity of both illite and chlorite reveal that relatively strong fabrics are present in the cataclasites above the principal slip zone, but that the clay minerals in the gouge have a very weak preferred orientation. The weak fabric supports the notion that clay orientation is a result of authigenic mineral growth and not of strain-induced particle reorientation. It also indicates that fluids are able to pass through the gouge, presumably along variably spaced and interconnected fracture networks or between particle boundaries. Our analysis of samples retrieved by DFDP-1 drilling and sampling demonstrates intimate association of localized shear, comminution, and rapid fluid-rock interaction. It thus contributes to a growing body of evidence that alteration processes, particularly formation of frictionally weak smectitic clay minerals, may be a significant weakening mechanism within active shallow faults.

  19. Clay mineral formation on Mars: Chemical constraints and possible contribution of basalt out-gassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Meunier, Alain; Beaufort, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    We focus on processes possibly occurring on Mars that could affect sufficiently large volumes of rocks to be detected by remote sensing techniques. When compared with the chemical modelling of water-rock interactions, the petrographic and mineralogical characteristics of clay deposited in the prismatic joints of a lava flow from the Parana basin (Brazil) suggest that the clay fraction of lava flows may be formed at least partly during an early post-magmatic stage associated with the degassing of acid volatiles. In view of the literature concerning other contexts, such as meteorites or experimental syntheses, we conclude that the crystallization of anhydrous mafic minerals and the formation of clay mineral are not systematically mutually exclusive phenomena. While clay formation is generally related to chemical reaction pathways, it is not necessarily due to the alteration of pre-existing silicates. Such post-magmatic reactions, even if they are likely to represent only a minor contribution to Martian clay formation limited to early Noachian times, require much lower amounts of water compared to conventional hydrothermal alteration or weathering systems. The products of these reactions can be detected over large surface areas, as in the case of the Mars sites, thus allowing us to envisage a greater diversity of paleogeographic scenarios for Early Mars.

  20. Clay swelling and formation permeability reductions induced by a nonionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, K.H.; Arias, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A major concern with the use of surfactant flushing to mobilize nonaqueous phase liquids in aquifers is specific mineral-surfactant interactions that may effect significant permeability changes in the soil formation. Soils comprised of Ottawa sand mixed with small percentages of bentonite that had moderate initial hydraulic conductivity were investigated for loss of permeability upon flushing with solution containing a nonionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate). Columns containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% had permeability reductions of 1, 5, 13, 44, 49, and 69%, respectively. The surfactant-clay interactions were further investigated as the cause of the permeability reductions. Some transport of clay through the column was apparent from a small amount of release measured. A permeability change was correlated with the colloid transport in the column with the highest clay concentration, although its effect was transient. Clay swelling was postulated as the primary mechanism for the permeability reductions. It was determined through X-ray diffraction that the surfactant was spreading the silica layer spacings of the clay from a hydration spacing of 15.23 {angstrom} to a surfactant-swelled spacing of 18.02 {angstrom}. A model was formulated to describe the reduced permeability by the increase in clay volume due to swelling measured by X-ray diffraction and was capable of describing the observed data well with an average error of approximately 10%.

  1. Enhancement of peptide bond formation by polyribonucleotides on clay surfaces in fluctuating environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The selective effects of polyribonucleotides on the formation of glycine peptide bonds in glycine on clay surfaces are investigated as a model for a template mechanism for the effects of polynucleotides on peptide bond formation. Free oligoglycine yields were determined for the cycling reaction of glycine in the presence and absence of clay and polyribonucleotides or polydeoxyribonucleotides. The polyribonucleotides are observed to lead to increases of up to fourfold increases in oligoglycine formed, with greater enhancements for poly-G nucleotides than for poly-A, poly-U and poly-C, indicating a codonic bias. Polydeoxyribonucleotides are found to provide no enhancement in peptide formation rates, and yields were also greatly reduced in the absence of clay. A mechanism for peptide synthesis is proposed which involves the activation of glycine on the clay surface, followed by the formation of esters between glycine and the 2-prime OH groups of the polyribonucleotide and peptide bonds between adjacent amino acyl esters. It is pointed out that if this mechanism is correct, it may provide a basis for a direct template translation process, which would produce a singlet genetic code.

  2. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances: potential role of maillard reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms of the formation of humic substances are poorly understood, especially the condensation of amino acids and reducing sugars products (Maillard reaction) in soil environments. Clay minerals behave as Lewis and Brönsted acids and catalyze several reactions and likely to catalyze the Mai...

  3. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-02

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  4. Formation of polygonal fault systems as a result of hydrodynamical instabilities in clay-rich deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphael; Rabinowicz, Michel; Baratoux, David; Darrozes, José; Kurita, Kei; D'Uston, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    Fine grained deposits as chalks and clays are characterised by the development of polygonal fault systems [1]. For the clay-rich deposits, two different environments are associated with their formation. First, on continents, dewatering leads to the development of polygonal desiccation cracks which have a centimetric to metric size [2]. Polygonal faults are also observed in sub-marine sedimentary deposits and here, can reach hectometric to kilometric size [3]. Since the giant polygons develop on basins with no clear evidences of tectonic stresses, the fracturing is attributed to stresses due to horizontal density variations generated during the basin subsidence. Several models have been proposed to explain the formation of the giant polygons and the two main hypotheses are the syneresis (spontaneous horizontal contraction) proposed by [4] and the low coefficient of friction of clay proposed by [5]. However, new understandings in the clay rheology and in the hydrodynamical instabilities, controlling the development of compaction in unconsolidated and consolidated clay deposits, permit us to propose an alternative hypothesis. We consider that the development of giant polygons results from the superposition of hydrodynamical instabilities leading to the formation of (i) mm-size agglomerates of clay particles while the deposit is unconsolidated [6], followed after by the consolidation of this layer, then (ii) hectometric to kilometric compaction spheres develop [7] and (iii) finally ends with the occurrence of hydrothermal and plastic convections. We show that the crucial conditions for the development of hectometric to kilometric size polygonal fault systems are: 1) the high permeability of the clay-rich deposit composed of mm-size agglomerates and 2) the dramatic increase of the strength of the clay as the deposit consolidates. [1] Dewhurst et al., (1999), Mar. Petr. Geol., 16 (8), 793-810. [2] Weinberger (1999), J. Struct. Geol., 21, 379-386. [3] Andresen and Huuse

  5. Geochemical constraints on the presence of clay minerals in the Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cino, C. D.; Dehouck, E.; McLennan, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Burns formation sandstones, deposited by aeolian processes and preserved at Meridiani Planum, Mars, contain abundant sulfate minerals. These sedimentary rocks are thought to be representative of a sulfate-rich geological epoch during late Noachian - early Hesperian time that followed an earlier clay-rich epoch. Twenty Burns formation targets, abraded by the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) and for which alpha-particle X-ray spectrometry (APXS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy data are available, were selected for geochemical modeling. A linear unmixing modeling approach was employed. Mineralogical constituents quantitatively constrained by Mössbauer and Mini-TES spectroscopy and interpreted to be chemically precipitated from aqueous fluids during deposition and/or early diagenesis were subtracted from the bulk chemistry. Resulting residual chemical compositions, interpreted to be dominated by detrital siliciclastic components and representing ∼21-35% of the rocks, were then geochemically evaluated to constrain the potential for the presence of clay minerals or their poorly-crystalline or non-crystalline precursors/chemical equivalents. Calculations incorporated a robust estimate of the uncertainties in mineral abundances. On Al2O3 - (CaO+Na2O) - K2O (A-CN-K) and Al2O3 - (CaO+Na2O+K2O) - (FeOtotal+MgO) (A-CNK-FM) molar ternary diagrams, removal of chemical constituents resulted in a shift from igneous-like compositions to compositions consistent with secondary mineral assemblages containing significant aluminous clay mineral components. All of the residual compositions are corundum-normative, further supportive of the presence of highly aluminous phases. On the A-CNK-FM diagram, clay minerals plotting closest to the residual field are natural montmorillonites but could also represent mixtures of various Mg/Fe-rich phyllosilicates, such as nontronite or saponite, and other more Al-rich minerals such as Al-montmorillonite, kaolinite or illite. Depending on the age of clay

  6. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in unconsolidated sediments - insights from 3-D observations of excavated normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Thronberens, Sebastian; Juarez, Oscar; Lajos Urai, Janos; Ziegler, Martin; Asmus, Sven; Kruger, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Clay smears in normal faults can form seals for hydrocarbons and groundwater, and their prediction in the subsurface is an important problem in applied and basic geoscience. However, neither their complex 3-D structure, nor their processes of formation or destruction are well understood, and outcrop studies to date are mainly 2-D. We present a 3-D study of an excavated normal fault with clay smear, together with both source layers, in unlithified sand and clay of the Hambach open-cast lignite mine in Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have shale gouge ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. The fault zones are layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. The thickness of clay smears in two excavated fault zones of 1.8 and 3.8 m2 is approximately log-normal, with values between 5 mm and 5 cm, without holes. The 3-D thickness distribution is heterogeneous. We show that clay smears are strongly affected by R and R' shears, mostly at the footwall side. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes in the clay smear, while thinning of the clay smear by shearing in the fault core is less important. The thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cut-offs. Locally, the clay smear consists of overlapping patches of sheared clay, separated by sheared sand. More commonly, it is one amalgamated zone of sheared sand and clay. A microscopic study of fault-zone samples shows that grain-scale mixing can lead to thickening of the low permeability smears, which may lead to resealing of holes.

  7. Timing and conditions of clay fault gouge formation on the Naxos detachment (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancktelow, N.; Zwingmann, H.; Mulch, A.

    2016-10-01

    Clay fault gouge from the Naxos detachment (locally up to 1.0-1.5 m thick) is reported and dated for the first time. K-Ar ages on eight clay size fractions from the detachment and a minor fault in the immediate footwall have a narrow range, from 10.3 to 9.0 Ma, with an average of 9.7 ± 0.5 Ma (±1σ). These results are in excellent accord with regional and local age constraints, independently demonstrating the reliability of the method. Hydrogen δD values fall in the range -89 to -95‰, indicating interaction with infiltrating meteoric water during gouge formation, which is consistent with deposition of freshwater sediments in the hanging wall at the same time. Clay mineralogy in the detachment gouge is predominantly mixed layer illite-smectite with subordinate 1 M illite and kaolinite but without higher-temperature 2 M1 illite/mica. Clay fault gouge predominantly formed over a limited time and temperature range, potentially acting as a weak lubricant promoting movement on the Naxos detachment, with correspondingly rapid exhumation and cooling of the underlying footwall.

  8. Bacterial diversity in a deep-subsurface clay environment.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin-Jahns, V; Ruimy, R; Bianchi, A; Daumas, S; Christen, R

    1996-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in a deep clay sediment was analyzed in a 20-m-long core horizontally drilled from a mine gallery at a depth of 224 m in the Boom clay formation (Mol, Belgium). This clay deposit is the result of a marine sedimentary process that occurred 35 million years ago. Bacterial activities were estimated by measuring respiration on [14C]glucose. Using the same samples, universal primers for the genes coding for eubacterial 16S rRNA were used to amplify extracted DNA. PCR products were then cloned, sequenced, and analyzed by molecular phylogeny. Our data showed a decrease in bacterial densities as a function of distance from the gallery, with few bacteria detectable by culture at more than 80 cm from the gallery wall. PCR experiments showed the presence of bacteria in all samples, and phylogenetic analyses were then used to tentatively identify these organisms. Because of low bacterial densities in deep clay samples, direct counts and enumeration of viable bacteria on diverse culture media remained negative. All experiments, both cultures and PCR, demonstrated the difficulty of analyzing samples that contain only a few poorly active bacteria as it is difficult to avoid a small contamination by active bacteria during sampling. Since the porosity of the Boom clay formation is less than the expected size of bacteria, it is possible that some of the bacteria present in this 35-million-year-old deep clay deposit derive from cells initially trapped during the sedimentation process. PMID:8795233

  9. F-16XL ship #1 and SR-71 in formation flight studying the characteristics of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL, NASA 849, joins up with an SR-71A, NASA 844, as crews set up for one of the flights in the recent sonic boom research program conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. During the missions, the F-16XL probed the shockwaves generated by the SR-71, while at lower altitudes sensors on an F-18 and on a YO-3A, and also on the ground, recorded data from the same shockwave. Data gathered from the program, managed by NASA's Langely Research Center, adds important information to the database being gathered for NASA's High Speed Research program.

  10. F-16XL ship #1 and SR-71 in formation flight studying the characteristics of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL, NASA 849, joins up with an SR-71A, NASA 844, as crews set up for one of the flights in the recent sonic boom research program conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. During the missions, the F-16XL probed the shockwaves generated by the SR-71, while at lower altitudes sensors on an F-18 and on a YO-3A, and also on the ground, recorded data from the same shockwave. Information from the program, managed by NASA's Langely Research Center, is being used for NASA's High Speed Research Program.

  11. F-16XL ship #1 and SR-71 in formation flight studying the characteristics of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL, NASA 849, joins up with an SR-71A, NASA 844, as crews set up for one of the flights in the recent sonic boom research program conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. During the missions, the F-16XL probed the shockwaves generated by the SR-71, while at lower altitudes sensors on an F-18 and on a YO-3A, and also on the ground, recorded data from the same shockwave. Information from the program, managed by NASA's Langely Research Center, is being used for NASA's High Speed Research program.

  12. Uncertainty in the reactive transport model response to analkaline perturbation in a clay formation

    SciTech Connect

    Burnol, A.; Blanc, P.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Gaucher, E.C.

    2006-03-15

    The mineral alteration in the concrete barrier and in the clay formation around long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in the French deep geological disposal concept is evaluated using numerical modeling. There are concerns that the mineralogical composition of the surrounded clay will not be stable under the high alkaline pore fluid conditions caused by concrete (pH {approx} 12). Conversely, the infiltration of CO{sub 2}-rich groundwater from the clay formation into initially unsaturated concrete, at the high temperature (T {approx} 70 C) produced from the decay of radionuclides, could cause carbonation, thereby potentially affecting critical performance functions of this barrier. This could also lead to significant changes in porosity, which would affect aqueous diffusive transport of long-lived radionuclides. All these processes are therefore intimately coupled and advanced reactive transport models are required for long-term performance assessment. The uncertainty in predictions of these models is one major question that must be answered. A mass-transfer model response to an alkaline perturbation in clay with standard model values is first simulated using the two-phase non-isothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The selection of input parameters is thereafter designed to sample uncertainties in a wide range of physico-chemical processes without making a priori assumptions about the relative importance of different feedbacks. This 'base-case' simulation is perturbed by setting a parameter to a minimum, intermediate or maximum value or by switching on/off a process. This sensitivity analysis is conducted using grid computing facilities of BRGM (http://iggi.imag.fr). Our evaluation of the preliminary results suggests that the resaturation and the heating of the near-field will be of long enough duration to cause a limited carbonation through all the width of the concrete barrier. Another prediction is the possibility of self-sealing at the concrete/clay

  13. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  14. F-16XL ship #1 and SR-71 in formation flight studying the characteristics of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL, NASA 849, joins up with an SR-71A, NASA 844, as crews set up for one of the flights in the recent sonic boom research program conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. During the missions, the F-16XL probed the shockwaves generated by the SR-71, while at lower altitudes sensors on an F-18 and on a YO-3A, and also on the ground, recorded data from the same shockwave. Information from the program, managed by NASA's Langely Research Center, is being used for NASA's High Speed Research program, helping to develop aircraft expected to be quieter than present-day large supersonic aircraft.

  15. Pedogenic formation of montmorillonite from a 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Nettleton, W.D.; McCracken, R.J.

    1969-01-01

    Montmorillonite was found to be the dominant clay mineral in surface horizons of certain soils of the North Carolina Coastal Plain whereas a 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral was dominant in subjacent horizons. In all soils where this clay mineral sequence was found, the surface horizon was low in pH (below 4??5) and high in organic matter content. In contrast, data from studies of other soils of this region (Weed and Nelson, 1962) show that: (1) montmorillonite occurs infrequently; (2) maximum accumulation of the 2:1-2:2 intergrade normally occurs in the surface horizon and decreases with depth in the profile; (3) organic matter contents are low; and (4) pH values are only moderately acid (pH 5-6). It is theorized that the montmorillonite in the surface horizon of the soils studied originated by pedogenic weathering of the 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral. The combined effects of low pH (below 4??5) and high organic matter content in surface horizons are believed to be the agents responsible for this mineral transformation. The protonation and solubilization (reverse of hydrolysis) of Al-polymers in the interlayer of expansible clay minerals will occur at or below pH 4??5 depending on the charge and steric effects of the interlayer. A low pH alone may cause this solubilization and thus mineral transformation, but in the soils studied the organic matter is believed to facilitate and accelerage the transformation. The intermediates of organic matter decomposition provide an acid environment, a source of protons, and a source of watersoluble mobile organic substances (principally fulvic acids) which have the ability to complex the solubilized aluminum and move it down the profile. This continuous removal of solubilized aluminum would provide for a favorable gradient for aluminum solubilization. The drainage class or position in a catena is believed to be less important than the chemical factors in formation of montmorillonite from 2:1-2:2 intergrade, because

  16. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Pekker, Péter; Dódony, István; Kovács-Kis, Viktória; Sipos, Péter; Cora, Ildikó; Kovács, Ivett

    2016-04-01

    Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG), and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite. Based on the structural and chemical data two illite type minerals are present in the BCF samples: 1M polytype containing octahedral Fe and Mg besides Al, 2M polytype illite generally is free of Fe andMg. Close association of very thin illite plates and nanosized hematite crystals is typical textural feature for BCF. The goal of this study is to provide solid mineralogical basis for further studies focusing on radionuclide sorption properties.

  17. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of −3.0 ± 0.4 nN and −330 ± 43 aJ (10−18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  18. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of -3.0 ± 0.4 nN and -330 ± 43 aJ (10-18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions.

  19. GEOS axial booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    A booms and mechanisms subsystem was designed, developed, and qualified for the geostationary scientific satellite GEOS. Part of this subsystem consist of four axial booms consisting of one pair of 1 m booms and one pair of 2.5 m booms. Each of these booms is carrying one bird cage electric field sensor. Alignment accuracy requirements led to a telescopic type solution. Deployment is performed by pressurized nitrogen. At deployment in orbit two of these booms showed some anomalies and one of these two deployed only about 80%. Following this malfunction a detailed failure investigation was performed resulting in a design modification of some critical components as release mechanism, guide sleeves of the telescopic elements, and pressure system.

  20. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Li, Lianchong; Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui -Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2012-05-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated or plastic clays (Tsang and Hudson, 2010). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. During the lifespan of a clay repository, the repository performance is affected by complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow, formation of damage zones, radionuclide transport, waste dissolution, and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) of the repository. These coupled processes may affect radionuclide transport by changing transport paths (e.g., formation and evolution of excavation damaged zone (EDZ)) and altering flow, mineral, and mechanical properties that are related to radionuclide transport. While radionuclide transport in clay formation has been studied using laboratory tests (e,g, Appelo et al. 2010, Garcia-Gutierrez et al., 2008, Maes et al., 2008), short-term field

  1. Echo Boom Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordai, Phillipe; Rizzo, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Like their baby-boomer parents, the echo-boom generation is reshaping the college and university landscape. At 80 million strong, this group of children and young adults born between 1980 and 1995 now is flooding the college and university system, spurring a college building boom. According to Campus Space Crunch, a Hillier Architecture survey of…

  2. Contemporary biogenic formation of clay pavements by eucalypts: further support for the phytotarium concept

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John S.; Verboom, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Clayey (sodosolic) pavements were studied in lateral root catchments of eucalypts where mixed myrtaceous:proteaceous vegetation was colonizing a dune of quartzitic sand blown out from a playa lake during late Pleistocene times. The site at Chillinup in south-west Western Australia provided an opportunity to examine these signature pavements in an unequivocally recent setting, and to assess their effects on competing non-eucalypt vegetation. Methods Pavements were located, and their extents and depths assessed by probing with steel rods, followed by corings and pit excavations using an air spade. Listings of plant species, growth forms and root morphologies were assembled for different vegetation zones in a representative transect across the dune. A deep cutting through the dune provided details on pavement morphology and modifications to the sand deposit bioengineered by eucalypt and heath vegetation. Key Results Clay pavements comprised closely spaced, round-topped columns whose mean diameters and depths varied between eucalypt species. Incipient pavement formation was characterized by clumps of clay deposited around fine root material. Pavements appeared to have been synthesized in situ from locally accessed and imported constituents. Understoreys on superficial pavements of a tree eucalypt were considerably less dense and biodiverse than on the deeper pavements of two mallee species, whilst most profuse vegetation cover was encountered in heath on unmodified (non-pavemented) sand. Certain species were restricted to superficially located pavements, whilst other ‘generalist’ species occurred widely across the dune. Relict pavements formed by earlier generations of eucalypts were present in certain areas of the transect and in soil profiles of the cutting. Some relict pavements colonized by proteaceous shrubs were overprinted with ferricrete. Conclusions Clay pavements formed by eucalypts have pronounced effects on understorey vegetation and

  3. A Compilation of Space Shuttle Sonic Boom Measurements - Supplemental STS Sonic Boom Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Henderson, Herbert R.; Massey, Steven J.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental STS Sonic Boom Files for NASA/CR-2011-217080. Data files included on CDROM formatted to ISO 9660 standards. Sonic boom measurements have been obtained on 26 flights of the Space Shuttle system beginning with the launch of STS-1 on April 12, 1981, to the reentry-descent of STS-41 into EAFB on Oct. 10, 1990. A total of 23 boom measurements were acquired within the focus region off the Florida coast during 3 STS launch-ascents and 113 boom measurements were acquired during 23 STS reentry-descent to landing into Florida and California. Sonic boom measurements were made under, and lateral to, the vehicle ground track and cover the Mach-altitude range of about 1.3 to 23 and 54,000 feet to 243,000 feet, respectively. Vehicle operational data, flight profiles and weather data were also gathered during the flights. This STS boom database is contained in 26 documents, some are formal and referenceable but most internal documents. Another 38 documents, also non-referenceable, contain predicted sonic boom footprints for reentry-descent flights on which no measurements were made. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the STS sonic boom database and summarize the main findings.

  4. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  5. Lithologic Control on Secondary Clay Mineral Formation in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, E.; Rasmussen, C.; Dhakal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transformation of rock to soil is central to landscape evolution and ecosystem function. The objective of this study was to examine controls on secondary mineral formation in a forested catchment in the Catalina-Jemez CZO. We hypothesized landscape position controls the type of secondary minerals formed in that well-drained hillslopes favor Si-poor secondary phases such as kaolinite, whereas poorly drained portions of the landscape that collect solutes from surrounding areas favor formation of Si-rich secondary phases such as smectite. The study focused on a catchment in Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico where soils are derived from a mix of rhyolitic volcanic material, vegetation includes a mixed conifer forest, and climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of ~800 mm yr-1 and mean annual temperature of 4.5°C. Soils were collected at the soil-saprolite boundary from three landscape positions, classified as well drained hillslope, poorly drained convergent area, and poorly drained hill slope. Clay fractions were isolated and analyzed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and thermal analysis. Quantitative XRD of random powder mounts indicated the presence of both primary phases such as quartz, and alkali and plagioclase feldspars, and secondary phases that include illite, Fe-oxyhydroxides including both goethite and hematite, kaolinite, and smectite. The clay fractions were dominated by smectite ranging from 36-42%, illite ranging from 21-35%, and kaolinite ranging from 1-8%. Qualitative XRD of oriented mounts confirmed the presence of smectite in all samples, with varying degrees of interlayering and interstratification. In contrast to our hypothesis, results indicated that secondary mineral assemblage was not strongly controlled by landscape position, but rather varied with underlying variation in lithology. The catchment is underlain by a combination of porphorytic rhyolite and

  6. Formation of replicating saponite from a gel in the presence of oxalate: implications for the formation of clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Dirk; Hartman, Hyman; Eberl, Dennis D; Sears, S Kelly; Hesse, Reinhard; Vali, Hojatollah

    2012-06-01

    The potential role of clay minerals in the abiotic origin of life has been the subject of ongoing debate for the past several decades. At issue are the clay minerals found in a class of meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. These clay minerals are the product of aqueous alteration of anhydrous mineral phases, such as olivine and orthopyroxene, that are often present in the chondrules. Moreover, there is a strong correlation in the occurrence of clay minerals and the presence of polar organic molecules. It has been shown in laboratory experiments at low temperature and ambient pressure that polar organic molecules, such as the oxalate found in meteorites, can catalyze the crystallization of clay minerals. In this study, we show that oxalate is a robust catalyst in the crystallization of saponite, an Al- and Mg-rich, trioctahedral 2:1 layer silicate, from a silicate gel at 60°C and ambient pressure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the saponite treated with octadecylammonium (n(C)=18) cations revealed the presence of 2:1 layer structures that have variable interlayer charge. The crystallization of these differently charged 2:1 layer silicates most likely occurred independently. The fact that 2:1 layer silicates with variable charge formed in the same gel has implications for our understanding of the origin of life, as these 2:1 clay minerals most likely replicate by a mechanism of template-catalyzed polymerization and transmit the charge distribution from layer to layer. If polar organic molecules like oxalate can catalyze the formation of clay-mineral crystals, which in turn promote clay microenvironments and provide abundant adsorption sites for other organic molecules present in solution, the interaction among these adsorbed molecules could lead to the polymerization of more complex organic molecules like RNA from nucleotides on early Earth.

  7. Formation of replicating saponite from a gel in the presence of oxalate: implications for the formation of clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, Dirk; Hartman, Hyman; Eberl, Dennis D.; Sears, S. Kelly; Hesse, Reinhard; Vali, Hojatollah

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of clay minerals in the abiotic origin of life has been the subject of ongoing debate for the past several decades. At issue are the clay minerals found in a class of meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. These clay minerals are the product of aqueous alteration of anhydrous mineral phases, such as olivine and orthopyroxene, that are often present in the chondrules. Moreover, there is a strong correlation in the occurrence of clay minerals and the presence of polar organic molecules. It has been shown in laboratory experiments at low temperature and ambient pressure that polar organic molecules, such as the oxalate found in meteorites, can catalyze the crystallization of clay minerals. In this study, we show that oxalate is a robust catalyst in the crystallization of saponite, an Al- and Mg-rich, trioctahedral 2:1 layer silicate, from a silicate gel at 60°C and ambient pressure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the saponite treated with octadecylammonium (n(C)=18) cations revealed the presence of 2:1 layer structures that have variable interlayer charge. The crystallization of these differently charged 2:1 layer silicates most likely occurred independently. The fact that 2:1 layer silicates with variable charge formed in the same gel has implications for our understanding of the origin of life, as these 2:1 clay minerals most likely replicate by a mechanism of template-catalyzed polymerization and transmit the charge distribution from layer to layer. If polar organic molecules like oxalate can catalyze the formation of clay-mineral crystals, which in turn promote clay microenvironments and provide abundant adsorption sites for other organic molecules present in solution, the interaction among these adsorbed molecules could lead to the polymerization of more complex organic molecules like RNA from nucleotides on early Earth.

  8. Trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans from the Lexington Limestone and the Clays Ferry Formation (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karklins, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Lexington Limestone and the Clays Ferry Formation of Kentucky contain an abundant and diversified fossil invertebrate fauna. This report is concerned with the trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans that constitute a major part of that fauna. The Lexington Limestone, largely a biofragmental fossiliferous limestone, rests disconformably on the Tyrone Limestone (Middle Ordovician). The Clays Ferry Formation consists of approximately equal amounts of biofragmentallimestone and shale, and it overlies conformably, or intertongues with, the upper part of the Lexington Limestone. The Clays Ferry Formation is overlain by the Garrard Siltstone (Upper Ordovician) in central Kentucky and intertongues with the Kope Formation (Upper Ordovician) in northern Kentucky. The MiddleUpper Ordovician boundary falls within the upper part of the Lexington Limestone and laterally equivalent strata of the Clays Ferry Formation. The Lexington Limestone has been divided into 12 members, consisting of calcarenites, calcisiltites, calcilutites, nodular limestones, and shales in various amounts, that intertongue complexly. Because of the great abundance of bryozoans this study is generally limited to bryozoans recovered from, in ascending order, the Grier Limestone Member, the Perryville Limestone Member, the Brannon Member, the Tanglewood Limestone Member, and the Millersburg Member of the Lexington Limestone and from the Clays Ferry Formation and its Point Pleasant Tongue. The trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans discussed are referred to 36 species belonging to 22 genera. The trepostome component includes 29 species belonging to 16 genera: Amplexopora, Atactoporella, Balticopora, Batostoma, Cyphotrypa, Dekayia, Eridotrypa, Hetero-_ trypa, Homotrypa, Homotrypella, Mesotrypa, Parvohallopora, Peronopora, Prasopora, Stigmatella, and Tarphophragma, a new genus. Five of the trepostome species are new: Balticopora arcuatilis, Cyphotrypa switzeriensis, Dekayia epetrima, Eridotrypa sadievillensis

  9. Mineral catalysis of the formation of the phosphodiester bond in aqueous solution - The possible role of montmorillonite clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; Ertem, Gozen; KAMALUDDIN; Agarwal, Vipin; Hua, Lu Lin

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of montmorillonite clays in the spontaneous formation on the primitive earth of the phosphodiester bond in the presence of water was investigated in experiments measuring the binding of various nucleosides and nucleotides with Na(+)-montmorillonite 22A and the reactions of these compounds with a water-soluble carbodiimide. It was found that, at neutral pH, adenine derivatives bind stronger than the corresponding uracil derivatives, consistent with the protonation of the adenine by the acidic clay surface and a cationic binding of the protonated ring to the anionic clay surface. The reaction of the 5-prime-AMP with carbodiimide resulted in the formation of 2-prime,5-prime-pApA (18.9 percent), 3-prime,5-prime-pApA (11 percent), and AppA (4.8 percent). The yields of these oligomers obtained when poly(U) was used in place of the clay were 15.5 percent, 3.7 percent, and 14.9 percent AppA, respectively.

  10. Surveying Clay Mineral Diversity in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, T. F.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Yen, A. S.; Morris, R. V.; Des Marais, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the primary science goals of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is to investigate layered clay mineral-bearing deposits outcropping in the lower NW slopes of Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) detected from orbit. Martian clay mineral-bearing layered rocks are of particular interest because they are potential markers of sedimentary deposits formed in habitable aqueous environments. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument aboard MSL has documented clay minerals in various drill samples during its traverse of Gale Crater's floor and ascent of Mt. Sharp. Previously, the high concentrations of clay minerals (approximately 20 wt.%) detected in drill powders of mudstone (Sheepbed member) at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) allowed their detailed characterization. Drill powders recovered from lacustrine mudstones of the Sheepbed member at YKB contain smectite clay minerals. Based on the position of 02l reflections in XRD patterns, which serve as an indicator of octahedral occupancy, the smectites are Fe-bearing, trioctahedral species analogous to ferrian saponites from terrestrial deposits. The smectites are thought to have been formed through a process of isochemical aqueous alteration of detrital olivine close to the time of sediment deposition under anoxic to poorly oxidizing conditions. The clay minerals are key indicators that the lake waters were benign and habitable at the time. Clay minerals were detected at other locations during MSL's traverse, including samples from the Pahrump Hills, but lower abundances and overlapping peaks from crystalline phases in XRD patterns hamper in-depth analysis.

  11. Formation of environmentally persistent free radical (EPFR) in iron(III) cation-exchanged smectite clay.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G; Roy, Amitava; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Dellinger, Barry; Cook, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found at a number of Superfund sites, with EPFRs being formed via a proposed redox process at ambient environmental conditions. The possibility of such a redox process taking place at ambient environmental conditions is studied utilizing a surrogate soil system of phenol and iron(III)-exchanged calcium montmorillonite clay, Fe(III)CaM. Sorption of phenol by the Fe(III)CaM is demonstrated by Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as evidenced by the peaks between 1345 cm(-1) and 1595 cm(-1), and at lower frequencies between 694 cm(-1) and 806 cm(-1), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, as shown by an increase in interlayer spacing within Fe(III)CaM. The formation and characterization of the EPFRs is determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, showing phenoxyl-type radical with a g-factor of 2.0034 and ΔHP-P of 6.1 G at an average concentration of 7.5 × 10(17) spins per g. EPFRs lifetime data are indicative of oxygen and water molecules being responsible for EPFR decay. The change in the oxidation state of the iron redox center is studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, showing that 23% of the Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results confirm the XANES results. These findings, when combined with the EPFR concentration data, demonstrate that the stoichiometry of the EPFR formation under the conditions of this study is 1.5 × 10(-2) spins per Fe(II) atom.

  12. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  13. Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2013-07-03

    The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

  14. Allogenic and authigenic clays of the Lower Palæozoic sandstones of the Naqus Formation at Gebel Gunna, central Sinai, Egypt: their recognition and geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, H. A.; Soliman, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Lower Palæozoic Naqus Formation of Gebel Gunna in the Sinai Peninsula is conformably underlain by the Araba Formation and unconformably overlain by the Cenomanian Malha Formation. It consists mainly of fine- to medium-grained pebbly sandstones with a few siltstone and granulestone interbeds. Petrographical, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and chemical analyses of the sandstones revealed that they are mainly quartzarenite, containing allogenic and authigenic clays. The allogenic clays were found in small amounts. Such clays exhibit some of the characteristic features of infiltration clay coats. The clays coat a few grain surfaces and form meniscus-shaped pore bridges at points of grain contact. In addition, the clays were observed on the surfaces of crystalline authigenic minerals and in-filled elongated pores of partially dissolved feldspar grains. The recorded authigenic clays are mainly kaolinite with a minor amount of illite. The kaolinite exhibits three morphological habits: vermicular, blocky and fan-shaped. The vermicular kaolinite is dominant and was interpreted to have formed by dissolution of feldspar grains. The blocky kaolinite was observed with a textural relationship, indicating that it was neomorphosed after vermicular kaolinite. The fan-shaped kaolinite was found to be a result of mica alteration. Study of both allogenic and authigenic clays has helped in understanding the sedimentological history of the studied sandstones. The sandstones were deposited in a braided stream, buried at depth of about 1-3 km, and afterwards subjected to surface exposure.

  15. Three dimensional analysis of the pore space in fine-grained Boom Clay, using BIB-SEM (broad-ion beam scanning electron microscopy), combined with FIB (focused ion-beam) serial cross-sectioning, pore network modeling and Wood's metal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemes, Susanne; Klaver, Jop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    The Boom Clay is, besides the Ypresian clays, one of the potential host rock materials for radioactive waste disposal in Belgium (Gens et al., 2003; Van Marcke & Laenen, 2005; Verhoef et al., 2011). To access parameters, which are relevant for the diffusion controlled transport of radionuclides in the material, such as porosity, pore connectivity and permeability, it is crucial to characterize the pore space at high resolution (nm-scale) and in 3D. Focused-ion-beam (FIB) serial cross-sectioning in combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pore network modeling, Wood's metal injection and broad-ion-beam (BIB) milling, constitute a superior set of methods to characterize the 3D pore space in fine-grained, clayey materials, down to the nm-scale resolution. In the present study, we identified characteristic 3D pore space morphologies, determined the 3D volume porosity of the material and applied pore network extraction modeling (Dong and Blunt, 2009), to access the connectivity of the pore space and to discriminate between pore bodies and pore throats. Moreover, we used Wood's metal injection (WMI) in combination with BIB-SEM imaging to assess the pore connectivity at a larger scale and even higher resolution. The FIB-SEM results show a highly (~ 90 %) interconnected pore space in Boom Clay, down to the resolution of ~ 3E+03 nm³ (voxel-size), with a total volume porosity of ~ 20 %. Pore morphologies of large (> 5E+08 nm³), highly interconnected pores are complex, with high surface area to volume ratios (shape factors G ~ 0.01), whereas small (< 1E+06 nm³), often isolated pores are much more compact and show higher shape factors (G) up to 0.03. WMI in combination with BIB-SEM, down to a resolution of ~ 50 nm² pixel-size, indicates an interconnected porosity fraction of ~ 80 %, of a total measured 2D porosity of ~ 20 %. Determining and distinguishing between pore bodies and pore throats enables us to compare 3D FIB-SEM pore

  16. The Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) of the Norwegian continental shelf and Dorset, UK: a chemostratigraphical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Holly; Gale, Andy; Gradstein, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The type section of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) at Dorset, (UK) stands at the forefront in multidisciplinary research on climatic cyclicity, orbital forcing, sea level change and the productivity vs. preservation controversy. In economic terms, it is a prime source rock of the North Sea hydrocarbon province containing up to 35% total organic carbon. Lateral equivalents of the KCF occur widely in the North, Norwegian and Barents Sea regions of north-western Europe under other names: the Draupne, Mandal, Spekk, Hekkingen and Agardhfjellet (Svalbard) formations. Carbon isotopes and clay mineralogy have been extensively studied from the KCF type section at Dorset. However, between the North Sea and Western Barents Sea, little is known of these records. Correlation using both clay mineral and δ13Corg profiles across these areas would provide insights for our understanding of Late Jurassic climatic developments in north-western Europe. New chemostratigraphical records through the KCF of five Norwegian exploration wells of Lundin Petroleum and one of Statoil, are compared with the Kimmeridgian of Sub-Boreal Dorset, along with a correlation between Svalbard records with the Tithonian cores sampled in this project. Dinoflagellate biostratigraphy accompanies isotope stratigraphy in the placement of each core in time. Initial results show a strong overall correlation. On a smaller timescale, several events are described from Dorset, including a distinct mid-Eudoxus positive isotope peak reflecting a sea level rise, and the Hudlestoni aridity peak as recorded by low kaolinite/illite ratios. Off the Norwegian Continental Shelf, how are these events recorded, if recorded at all, in a δ13Corg and clay mineralogical profile? Such events are useful tools in correlation, and their identification regionally reduces the likelihood of local influence on oceanographical conditions, such as palaeoproductivity response to nutrient influxes, and instead reflects changes in the

  17. Formation and Stabilization of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals Induced by the Interaction of Anthracene with Fe(III)-Modified Clays.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hanzhong; Nulaji, Gulimire; Gao, Hongwei; Wang, Fu; Zhu, Yunqing; Wang, Chuanyi

    2016-06-21

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are occasionally detected in Superfund sites but the formation of EPFRs induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not well understood. In the present work, the formation of EPFRs on anthracene-contaminated clay minerals was quantitatively monitored via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and surface/interface-related environmental influential factors were systematically explored. The obtained results suggest that EPFRs are more readily formed on anthracene-contaminated Fe(III)-montmorillonite than in other tested systems. Depending on the reaction condition, more than one type of organic radicals including anthracene-based radical cations with g-factors of 2.0028-2.0030 and oxygenic carbon-centered radicals featured by g-factors of 2.0032-2.0038 were identified. The formed EPFRs are stabilized by their interaction with interlayer surfaces, and such surface-bound EPFRs exhibit slow decay with 1/e-lifetime of 38.46 days. Transformation pathway and possible mechanism are proposed on the basis of experimental results and quantum mechanical simulations. Overall, the formation of EPFRs involves single-electron-transfer from anthracene to Fe(III) initially, followed by H2O addition on formed aromatic radical cation. Because of their potential exposure in soil and atmosphere, such clay surface-associated EPFRs might induce more serious toxicity than PAHs and exerts significant impacts on human health.

  18. In situ clay formation : evaluation of a proposed new technology for stable containment barriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; DiGiovanni, Anthony Albert; Fredrich, Joanne T.

    2004-03-01

    Containment of chemical wastes in near-surface and repository environments is accomplished by designing engineered barriers to fluid flow. Containment barrier technologies such as clay liners, soil/bentonite slurry walls, soil/plastic walls, artificially grouted sediments and soils, and colloidal gelling materials are intended to stop fluid transport and prevent plume migration. However, despite their effectiveness in the short-term, all of these barriers exhibit geochemical or geomechanical instability over the long-term resulting in degradation of the barrier and its ability to contain waste. No technologically practical or economically affordable technologies or methods exist at present for accomplishing total remediation, contaminant removal, or destruction-degradation in situ. A new type of containment barrier with a potentially broad range of environmental stability and longevity could result in significant cost-savings. This report documents a research program designed to establish the viability of a proposed new type of containment barrier derived from in situ precipitation of clays in the pore space of contaminated soils or sediments. The concept builds upon technologies that exist for colloidal or gel stabilization. Clays have the advantages of being geologically compatible with the near-surface environment and naturally sorptive for a range of contaminants, and further, the precipitation of clays could result in reduced permeability and hydraulic conductivity, and increased mechanical stability through cementation of soil particles. While limited success was achieved under certain controlled laboratory conditions, the results did not warrant continuation to the field stage for multiple reasons, and the research program was thus concluded with Phase 2.

  19. Pentachlorophenol radical cations generated on Fe(III)-montmorillonite initiate octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin formation in clays: DFT and FTIR studies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cheng; Liu, Cun; Johnston, Cliff T.; Teppen, Brian J.; Li, Hui; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD) forms spontaneously from pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the surfaces of Fe(III)-saturated smectite clay (1). Here, we used in situ FTIR methods and quantum mechanical calculations to determine the mechanism by which this reaction is initiated. As the clay was dehydrated, vibrational spectra showed new peaks that grew and then reversibly disappeared as the clay rehydrated. First principle DFT calculations of hydrated Fe-PCP clusters reproduced these transient FTIR peaks when inner-sphere complexation and concomitant electron transfer produced Fe(II) and PCP radical cations. Thus, our experimental (FTIR) and theoretical (quantum mechanical) results mutually support the hypothesis that OCDD formation on Fe-smectite surfaces is initiated by the reversible formation of metastable PCP radical cations via single electron transfer from PCP to Fe(III). The negatively charged clay surface apparently selects for this reaction mechanism by stabilizing PCP radical cations. PMID:21254769

  20. High-resolution reflection seismic investigations of quick-clay and associated formations at a landslide scar in southwest Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Saleem, Muhammad Umar; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2013-05-01

    We present high-resolution reflection seismic data from four lines (total 1.9 km) that cross a quick-clay landslide scar located close to the shore of the Göta River in southwest Sweden, and compare the results with geotechnical data from boreholes. The seismic data allow the imaging of bedrock topography and normally to weakly consolidated sediments to a subsurface depth of about 100 m. Different types of seismic sources, including sledgehammer, accelerated weight-drop and dynamite were utilized and compared with each other. Analysis of their power spectra suggests that weight-drop and dynamite have higher frequency content and energy than the sledgehammer, which makes these two sources suitable also for waveform tomography and surface-wave data analysis. The shallowest non-bedrock reflector is observed at about 10-20 m below the surface, it overlays the bedrock, and is interpreted to originate from the contact between clay formations above and a coarse-grained layer below. The coarse-grained layer appears to be spatially linked to the presence of quick-clays. It is a regional scale formation, laterally heterogeneous, which deepens to the west of the study area and correlates well with the available geotechnical data. Continuity of the coarse-grained layer becomes obscured by the landslide scar. There may be a link between the coarse-grained layer and landslides in the study area, although this possibility requires further hydrogeological and geotechnical investigations. Reflectors from the top of the bedrock suggest a depression zone with its deepest point below the landslide scar and a bowl-shaped structure in the northern portion of one of the seismic lines.

  1. Status of knowledge of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Carlson, H. W.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of sonic boom technology with emphasis on the recent research results is summarized. Included are definitions of the boom carpets, both primary and secondary, a discussion of existing experience with primary booms including the status of overpressure predictions and boom minimization methodology through airplane design, an indication of the boom waveforms and audibility, and a discussion of focus booms resulting from aircraft maneuvers as well as the effect of abnormal atmospheric conditions on these maneuver booms.

  2. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  3. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of ball clay in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. Several companies mined ball call in the country including Old Hickey Clay Co., Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co., and H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Information on the decline in ball clay imports and exports is also presented.

  4. Clays in prebiological chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Oro, J.; Odom, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The ways in which clays have been utilized in studies of prebiological chemistry are reviewed, and an assessment is given of the possible role of clays in prebiological systems. The adsorption of organic molecules on clays has been demonstrated, as has the synthesis of bioorganic monomers in the presence of clays. For instance, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines have been obtained from carbon monoxide and nitric acid in the presence of clays at relatively high temperatures (250-325 C). The oligomerization of biochemical monomers, mediated by clays, has also been shown to result in the formation of polymer molecules basic to life. Clays have also been found to affect the condensation of mononucleotides to oligonucleotides.

  5. Clay catalysis of oligonucleotide formation: kinetics of the reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolides of nucleotides with the non-basic heterocycles uracil and hypoxanthine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Ferris, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The montmorillonite clay catalyzed condensation of activated monocleotides to oligomers of RNA is a possible first step in the formation of the proposed RNA world. The rate constants for the condensation of the phosphorimidazolide of adenosine were measured previously and these studies have been extended to the phosphorimidazolides of inosine and uridine in the present work to determine of substitution of neutral heterocycles for the basic adenine ring changes the reaction rate or regioselectivity. The oligomerization reactions of the 5'-phosphoromidazolides of uridine (ImpU) and inosine (ImpI) on montmorillonite yield oligo(U)s and oligo(I)s as long as heptamers. The rate constants for oligonucleotide formation were determined by measuring the rates of formation of the oligomers by HPLC. Both the apparent rate constants in the reaction mixture and the rate constants on the clay surface were calculated using the partition coefficients of the oligomers between the aqueous and clay phases. The rate constants for trimer formation are much greater than those dimer synthesis but there was little difference in the rate constants for the formation of trimers and higher oligomers. The overall rates of oligomerization of the phosphorimidazolides of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides in the presence of montmorillonite clay are the same suggesting that RNA formed on the primitive Earth could have contained a variety of heterocyclic bases. The rate constants for oligomerization of pyrimidine nucleotides on the clay surface are significantly higher than those of purine nucleotides since the pyrimidine nucleotides bind less strongly to the clay than do the purine nucleotides. The differences in the binding is probably due to Van der Waals interactions between the purine bases and the clay surface. Differences in the basicity of the heterocyclic ring in the nucleotide have little effect on the oligomerization process.

  6. Clays, specialty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the specialty clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. The specialty clays mined in the U.S. are ball clay, fuller's earth, bentonite, fire clay, and kaolin. Sales of specialty clays in the U.S. were around 17 Mt in 1997. Approximately 53 kt of specialty clays were imported.

  7. Laboratory and In Situ Simulation Tests of the Excavation Damaged Zone Around Galleries in Opalinus Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiouse, Vincent; Vietor, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste disposal in clay formations, laboratory and in situ simulation experiments were performed to study at reduced scale the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around tunnels in the indurated Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri, Switzerland. In the laboratory, thick-walled hollow cylindrical specimens were subjected to a mechanical unloading mimicking a gallery excavation. In samples cored parallel to bedding, cracks sub-parallel to the bedding planes open and lead to a buckling failure in two regions that extend from the borehole in the direction normal to bedding. The behaviour is clearly anisotropic. On the other hand, in experiments performed on specimens cored perpendicular to bedding, there is no indication of failure around the hole and the response of the hollow cylinder sample is mainly isotropic. The in situ experiment at Mont Terri which consisted in the overcoring of a resin-injected borehole that follows the bedding strike of the Opalinus Clay showed a striking similarity between the induced damaged zone and the fracture pattern observed in the hollow cylinder tests on samples cored parallel to bedding and such a bedding controlled "Excavation" Damaged Zone is as well consistent with the distinct fracture patterns observed at Mont Terri depending on the orientation of holes/galleries with respect to the bedding planes. Interestingly, the damaged zone observed in the hollow cylinder tests on samples cored parallel to bedding and in situ around URL galleries is found to develop in reverse directions in Boom Clay (Mol) and in Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri). This most probably results from different failure mechanisms, i.e. shear failure along conjugated planes in the plastic Boom Clay, but bedding plane splitting and buckling in the indurated Opalinus Clay.

  8. Sonic Boom Modeling Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the technical challenges in modeling sonic booms. The goal of this program is to develop knowledge, capabilities and technologies to enable overland supersonic flight. The specific objectives of the modeling are: (1) Develop and validate sonic boom propagation model through realistic atmospheres, including effects of turbulence (2) Develop methods enabling prediction of response of and acoustic transmission into structures impacted by sonic booms (3) Develop and validate psychoacoustic model of human response to sonic booms under both indoor and outdoor listening conditions, using simulators.

  9. Catalysis of peptide bond formation by histidyl-histidine in a fluctuating clay environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The condensation of glycine to form oligoglycines during wet-dry fluctuations on clay surfaces was enhanced up to threefold or greater by small amounts of histidyl-histidine. In addition, higher relative yields of the longer oligomers were produced. Other specific dipeptides tested gave no enhancement, and imidazole, histidine, and N-acetylhistidine gave only slight enhancements. Histidyl-histidine apparently acts as a true catalyst (in the sense of repeatedly catalyzing the reaction), since up to 52 nmol of additional glycine were incorporated into oligoglycine for each nmol of catalyst added. This is the first known instance of a peptide or similar molecule demonstrating a catalytic turnover number greater than unity in a prebiotic oligomer synthesis reaction, and suggests that histidyl-histidine is a model for a primitive prebiotic proto-enzyme. Catalysis of peptide bond synthesis by a molecule which is itself a peptide implies that related systems may be capable of exhibiting autocatalytic growth.

  10. Mapping the Stratigraphy of Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    Booming dunes emit a loud rumbling sound after a man-made or natural sand avalanche is generated on the slip face of a large desert dune. The sound consist of one dominant frequency (70 - 105 Hz) with several higher harmonics. A recent publication (Vriend et al., 2007) presented a model of an internal, natural waveguide that propagates the booming emission, amplifies the sound, and sets the booming frequency. The mapping of the subsurface layering, which is necessary for the existence of a waveguide, prompted additional work on the dune structure and stratigraphy. The current work highlights geophysical measurements at Eureka Dunes in Death Valley National Park, CA and Dumont Dunes in the Mojave Desert, CA. Seismic refraction studies indicate strong layering with large velocity jumps across the interfaces. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiles, at frequencies of 100 MHz and 200 MHz, map out the stratigraphic structure of the dunes. Variations in the near surface layering are able to predict the seasonal variability in booming frequency both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Kirchhoff migrated GPR profiles are superimposed on the local topography obtained with a laser rangefinder. The complex dune structure is resolved to a depth of over 30 meters for the 100 MHz antenna. The GPR profiles of the longitudinal Eureka dune display complex internal structures from old dune crests. Both slopes have slip faces at 30 degrees with parallel layering (< 2m) at the near surface. At the transverse Dumont dune the GPR profile exhibits strong parallel layering on the booming leeward slipface only. The shallower windward face features a remarkable tilted repetitive layering that cuts through the surface. At Dumont Dunes the layering on the leeward face explains the change in booming frequency between 70 - 95 Hertz in the period 2005 - 2008. The tilted layering structure of the shallow windward face prevents the formation of a waveguide and is never able to sustain the

  11. Theoretical investigation of the role of clay edges in prebiotic peptide bond formation. II - Structures and thermodynamics of the activated complex species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jack R.; Loew, Gilda H.; Luke, Brian T.; White, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular orbital calculations are used to study amino acid activation by anhydride formation in neutral phosphates and in tetrahedral silicate and aluminate sites on clay edges. The results agree with previous ab initio studies of Luke et al. (1984) on the reactant species. Relative heats of formation of the anhydrides indicate the extent of anhydride formation to be the greatest for Al and the least for phosphate, which is the same order as the stability of hydrolysis.

  12. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  13. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  14. Clay mineral assemblages and analcime formation in a Palaeogene fluvial lacustrine sequence (Maíz Gordo Formation Palaeogen) from northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Campo, M.; del Papa, C.; Jiménez-Millán, J.; Nieto, F.

    2007-09-01

    The Palaeogene Maíz Gordo Formation is one of the main lacustrine events recorded in northwestern Argentina. It consists of sandstone, mudstone, and limestone beds 200 m thick, deposited in a brackish-alkaline lake and braided alluvial systems. The Maíz Gordo Lake evolved mainly as a closed system, with brief periods as an open one. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study samples from seven sites, corresponding respectively to proximal, intermediate, and transitional positions of the fluvial environment and marginal and inner-lake environment, focusing on the clay mineralogy and analcime formation. The basinward zonation of diagenetic minerals identified in the Maíz Gordo Lake was: mordenite → analcime → K-feldspar. Although not a typical zonation of saline-alkaline lakes, it does indicate an increase in salinity and alkalinity towards the centre. In proximal fluvial settings, smectite predominates at the base of the sequence, with scarce kaolinite. Towards the top, a striking increase in kaolinite content suggests a change from a relatively arid climate with alternating humid and dry seasons, towards a warm and humid climate. Kaolinite content clearly decreases in a basinward direction. Such a variation is attributable to changes in hydro-geochemistry, denoting the progressive influence of the brackish and alkaline lake water on interstitial pores. SEM images of intermediate fluvial samples reveal authigenesis of illite at the expense of kaolinite booklets. In littoral and inner-lake settings the clay fraction is composed of muscovite, sometimes with subordinate smectite. Analcime occurs in variable amounts in all sedimentary facies, in rock pores or filling veins. It forms subhedral square to hexagonal, or anhedral rounded crystals, denoting that they coarsened at low to moderate degrees of supersaturation. Although the mordenite identified in a fluvial level would have been the precursor of analcime in the Ma

  15. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers information on ball clay. Among the companies that mine ball clay in the U.S. are H.C. Spinks Clay, Kentucky-Tennessee Clay and Old Hickory Clay. In 2006, an estimated 1.2 million tons of the mineral was sold or used domestically and exported. Forty-percent of the total sales is accounted for ceramic floor and wall tile followed by sanitaryware and miscellaneous ceramics. Its average value was $ 45 per ton in 2006.

  16. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  17. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN

    1989-01-01

    The formation of oligomers from deoxynucleotides, catalyzed by Na(+)-montmorillonite, was investigated with special attention given to the effect of the monomer structure on the phosphodiester bond formation. It was found that adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides and thymidine nucleotides. Tetramers of 2-prime-dpA were detected in the reaction of 2-prime-d-5-prime-AMP with a water-soluble carbodiimide EDAC in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite, illustrating the possible role of minerals in the formation of biopolymers on the primitive earth.

  18. A Boom in Boomerangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ted Bailey, a highly-ranked international boomerang designer and thrower, used information from a variety of NASA technical reports on aerodynamics and low-speed airfoils to design more competitive boomerangs. Because the boomerang is essentially an airfoil like an airplane wing, the technology transferred effectively and even contributed to the 1981 American victory over Australian throwers. In 1985, using four NASA reports, Bailey designed a new MTA (maximum time aloft) boomerang that broke the one-minute barrier, enabled throwers to throw and catch in less than three minutes and allowed competitors to complete the difficult "Super Catch" - five throw/catch sequences after launching the original boom while it is still aloft. Bailey is now considering other boomerang applications.

  19. New western boom towns

    SciTech Connect

    Daneke, G.A.

    1980-09-30

    The Mountain West, particularly isolated rural communities, can expect rapid growth which cannot be accurately predicted by the usual population-forecasting techniques. Mining and defense projects, combined with a general population shift to the South and West, have already brought some anticipatory migration to areas that have not prepared an infrastructure to handle the social and economic demands of boom towns. The relationship between meeting the physical and human needs of a community are poorly understood, with the result that most local planners concentrate on the water, sewer, and street planning of traditional urban-sprawl patterns and contribute to community disintegration. A carefully planned infrastructure which incorporates social-service planning could anticipate many problems and introduce innovative environmental and energy-saving ideas. (DCK)

  20. Pyromorphite Formation And Stability After Quick Lime Neutralisation In The Presence Of Soil And Clay Sorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soluble Pb is immobilised in pure systems as pyromorphite by adding sources of P, but doubts remain about the efectiveness of this approach in natural soil systems, particularly given the ability of soil humic substances to interfere with Pb-mineral formation. In addition, recen...

  1. Loudness of shaped sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    A loudness model is adopted to study the feasibility of designing and operating a supersonic transport to produce minimized sonic booms. The loudness contours in this technique extend to a lower frequency (1 Hz) and thus are appropriate for sonic booms that contain significant low frequency energy. Input to the loudness calculation procedure is the power spectral density of the pressure-time signature. Calculations of loudness, for both indoor and outdoor conditions, demonstrate that shaped sonic booms are potentially more acceptable than N-waves possessing the same peak overpressure.

  2. Swarm Deployable Boom Assembly (DBA) Development of a Deployable Magnetometer Boom for the Swarm Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Paul; Jung, Hans-Juergen; Edwards, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    The Swarm programme consists of 3 magnetically clean satellites flying in close formation designed to measure the Earth's magnetic field using 2 Magnetometers mounted on a 4.3m long deployable boom.Deployment is initiated by releasing 3 HDRMs, once released the boom oscillates back and forth on a pair of pivots, similar to a restaurant kitchen door hinge, for around 120 seconds before coming to rest on 3 kinematic mounts which are used to provide an accurate reference location in the deployed position. Motion of the boom is damped through a combination of friction, spring hysteresis and flexing of the 120+ cables crossing the hinge. Considerable development work and accurate numerical modelling of the hinge motion was required to predict performance across a wide temperature range and ensure that during the 1st overshoot the boom did not damage itself, the harness or the spacecraft.Due to the magnetic cleanliness requirements of the spacecraft no magnetic materials could be used in the design of the hardware.

  3. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys, Old Hickory Clay Co. and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in five U.S. states in 2012. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 900 kt (992,000 st), with an estimated value of $42.3 million. This was a slight increase in tonnage from 886 kt (977,000 st), with a value of $40.9 million in 2011. Tennessee was the leading ball clay producing state, with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky and Indiana. Reported ball clay production from Indiana probably was fire clay rather than ball clay. About 69 percent of total ball clay production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  4. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  5. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  6. Pyromorphite formation and stability after quick lime neutralisation in the presence of soil and clay sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, Mark A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2008-06-16

    Soluble Pb is immobilised in pure systems as pyromorphite by adding sources of P, but doubts remain about the effectiveness of this approach in natural soil systems, particularly given the ability of soil humic substances to interfere with Pb-mineral formation. In addition, recent thermodynamic modelling predicts that pyromorphite formed by the addition of phosphoric acid to Pb-contaminated soils, followed by neutralisation with quick lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) will destabilise the mineral, reverting the Pb back to more soluble species such as cerussite or anglesite. In this paper, we describe experiments to form pyromorphite in the presence of two different sorbents: a reference smectite called Panther Creek Bentonite, and a commercially available, organically rich potting mixture. We present X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidence suggestive of pyromorphite formation, yet, like similar studies, the evidence is less than conclusive. Linear combination fits of Pb X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) data collected at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory show that pyromorphite is the major Pb species formed after the addition of phosphoric acid. Furthermore, XAFS data shows that neutralising with quick lime enhances (as opposed to reducing) pyromorphite content in these systems. These results call into question relying solely on XRD data to confirm or deny the existence of minerals like pyromorphite, whose complex morphology give less intense and more complicated diffraction patterns than some of the simpler Pb minerals.

  7. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  8. FCC in Viking articulated boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application requirements and manufacturing techniques for the flat conductor cable used in the Viking Lander Articulated Boom Unit are described. The Viking Boom is a 3-axis device utilized to position a soil sampler and provide digging forces. This application imposed severe restrictions on size, weight, materials, and choice of manufacturing processes. The final cable assembly design resulted in a combination of collated cable and flexible circuits assembled by resistance welding techniques.

  9. Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters - Biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Doering, Kristin; Wallmann, Klaus; Scholz, Florian; Sommer, Stefan; Grasse, Patricia; Geilert, Sonja; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved silicon isotope compositions have been analysed for the first time in pore waters (δ30SiPW) of three short sediment cores from the Peruvian margin upwelling region with distinctly different biogenic opal content in order to investigate silicon isotope fractionation behaviour during early diagenetic turnover of biogenic opal in marine sediments. The δ30SiPW varies between +1.1‰ and +1.9‰ with the highest values occurring in the uppermost part close to the sediment-water interface. These values are of the same order or higher than the δ30Si of the biogenic opal extracted from the same sediments (+0.3‰ to +1.2‰) and of the overlying bottom waters (+1.1‰ to +1.5‰). Together with dissolved silicic acid concentrations well below biogenic opal saturation, our collective observations are consistent with the formation of authigenic alumino-silicates from the dissolving biogenic opal. Using a numerical transport-reaction model we find that approximately 24% of the dissolving biogenic opal is re-precipitated in the sediments in the form of these authigenic phases at a relatively low precipitation rate of 56 μmol Si cm-2 yr-1. The fractionation factor between the precipitates and the pore waters is estimated at -2.0‰. Dissolved and solid cation concentrations further indicate that off Peru, where biogenic opal concentrations in the sediments are high, the availability of reactive terrigenous material is the limiting factor for the formation of authigenic alumino-silicate phases.

  10. Stratigraphy and formation of clays, sulfates, and hydrated silica within a depression in Coprates Catena, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Catherine M.; Bishop, Janice L.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the morphology, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of light-toned layered deposits within a trough of Coprates Catena, centered at -15°N, 300°E. One of the deposits in the eastern portion of the trough contains numerous hydrated minerals, including Al-phyllosilicates, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, hydrated silica, hydrated sulfates, jarosite and acid alteration products characterized by a spectral doublet between 2.2 and 2.3 µm, and weakly hydrated materials. The Al-phyllosilicates are observed both stratigraphically above and below the Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate unit, which is a rare and perhaps unique association on Mars. Most of the western light-toned layered deposit underlies a terraced fan. This deposit contains hydrated materials, including Al-phyllosilicates and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates. Dip measurements indicate that both the eastern and western deposits dip toward the center of the trough, indicating that they postdate formation of the trough and are consequently Late Hesperian or younger in age. Volcanic ash, most likely erupted during formation of the pit crater in the eastern portion of the trough, seems to best explain our observations for several of the units. Valleys sourced from water along the plateau may have flowed into the trough and altered the sediments, with changing aqueous chemistries over time resulting in the diverse range of mineralogies now observed in the eastern light-toned deposit. Our results reveal a complex sedimentary and aqueous history within the Coprates Catena trough, indicating that localized habitable conditions were possible relatively late in Martian history at a time when colder, drier conditions likely dominated the majority of the planet.

  11. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  12. Hybrid Finite-Discrete Element Simulation of the EDZ Formation and Mechanical Sealing Process Around a Microtunnel in Opalinus Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisjak, Andrea; Tatone, Bryan S. A.; Mahabadi, Omid K.; Grasselli, Giovanni; Marschall, Paul; Lanyon, George W.; Vaissière, Rémi de la; Shao, Hua; Leung, Helen; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The analysis and prediction of the rock mass disturbance around underground excavations are critical components of the performance and safety assessment of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste. In the short term, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) tends to develop due to the redistribution of stresses around the underground openings. The EDZ is associated with an increase in hydraulic conductivity of several orders of magnitude. In argillaceous rocks, sealing mechanisms ultimately lead to a partial reduction in the effective hydraulic conductivity of the EDZ with time. The goal of this study is to strengthen the understanding of the phenomena involved in the EDZ formation and sealing in Opalinus Clay, an indurated claystone currently being assessed as a host rock for a geological repository in Switzerland. To achieve this goal, hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) simulations are performed. With its explicit consideration of fracturing processes, FDEM modeling is applied to the HG-A experiment, an in situ test carried out at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory to investigate the hydro-mechanical response of a backfilled and sealed microtunnel. A quantitative simulation of the EDZ formation process around the microtunnel is first carried out, and the numerical results are compared with field observations. Then, the re-compression of the EDZ under the effect of a purely mechanical loading, capturing the increase of swelling pressure from the backfill onto the rock, is considered. The simulation results highlight distinctive rock failure kinematics due to the bedded structure of the rock mass. Also, fracture termination is simulated at the intersection with a pre-existing discontinuity, representing a fault plane oblique to the bedding orientation. Simulation of the EDZ re-compression indicates an overall reduction of the total fracture area as a function of the applied pressure, with locations of ineffective sealing associated with self

  13. Clays as prebiotic photocatalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J.; Lahav, N.; Sutton, S.; Sweeney, M.

    1981-01-01

    Clay minerals catalyze peptide bond formation in fluctuating environments. A number of plausible mechanisms have been proposed and tested. The possibility that clays may actually be energizing the reaction by means of electronic excitation, creating mobile or trapped holes and electrons in the lattice, is explored. It has been discovered that clays emit light upon dehydration. The correlation between dehydration-induced, or thermoluminescent, processes and the yield of glycine oligomers after treatments known to affect the luminescent yields is being tested, in an effort to understand the catalytic mechanism

  14. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  15. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  16. Dewatering of the Clayton Formation during construction of the Walter F George Lock and Dam, Fort Gaines, Clay County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Walter F. George Lock and Dam, the largest manmade structure in the South, extends over 2llz miles across the flood plain of the Chattahoochee River at Fort Gaines, Clay County, in southwest Georgia and in Henry County, in southeast Alabama. The multipurpose dam consists of two rolled-filled earth dikes, a concrete spillway, a single-stage lock with an 88-foot lift, and a 130,000 kilowatt capacity powerhouse. The foundation of the dam at the river is constructed in the Clayton Formation, and the earth dikes are constructed on river terraces at about 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). At the damsite, the top of the Clayton Formation consists of an "earthy" limestone, which is about 35 feet thick except in the river channel, where it is 12 to 15 feet thick; a "shell" limestone, which averages about 40 feet thick; and a basal "sandy" limestone, which averages about 35 feet thick. The Providence Sand underlies the "sandy" limestone and its thickness is about 175 feet at the damsite. These formations contain water under artesian conditions. The "shell" unit of the Clayton was the principal water-bearing formation pumped during construction of the lock and dam. The large yields of the wells from concentrated areas over extended periods of time indicate that in the vicinity of the Chattahoochee River, the Clayton Formation is a productive aquifer with transmissivity ranging from 48,000 to 77,000 gpd per ft. (gallons per day per foot) and storage coefficient ranging from 2.5 x 10?3 to 2.8 x 10?5. At the spillway site, pumpage ranged from an average of 1,700 to 8,400 gpm (gallons per minute) during the period April 1957 to July 1959; at the powerhouse site, pumpage ranged from 1,600 to 5,000 gpm during the period October 1957 to September 1961; and at the lock site, pumpage ranged from 4,000 to 5,000 gpm during the period July 1960 through December 1961. The large yields represent a source of large quantities of ground water available for industrial and other uses in an

  17. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The state of the ball clay industry in 1999 is presented. Record highs in the sales and use of ball clay were attained in 1999 due to the continued strength of the U.S. economy. U.S. production was estimated at 1.25 million st for the year, with more than half of that amount mined in Tennessee. Details of the consumption, price, imports, and exports of ball clay in 1999 and the outlook for ball clay over the next few years are provided.

  18. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH < 6.8, thus being a possible precipitate in oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear

  19. Investigations into the vertical distribution of PCDDs and mineralogy in three ball clay cores from the United States exhibiting the natural formation pattern.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Damien; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert L; Burns, Peter C; Andersson, Rolf

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we report the PCDD and mineralogical results from the analyses of 27 different samples from three ball clay cores from different locations in Kentucky and Tennessee. One goal of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between the mineralogy of the ball clay samples and the PCDD concentrations and/or homologue profiles in each sample. Samples from each of the three cores exhibited the natural formation profile with extremely high PCDD concentrations with low and mostly undetectable levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The maximum toxic equivalents (TEQs) for Cores C-E were 2500, 440, and 15,000 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Although there does not seem to be a direct correlation between mineralogy and PCDD concentrations or homologue profiles, the mineralogy of Core C is substantially different than that of Cores D and E, which may in part explain the differences in congener patterns we observed among the three cores.

  20. The role of water in the formation of clay-rich layers at the slip surface of slope instabilities (Diezma landslide, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azañón, J. M.; Castro, J.; Ureña, C.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Slope instabilities with a low basal slope (<15°) are lately researched in order to evaluate triggering and conditioning factors. In these landslides, mechanical properties of the rupture surface are exceptionally low. The increase of the pore pressure has been commonly postulated to explain the drastic reduction of strength properties. Low-permeability layers could be preferred candidates to concentrate the largest increase of pore pressure. These clay layers are usually found in sedimentary sequences and colluvial formations. However, in some landslides around the world, a clay-bearing layer of extraordinary purity, have been detected in the rupture surface. Mechanical properties of this layer are lower than the rest of the sliced mass conditioning the slope stability. In the Diezma landslide (SE Spain), a complex movement affecting an area of 6.2 ha, a centimetre layer of smectite clay (montmorillonite-beidellite) controls the strength properties of the whole sliced mass. The triggering factor of this landslide is linked to the infiltration of water from a karstic aquifer located in the head area. Based on the geophysical surveys performed, we have been able to determine the 3D geometry of the main sliding surface, which was in part known from previous borehole data. Electrical resistivity profiles have also revealed to be an excellent tool to detect the degree of moisture in the marly clay materials of the landslide body. Subterranean water stream produces an active hydrolysis of marls fragment and the follow-up of their argillation, typical of chemical and physical interactions between the slip-zone materials and the slip-zone groundwater, when it was chronically saturated. In this study, thermodynamic stability of clay minerals (smectite and kaolinite) and water chemistry (Ca+2 ions) along the slip surface of the Diezma landslide were evaluated. Calcium hydro-carbonate groundwater, as subterranean water percolating the Diezma landslide, induces the formation

  1. Development of an innovative space boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, M. C.; Fang, H.

    2001-01-01

    presents the development of a new type of ultra-lightweight space boom, called the self-deployable Spring Strip Boom or simply the S cubed boom. It describes the fundamental design concept and several variations of design configurations. Test results of proof of concept models are discussed and compared with results obtained by analytical simultations.

  2. On the aging of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents view-graphs and notes on sonic boom aging. Topic covered include sonic boom propagation, George's minimized F-function, final minimum shock boom, amplitude and age parameters, off-track aging, scaling flight test experiments, the potential for thin shocks, and results of a Boomfile flight test that showed significant waveform distortion.

  3. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  4. ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED IN AN UNSATURATED FRACTURED-CLAY FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured-clay system that is the confin...

  5. The Apollo 15 deployable boom anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    During the Apollo 15 mission, a boom with an attached mass spectrometer was required to retract periodically so that the instrument would not be in the field of view of other experiments. The boom did not fully retract on five of 12 occasions. Data analysis indicated that the boom probably retracted to within approximately 2.54 centimeters (1 inch) of full retraction. The pertinent boom-design details, the events in the mission related to the anomaly, a discussion of the inflight and postflight investigation of the problem, a discussion of the design changes to the boom mechanism as a result of the investigation, and subsequent flight performance are presented.

  6. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  7. Diffusion of ionic tracers in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock using the Donnan equilibrium model and the formation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jougnot, D.; Revil, A.; Leroy, P.

    2009-05-01

    The transient diffusion of cationic and anionic tracers through clay-rocks is usually modeled with parameters like porosity, tortuosity (and/or constrictivity), sorption coefficients, and anionic exclusion. Recently, a new pore scale model has been developed by Revil and Linde [Revil A. and Linde N. (2006) Chemico-electromechanical coupling in microporous media. J. Colloid Interface Sci.302, 682-694]. This model is based on a volume-averaging approach of the Nernst-Planck equation. The influence of the electrical diffuse layer is accounted for by a generalized Donnan equilibrium model through the whole connected pore space that is valid for a multicomponent electrolyte. This new model can be used to determine the composition of the pore water of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock, the osmotic efficiency of bentonite as a function of salinity, the osmotic pressure, and the streaming potential coupling coefficient of clay-rocks. This pore scale model is used here to model the transient diffusion of ionic tracers ( 22Na +, 36Cl -, and 35SO42-) through the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock. Speciation of SO42- shows that ˜1/3 of the SO 4 is tied-up in different complexes. Some of these complexes are neutral and are therefore only influence by the tortuosity of the pore space. Using experimental data from the literature, we show that all the parameters required to model the flux of ionic tracers (especially the mean electrical potential of the pore space and the formation factor) are in agreement with independent evaluations of these parameters using the osmotic pressure determined from in situ pressure measurements and HTO diffusion experiments.

  8. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  9. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  10. Georgia Tech sonic boom simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Krish K.

    1992-04-01

    To examine the building and human response to sonic boom in the range 3 Hz to 30 Hz, Georgia Institute of Technology is building a special acoustic driver system to simulate sonic boom. To support the NASA LaRC program on building and human response, this simulator's capability has been extended to an upper frequency of 4 KHz. A residential test house was made available by Georgia Tech for these tests. At the time of preparation of this document, most of the acoustic drivers and the associated electronics have been built and assembled. The system has, however, not been fully tested. The following pages provide an overview of the progress to date. The acoustic driver systems, and the principle of their operation together with the test house are described. Future plans are also summarized.

  11. Georgia Tech sonic boom simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, Krish K.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the building and human response to sonic boom in the range 3 Hz to 30 Hz, Georgia Institute of Technology is building a special acoustic driver system to simulate sonic boom. To support the NASA LaRC program on building and human response, this simulator's capability has been extended to an upper frequency of 4 KHz. A residential test house was made available by Georgia Tech for these tests. At the time of preparation of this document, most of the acoustic drivers and the associated electronics have been built and assembled. The system has, however, not been fully tested. The following pages provide an overview of the progress to date. The acoustic driver systems, and the principle of their operation together with the test house are described. Future plans are also summarized.

  12. The mineralogy of Fe/Mg-clays formed in low-temperature hydrothermal sea floor environments and possible formation mechanisms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Cuadros, J.; Glotch, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    that is similar to those observed at Mars - suggesting that talc could be more common on Mars than has been previously proposed. Interlayered clays in general might be the norm and not the exception in many Martian deposits. The samples display a range of variation in crystal order, but the notion of crystallinity depends greatly on the context within the technique that is being used. Certain infrared measurements are sensitive to chemical ordering within octahedral sheets only, whereas other infrared observations are sensitive to ordering in the tetrahedral sheets. XRD is sensitive to 1-, 2-, or 3-D ordering, depending on which peaks are considered. Some materials that appear poorly crystalline from their 00l x-ray peaks (highly disorder layer stack) may have well developed and chemically homogeneous octahedral domains that produce strong 0k0 peaks and IR spectral features. Other samples display poor hkl diffraction features and very sharp 00l peaks. Such considerations are important for interpreting clay formation mechanisms and will be essential for linking multiple observations of clays from existing IR instruments covering multiple wavelengths to the XRD data to be returned from Mars by the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  13. Understanding Potassium Isotope Fractionation During Authigenic Clay Formation in Pore-fluid Systems: Implications for the δ41K of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Ramos, D. P.; Higgins, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in analytical precision on the latest generation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS) have revealed a ~2‰ range in the ratios of stable potassium isotopes (41K/39K) in terrestrial materials (Morgan et al., in prep). Preliminary measurements of δ41K values indicate that seawater and silicate rocks are isotopically distinct reservoirs, with seawater having a δ41K value that is ~0.5‰ heavier than the silicate average (-0.5‰; Morgan et al., in prep). The heavy δ41K character of seawater might be related to 1) an isotopically enriched input flux (rivers and high-temperature hydrothermal reactions); or 2) a 41K-depleted sink associated with authigenic clay formation during low-temperature alteration of volcanic rocks. Here we present measurements of the δ41K values of pore-fluids from ODP site 1052 in order to constrain potassium isotope fractionation during secondary clay formation. We find that δ41K values and K concentrations both decline systematically with depth. Results from 1-D diffusion-advection-reaction modeling of potassium concentrations and isotopic compositions indicate that fractionation of K isotopes during diffusion (Bourg et al., 2010) can explain all of the change in δ41K values of the pore-fluid with depth. Although the size of the K sink at site 1052 is a trivial fraction of the global K sink in clay minerals, our results suggest that diffusive fractionation of K isotopes in shallow pore-fluids may be, in part, responsible for the elevated δ41K value of seawater.

  14. K-Ar ages of illite clays of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation, Western Phosphate Field, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, W. Crawford; Ritter, Kristen; Wampler, J.; Grauch, Richard I.; Bauluz, Blanca

    2007-01-01

    The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Phosphoria Formation in the Western Phosphate Field, southeastern Idaho, is composed of carbonaceous mudstone and siltstone with beds of phosphorite and dark bioclastic limestone. An objective of this study has been to understand the timing of diagenetic illite formation in the Meade Peak and whether the Neogene passage of hydrothermal fluids had a significant role in forming diagenetic illite in these shales. Illite-smectite (I-S) is the predominant clay mineral within the shale samples. Smectite, apatite, and kaolinite were also found in some samples. A distinct second generation of diagenetic illite is present as thin, 90% for all samples, and the I-S exhibits a Kalkberg-type stacking order (IISI). The diagenetic conditions inferred from the stacking order and percentage of illite layers in I-S are consistent with published vitrinite reflectance data of the Meade Peak. The K-Ar apparent ages of I-S range from 186 Ma to 292 Ma. A decrease in K-Ar age of I-S with decreasing particle size is observed in clay sub-micron fractions and is consistent with an interpretation that the clay fraction contains a mixture of detrital illite (or I-S) and diagenetic I-S. The measured K-Ar ages of I-S also decrease with increasing stratigraphic distance above the base of the Meade Peak. The K-Ar age of the diagenetic illite rosettes is about 185 Ma. These results indicate that diagenetic illite was formed in the Meade Peak shales during the Jurassic Period, almost certainly in response to progressive burial over a prolonged duration . Additional heating in response to thrust sheet emplacement during the Cretaceous Period may be responsible for the decrease in K-Ar age upward within the member.

  15. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  16. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys Group, Old Hickory Clay Co., and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in four states in 2011. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 940 kt (1.04 million st) with an estimated value of $44.2 million. This is a 3-percent increase in tonnage from 912 kt (1.01 million st) with a value of $41.3 million that was produced in 2010. Tennessee was the leading producing state with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi and Kentucky. About 69 percent of production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  17. Stowage and Deployment of Slit Tube Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Larry (Inventor); Turse, Dana (Inventor); Richardson, Doug (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system comprising a boom having a first end, a longitudinal length, and a slit that extends along the longitudinal length of the boom; a drum having an elliptic cross section and a longitudinal length; an attachment mechanism coupled with the first end of the boom and the drum such that the boom and the drum are substantially perpendicular relative to one another; an inner shaft having a longitudinal length, the inner shaft disposed within the drum, the longitudinal length of the inner shaft is aligned substantially parallel with the longitudinal length of the drum, the inner shaft at least partially rotatable relative to the drum, and the inner shaft is at least partially rotatable with the drum; and at least two cords coupled with the inner shaft and portions of the boom near the first end of the boom.

  18. Comportement thermomécanique de l'argile de Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Nabil; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun

    Special attention has been recently paid on temperature effects on the behaviour of deep saturated clays, in relation with nuclear deep waste storage. However, few experimental data are presently available, and existing constitutive models need to be completed. This note is aimed at completing, both experimentally and theoretically, the understanding of the effects of the overconsolidation ratio on the thermal volume changes of Boom clay (Belgium). The experimental data obtained here are in a good agreement with existing data. As a complement to existing data, they are used to develop a new elastoplastic model. The adoption of a second coupled plastic mechanism provides good simulations on a complex thermo-mechanical path.

  19. Research at NASA on Human Response to Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA used its sonic boom simulator to study human response to shaped sonic booms and concluded that a loudness metric, such as Perceived Level, predicts human reaction to outdoor booms more accurately than overpressure. To investigate the importance of indoor phenomena (rattle, reverberation) under controlled laboratory conditions, NASA is building an "indoor sonic boom simulator." The intention is to develop a psychoacoustic model that describes human response as a function of boom shape (spectrum), boom intensity, reverberation, and varying rattle characteristics.

  20. Clay for Little Fingers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Joan Bouza

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the renewed interest in clay as a modeling compound in early childhood programs; describes the nature of clay and presents a working vocabulary. Suggests methods of working with clay, including introducing clay to children, discovering its uses, clean up, firing clay, and finishing baked clay. Includes activity suggestions and…

  1. Community Response to an Oil Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, James H.

    A study of the process of a 1977-1983 oil and gas boom in Caldwell, Texas, disproved the assumption that local social effects of rapid energy development are severe and negative. Using interviews, surveys, observation, local newspapers, and other writings as data sources, researchers determined that during the boom, Caldwell's population grew…

  2. Experimental thermal mechanics of deployable boom structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for thermal distortion measurements on deployable boom structures. The calibration procedure and thermal static bending plus twist measurements are considered. The thermal mechanics test facility is described. A table is presented for several examples of spacecraft applications of thermal static distortion measurements on 3-m deployable booms.

  3. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  4. Status of sonic boom methodology and understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.; Powell, Clemans A.; Hayes, Wallace D.; George, Albert R.; Pierce, Allan D.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1988, approximately 60 representatives of industry, academia, government, and the military gathered at NASA-Langley for a 2 day workshop on the state-of-the-art of sonic boom physics, methodology, and understanding. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the sonic boom area, to determine areas where additional sonic boom research is needed, and to establish some strategies and priorities in this sonic boom research. Attendees included many internationally recognized sonic boom experts who had been very active in the Supersonic Transport (SST) and Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Programs of the 60's and 70's. Summaries of the assessed state-of-the-art and the research needs in theory, minimization, atmospheric effects during propagation, and human response are given.

  5. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  6. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  7. Bryozoan fauna of the Upper Clays Ferry, Kope, and Lower Fairview formations (Edenian, Upper Ordovician) at Moffett Road, northern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karklins, Olgerts L.

    1983-01-01

    The geology, water movement, and sediment characteristics in the upstream part of the Spring River basin have been appraised, to assist the U.S. EPA in their study of dioxin contamination in the area. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has confirmed that the dioxin compound, TCDD (2,3,7 ,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), is present in the soils, streambed sediments, and fish in the upstream part of the Spring River Basin. Although the solubility of dioxin is small, it may be moving through the hydrologic system, adsorbed on sediment particles. Water movement in the shallow aquifer generally follows the topography. In upland areas, precipitation recharges the shallow aquifer, then the shallow aquifer water discharges into larger streams. Sediment yields generally are small in the upstream part of the Spring River basin. Suspended sediment discharges for the Spring River at La Russell ranged from 3.0 tons/day at a flow of 79 cu ft/sec, 1.7 times the 7-day 2-yr low flow, to about 1240 tons/day at a flow of 1600 cu ft/sec, 6.7 times the long-term average. Suspended sediment particles in the Spring River and Honey Creek generally were silt and clay (smaller than 0.062 mm). Fine sediments with adsorbed dioxin may be transported out of the area by streamflow, or they may be deposited on flood plains or in downstream impoundments during periods of flooding. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Solute transport in formations of very low permeability: profiles of stable isotope and dissolved noble gas contents of pore water in the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rübel, André P.; Sonntag, Christian; Lippmann, Johanna; Pearson, F. J.; Gautschi, Andreas

    2002-04-01

    Pore water profiles of water, stable isotope, and dissolved noble gas content have been determined across the Opalinus Clay and adjacent formations at the rock laboratory at Mont Terri. We have found enhanced helium contents (up to [ 4He] = 1 × 10 -4 cubic centimeters at standard pressure and temperature per gram of pore water) and argon isotope ratios ( 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios up to 334) due to accumulation of 4He and 40Ar produced in situ. The helium profile was found to be in steady state with respect to in situ production and diffusive loss into the adjacent limestones where groundwater circulates. From this profile a representative mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for helium in the pore water of the whole formation was derived for the first time to be D a = 3.5 × 10 -11 m 2 · s -1, which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficient D 0 in free water. The stable isotope profile, however, indicates a component of fossil marine pore water, which has not yet been replaced by molecular diffusion of meteoric water from the adjacent limestone and shale formations over the past 10 million years.

  9. Arsenic-bearing pyrite and marcasite in the Fire Clay coal bed, Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations determined on 11 lithotype samples from the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Group Fire Clay coal bed, Leslie County, KY, range from 1 to 418 ppm (whole coal basis). The 11 lithotype samples, which vary in thickness from 4 to 18 cm, were sampled from a continuous 1.38 m channel sample, and were selected based on megascopic appearance (vitrain-rich versus attrital-rich). A lithotype that contains 418 ppm As is located near the top of the coal bed and is composed of 10.5 cm of bright clarain bands containing fusain that, within short distances, grade laterally into Fe sulfide bands. To determine the mode of occurrence of As in this lithotype, the coal was examined with scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Massive, framboidal, cell filling, cell-wall replacement, and radiating forms of Fe sulfide were observed in the high As lithotype; many of the radiating Fe sulfide forms, and one of the cell-wall replacements contained As. Examination of the grains with optical light microscopy shows that the majority of radiating morphologies are pyrite, the remainder are marcasite. Selected Fe sulfide grains were also analyzed by electron microprobe microscopy. Arsenic concentrations within individual grains range from 0.0 wt.% to approximately 3.5 wt.%. On the basis of morphology, these Fe sulfides are presumed to be of syngenetic origin and would probably be removed from the coal during physical coal cleaning, thus eliminating a potential source of As from the coal combustion process. However, because the grains are radiating and have high surface area, dissolution and release of As could occur if the pyrite is oxidized in refuse ponds.

  10. Sonic Boom: Six Decades of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Bobbitt, Percy J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Shepherd, Kevin P.; Coen, Peter G.; Richwine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Sonic booms generated by aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds have been the subject of extensive aeronautics research for over 60 years. Hundreds of papers have been published that document the experimental and analytical research conducted during this time period. The purpose of this publication is to assess and summarize this work and establish the state-of-the-art for researchers just entering the field, or for those interested in a particular aspect of the subject. This publication consists of ten chapters that cover the experimental and analytical aspects of sonic boom generation, propagation and prediction with summary remarks provided at the end of each chapter. Aircraft maneuvers, sonic boom minimization, simulation techniques and devices as well as human, structural, and other responses to sonic booms are also discussed. The geometry and boom characteristics of various low-boom concepts, both large civil transports and smaller business-jet concepts, are included. The final chapter presents an assessment of civilian supersonic overland flight and highlights the need for continued research and a low-boom demonstrator vehicle. Summary remarks are provided at the end of each chapter. The studies referenced in this publication have been drawn from over 500 references.

  11. Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis

    2015-10-01

    Sonic boom is one of the key issues to be considered in the development of future supersonic or hypersonic civil aircraft concepts. The classical sonic boom, typical for Concorde with an N-wave shape and a ground amplitude of the order of 100 Pa, prevents overland flight. Future concepts target carefully shaped sonic booms with low amplitude weak shocks. However, sonic boom when perceived at the ground level is influenced not only by the aircraft characteristics, but also by atmospheric propagation. In particular, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom propagation near the ground is not well characterized. Flight tests performed as early as the 1960s demonstrated that classical sonic booms are sensitive to atmospheric turbulence. However, this sensitivity remains only partially understood. This is related to the fact that i) turbulence is a random process that requires a statistical approach, ii) standard methods used to predict sonic booms, mainly geometrical acoustics based on ray tracing, are inadequate within the turbulent planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the ray theory fails to predict the acoustical field in many areas of interest, such as caustics or shadow zones. These zones are of major interest for sonic boom acceptability (highest levels, lateral extent of zone of impact). These limitations outline the need for a numerical approach that is sufficiently efficient to perform a large number of realizations for a statistical approach, but that goes beyond the limitations of ray theory. With this in view, a 3D one-way numerical method solving a nonlinear scalar wave equation established for heterogeneous, moving and absorbing atmosphere, is used to assess the effects of a 3D kinematic turbulence on sonic boom in various configurations. First, a plane N-wave is propagated in the free field through random realizations of kinematic fluctuations. Then the case of a more realistic Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is investigated, with a mean

  12. What is that mysterious booming sound?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2011-01-01

    The residents of coastal North Carolina are occasionally treated to sequences of booming sounds of unknown origin. The sounds are often energetic enough to rattle windows and doors. A recent sequence occurred in early January 2011 during clear weather with no evidence of local thunder storms. Queries by a local reporter (Colin Hackman of the NBC affiliate WETC in Wilmington, North Carolina, personal communication 2011) seemed to eliminate common anthropogenic sources such as sonic booms or quarry blasts. So the commonly asked question, “What's making these booming sounds?” remained (and remains) unanswered.

  13. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  14. NASA Engineer Larry Cliatt: Softening Sonic Booms

    NASA Video Gallery

    A sudden sonic boom can startle persons unfamiliar with the phenomenon. As a result, supersonic flight over the United States is currently prohibited, except in several restricted testing areas. La...

  15. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  16. Sonic Boom Propagation Through AN Inhomogeneous, Windy Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Leick Douglas

    One of the primary obstacles to NASA's proposed High Speed Civil Transport is the sonic boom produced by the aircraft. Features of the sonic boom that are of primary importance are the amplitude and rise time of the wave received on the ground. In this paper, the propagation of the sonic boom from the aircraft to the ground is investigated by the ray theory approach. Courant and Hilbert's theory of characteristics is used to derive the ray path equation for a moving, inhomogeneous medium. The atmosphere is assumed to be horizontally stratified and quasi-stable, but no symmetry requirements are placed on the wavefronts. The lossless, nonlinear energy transport equation along these ray paths is derived. Losses are included directly in the numerical solution. A variable transformation is introduced which converts the transport equation into the lossless Burgers' equation, which has well-known solutions. A computer model, called ZEPHYRUS, is constructed which solves these equations numerically. The effects of numerical propagation through reflections and caustics are considered. A number of results of ZEPHYRUS are presented. Comparisons are made with known analytical results, and with the Hayes program. Several physically interesting results are discussed, including the dependence of rise time on humidity, the wind field, and the initial waveform shape. It is demonstrated that stable shocks may have a longer characteristic formation distance than previously believed, and in general have not formed when the sonic boom reaches the ground. Also discussed are unusual effects of dispersion observed at 50% relative ground humidity, and an investigation of the possible occurrence of the "waveform freezing" phenomenon.

  17. Statistical Model of Sonic Boom Structural Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    INTRODUCTION 1 II. SONIC BOOM IWDADING 3 1. Nominal Overpressure, po 3 2. Free Field Overpressure. pf 6 3. External Overpressure. Pe 6 4. Internal...inhomogeneities and from dif- ferences in the aircraft operating parameters from those used for calculating po. 3. EXTERNAL OVERPRESSURE, Pe When a sonic boom...having a free field peak overpressure pf impinges on a structure it creates an external overpressure waveform having a peak value pe . The value of Pe

  18. Clay: The Forgotten Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doris Marie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the tactile and kinesthetic areas of learning children experience when using clay. Includes practical tips for using and storing clay for preschool use and notes the differences between potters' clay and play dough. (HTH)

  19. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  20. Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

  1. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters.

  2. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  3. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  4. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  5. Clay and pillard clay membranes: Synthesis, characterization and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, Sven

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of ceramic multilayer membranes with an Alsb2Osb3-pillared montmorillonite (Al-PILC) and a Laponite separating layer have been studied. Al-PILC is a pillared clay prepared by intercalation of polyoxo cations of aluminium between the montmorillonite clay sheets, followed by a thermal treatment (400sp°C) to obtain rigid oxide pillars. The free spacing between the clay plates is about 0.8 nm. Laponite is a synthetic clay with a pore structure formed by the stacking of very small clay plates. To deposit an Al-PILC top layer on a macro- or mesoporous aluminiumoxide support membrane, two preparation routes were considered. According to the standard preparation route of a pillared clay, the easiest way is to use a suspension of clay mixed with the pillaring solution in which the support membrane is dipped. However, it is not possible to deposit uniform and crack-free top layers in this way because of the formation of unstable suspensions. A second preparation route is based on an indirect pillaring procedure. By dipping a support membrane in a stable clay suspension, a thin clay film is deposited in a first step. Pillaring is achieved via immersion of the supported clay film in the pillaring solution in a second step. After a washing procedure, the membrane is dried and calcined at 400sp°C. Laponite membranes were simply prepared by dipping a support membrane in a suspension of this synthetic clay in water. Afterwards a drying at room temperature and a calcination at 400 ar 500sp°C is performed. Both membrane types were tested for gas separation and pervaporation purposes. Transport of permanent gases (He, N2) occurs by means of Knudsen diffusion. Diffusion is kinetically controlled and for a binary mixture, the maximum separation factor is determined by the difference in molecular weight of both components. From pervaporation experiments with water/alcohol mixtures it was found that Al-PILC membranes can be used for

  6. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  7. Waveform Freezing of Sonic Booms Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.; Blackstock, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear distortion of sonic booms propagating in the atmosphere is strongly affected by stratification and geometrical spreading. For a downward propagating sonic boom in a standard atmosphere, stratification and spreading cause a slowing down of nonlinear distortion. In certain cases a stage is reached where no further distortion takes place. When this happens, the waveform is said to be frozen. In previous work the authors argued that for most HSCT designs and flight conditions being considered, the sonic boom is not frozen when it reaches the ground. The criterion used was the value of the distortion distance x bar is a measure of the nonlinear distortion suffered by the wave (and is closely related to Hayes's E variable). The aircraft must be at an altitude greater than 27 km (80,000 ft) for x bar at the groun be within 95% of its asymptotic value. However, work reported here demonstrates that the ground waveform is much closer to the frozen state than indicated by the previous analysis. In the new analysis, duration of the sonic boom is used as the criterion for judging closeness of approach tz frozen state. In order for the duration of the sonic boom at the ground to be within 95% of its frozen value, the flight altitude of the aircraft needs to be only 15 km (45,000 ft).

  8. Graphite Composite Booms with Integral Hinges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Wes; Carlos, Rene; Rossoni, Peter; Sturm, James

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses lightweight instrument booms under development for use aboard spacecraft. A boom of this type comprises a thin-walled graphite fiber/ matrix composite tube with an integral hinge that can be bent for stowage and later allowed to spring back to straighten the boom for deployment in outer space. The boom design takes advantage of both the stiffness of the composite in tubular geometry and the flexibility of thin sections of the composite. The hinge is formed by machining windows in the tube at diametrically opposite locations so that there remain two opposing cylindrical strips resembling measuring tapes. Essential to the design is a proprietary composite layup that renders the hinge tough yet flexible enough to be bendable as much as 90 in either of two opposite directions. When the boom is released for deployment, the torque exerted by the bent hinge suffices to overcome parasitic resistance from harnesses and other equipment, so that the two sections of the hinge snap to a straight, rigid condition in the same manner as that of measuring tapes. Issues addressed in development thus far include selection of materials, out-of-plane bending, edge cracking, and separation of plies.

  9. The colloidal chemistry of ceramic clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The colloidal chemistry and mineralogy of two argil minerals were studied. Deposits of kaolin and of ceramic clays in the United States and England are discussed for the probable mechanism of formation. The structural modifications of the bed, original material associated with the clays and the proper use of flocculants are discussed.

  10. Sonic boom focusing prediction and delta wing shape optimization for boom mitigation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasdeo, Nitin

    Supersonic travel over land would be a reality if new aircraft are designed such that they produce quieter ground sonic booms, no louder than 0.3 psf according to the FAA requirement. An attempt is made to address the challenging goal of predicting the sonic boom focusing effects and mitigate the sonic boom ground overpressure for delta wing geometry. Sonic boom focusing is fundamentally a nonlinear phenomenon and can be predicted by numerically solving the nonlinear Tricomi equation. The conservative time domain scheme is developed to carry out the sonic boom focusing or super boom studies. The computational scheme is a type differencing scheme and is solved using a time-domain scheme, which is called a conservative type difference solution. The finite volume method is used on a structured grid topology. A number of input signals Concorde wave, symmetric and ax symmetric ramp, flat top and typical N wave type are simulated for sonic boom focusing prediction. A parametric study is launched in order to investigate the effects of several key parameters that affect the magnitude of shock wave amplification and location of surface of amplification or "caustics surface." A parametric studies includes the effects of longitudinal and lateral boundaries, footprint and initial shock strength of incoming wave and type of input signal on sonic boom focusing. Another very important aspect to be looked at is the mitigation strategies of sonic boom ground signature. It has been decided that aerodynamic reshaping and geometrical optimization are the main goals for mitigating the ground signal up to the acceptance level of FAA. Biconvex delta wing geometry with a chord length of 60 ft and maximum thickness ratio of 5% of the chord is used as a base line model to carry out the fundamental research focus. The wing is flying at an altitude 40,000 ft with a Mach number of 2.0. Boom mitigation work is focused on investigating the effects of wing thickness ratio, wing camber ratio, wing

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  12. Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

  13. Boom and Bust Cycles in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Meinke, B. K.; Sremcevic, M.; Albers, N.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini UVIS occultation data show clumping in Saturn’s F ring and at the B ring outer edge, indicating aggregation and disaggregation at these locations perturbed by Mimas and Prometheus. Timescales range from hours to months. The maximum clumping lags the moon by roughly π in the forcing frame. This indicates a direct relation between the moon and the ring clumping. We propose that the collective behavior of the ring particles resembles a predator-prey system: the aggregate mean size is the prey, which feeds the velocity dispersion; conversely, increasing dispersion breaks up the aggregates. For realistic values of the parameters this creates a limit cycle behavior, as for the ecology of foxes and hares or the boom-bust economic cycle. Solving for the long-term behavior of this forced system gives a periodic response at the perturbing frequency, with a phase lag roughly consistent with the UVIS occultation measurements. We conclude that the agitation by the moons at both these locations in the F ring and at the B ring outer edge drives aggregation and disaggregation in the forcing frame. This agitation of the ring material allows fortuitous formation of solid objects from the temporary clumps, via stochastic processes like compaction, adhesion, sintering or reorganization that drives the denser parts of the aggregate to the center or ejects the lighter elements. These more persistent objects would then orbit at the Kepler rate. Such processes can create the equinox objects seen at the B ring edge and in the F ring, explain the ragged nature of those ring regions and allow for rare events to aggregate ring particles into solid objects, recycling the ring material and extending the ring lifetime.

  14. Boom and Bust Cycles in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.; Meinke, B. K.; Sremcevic, M.; Albers, N.

    2010-10-01

    7/16/10 12:23 PM UVIS occultation data show clumping in Saturn's F ring and at the B ring outer edge, indicating aggregation and disaggregation at these locations perturbed by Mimas and Prometheus. Timescales range from hours to months. The maximum clumping lags the moon by π in the forcing frame. This indicates a direct relation between the moon and the ring clumping. We propose that the collective behavior of the ring particles resembles a predator-prey system: the aggregate mean size is the prey, which feeds the velocity dispersion; conversely, increasing dispersion breaks up the aggregates. For realistic values of the parameters this creates a limit cycle behavior, as for the ecology of foxes and hares or the boom-bust economic cycle. Solving for the long-term behavior of this forced system gives a periodic response at the perturbing frequency, with a phase lag consistent with the UVIS occultation measurements. We conclude that the agitation by the moons at both these locations in the F ring and at the B ring outer edge drives aggregation and disaggregation in the forcing frame. This agitation of the ring material allows fortuitous formation of solid objects from the temporary clumps, via stochastic processes like compaction, adhesion, sintering or reorganization that drives the denser parts of the aggregate to the center or ejects the lighter elements. These more persistent objects would then orbit at the Kepler rate. Such processes can create the equinox objects seen at the B ring edge and in the F ring, explain the ragged nature of those ring regions and allow for rare events to aggregate ring particles into solid objects, recycling the ring material and extending the ring lifetime. 7/16/10 12:23 PM 7/16/10 12:23 PM

  15. Experimental and Computational Sonic Boom Assessment of Lockheed-Martin N+2 Low Boom Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Durston, Donald A.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Walker, Eric L.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2015-01-01

    Flight at speeds greater than the speed of sound is not permitted over land, primarily because of the noise and structural damage caused by sonic boom pressure waves of supersonic aircraft. Mitigation of sonic boom is a key focus area of the High Speed Project under NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The project is focusing on technologies to enable future civilian aircraft to fly efficiently with reduced sonic boom, engine and aircraft noise, and emissions. A major objective of the project is to improve both computational and experimental capabilities for design of low-boom, high-efficiency aircraft. NASA and industry partners are developing improved wind tunnel testing techniques and new pressure instrumentation to measure the weak sonic boom pressure signatures of modern vehicle concepts. In parallel, computational methods are being developed to provide rapid design and analysis of supersonic aircraft with improved meshing techniques that provide efficient, robust, and accurate on- and off-body pressures at several body lengths from vehicles with very low sonic boom overpressures. The maturity of these critical parallel efforts is necessary before low-boom flight can be demonstrated and commercial supersonic flight can be realized.

  16. NASA Studies Sonic Booms' Effect on Big Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA recently conducted flight experiments at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California to examine the effect of low-amplitude sonic booms on large office buildings. As part of the Sonic Booms ...

  17. NASA Researches the 'FaINT' Side of Sonic Booms

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the latest in a continuing progression of NASA supersonics research projects aimed at reducing or mitigating the effect of sonic booms, the Farfield Investigation of No Boom Threshold, or FaINT,...

  18. 53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF PASSENGER SPEEDER 04 IN FOREGROUND, BOOM SPEEDER 75 IN BACKGROUND LEFT, AND BOOM SPEEDER 59 IN BACKGROUND RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  19. Development of a Strain Energy Deployable Boom for the Space Technology 5 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Stew; Sturm, James

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission is one of a series of technology demonstration missions for the New Millennium Program. This mission will fly three fully functional 25-kilogram micro-class spacecraft in formation through the Earth's magnetosphere; the primary science instrument is a very sensitive magnetometer. The constraints of a 25-kg Micosat resulted in a spin stabilized, octagonal spacecraft that is 30 cm tall by 50 cm diameter and has state-of-the-art solar cells on all eight sides. A non-magnetic boom was needed to place the magnetometer as far from the spacecraft and its residual magnetic fields as possible. The ST-5 spacecraft is designed to be spun up and released from its deployer with the boom and magnetometer stowed for later release. The deployer is the topic of another paper. This paper describes the development efforts and resulting self-deploying magnetometer boom.

  20. Development of a Strain Energy Deployable Boom for the Space Technology 5 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Stew; Sturm, James

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission is one of a series of technology demonstration missions for the New Millennium Program. This mission will fly three fully functional 25 kilogram micro class spacecraft in formation through the Earth s magnetosphere; the primary science instrument is a very sensitive magnetometer. The constraints of a 25 kg "Micosat" resulted in a spin stabilized, octagonal spacecraft that is 30 cm tall by 50 cm diameter and has state of the art solar cells on all eight sides. A non-magnetic boom was needed to place the magnetometer as far from the spacecraft and its residual magnetic fields as possible. The ST-5 spacecraft is designed to be spun up and released from its deployer with the boom and magnetometer stowed for later release. The deployer is the topic of another paper, This paper describes the development efforts and resulting self-deploying magnetometer boom.

  1. Seismic Response to Sonic Boom-Coupled Rayleigh Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-28

    Alluvium Dalby Series (clay, very firm clay, silty clay; calcareous) Friends Series (fine sandy loam, friable loam, clay; slightly acid, noncalcareous...friable clay loam; calcareous) Vethalen clay (Ve) (clay, very firm clay, friable clay loam; calcareous) Verhalen- Dalby association (Vm) (50% to 80...Prospecting: 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. NY. 220 pp. Dobrin, M. B., R. F. Simon , & P. L. Lawrence, 1951, Rayleigh waves from small explosions

  2. Impact of Weather and Flight Condition on Secondary Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poling, Hugh W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the occurrence and acoustic characteristics of secondary booms from HSCT aircraft for varying weather and flight conditions. Temperature and wind conditions allowing secondary booms will be determined. The ground location and acoustic impact of secondary booms for an HSCT aircraft will be estimated.

  3. The Economic Effects of a Booming Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the 1970s, economists have recognized that a booming export sector of the economy can have unfortunate consequences for other sectors and lead to both appreciation of that nation's currency and a weakening position for its exports. A model to stimulate the effects of this situation is discussed. (IS)

  4. Subjective loudness response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted at LaRC to: (1) quantify the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness; (2) evaluate candidate loudness metrics; (3) quantify the effects of signature asymmetry on loudness; and (4) document sonic boom acceptability within the laboratory. A total of 212 test subjects evaluated a wide range of signatures using the NASA Langley Research Center's sonic boom simulator. Results indicated that signature shaping via front-shock minimization was particularly effective in reducing subjective loudness without requiring reductions in peak overpressure. Metric evaluations showed that A-weighted sound exposure level, Perceived Level (Stevens Mark 7), and Zwicker's Loudness level were effective descriptors of the loudness of symmetrical shaped signatures. The asymmetrical signatures were generally rated as being quieter than symmetrical signatures of equal calculated metric level. The magnitude of the loudness reductions were observed to increase as the degree of asymmetry increased and to be greatest when the rear half of the signature was loudest. This effect was not accounted for by the loudness metrics. Sonic boom acceptability criteria were determined within the laboratory. These agreed well with results previously obtained in more realistic situations.

  5. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  6. Experimental Sonic Boom Measurements on a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low-Boom Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa, A.; Wayman, Thomas R.; Waithe, Kenrick A.; Howe, Donald C.; Bangert, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    A wind tunnel test has been conducted by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom Mach 1.6 cruise business jet in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers 1.60 and 1.80. Through a cooperative agreement between GAC and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), GAC provided NASA access to some of the experimental data and NASA is publishing these data for the sonic boom research community. On-track and off-track near field sonic boom pressure signatures were acquired at three separation distances (0.5, 1.2, and 1.7 reference body lengths) and three angles of attack (-0.26deg, 0.26deg, and 0.68deg). The model was blade mounted to minimize the sting effects on the sonic boom signatures. Although no extensive data analysis is provided, selected data are plotted to illustrate salient features of the data. All of the experimental sonic boom pressure data are tabulated. Schlieren images of the configuration are also included.

  7. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes.

    PubMed

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  8. Sonic-boom research: Selected bibliography with annotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Maglieri, D. J.; Stephens, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Citations of selected documents are included which represent the state of the art of technology in each of the following subject areas: prediction, measurement, and minimization of steady-flight sonic booms; prediction and measurement of accelerating-flight sonic booms; sonic-boom propagation; the effects of sonic booms on people, communities, structures, animals, birds, and terrain; and sonic-boom simulator technology. Documents are listed in chronological order in each section of the paper, with key documents and associated annotation listed first. The sources are given along with acquisition numbers, when available, to expedite the acquisition of copies of the documents.

  9. Conceptual analyses of extensible booms to support a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. F.; Benton, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extensible booms which could function as the diagonal spars and central mast of an 800 meter square, non-rotating Solar Sailing Vehicle were conceptually designed and analyzed. The boom design concept that was investigated is an extensible lattice boom which is stowed and deployed by elastically coiling and uncoiling its continuous longerons. The seven different free-span lengths in each spar which would minimize the total weights of the spars and mast were determined. Boom weights were calculated by using a semi-empirical formulation which related the overall weight of a boom to the weight of its longerons.

  10. Subjective response to simulated sonic booms with ground reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, B. M.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA LaRC was used for the following: (1) quantify subjective loudness of simulated composite sonic booms, each of which was comprised of a simulated direct (non-reflected) boom combined with a simulated reflection of the direct boom; and (2) evaluate several metrics as estimators of loudness for these composite booms. The direct booms consisted of selected N-wave and minimized signatures having front-shock rise times of 3, 6, and 9 milliseconds and durations of 300 milliseconds. Delay times of the reflected booms ranged from 0 to 12 milliseconds. Subjective loudness results indicated that composite booms formed using reflections with non-zero delay times were generally rated as being less loud than composite booms containing non-delayed reflections. The largest reductions in loudness occurred when delay times were equal to the front shock rise times of the direct booms and were, in some cases, equivalent to reductions in Perceived Level of 6 to 7 dB. Results also showed Perceived Level to be an effective metric for assessing subjective loudness effects for the composite signatures. This was confirmed by statistical analysis, which showed that, for equal Perceived Level, no significant differences existed between the subjective loudness responses to composite booms containing reflections with zero delay and those containing reflections with non-zero delays.

  11. Recent Progress on Sonic Boom Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sonic boom research conducted at NASA through the Supersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is oriented toward understanding the potential impact of sonic boom noise on communities from new low-boom supersonic aircraft designs. Encompassing research in atmospheric propagation, structural response, and human response, NASA research contributes to knowledge in key areas needed to support development of a new noise-based standard for supersonic aircraft certification. Partnerships with several industry, government, and academic institutions have enabled the recent execution of several acoustic field studies on sonic booms. An overview of recent activities funded by NASA includes: focus boom model development and experimental validation, field experiments of structural transmission of sonic booms into large buildings, and low boom community response testing.

  12. Current research in sonic-boom minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.; Mack, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of several questions as yet unanswered in the area of sonic-boom research. Efforts, both here at Langley and elsewhere, in the area of minimization, human response, design techniques and in developing higher order propagation methods are discussed. In addition, a wind-tunnel test program being conducted to assess the validity of minimization methods based on a forward spike in the F-function is described.

  13. CLAY MINERALOGY OF INSOLUBLE RESIDUES IN MARINE EVAPORITES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W.

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble residues from three sequences of Paleozoic marine evaporites (Retsof salt bed in western New York, Salado Formation in south-eastern New Mexico, and Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation in southeastern Utah) are rich in trioctahedral clays. Chlorite (clinochlore), corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite-trioctahedral smectite), talc, and illite (the only dioctahedral clay) are the dominant clay minerals; serpentine, discrete trioctahedral smectite (saponite), and interstratified talc-trioctahedral smectite are sporadically abundant. These clay-mineral assemblages differ chemically and mineralogically from those observed in most continental and normal marine rocks, which commonly contain kaolinite, dioctahedral smectite (beidellite-montmorillonite), illite, mixed-layer illite-dioctahedral smectite, and, in most cases, no more than minor quantities of trioctahedral clay minerals. The distinctive clay mineralogy in these evaporite sequences suggests a largely authigenic origin. These clay minerals are thought to have formed during deposition and early diagenesis through interaction between argillaceous detritus and Mg-rich marine evaporite brines.

  14. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  15. The Boom Design of the De-Orbit Sail Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrandt, Martin; Meyer, Sebastian; Zander, Martin; Staubel, Marco; Huhne, Chritian

    2014-06-01

    DE-ORBIT SAIL is a cubesat based drag sail for the de-orbiting of satellites in a low earth orbit. It is scheduled for launch in late 2014 and will deploy a 25m2 sail supported by deployable carbon fiber booms designed and manufactured by DLR. This boom possesses a closed cross-section formed by two omega-shaped half-shells. Due to this cross-sectional design the boom features a high torsional stiffness. Thereby a high bending strength is achieved compared to other boom concepts for similar applications as the boom is less sensitive to flexural torsional buckling. The boom concept selection is based on a detailed analysis of three types of deployable booms which differ in their cross- sectional design. From this analysis the double- omega boom was determined as most suited for DE- ORBIT SAIL. For the manufacturing of the booms a novel method is used where the booms are manufactured in an integral way in one piece.

  16. Sonic boom prediction for the Langley Mach 2 low-boom configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    Sonic boom pressure signatures and aerodynamic force data for the Langley Mach 2 low sonic boom configuration were computed using the TranAir full-potential code. A solution-adaptive Cartesian grid scheme is utilized to compute off-body flow field data. Computations were performed with and without nacelles at several angles of attack. Force and moment data were computed to measure nacelle effects on the aerodynamic characteristics and sonic boom footprints of the model. Pressure signatures were computed both on and off ground-track. Near-field pressure signature computations on ground-track were in good agreement with experimental data. Computed off ground-track signatures showed that maximum pressure peaks were located off ground-track and were significantly higher than the signatures on ground-track. Bow shocks from the nacelle inlets increased lift and drag, and also increased the magnitude of the maximum pressure both on and off ground-track.

  17. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Processes with Links to Geochemistry Associated with Bentonite-Backfilled Repository Tunnels in Clay Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Chen, Fei; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents simulation results related to coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes in engineered barrier systems (EBS) and clay host rock, in one case considering a possible link to geochemistry. This study is part of the US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's used fuel disposition campaign, to investigate current modeling capabilities and to identify issues and knowledge gaps associated with coupled THMC processes and EBS-rock interactions associated with repositories hosted in clay rock. In this study, we simulated a generic repository case assuming an EBS design with waste emplacement in horizontal tunnels that are back-filled with bentonite-based swelling clay as a protective buffer and heat load, derived for one type of US reactor spent fuel. We adopted the Barcelona basic model (BBM) for modeling of the geomechanical behavior of the bentonite, using properties corresponding to the FEBEX bentonite, and we used clay host rock properties derived from the Opalinus clay at Mont Terri, Switzerland. We present results related to EBS host-rock interactions and geomechanical performance in general, as well as studies related to peak temperature, buffer resaturation and thermally induced pressurization of host rock pore water, and swelling pressure change owing to variation of chemical composition in the EBS. Our initial THM modeling results show strong THM-driven interactions between the bentonite buffer and the low-permeability host rock. The resaturation of the buffer is delayed as a result of the low rock permeability, and the fluid pressure in the host rock is strongly coupled with the temperature changes, which under certain circumstances could result in a significant increase in pore pressure. Moreover, using the BBM, the bentonite buffer was found to have a rather complex geomechanical behavior that eventually leads to a slightly nonuniform density distribution. Nevertheless, the simulation shows that the swelling of the buffer is functioning to

  18. Evidence and characteristics of a diverse and metabolically active microbial community in deep subsurface clay borehole water.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Katinka; Moors, Hugo; Boven, Patrick; Leys, Natalie

    2013-12-01

    The Boom Clay in Belgium is investigated in the context of geological nuclear waste disposal, making use of the High Activity Disposal Experimental Site (HADES) underground research facility. This facility, located in the Boom Clay at a depth of 225 m below the surface, offers a unique access to a microbial community in an environment, of which all geological and geochemical characteristics are being thoroughly studied. This study presents the first elaborate description of a microbial community in water samples retrieved from a Boom Clay piezometer (borehole water). Using an integrated approach of microscopy, metagenomics, activity screening and cultivation, the presence and activity of this community are disclosed. Despite the presumed low-energy environment, microscopy and molecular analyses show a large bacterial diversity and richness, tending to correlate positively with the organic matter content of the environment. Among 10 borehole water samples, a core bacterial community comprising seven bacterial phyla is defined, including both aerobic and anaerobic genera with a range of metabolic preferences. In addition, a corresponding large fraction of this community is found cultivable and active. In conclusion, this study shows the possibility of a microbial community of relative complexity to persist in subsurface Boom Clay borehole water.

  19. A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.

  20. Two HSCT Mach 1.7 low sonic boom designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, George T.; Ogg, Steven S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide low sonic boom concepts, geometry, and analysis to support wind tunnel model designs. Within guidelines provided by NASA, two High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations were defined with reduced sonic boom that have low drag, high payload, and good performance. To provide information for assessing the feasibility of reduced sonic boom operation, the two designs were analyzed in terms of their sonic boom characteristics, as well as aerodynamics, weight and balance, and performance characteristics. Low drag and high payload were achieved, but both of the blended arrow-wing configurations have deficiencies in high lift capability, fuel volume, wing loading, balance, and takeoff gross weight. Further refinement of the designs is needed to better determine the commercial viability of low boom operation. To help in assessing low boom design technology, the two configurations were defined as wind tunnel models with altered aft-bodies for the wind tunnel sting mounting system.

  1. Permeability of Clay Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, F.; Ekolu, S. O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of clay addition on water permeability and air permeability of concretes. Clay concrete mixes consisted of 0 to 40% clay content incorporated as cement replacement. Flow methods using triaxial cells and air permeameters were used for measuring the injected water and air flows under pressure. It was found that the higher the clay content in the mixture, the greater the permeability. At higher water-cement ratios (w/c), the paste matrix is less dense and easily allows water to ingress into concrete. But at high clay contents of 30 to 40% clay, the variation in permeability was significantly diminished among different concrete mixtures. It was confirmed that air permeability results were higher than the corresponding water permeability values when all permeability coefficients were converted to intrinsic permeability values.

  2. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  3. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    faster than previously estimated. "These observations will demand a profound reassessment of our theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies in a changing Universe", says Gianpaolo Vettolani, the other co-leader of the VVDS project, working at INAF-IRA in Bologna (Italy). These results are reported in the September 22 issue of the journal Nature (Le Fèvre et al., "A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the life of the Universe").

  4. Laboratory testing of a flexible boom for ice management

    SciTech Connect

    Loeset, S. . Norwegian Hydrotechnical Lab.); Timco, G.W. )

    1993-08-01

    Combating oil spills in the Arctic is a major challenge. Drilling or producing oil or gas in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) may allow booms to be deployed upstream of an offshore structure to clear the water of ice, thereby enabling conventional oil spill countermeasures to be used. Such a boom would be kept in place by two ice-going service vessels or by moored buoys. SINTEF NHL and NRC have performed a number of small-scale tests with a flexible boom in the NRC ice basin in Ottawa. The purpose of the tests was to measure the effectiveness of using a flexible boom for collecting ice, and to determine the loads associated with collecting the ice. In the tests, various boom configurations were towed against a broken ice field consisting of ice pieces typically 50--100 mm across and 30 mm thick. The ice concentration was usually 10/10, but it was reduced to 8/10 and 5/10 for two tests. The boom was towed at speeds of 20 and 50 mm-s[sup [minus]1]. Both the width of the boom and the slackness of the boom were varied over reasonable ranges. Two six-component dynamometers were used to support the boom. Thus, the force components on each end of the boom were measured. Further, two video cameras were used to record the effectiveness of each boom configuration. In this paper, the full results of this test program are presented and the application of the test results to the full-scale situation are discussed. The tests show that, under certain conditions, the use of boom is feasible for ice management in oil-contaminated water.

  5. SR-71 Experiment On Propagation Of Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiment conducted using an SR-71, F-16XL, and YO-3A airplane to study propagation of sonic booms. Work geared toward developing high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. Data used to soften sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Techniques used in experiment to measure pressures and relative aircraft separation accurately also under consideration for use in other flight research unrelated to sonic booms.

  6. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  7. High-Speed Research: Sonic Boom, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    A High-Speed Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center on February 25-27, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was to make presentations on current research activities and accomplishments and to assess progress in the area of sonic boom since the program was initiated in FY-90. Twenty-nine papers were presented during the 2-1/2 day workshop. Attendees included representatives from academia, industry, and government who are actively involved in sonic-boom research. Volume 2 contains papers related to low sonic-boom design and analysis using both linear theory and higher order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods.

  8. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  9. A Study of Reflected Sonic Booms Using Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantor, Samuel R.; Cliatt, Larry J., II

    2017-01-01

    In support of ongoing efforts to bring commercial supersonic flight to the public, the Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence (SonicBAT) flight test was conducted at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. During this test, airborne sonic boom measurements were made using an instrumented TG-14 motor glider, called the Airborne Acoustic Measurement Platform (AAMP).During the flight program, the AAMP was consistently able to measure the sonic boom wave that was reflected off of the ground, in addition to the incident wave, resulting in the creation of a completely unique data set of airborne sonic boom reflection measurements. This paper focuses on using this unique data set to investigate the ability of sonic boom modeling software to calculate sonic boom reflections. Because the algorithms used to model sonic boom reflections are also used to model the secondary carpet and over the top booms, the use of actual flight data is vital to improving the understanding of the effects of sonic booms outside of the primary carpet. Understanding these effects becomes especially important as the return of commercial supersonic approaches, as well as ensuring the accuracy of mission planning for future experiments.

  10. Recent laboratory studies of loudness and annoyance to sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    NASA Langley Research Center is supporting NASA High-Speed Research Program efforts to develop an updated technology base for future high-speed civil transport aircraft. Part of this effort involves (a) quantification of loudness and annoyance benefits due to sonic boom shaping and (b) determination of boom exposures acceptable to the public. Langley is conducting a series of laboratory studies to investigate in detail the subjective reactions to a wide range of shaped sonic boom signatures and to examine several metrics as estimators of sonic boom subjective effects. Results from several of these studies, as well as results obtained by other investigators, demonstrated that substantial reductions in the loudness of sonic booms can be achieved by careful shaping of the boom signatures. Recent Langley studies extended this work to include: (a) quantification of subjective effects due to booms heard indoors, (b) determination of subjective reactions due to ground-reflected booms, and (c) determination of subjective reactions to simulator reproductions of booms recently at White Sands Missile Range.

  11. High-Speed Research: Sonic Boom, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    A High-Speed Sonic Boom Workshop was held at LaRC of Feb. 25-27, 1992. The purpose was to make presentations on current research activities and accomplishments and to assess progress in the area of sonic boom since the program was initiated in FY-90. Twenty-nine papers were presented during the 2-1/2 day workshop. Attendees included representatives from academia, industry, and government who are actively involved in sonic-boom research. Volume 1 contains papers related to atmospheric effects on the sonic-boom signature during propagation and on acceptability studies.

  12. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    Automated, parallelized, time-efficient surface definition and grid generation and flow simulation methods are developed for sharp and accurate sonic boom signal computation in three dimensions in the near and mid-field of an aircraft using Euler/Full-Potential unstructured/structured computational fluid dynamics. The full-potential mid-field sonic boom prediction code is an accurate and efficient solver featuring automated grid generation, grid adaptation and shock fitting, and parallel processing. This program quickly marches the solution using a single nonlinear equation for large distances that cannot be covered with Euler solvers due to large memory and long computational time requirements. The solver takes into account variations in temperature and pressure with altitude. The far-field signal prediction is handled using the classical linear Thomas Waveform Parameter Method where the switching altitude from the nonlinear to linear prediction is determined by convergence of the ground signal pressure impulse value. This altitude is determined as r/L ≈ 10 from the source for a simple lifting wing, and r/L ≈ 40 for a real complex aircraft. Unstructured grid adaptation and shock fitting methodology developed for the near-field analysis employs an Hessian based anisotropic grid adaptation based on error equidistribution. A special field scalar is formulated to be used in the computation of the Hessian based error metric which enhances significantly the adaptation scheme for shocks. The entire cross-flow of a complex aircraft is resolved with high fidelity using only 500,000 grid nodes after only about 10 solution/adaptation cycles. Shock fitting is accomplished using Roe's Flux-Difference Splitting scheme which is an approximate Riemann type solver and by proper alignment of the cell faces with respect to shock surfaces. Simple to complex real aircraft geometries are handled with no user-interference required making the simulation methods suitable tools for

  13. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  15. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  16. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    PREDICTED BY THE THEORY WHICH ACCOUNTS ONLY FOR VQLUHi" EFF-(CTSa T"r’I’•E 1S THUS A SUV•CS!I.0N THAT LIFT EFFECTS ON SONIC-aOOM INTEN IlY MAY 6L...5TAT15TICAL ANALYa.S, uAMA4 MS•SE$HMltNTI LOADS(FORCES)o INTEN5ITY, REFLECTIONs PRS•SURFt MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION * STRUCTURES, RESONANT FRLWUENCYs DAMPING...CONSeRVATIVLLY SUMMARILES THE RESULTS IN A QAMAGE PREDICTION TAOLE AND CHART. INSURANCI ADJUSTLAS ARE 4I•EN GUIUANCt ON TtiE TREATMENT OF SONIC BOOM

  17. The GEOS-20 m Cable Boom Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS Cable Boom Mechanism which allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field is described. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  18. GEOS-20 m cable boom mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, B. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS cable boom mechanism allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  19. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host

  20. Potential for Sonic Boom Reduction of the Boeing HSCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, George T.

    1999-01-01

    The HSR sonic boom technology program includes a goal of reducing the objectionable aspects of sonic boom. Earlier HSCT sonic boom studies considered achieving significant sonic boom reduction by the use of arrow-wing planforms and detailed shaping of the airplane to produce shaped waveforms (non N-waves) at the ground. While these design efforts were largely successful, the added risk and cost of the airplanes were judged to be unacceptable. The objective of the current work is to explore smaller configuration refinements that could lead to reduced sonic boom impact, within design and operational constraints. A somewhat modest target of 10% reduction in sonic boom maximum overpressure was selected to minimize the effect on the configuration performance. This work was a joint NASA/Industry effort, utilizing the respective strengths of team members at Boeing, NASA Langley, and NASA Ames. The approach used was to first explore a wide range of modifications and airplane characteristics for their effects on sonic boom and drag, using classical Modified Linear Theory (MLT) methods. CFD methods were then used to verify promising, modifications and to analyze modifications for which the MLT methods were not appropriate. The tea m produced a list of configuration changes with their effects on sonic boom and, in some cases, an estimate of the drag penalty. The most promising modifications were applied to produce a boom-softened derivative of the baseline Boeing High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. This boom-softened configuration was analyzed in detail for the reduce sonic boom impact and also for the effect of the configuration modifications on drag, weight, and overall performance relative to the baseline.

  1. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  2. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  3. The Science of Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students' natural curiosity provides a rich opportunity for teachers to make meaningful scientific connections between art and ceramics that will enhance the understanding of both natural forces and scientific aspects at work in the creation of clay artworks. This article discusses the scientific areas of study related to clay, which include…

  4. Clay Portrait Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  6. Finicky clay divers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    1998-02-01

    Clay spheres dropped into a dilute vinegar/baking-soda solution accumulate CO2 bubbles on their surfaces. Spheres below a certain size will then float, otherwise they remain sunken. Students must determine the maximum size that will float by considering the net density of the clay/bubble system.

  7. Recent advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li Zhi; Zhou, Chun Hui; Wang, Jing; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-28

    Clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels have been proven to have exceptional composition, properties, and applications, and consequently have attracted a significant amount of research effort over the past few years. The objective of this paper is to summarize and evaluate scientific advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels in terms of their specific preparation, formation mechanisms, properties, and applications, and to identify the prevailing challenges and future directions in the field. The state-of-the-art of existing technologies and insights into the exfoliation of layered clay minerals, in particular montmorillonite and LAPONITE®, are discussed first. The formation and structural characteristics of polymer/clay nanocomposite hydrogels made from in situ free radical polymerization, supramolecular assembly, and freezing-thawing cycles are then examined. Studies indicate that additional hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions, coordination bonds, hydrophobic interaction, and even covalent bonds could occur between the clay mineral nanoplatelets and polymer chains, thereby leading to the formation of unique three-dimensional networks. Accordingly, the hydrogels exhibit exceptional optical and mechanical properties, swelling-deswelling behavior, and stimuli-responsiveness, reflecting the remarkable effects of clay minerals. With the pivotal roles of clay minerals in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels, the nanocomposite hydrogels possess great potential as superabsorbents, drug vehicles, tissue scaffolds, wound dressing, and biosensors. Future studies should lay emphasis on the formation mechanisms with in-depth insights into interfacial interactions, the tactical functionalization of clay minerals and polymers for desired properties, and expanding of their applications.

  8. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  9. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  10. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-21

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  11. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:26996253

  12. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  13. Thermal Deformation of Very Slender Triangular Rollable and Collapsible Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic triangular rollable and collapsible (TRAC) booms have deployed two Cubesat-based solar sails in low Earth orbit, making TRAC booms the most popular solar sail deployment method in practice. This paper presents some concerns and solutions surrounding the behavior of these booms in the space thermal environment. A 3.5-cm-tall, 4-meter-long TRAC boom of Elgiloy cobalt alloy, when exposed to direct sunlight in a 1 AU deep space environment, has a predicted tip motion of as much as 0.5 meters. Such large thermal deflections could generate unacceptable distortions in the shape of a supported solar sail, making attitude control of the solar sail spacecraft difficult or impossible. As a possible means of mitigating this issue, the thermal distortion behaviors of three alternative material TRAC booms are investigated and compared with the uncoated Elgiloy baseline boom. A tenfold decrease in induced curvature is shown to be possible relative to the baseline boom. Potential thermal distortions of the LightSail-A solar sail TRAC booms are also examined and compared, although inconclusively, with available on-orbit camera imagery.

  14. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... may operate a civil aircraft for which the maximum operating limit speed MM0 exceeds a Mach number...

  15. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... may operate a civil aircraft for which the maximum operating limit speed MM0 exceeds a Mach number...

  16. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... may operate a civil aircraft for which the maximum operating limit speed MM0 exceeds a Mach number...

  17. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... may operate a civil aircraft for which the maximum operating limit speed MM0 exceeds a Mach number...

  18. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... may operate a civil aircraft for which the maximum operating limit speed MM0 exceeds a Mach number...

  19. 12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM, FLYBRIDGE AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  20. USM3D Analysis of Low Boom Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years considerable improvement was made in NASA's in house boom prediction capability. As part of this improved capability, the USM3D Navier-Stokes flow solver, when combined with a suitable unstructured grid, went from accurately predicting boom signatures at 1 body length to 10 body lengths. Since that time, the research emphasis has shifted from analysis to the design of supersonic configurations with boom signature mitigation In order to design an aircraft, the techniques for accurately predicting boom and drag need to be determined. This paper compares CFD results with the wind tunnel experimental results conducted on a Gulfstream reduced boom and drag configuration. Two different wind-tunnel models were designed and tested for drag and boom data. The goal of this study was to assess USM3D capability for predicting both boom and drag characteristics. Overall, USM3D coupled with a grid that was sheared and stretched was able to reasonably predict boom signature. The computational drag polar matched the experimental results for a lift coefficient above 0.1 despite some mismatch in the predicted lift-curve slope.

  1. Dioxins in primary kaolin and secondary kaolinitic clays.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Martin; Scheeder, Georg; Bernau, Sarah; Dohrmann, Reiner; Germann, Klaus

    2011-01-15

    Since 1996 dioxins have been repeatedly detected worldwide in Tertiary ball clays used as anticaking agent in the production of animal feed and a variety of other applications. The dioxins of these natural clays are very unlikely of anthropogenic source, but no model of dioxin enrichment has been established. A hypothetical model is presented which explains the highly variable dioxin loadings of the Tertiary kaolinitic clays by natural addition during clay-sedimentation. To prove this hypothesis, Tertiary primary nonsedimentary kaolin and sedimentary kaolinitic clays were collected at three profiles in Europe and analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry, organic carbon, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/F). Primary kaolin, kaolinitic, and lignitic clays contained almost no PCDFs. PCDD concentration differed markedly between primary kaolin (3-91 pg/g) and secondary kaolinitic clay (711-45935 pg/g), respectively, lignitic clays (13513-1191120 pg/g). The dioxin loading of secondary kaolinitic and lignitic clays is approximately 10 to a few thousand times higher than in the primary kaolin or recent environmental settings. The dioxin concentrations decrease from octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and exhibit the "natural formation pattern". No correlation between PCDD/F concentration and bulk composition of clays was found. These findings support the hypothesis of the enrichment of dioxin in clays during sedimentation.

  2. High-Speed Research: Sonic Boom, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas A. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The second High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Ames Research Center May 12-14, 1993. The workshop was organized into three sessions dealing with atmospheric propagation, acceptability, and configuration design. Volume 1 includes papers on atmospheric propagation and acceptability studies. Significant progress is noted in these areas in the time since the previous workshop a year earlier. In particular, several papers demonstrate an improved capability to model the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic booms. This is a key issue in determining the stability and acceptability of shaped sonic booms. In the area of acceptability, the PLdB metric has withstood considerable scrutiny and is validated as a loudness metric for a wide variety of sonic boom shapes. The differential loudness of asymmetric sonic booms is better understood, too.

  3. Quiet Sonic Booms: A NASA and Industry Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, David Nils; Martin, Roy; Haering, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Oral Presentation is to present a progress report on NASA and Industry efforts related to Quiet Sonic Boom Program activities. This presentation will review changes in aircraft shaping to produce quiet supersonic booms and associated supersonic flight test methods and results. In addition, new flight test profiles have been recently developed that have allowed for the generation of sonic booms of varying intensity. These new flight test profiles have allowed for ground testing of the response of various building structures to sonic booms and the associated public acceptability to various sonic boom intensities. The new flight test profiles and associated ground measurement test methods will be reviewed. Finally, this Oral Presentation will review the International Regulatory requirements that would be involved to change aviation regulation and allow for overland quiet supersonic flight.

  4. Supersonic civil airplane study and design: Performance and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1995-01-01

    Since aircraft configuration plays an important role in aerodynamic performance and sonic boom shape, the configuration of the next generation supersonic civil transport has to be tailored to meet high aerodynamic performance and low sonic boom requirements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to design airplanes to meet these dual objectives. The work and results in this report are used to support NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). CFD tools and techniques have been developed for general usages of sonic boom propagation study and aerodynamic design. Parallel to the research effort on sonic boom extrapolation, CFD flow solvers have been coupled with a numeric optimization tool to form a design package for aircraft configuration. This CFD optimization package has been applied to configuration design on a low-boom concept and an oblique all-wing concept. A nonlinear unconstrained optimizer for Parallel Virtual Machine has been developed for aerodynamic design and study.

  5. Natural resource booms and Third World development: Assessing the subsectoral impacts of the Nigerian petroleum boom on agricultural export performance

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Linear and quadratic expansion model formulations are developed to assess the relative complexity of booming-non-booming sector interactions. Specific attention is given to the extent to which the growth rates of Nigerian agricultural exports have changed over time as: (a) the volume of oil exports, and (b) the growth rate of oil exports are allowed to vary over a set of hypothetical values which reflect Nigerian oil-boom realities. Four important conclusions emerge: (a) the quadratic expansion model most accurately captures Nigerian oil-agricultural exports are most clearly influenced by the oil boom; (c) the growth rate of capital-intensive agricultural exports are initially stimulated, and later stagnated by the oil boom, while the growth rate of subsidized labor intensive agricultural exports are first stagnated and then stimulated by the oil boom; and (d) the expansion method provides a useful alternative means of exploring theoretical and applied issues related to the Dutch Disease paradigm. the implications of the findings for agricultural and petroleum policy in Nigeria are assessed, and a research agenda for further booming-non-booming sector investigations is proposed.

  6. Sonic boom signature data from cruciform microphone array experiments during the 1966-1967 EAFB national sonic boom evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Tables are provided of measured sonic boom signature data derived from supersonic flyover tests of the XB-70, B-58 and F-104 aircraft for ranges of altitude and Mach number. These tables represent a convenient hard copy version of available electronic files and complement preliminary information included in a reference National Sonic Boom Evaluation Office document.

  7. Sonic boom (human response and atmospheric effects) outdoor-to-indoor response to minimized sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David; Sutherland, Louis C.

    1992-01-01

    The preferred descriptor to define the spectral content of sonic booms is the Sound Exposure Spectrum Level, LE(f). This descriptor represents the spectral content of the basic noise descriptors used for describing any single event--the Sound Exposure Level, LE. The latter is equal to ten times the logarithms, to the base ten, of the integral, over the duration of the event, of the square of the instantaneous acoustic pressure, divided by the square of the reference pressure, 20 micro-Pa. When applied to the evaluation of community response to sonic booms, it is customary to use the so-called C-Weighted Sound Exposure Level, LCE, for which the frequency content of the instantaneous acoustic pressure is modified by the C-Weighting curve.

  8. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  9. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  10. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  11. Clay-Bacteria Systems and Biofilm Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Steiner, N.; Rudolph, E.; Gottlieb, P.

    2007-12-01

    Soil clots and the aerosol transport of bacteria and spores are promoted by the formation of biofilms (bacteria cells in an extracellular polymeric matrix). Biofilms protect microorganisms by promoting adhesion to both organic and inorganic surfaces. Time series experiments on bacteria-clay suspensions demonstrate that biofilm growth is catalyzed by the presence of hectorite in minimal growth media for the studied species: Gram negatives (Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli,) and Gram positives (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). Soil organisms (P. syringae, B. subtilis) and organisms found in the human population (E. coli, S. aureus) are both used to demonstrate the general applicability of clay involvement. Fluorescent images of the biofilms are acquired by staining with propidium iodide, a component of the BacLightTM Live/Dead bacterial viability staining kit (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). The evolving polysaccharide-rich biofilm reacts with the clay interlayer site causing a complex substitution of the two-water hectorite interlayer with polysaccharide. The result is often a three-peak composite of the (001) x-ray diffraction maxima resulting from polysaccharide-expanded clays and an organic-driven contraction of a subset of the clays in the reaction medium. X-ray diffractograms reveal that the expanded set creates a broad maximum with clay subsets at 1.84 nm and 1.41 nm interlayer spacings as approximated by a least squares double Lorentzian fit, and a smaller shoulder at larger 2q, deriving from a contraction of the interlayer spacing. Washing with chlorox removes organic material from the contracted clay and creates a 1-water hectorite single peak in place of the double peak. The clay response can be used as an indirect indicator of biofilm in an environmental system.

  12. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  14. Uptake of uranium(VI) by pyrite under boom clay conditions: influence of dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, C; Maes, N

    2010-06-01

    The uptake of uranium(VI) by natural pyrite, FeS(2), was studied under conditions relevant for geological disposal of radioactive waste (anoxic atmosphere, approximately 0.014 mol.L(-1) NaHCO(3) electrolyte) with special emphasis on the role of dissolved organic matter. Solution analysis of batch experiments with different initial concentrations of uranium(VI) (10(-8)-10(-4) mol.L(-1)) was combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the solid phase to elucidate the speciation of uranium in these systems and to gain insight into the major reaction mechanisms between uranium and pyrite. The results showed that, under the conditions of the experiments, uranium(VI) was at least partly reduced to a UO(2)(s)-like precipitate, although the predominant valence state of uranium in solution was likely uranium(VI). All observations indicate that the uranium solid-liquid distribution is governed by both reduction and adsorption processes. No significant amounts of uranium colloids (either intrinsic UO(2) colloids or complexes with natural organic matter) were found in any of the samples. The presence of dissolved organic matter did, however, increase the final uranium solution concentration and decrease the fraction of uranium(IV) found in the solid phase.

  15. Improving nutrient fixation and dry matter content of an ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion effluent by struvite formation and clay adsorption.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J; Morken, John

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes that contain nitrogen leads to its mineralization, yielding a digestate rich in ammonium (NH(4)(+)), an important fertilizing nutrient. The applicability of AD digestate as fertilizer can be improved by fixating the nutrients and increasing its dry matter content. Methods for the fixation and recovery of the digestate's NH(4)(+) and possible also PO(4)(3-) include struvite precipitation and adsorption in clay materials such as bentonite. These techniques were tested in batch experiments employing the liquid fraction of a digestate originating from the AD of a substrate mix containing lignocellulose, cattle manure and fish industrial waste. The concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in this digestate was 2,300 mg L⁻¹. Struvite precipitation conditions at a molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 (Mg²⁺:NH(4)(+):PO(4)(3-)) and pH 9.5 were best in terms of simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+)-N (88%), PO(4)(3-) (60%) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (44%). Bentonite adsorption gave comparably high removal levels for NH(4)(+)-N (82%) and PO(4)(3-) (52%). Analysis of the precipitates' morphology and elemental composition confirmed their struvite and bentonite nature. Dry matter content was increased from 5.8% in the AD digestate to 27% and 22% in the struvite and bentonite sludges, respectively.

  16. A Compilation of Space Shuttle Sonic Boom Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Henderson, Herbert R.; Massey, Steven J.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2011-01-01

    Sonic boom measurements have been obtained on 26 flights of the Space Shuttle system beginning with the launch of STS-1 on April 12, 1981, to the reentry-descent of STS-41 into EAFB on Oct. 10, 1990. A total of 23 boom measurements were acquired within the focus region off the Florida coast during 3 STS launch-ascents and 113 boom measurements were acquired during 23 STS reentry-descent to landing into Florida and California. Sonic boom measurements were made under, and lateral to, the vehicle ground track and cover the Mach-altitude range of about 1.3 to 23 and 54,000 feet to 243,000 feet, respectively. Vehicle operational data, flight profiles and weather data were also gathered during the flights. This STS boom database is contained in 26 documents, some are formal and referenceable but most internal documents. Another 38 documents, also non-referenceable, contain predicted sonic boom footprints for reentry-descent flights on which no measurements were made. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the STS sonic boom database and summarize the main findings.

  17. Measurement of turbulent wind velocities using a rotating boom apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborn, V.A.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.

  18. Clay Minerals as Solid Acids and Their Catalytic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses catalytic properties of clays, attributed to acidity of the clay surface. The formation of carbonium ions on montmorillonite is used as a demonstration of the presence of surface acidity, the enhanced dissociation of water molecules when polarized by cations, and the way the surface can interact with organic substances. (Author/JN)

  19. Experimental and Computational Sonic Boom Assessment of Boeing N+2 Low Boom Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, Donald A.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan E.; Winski, Courtney S.; Carter, Melissa B.; Walker, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Near-field pressure signatures were measured and computational predictions made for several sonic boom models representing Boeing's Quiet Experimental Validation Concept (QEVC) supersonic transport, as well as three axisymmetric calibration models. Boeing developed the QEVC under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contract for Experimental Systems Validations for N+2 Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft, which was led by the NASA High Speed Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The concept was designed to address environmental and performance goals given in the NRA, specifically for low sonic boom loudness levels and high cruise efficiency, for an aircraft anticipated to enter service in the 2020 timeframe. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on the aircraft and calibration models during Phases I and II of the NRA contract from 2011 to 2013 in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot and NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnels. Sonic boom pressure signatures were acquired primarily at Mach 1.6 and 1.8, and force and moment data were acquired from Mach 0.8 to 1.8. The sonic boom test data were obtained using a 2-in. flat-top pressure rail and a 14-in. round-top tapered "reflection factor 1" (RF1) pressure rail. Both rails capture an entire pressure signature in one data point, and successive signatures at varying positions along or above the rail were used to improve data quality through spatial averaging. The sonic boom data obtained by the rails were validated with high-fidelity numerical simulations of off-body pressures using the CFD codes USM3D, Cart3D, and OVERFLOW. The test results from the RF1 rail showed good agreement between the computational and experimental data when a variety of testing techniques including spatial averaging of a series of pressure signatures were employed, however, reflections off the 2-in. flat-top rail caused distortions in the signatures that did not agree with the CFD predictions. The 9 x 7 and 8 x 6 wind tunnels generally

  20. Boom-Constrained Drag Minimization for Design of Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.; Li, Wu; Geiselhart, Karl

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modifying an existing baseline configuration that has been designed to achieve low-boom characteristics in order to minimize drag while not severely penalizing baseline sonic boom levels. The baseline configuration that was used is the result of using a mixed-fidelity CFD-based low-boom design process that has been tested and verified. Shape modifications are carried out by using arbitrary shape-deformation algorithms. The focus of this paper is the integration of several key enabling techniques and methods for efficient redesign under stringent constraints.

  1. Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration/Experiment Airborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering ,Edward A., Jr.; Murray, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's project to demonstrate that careful design of aircraft contour the resultant sonic boom can maintain a tailored shape, propagating through a real atmosphere down to ground level. The areas in covered in this presentation are: (1) Past airborne shock measurement efforts, (2) SR-71 Sonic Boom Propagation Experiment (3) F-5E Inlet Spillage Shock Measurement (4) Flight test approach (5) GPS data (6) Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) Mach calibration (7) Super Blanik L-23 sailplane (8) Near-field probing (8a)Maneuvers (8b) Control Room Displays (8c) Pressure Instrumentation (8d) Signatures.

  2. Antimicrobial clay-based materials for wound care.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Elsie E; Hamilton, Ashley R

    2014-04-01

    The historical use of clay minerals for the treatment of wounds and other skin ailments is well documented and continues within numerous human cultures the world over. However, a more scientific inquiry into the chemistry and properties of clay minerals emerged in the 19th century with work investigating their role within health gathering pace since the second half of the 20th century. This review gives an overview of clay minerals and how their properties can be manipulated to facilitate the treatment of infected wounds. Evidence of the antimicrobial and healing effects of some natural clay minerals is presented alongside a range of chemical modifications including metal-ion exchange, the formation of clay-drug composites and the development of various polymer-clay systems. While the evidence for applying these materials to infected wounds is limited, we contextualize and discuss the future of this research.

  3. Interphase vs confinement in starch-clay bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Coativy, Gildas; Chevigny, Chloé; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Leroy, Eric; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-03-06

    Starch-clay bionanocomposites containing 1-10% of natural montmorillonite were elaborated by melt processing in the presence of water. A complex macromolecular dynamics behavior was observed: depending on the clay content, an increase of the glass transition temperature and/or the presence of two overlapped α relaxation peaks were detected. Thanks to a model allowing the prediction of the average interparticle distance, and its comparison with the average size of starch macromolecules, it was possible to associate these phenomena to different populations of macromolecules. In particular, it seems that for high clay content (10%), the slowdown of segmental relaxation due to confinement of the starch macromolecules between the clay tactoïds is the predominant phenomenon. While for lower clay contents (3-5%), a significant modification of chain relaxation seems to occur, due to the formation of an interphase by the starch macromolecules in the vicinity of clay nanoparticles coexisting with the bulk polymer.

  4. Sonic Boom Computations for a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low Boom Configuration and Comparisons with Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Cliff, Susan E.; Wilcox, Floyd; Nemec, Marian; Bangert, Linda; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Parlette, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Accurate analysis of sonic boom pressure signatures using computational fluid dynamics techniques remains quite challenging. Although CFD shows accurate predictions of flow around complex configurations, generating grids that can resolve the sonic boom signature far away from the body is a challenge. The test case chosen for this study corresponds to an experimental wind-tunnel test that was conducted to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom configuration designed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D and AERO, are examined for their ability to accurately capture sonic boom signature. Numerical simulations are conducted for a free-stream Mach number of 1.6, angle of attack of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6) based on model reference length. Flow around the low boom configuration in free air and inside the Langley Unitary plan wind tunnel are computed. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with wind tunnel data. The effects of viscous and turbulence modeling along with tunnel walls on the computed sonic boom signature are presented and discussed.

  5. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING BOOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 5. DETAIL OF THE INSIDE ROBERTS AND SCHAEFER LOADING BOOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF THE INSIDE ROBERTS AND SCHAEFER LOADING BOOM, WITH COUNTERWEIGHT (RIGHT), NOTE METAL CONVEYOR BELT (FOREGROUND) - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  7. 14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of 70 foot boom crane that unloaded the sugar cane. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  8. 1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view of mill ruins with boom crane for unloading sugar cane in foreground, looking W. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  9. Confidence Intervals for Laboratory Sonic Boom Annoyance Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One deliverable NASA will provide is a predictive model for indoor annoyance to aid in setting an acceptable quiet sonic boom threshold. A laboratory study was conducted to determine how indoor vibrations caused by sonic booms affect annoyance judgments. The test method required finding the point of subjective equality (PSE) between sonic boom signals that cause vibrations and signals not causing vibrations played at various amplitudes. This presentation focuses on a few statistical techniques for estimating the interval around the PSE. The techniques examined are the Delta Method, Parametric and Nonparametric Bootstrapping, and Bayesian Posterior Estimation.

  10. A summary of XB-70 sonic boom signature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Keefer, Thomas N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation is provided of measured sonic boom signature data derived from 39 supersonic flights (43 passes) of the XB-70 airplane over the Mach number range of 1.11 to 2.92 and an altitude range of 30500 to 70300 ft. These tables represent a convenient hard copy version of available electronic files which include over 300 digitized sonic boom signatures with their corresponding spectra. Also included in the electronic files is information regarding ground track position, aircraft operating conditions, and surface and upper air weather observations for each of the 43 supersonic passes. In addition to the sonic boom signature data, a description is also provided of the XB-70 data base that was placed on electronic files along with a description of the method used to scan and digitize the analog/oscillograph sonic boom signature time histories. Such information is intended to enhance the value and utilization of the electronic files.

  11. Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms in Homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting the development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonic over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' ratings and can be placed and operated in individual homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment. The effects on annoyance of several other parameters were also examined. Initially, data analyses were based on all the data collected. However, further analyser found that test subjects adapted to the sonic

  12. Dewatering of industrial clay wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smelley, A.G.; Scheiner, B.J.; Zatko, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of research conducted to effect pollution a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of clay wastes, for reuse of water now lost with clays, and for reclamation of mined land was developed. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. In laboratory experiments, coal-clay waste, potash-clay brine slurry, phosphatic clay waste, uranium tailings, and talc tailings were successfully consolidated. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 3.6 to 57%; potash-clay brine slurry was consolidated from 3.8 to 35%; phosphatic clay waste from 15.6 to 49%; uranium tailings from 15.4 to 67%; tailings from talc production from 9.7 to 53%; and an acidic TiO/sub 2/ slurr slurry from 1.68 to 30%.

  13. Initial Results from the Variable Intensity Sonic Boom Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Gabrielson, Thomas; Sparrow, Victor W.; Locey, Lance L.; Bunce, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    43 sonic booms generated (a few were evanescent waves) a) Overpressures of 0.08 to 2.20 lbf/sq ft; b) Rise-times of about 0.7 to 50 ms. Objectives: a) Structural response of a house of modern construction; b) Sonic boom propagation code validation. Approach: a) Measure shockwave directionality; b) Determine effect of height above ground on acoustic level; c) Generate atmospheric turbulence filter functions.

  14. Human Response to Simulated Low-Intensity Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's High Speed Research (HSR ) program in the 1990s was intended to develop a technology base for a future High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). As part of this program, the NASA Langley Research Center sonic boom simulator (SBS) was built and used for a series of tests on subjective response to sonic booms. At the end of the HSR program, an HSCT was deemed impractical, but since then interest in supersonic flight has reawakened, this time focusing on a smaller aircraft suitable for a business jet. To respond to this interest, the Langley sonic boom simulator has been refurbished. The upgraded computer-controlled playback system is based on an SGI O2 computer, in place of the previous DEC MicroVAX. As the frequency response of the booth is not flat, an equalization filter is required. Because of the changes made during the renovation (new loudspeakers), the previous equalization filter no longer performed as well as before, so a new equalization filter has been designed. Booms to be presented in the booth are preprocessed using the filter. When the preprocessed signals are presented into the booth and measured with a microphone, the results are very similar to the intended shapes. Signals with short rise times and sharp "corners" are observed to have a small amount of "ringing" in the response. During the HSR program a considerable number of subjective tests were completed in the SBS. A summary of that research is given in Leatherwood et al. (Individual reports are available at http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/ltrs/ltrs.html.) Topics of study included shaped sonic booms, asymmetrical booms, realistic (recorded) boom waveforms, indoor and outdoor booms shapes, among other factors. One conclusion of that research was that a loudness metric, like the Stevens Perceived Level (PL), predicted human reaction much more accurately than overpressure or unweighted sound pressure level. Structural vibration and rattle were not included in these studies.

  15. Selection of boom and impactor for mobile gyratory crusher

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.E.

    1985-02-01

    Technical data describing the critical points for selection of the proper hammer and of the boom and power pack for mounting on mobile gyratory crusher installations are presented. Charts describing typical rocks with breakability indexes for hammer selection are included. Comparative data of representative available hammers along with criteria for evaluating hammer selection are also presented. Factors affecting the selection of the boom and the power pack, as well as optional features for ease of operation and improved safety are described.

  16. Vibration Penalty Estimates for Indoor Annoyance Caused by Sonic Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Commercial supersonic flight is currently forbidden over land because sonic booms have historically caused unacceptable annoyance levels in overflown communities. NASA is providing data and expertise to noise regulators as they consider relaxing the ban for future quiet supersonic aircraft. One key objective is a predictive model for indoor annoyance based on factors such as noise and indoor vibration levels. The current study quantified the increment in indoor sonic boom annoyance when sonic booms can be felt directly through structural vibrations in addition to being heard. A shaker mounted below each chair in the sonic boom simulator emulated vibrations transmitting through the structure to that chair. The vibration amplitudes were determined from numeric models of a large range of residential structures excited by the same sonic boom waveforms used in the experiment. The analysis yielded vibration penalties, which are the increments in sound level needed to increase annoyance as much as the vibration does. For sonic booms at acoustic levels from 75 to 84 dB Perceived Level, vibration signals with lower amplitudes (+1 sigma) yielded penalties from 0 to 5 dB, and vibration signals with higher amplitudes (+3 sigma) yielded penalties from 6 to 10 dB.

  17. Assessment of Near-Field Sonic Boom Simulation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J. H.; Cliff, S. E.; Thomas, S. D.; Park, M. A.; McMullen, M. S.; Melton, J. E.; Durston, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study for the Supersonics Project, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has been conducted to assess current in-house capabilities for the prediction of near-field sonic boom. Such capabilities are required to simulate the highly nonlinear flow near an aircraft, wherein a sonic-boom signature is generated. There are many available computational fluid dynamics codes that could be used to provide the near-field flow for a sonic boom calculation. However, such codes have typically been developed for applications involving aerodynamic configuration, for which an efficiently generated computational mesh is usually not optimum for a sonic boom prediction. Preliminary guidelines are suggested to characterize a state-of-the-art sonic boom prediction methodology. The available simulation tools that are best suited to incorporate into that methodology are identified; preliminary test cases are presented in support of the selection. During this phase of process definition and tool selection, parallel research was conducted in an attempt to establish criteria that link the properties of a computational mesh to the accuracy of a sonic boom prediction. Such properties include sufficient grid density near shocks and within the zone of influence, which are achieved by adaptation and mesh refinement strategies. Prediction accuracy is validated by comparison with wind tunnel data.

  18. A new simulator for assessing subjective effects of sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-09-01

    A man rated and computer driven sonic boom simulator which has been constructed and placed in operational use at NASA-Langley is described. The simulator is used to study human subjective reactions to sonic booms and has the capability of producing a wide range of signatures under controlled conditions. Results are presented to illustrate the capability of the simulator to generate user specified N-wave and shaped booms having rise times as low as 0.5 milliseconds and peak overpressures up to 191 Pa (4 psf). The validity of the simulator as a lab research tool for studying human subjective response to sonic booms was demonstrated by successful completion of a preliminary test designed to compare loudness of N-wave sonic booms with results obtained by other investigators. Excellent agreement of the preliminary test data with existing data was observed. This provided confidence in the experimental methodology and established the simulator as a viable tool for performing detailed evaluations of sonic boom loudness and acceptability within the lab. environment.

  19. [Interaction of clay minerals with microorganisms: a review of experimental data].

    PubMed

    Naĭmark, E B; Eroshchev-Shak, V A; Chizhikova, N P; Kompantseva, E I

    2009-01-01

    A review of publications containing results of experiments on the interaction of microorganisms with clay minerals is presented. Bacteria are shown to be involved in all processes related to the transformation of clay minerals: formation of clays from metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, formation of clays from solutions, reversible transitions of different types of clay minerals, and consolidation of clay minerals into sedimentary rocks. Integration of these results allows to conclude that bacteria reproduced all possible abiotic reactions associated with the clay minerals, these reactions proceed much faster with the bacteria being involved. Thus, bacteria act as a living catalyst in the geochemical cycle of clay minerals. The ecological role of bacteria can be considered as a repetition of a chemical process of the abiotic world, but with the use of organic catalytic innovation.

  20. Research On Subjective Response To Simulated Sonic Booms At NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2006-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center has conducted many tests investigating subjective response to simulated sonic booms. Most tests have used the Sonic Boom Booth, an airtight concrete booth fitted with loudspeakers that play synthesized sonic booms pre-processed to compensate for the response of the booth/loudspeaker system. Tests using the Booth have included investigations of shaped booms, booms with simulated ground reflections, recorded booms, outdoor and indoor booms, booms with differing loudness for bow and tail shocks, and comparisons of aircraft flyover recordings with sonic booms. Another study used loudspeakers placed inside people's houses, so that they could experience the booms while in their own homes. This study investigated the reactions of people to different numbers of booms heard within a 24-hour period. The most recent Booth test used predicted boom shapes from candidate low-boom aircraft. At present, a test to compare the Booth with boom simulators constructed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is underway. The Lockheed simulator is an airtight booth similar to the Langley booth; the Gulfstream booth uses a traveling wave method to create the booms. Comparison of "realism" as well as loudness and other descriptors is to be studied.

  1. Research on Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center has conducted many tests investigating subjective response to simulated sonic booms. Most tests have used the Sonic Boom Booth, an airtight concrete booth fitted with loudspeakers that play synthesized sonic booms pre-processed to compensate for the response of the booth/loudspeaker system. Tests using the Booth have included investigations of shaped booms, booms with simulated ground reflections, recorded booms, outdoor and indoor booms, booms with differing loudness for bow and tail shocks, and comparisons of aircraft flyover recordings with sonic booms. Another study used loudspeakers placed inside people s houses, so that they could experience the booms while in their own homes. This study investigated the reactions of people to different numbers of booms heard within a 24-hour period. The most recent Booth test used predicted boom shapes from candidate low-boom aircraft. At present, a test to compare the Booth with boom simulators constructed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is underway. The Lockheed simulator is an airtight booth similar to the Langley booth; the Gulfstream booth uses a traveling wave method to create the booms. Comparison of "realism" as well as loudness and other descriptors is to be studied.

  2. Segmented floating fireproof oil spill containment boom

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, R. E.

    1985-03-26

    A floatable, fire-resistant spill containment boom that is easily deployable on the surface of a body of water is comprised of a series of fire-resistant planar main panels having flotation devices attached thereto to maintain the main panels in a substantially upright position when deployed. A portion of each panel is submerged and a portion is above the water to form a continuous barrier to contaminants spilled on the water surface. A first group of the main panels have flotation devices mounted directly on the faces of the panels, while a second group of panels has the flotation devices mounted thereon in outrigger fashion on arms pivotally attached to the main panel to carry the flotation devices between a deployed position spaced from the panel and a stowed position closely adjacent the panel. The main panels are connected by a semirigid coupling panel interposed between each pair of adjacent main panels and rigidly attached to said adjacent main panels. Preferably, the flotation devices are comprised of masses of closed-cell glass foam enclosed in a container of fireproof material, such as metal.

  3. Dual-chamber inflatable oil boom

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, R.M.; Tedeschi, E.T.

    1993-08-24

    An elongated floating material containment boom section is described having a normally vertical ballasted skirt depending from flotation means, and convertible from a flattened collapsed condition to a deployable condition wherein buoyancy chamber means extending along the upper edge of said skirt are inflated to expanded buoyant configuration, including: a gas-impervious sleeve extending along the upper edge of said normally vertical skirt forming a first outer collapsible and inflatable flotation chamber, a first inflation valve connecting the interior of said sleeve with the ambient atmosphere, through which gas under pressure may be introduced into said sleeve to inflate said first buoyant outer flotation chamber, elongated gas-impervious tube means positioned inside said outer flotation chamber and forming second collapsible and inflatable internal flotation bladder chamber means, second inflation valve means connecting the interior of said bladder means through said outer flotation chamber to the ambient atmosphere through which gas under pressure may be introduced into said bladder means to inflate it forming said second flotation chamber means inside said outer flotation chamber.

  4. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation within alternating deep-sea clays and volcanic ashes (Miura Peninsula, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Rajat; van Loon, A. J. (Tom); Malviya, Vivek P.; Arima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yujuro

    2016-10-01

    The Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation of the Miura Group (Miura Peninsula, Japan) shows an extremely wide variety of soft-sediment deformation structures. The most common deformation structures are load casts and associated flame structures, dish-and-pillar structures, synsedimentary faults, multilobated convolutions, chaotic deformation structures, sedimentary veins and dykes, and large-scale slides and slump scars. The formation, which accumulated in a deep-sea environment (2000-3000 m), is well exposed in and around Jogashima; it consists of relative thin (commonly dm-scale) alternations of deep-marine fine-grained sediments and volcanic ejecta that are, as a rule, coarse-grained. Since the formation represents fore-arc deposits of the Izu-Bonin and the Honsu arc collision zone, it might be expected that tectonic activity also played a role as a trigger of the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in these sediments. This is indicated, indeed, by the abundance of soft-sediment deformations over large lateral distances that occur in numerous beds that are sandwiched between undeformed beds. On the basis of their characteristics and the geological context, these layers can be explained satisfactorily only by assuming deformation triggered by seismicity, which must be related to the Izu-Bonin and Honsu arc collision. The layers thus form deep-marine seismites.

  5. Moving Along: Sporting Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Presents a junior high school student art project where three-dimensional art sculptures of surfing, snow boarding, or dirt biking were created. Discusses how the students created their three-dimensional works of art using a clay-slab technique. (CMK)

  6. Rattles of Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Using the rattles of Native American cultures as inspiration, students used pinching, coiling, and slab and molding techniques to form the bodies of rattles and clay pellets for sound. Surface decoration included glazed and unglazed areas as well as added handles, feathers, and leather. (IS)

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  8. Modeling in Ceramic Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louis J.

    1976-01-01

    Modeling is an additive process of building up a sculpture with some plastic material like clay. It affords the student an opportunity to work in three dimensions, a creative relief from the general two-dimensional drawing and design activities that occupy a large segment of time in the art curriculum. (Author/RK)

  9. Development of a Boom for a 50kg-Class Micro-Satellite and Vibration Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirako, Masataka; Araki, Koji; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Honda, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Yosuke; Iwamaru, Yasunori; Tanahashi, Hideyuki

    The paper reports design process of a space boom to be installed in a 50kg-class micro-satellite, tentatively called as SOHLA-1. The total mass of the boom is 483g, while the length of the boom is 416mm. A spring-string type pin-puller was proposed. Vibration test with a bread-board model (BBM) of the boom leaded to an engineering model (EM) of the boom accommodated with a two-pin type pin-puller. Vibration test with the boom EM suggested some modifications to be made for a proto-type model (PM) of the boom. Vibration test, deployment test and thermal test on the boom PM confirmed feasibility of the flight model (FM) of the boom.

  10. Optical MEMS: boom, bust and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, Chandra Mouli

    2005-10-01

    Optical Telecommunications bandwidth, spurred by the growth of the internet, experienced unprecedented growth in the late 1990's. The creation of new enterprises was vast and the expansion of established component, system and services companies was also breathtaking. This period of speculative growth was followed in 2001-2004 by one of the most significant market crashes in history. While $20B of venture capital was invested in optical telecom in the last 10 years, the vast majority of that has been written off in the last four. Countless start-ups inaugurated with great fanfare at the end of the 20th century were unceremoniously shut down at the start of the 21st. (1) As in all speculative bubbles, innovative technologies were born and buried. Nonetheless, new capabilities emerge from the chaos and disruption; one such example is the advent of Optical MEMS (MOEMS). Its development was vigorously pursued in both academic and corporate laboratories during the boom and, in the author's view; MOEMS constitutes a powerful and versatile tool set that is an invaluable residual of the last few years. In Telecommunications, MOEMS has proven to be the technology of choice for many optical switching and wavelength management applications. (2) Variable Optical Attenuators (VOA), Wavelength Blockers (WB), Dynamic Gain Equalizers (DGE), and most recently Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) are being used in the numerous recent network deployments. Moreover, agile networks of the future will have MOEMS at every node. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of MOEMS in Telecommunications, discuss its byproducts and project the future of the technology.

  11. Optical MEMS: boom, bust, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Optical Telecommunications bandwidth, spurred by the growth of the internet, experienced unprecedented growth in the late 1990's. The creation of new enterprises was vast and the expansion of established component, system and services companies was also breathtaking. This period of speculative growth was followed in 2001-2004 by one of the most significant market crashes in history. While $20B of venture capital was invested in optical telecom in the last 10 years, the vast majority of that has been written off in the last 4. Countless start-ups inaugurated with great fanfare at the end of the 20th century were unceremoniously shut down at the start of the 21st century.(1) As in all speculative bubbles innovative technologies were born and were buried. Nonetheless, new capabilities emerge from the chaos and disruption; one such example is the advent of Optical MEMS (MOEMS). Its development was vigorously pursued in both academic and corporate laboratories during the boom and, in the author's view; MOEMS constitutes a powerful and versatile tool set that will be an invaluable residual of the last few years. In Telecommunications, MOEMS have been proven to be the technology of choice for many optical switching and wavelength management applications.(2) Variable Optical Attenuators (VOA), Wavelength Blockers (WB), Dynamic Gain Equalizers (DGE), and most recently Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) are being used in the numerous recent network deployments. Moreover, agile networks of the future will have MOEMS at every node. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of MOEMS in Telecommunications, discuss their byproducts and project the future of the technology.

  12. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  13. Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2010-01-01

    An axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) research airplane, was considered. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature, similar to what was observed in the LaNCETS flight data, is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. The CFD results provide a detailed description of the nozzle flow physics involved in the LaNCETS nozzle at different nozzle expansion conditions and help in interpreting LaNCETS flight data as well as in the eventual CFD analysis of a full LaNCETS aircraft. The current study also provided important information on proper modeling of the LaNCETS aircraft nozzle. The primary objective of the current CFD research effort was to support the LaNCETS flight research data analysis effort by studying the detailed nozzle exhaust jet plume s imperfect expansion effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. Figure 1 illustrates the primary flow physics present in the interaction between the exhaust jet plume shock and the sonic boom coming off of an axisymmetric body in supersonic flight. The steeper tail shock from highly expanded jet plume reduces the dip of the sonic boom N-wave signature. A structured finite-volume compressible full Navier-Stokes CFD code was used in the current study. This approach is not limited by the simplifying assumptions inherent in previous sonic boom analysis efforts. Also, this study was the first known jet plume sonic boom CFD study in which the full viscous nozzle flow field was modeled, without

  14. Initial Results from the Variable Intensity Sonic Boom Propagation Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Bunce, Thomas J.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Sparrow, Victor W.; Locey, Lance L.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive sonic boom propagation database with low- to normal-intensity booms (overpressures of 0.08 lbf/sq ft to 2.20 lbf/sq ft) was collected for propagation code validation, and initial results and flight research techniques are presented. Several arrays of microphones were used, including a 10 m tall tower to measure shock wave directionality and the effect of height above ground on acoustic level. A sailplane was employed to measure sonic booms above and within the atmospheric turbulent boundary layer, and the sailplane was positioned to intercept the shock waves between the supersonic airplane and the ground sensors. Sailplane and ground-level sonic boom recordings were used to generate atmospheric turbulence filter functions showing excellent agreement with ground measurements. The sonic boom prediction software PCBoom4 was employed as a preflight planning tool using preflight weather data. The measured data of shock wave directionality, arrival time, and overpressure gave excellent agreement with the PCBoom4-calculated results using the measured aircraft and atmospheric data as inputs. C-weighted acoustic levels generally decreased with increasing height above the ground. A-weighted and perceived levels usually were at a minimum for a height where the elevated microphone pressure rise time history was the straightest, which is a result of incident and ground-reflected shock waves interacting.

  15. Atmospheric effects on the risetime and waveshape of sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry E.; Boulanger, Patrice

    1994-01-01

    Accurate prediction of human response to sonic booms from proposed HSCT aircraft depends on a knowledge of the waveshape and risetime of the boom at the ground. In previous work, we have developed a numerical technique to predict the combined effects of molecular absorption and finite wave distortion on the sonic boom as it propagates from the aircraft to the top of the turbulent boundary layer. We have more recently developed a scattering center based model to calculate the effects of turbulence on the sonic boom waveform as it propagates through this boundary layer. Calculations have been performed using single scales of turbulence and compared to measurements at Edwards AFB in the late 1960's. A model of the atmosphere involving two scales each for convective and mechanical turbulence has been developed and fit to meteorological data collected during JAPE 2. Scattering calculations employing this model underpredict the number of unperturbed waveforms. In order to develop a more realistic model of the atmosphere, the JAPE 2 meteorological data has been fit to a von Karman spectrum. Results of scattering using this multi-scale model will be presented. The combination of finite wave effects with turbulent scattering predictions includes the principal effects of the atmosphere on the sonic boom from the HSCT.

  16. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure, phosphate activation and montmorillonite composition on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN; Ertem, Gozen

    1990-01-01

    The 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-GMP and 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-AMP bind 2 times more strongly to montmorillonite 22A than do 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-CMP and 5(prime)-TMP. The dinucleotide d(pG)2 forms in 9.2 percent yield and the cyclic dinucleotide c(dpG)2 in 5.4 percent yield in the reaction of 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-GMP with EDAC in the presence of montmorillonite 22A. The yield of dimers which contain the phosphodiester bond decreases as the reaction medium is changed from 0.2 M NaCl to a mixture of 0.2 M NaCl and 0.075 M MgCl2. A low yield of d(pA)2 was observed in the condensation reaction of 5(prime)-ImdpA on montmorillonite 22A. The yield of d(pA)2 obtained when EDAC is used as the condensing agent increases with increasing iron content of the Na(+)-montmorillonite used as catalyst. Evidence is presented which shows that the acidity of the Na(+)-montmorillonite is a necessary but not sufficient factor for the montmorillonite catalysis of phosphodiester bond formation.

  17. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across.

    CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE.

    In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image.

    The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image

  18. The sonic boom of an oblique flying wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroo, Ilan; van der Velden, Alex

    1990-10-01

    An analysis of sonic boom characteristics of an oblique flying wing is presented. The wing, represented by a slewed lift and area-distribution as well as a panel geometry, promises a reduction of sonic boom signature. For every azimuth angle these distributions are represented by an equivalent body. The near-field pressure signature is determined by using the Whitham F-function with a correction to account for nonlinear wave propagation. The geometric asymmetry leads to an asymmetrical sonic boom beneath the flight track with bow shocks between 1.0 and 1.5 PSF. Due to favorable volume-lift interference the aft shock has only half the amplitude of the bow shock. A fast numerical method is described to calculate the perceived loudness.

  19. The sonic boom of an oblique flying wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Van Der Velden, Alex

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of sonic boom characteristics of an oblique flying wing is presented. The wing, represented by a slewed lift and area-distribution as well as a panel geometry, promises a reduction of sonic boom signature. For every azimuth angle these distributions are represented by an equivalent body. The near-field pressure signature is determined by using the Whitham F-function with a correction to account for nonlinear wave propagation. The geometric asymmetry leads to an asymmetrical sonic boom beneath the flight track with bow shocks between 1.0 and 1.5 PSF. Due to favorable volume-lift interference the aft shock has only half the amplitude of the bow shock. A fast numerical method is described to calculate the perceived loudness.

  20. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  1. Measurements of sonic-boom overpressures from Apollo space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents representative results of sonic-boom overpressure data recorded during the launch and reentry of the Apollo 15 and 16 space vehicle systems. Comparisons are made between measured overpressures and those predicted using available theory. The measurements were obtained along the vehicle ground track at 68, 87, 92, 129, and 970 km downrange from the launch site during ascent, and at 9, 13, 55, 185, and 500 km from the splash-down point during reentry. Also included are tracings of the sonic-boom signatures along with a brief description of the launch and recovery test areas in which the measurements were obtained, the sonic-boom instrumentation deployment, flight profiles and operating conditions, and high-altitude weather information for the general measurement areas.

  2. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  3. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment

  4. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siclari, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  5. Origins and Overview of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlowski, Joseph W.; Graham, David H.; Boccadoro, Charles H.; Coen, Peter G.; Maglieri, Domenic J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the DARPA Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) Program was to demonstrate for the first time in flight that sonic booms can be substantially reduced by incorporating specialized aircraft shaping techniques. Although mitigation of the sonic boom via specialized shaping techniques was theorized decades ago, until now, this theory had never been tested with a flight vehicle subjected to actual flight conditions in a real atmosphere. The demonstrative success, which occurred on 27 August 2003 with repeat flights in the supersonic corridor at Edwards Air Force Base, is a critical milestone in the development of next generation supersonic aircraft that could one day fly unrestricted over land and help usher in a new era of time-critical air transport. Pressure measurements obtained on the ground and in the air confirmed that the specific modifications made to a Northrop Grumman F-5E aircraft not only changed the shape of the shock wave signature emanating from the aircraft, but also produced a flat-top signature whose shape persisted, as predicted, as the pressure waves propagated through the atmosphere to the ground. This accomplishment represents a major advance towards reducing the startling and potentially damaging noise of a sonic boom. This paper describes the evolution of the SSBD program, including the rationale for test article selection, and provides an overview of the history making accomplishments achieved during the SSBD effort, as well as, the follow-on NASA Shaped Sonic Boom Experiment (SSBE) Program, whose goal was to further evaluate the characteristics and robustness of shaped boom signatures.

  6. Property Changes in Lime Treated Expansive Clays under Continuous Leaching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optimum moisture and vibrated to desired density. The samples were allowed to cure for 48 hours at 700 F then leached with water at a rate comparable...these three sites are primarily weathered clay shale outcrops from the Eagle Ford geologic formation. This formation dips to the east and is overlain...by the Austin Chalk formation then the Taylor Marl formation in the city of Dallas, Texas. The Eagle Ford Shale formation is underlain by the

  7. A methodology for designing aircraft to low sonic boom constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Needleman, Kathy E.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing conceptual supersonic cruise aircraft to meet low sonic boom requirements is outlined and described. The aircraft design is guided through a systematic evolution from initial three view drawing to a final numerical model description, while the designer using the method controls the integration of low sonic boom, high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, adequate low speed handling, and reasonable structure and materials technologies. Some experience in preliminary aircraft design and in the use of various analytical and numerical codes is required for integrating the volume and lift requirements throughout the design process.

  8. View looking north west showing the boom, top of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking north west showing the boom, top of the center mast and boom angle reeving of the 175-ton derrick. Note in the background of the view, just above the center mast is the F-1 Static-Test Stand used for test firing the Saturn V engines and subsequent program's engine testing. Also in the background center is the Redstone Static Test Stand (center right) and it's cold calibration tower (center left). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Design of a Cascade Controller for a Flexible Spray Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, H.; De Baerdemaeker, J.; van Brussel, H.

    1996-03-01

    Longitudinal accelerations and yawning angular accelerations of a tractor induce horizontal flexible spray boom deformations which cannot be reduced sufficiently by simple structural adaptations. An electro-hydraulic control system has therefore been developed in order to attenuate the negative effect of longitudinal tractor accelerations on a spray boom. The linear quadratic Gaussian theory with loop transfer recovery has been used to design the compensator. Four different variants of the compensator are implemented in an experimental set-up to test the performance and the robustness of the feedback system and to investigate the applicability of the electro-hydraulic devices in active vibration control.

  10. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  11. Boom Minimization Framework for Supersonic Aircraft Using CFD Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2010-01-01

    A new framework is presented for shape optimization using analytical shape functions and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) via Cart3D. The focus of the paper is the system-level integration of several key enabling analysis tools and automation methods to perform shape optimization and reduce sonic boom footprint. A boom mitigation case study subject to performance, stability and geometrical requirements is presented to demonstrate a subset of the capabilities of the framework. Lastly, a design space exploration is carried out to assess the key parameters and constraints driving the design.

  12. Sonic boom measurements from accelerating supersonic tracked sleds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Supersonic sled tests on the Sandia 1524-m (5000-ft) track generate sonic booms of sufficient intensity to allow some airblast measurements at distance scales not obtained from wind tunnel or flight tests. During acceleration, an emitted curved boom wave propagates to a caustic, or focus. Detailed measurements around these caustics may help to clarify the overpressure magnification which can occur from real aircraft operations. Six fixed pressure gages have been operated to document the general noise field, and a mobile array of twelve gages.

  13. LAVA Simulations for the AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housman, Jeffrey A.; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta , Shayan; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations using the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework are presented for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop test cases. The framework is utilized with both structured overset and unstructured meshing approaches. The three workshop test cases include an axisymmetric body, a Delta Wing-Body model, and a complete low-boom supersonic transport concept. Solution sensitivity to mesh type and sizing, and several numerical convective flux discretization choices are presented and discussed. Favorable comparison between the computational simulations and experimental data of nearand mid-field pressure signatures were obtained.

  14. Prediction of Airplane Sonic-Boom Pressure Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; McLean, F. Edward; Middleton, Wilbur D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the sensitivity of supersonic-transport design and operation to sonic-boom considerations and shows the necessity for a study of these problems early in the development program. Methods of predicting pressure signatures are outlined and examples of the correlation of these estimates with wind-tunnel and flight measurements are shown. Estimates of sonic-boom characteristics for a representative supersonic transport show that in the critical transonic acceleration portion of the flight, overpressures somewhat lower than estimated by the use of far-field assumptions may be expected. Promising design possibilities for the achievement of further overpressure reductions are explored.

  15. Design and evaluation of pick-up truck mounted boom for elevation of a multiband radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Tsuchida, R.

    1981-01-01

    Three concepts were considered for the boom design: a one-piece boom with a trolley, a folding boom, and a telescoping boom. The telescoping boom was selected over the other two concepts because of its easy manual operation. The boom is designed to mount on the bed of a pick-up truck and elevate the radiometer system 8 meters above the ground and 4 meters away from the truck. The selection of the boom components is discussed with justification of the final choice. Results of performance tests and one season's operation of the completed boom are reported.

  16. CFD prediction of the near-field sonic boom environment for two low boom HSCT configurations. [High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siclari, M. J.; Darden, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the sonic boom of a future High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) by careful shaping have led to the need for more accurate predictions of the near-field flow conditions of the configuration. A fully three-dimensional Euler finite volume code is used to predict sonic boom pressure signatures for two low boom concepts - one designed to cruise at Mach 2 and the other at Mach 3. Calculations were carried out using a grid topology that has been modified to reduce the inaccuracies caused by grid spreading often suffered with CFD methods when calculations several body lengths downstream become necessary. Comparisons of CFD results and experimental wind tunnel signatures are shown. Ground signatures are predicted by extrapolating the pressures predicted by the Euler code with an extrapolation method based on the Whitham theory.

  17. Field trip guidebook on environmental impact of clays along the upper Texas coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Theron D.; Ming, Douglas W.; Tuck, Lisa Kay

    1991-01-01

    The field trip was prepared to provide an opportunity to see first hand some the environmental hazards associated with clays in the Houston, Texas area. Because of the very high clay content in area soils and underlying Beaumont Formation clay, Houston is a fitting location to host the Clay Mineral Society. Examinations were made of (1) expansive soils, (2) subsidence and surface faulting, and (3) a landfill located southeast of Houston at the Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority where clay is part of the liner material.

  18. Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS-5 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Sonic booms measurements are obtained at key locations within the focus region and the lateral attenuation rate during ascent is determined in order to assess the validity of existing capability to predict the extent of focus boom area, the number of booms within the various zones (focus and nonfocus regions), the overpressures, and focus factors. The sonic boom focus region, consists of a region on the ground (in the form of an inverted 'horseshoe' pattern) in which higher than nominal overpressures can occur.

  19. Studies to Improve Environmental Assessments of Sonic Booms Produced during Air Combat Maneuvering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    aircraft longitudinal acceleration, (3) Lateral Cutoff booms - commonly heard as a low frequency rumble at ground locations near the edges of the boom...analyzed in this study. The booms corresponding to categories (1) and (2) occurred with aircraft longitudinal accelerations between about 3.7 to 5.1

  20. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth A; Boness, Daryl J; Insley, Stephen J

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.

  1. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Elizabeth A.; Boness, Daryl J.; Insley, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.

  2. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with natural clay colloids.

    PubMed

    Labille, Jérôme; Harns, Carrie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Brant, Jonathan

    2015-06-02

    To better understand and predict the fate of engineered nanoparticles in the water column, we assessed the heteroaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with a smectite clay as analogues for natural colloids. Heteroaggregation was evaluated as a function of water salinity (10(-3) and 10(-1) M NaCl), pH (5 and 8), and selected nanoparticle concentration (0-4 mg/L). Time-resolved laser diffraction was used, coupled to an aggregation model, to identify the key mechanisms and variables that drive the heteroaggregation of the nanoparticles with colloids. Our data show that, at a relevant concentration, nanoparticle behavior is mainly driven by heteroaggregation with colloids, while homoaggregation remains negligible. The affinity of TiO2 nanoparticles for clay is driven by electrostatic interactions. Opposite surface charges and/or high ionic strength favored the formation of primary heteroaggregates via the attachment of nanoparticles to the clay. The initial shape and dispersion state of the clay as well as the nanoparticle/clay concentration ratio also affected the nature of the heteroaggregation mechanism. With dispersed clay platelets (10(-3) M NaCl), secondary heteroaggregation driven by bridging nanoparticles occurred at a nanoparticle/clay number ratio of greater than 0.5. In 10(-1) M NaCl, the clay was preaggregated into larger and more spherical units. This favored secondary heteroaggregation at lower nanoparticle concentration that correlated to the nanoparticle/clay surface area ratio. In this latter case, a nanoparticle to clay sticking efficiency could be determined.

  3. High speed civil transport: Sonic boom softening and aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1994-01-01

    An improvement in sonic boom extrapolation techniques has been the desire of aerospace designers for years. This is because the linear acoustic theory developed in the 60's is incapable of predicting the nonlinear phenomenon of shock wave propagation. On the other hand, CFD techniques are too computationally expensive to employ on sonic boom problems. Therefore, this research focused on the development of a fast and accurate sonic boom extrapolation method that solves the Euler equations for axisymmetric flow. This new technique has brought the sonic boom extrapolation techniques up to the standards of the 90's. Parallel computing is a fast growing subject in the field of computer science because of its promising speed. A new optimizer (IIOWA) for the parallel computing environment has been developed and tested for aerodynamic drag minimization. This is a promising method for CFD optimization making use of the computational resources of workstations, which unlike supercomputers can spend most of their time idle. Finally, the OAW concept is attractive because of its overall theoretical performance. In order to fully understand the concept, a wind-tunnel model was built and is currently being tested at NASA Ames Research Center. The CFD calculations performed under this cooperative agreement helped to identify the problem of the flow separation, and also aided the design by optimizing the wing deflection for roll trim.

  4. Design and development of a telescopic axial boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felkai, Roland

    1986-01-01

    A special telescopic boom has been design-optimized, developed and qualified to carry an S-band antenna for the German Telecommunication Satellite is discussed. The design driver requirements, the alternatives investigated, the final technical solution, the tests performed, and special problem areas encountered during its development are discussed.

  5. 10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER PART OF TOWER, SHOWING METAL WHEELS AND CABLE SPOOLS. DETAIL, LOOKING UP AT THE UNDERSIDE OF THE REVOLVING PLATFORM ATOP THE TOWER. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. Sonic Boom Assessment for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, Marissa

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Environmental Impact Statement (Cx EIS) requires that an assessment be performed on the environmental impact of sonic booms during the reentry of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This included an analysis of current planned vehicle trajectories for the Crew Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM) debris and the determination of the potential impact to the overflown environment.

  7. Offshore energy boom providing opportunities outside Medicare's umbrella.

    PubMed

    Robb, N

    1998-09-08

    Physicians upset by limits imposed by the medicare system are getting a chance to spread their entrepreneurial wings on the East Coast. A boom in offshore exploration, led by Newfoundland's massive Hibernia project, has led to numerous business opportunities for physicians.

  8. Jim Driver, Panola County Oil and Gas Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Bobbie, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this volume presents several diverse pictures of life in East Texas. The first article, "Jim Driver, Panola County Oil and Gas Boom," (Bobby Kelly and Billy Anderson) talks about drilling for oil and gas and the concerns of an employee of the drilling company. "When I Was…

  9. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  10. 43. View of log boom (upstream) protecting fish screens at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. View of log boom (upstream) protecting fish screens at Dingle Basin, looking southwest from north side of basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. 44. View of log boom (downstream) protecting fish screens at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. View of log boom (downstream) protecting fish screens at Dingle Basin, looking northeast from south side of basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  12. Low-Boom SR-71 Modified Signature Demonstration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, David; Ehernberger, L. J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Haering, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    A flight program using the SR-71 airplane to validate sonic boom technologies for High-Speed Commercial Transport (HSCT) operation and potentially for low- or softened-boom design configurations is described. This program employs a shaped signature modification to the SR-71 airplane which is designed to demonstrate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) design technology at a full-scale HSCT operating condition of Mach 1.8 at 48,000 feet altitude. Test plans call for measurements in the near-field, at intermediate propagation altitudes, and through the more turbulent boundary layer near the Earth surface. The shaped signature modification to the airplane is comprised of added cross-section areas on the underside of the airplane forward of the wing and engine nacelles. Because the flight demonstration does not approach maximum SR-71 altitude or Mach number, the airplane provides more than adequate performance and maneuver margins for safe operation of the modified airplane. Probe airplane measurements in the near-field will use fast response pressure sensors. Far-field and ground-based boom measurements will use high response microphones or conventional sonic boom field recorders. Scope of the planned demonstration flights also includes ground level measurements during conditions which cause minimal signature distortion and conditions which cause high distortion of the signature.

  13. Inlet Trade Study for a Low-Boom Aircraft Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Slater, John W.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion integration for low-boom supersonic aircraft requires careful inlet selection, placement, and tailoring to achieve acceptable propulsive and aerodynamic performance, without compromising vehicle sonic boom loudness levels. In this investigation, an inward-turning streamline-traced and axisymmetric spike inlet are designed and independently installed on a conceptual low-boom supersonic demonstrator aircraft. The airframe was pre-shaped to achieve a target ground under-track loudness of 76.4 PLdB at cruise using an adjoint-based design optimization process. Aircraft and inlet performance characteristics were obtained by solution of the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Isolated cruise inlet performance including total pressure recovery and distortion were computed and compared against installed inlet performance metrics. Evaluation of vehicle near-field pressure signatures, along with under- and off-track propagated loudness levels is also reported. Results indicate the integrated axisymmetric spike design offers higher inlet pressure recovery, lower fan distortion, and reduced sonic boom. The vehicle with streamline-traced inlet exhibits lower external wave drag, which translates to a higher lift-to-drag ratio and increased range capability.

  14. 16. FLYBRIDGE LOOKING TO PORT. PILOTHOUSE IS TO LEFT, BOOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FLYBRIDGE LOOKING TO PORT. PILOTHOUSE IS TO LEFT, BOOM CONTROLS AT RIGHT (COVER DOWN OVER CONTROLS). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  16. Mining machine loading bin mounted on boom structure and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lebegue, M.K.

    1983-04-19

    A self-propelled mining machine includes a mobile body portion with a boom extending forwardly therefrom. The boom rotatably supports a rotatably driven cutter drum having peripherally extending cutting elements. The boom member includes a trough formed by inclined sidewalls. The inclined sidewalls are positioned in space relation and extend upwardly on opposite sides of the receiving end of a conveyor that extends continuously the length of the machine body portion. The sidewalls slope downwardly toward the lateral edges of the conveyor receiving end and form a material receiving bin or hopper. The receiving end of the conveyor forms the floor of the hopper. The front end of the hopper extends the length of the cutter drum. Suitable drive means rotate the cutter drum to dislodge material from a mine face and direct the dislodged material by rotation of the cutter drum over the cutter drum and rearwardly into the hopper. The dislodged material is directed down the inclined sidewalls of the hopper onto the receiving end of the conveyor. The conveyor transports the dislodged material rearwardly on the mining machine to a discharged end of the conveyor. The boom member together with the receiving end of the conveyor and the hopper are pivotally movable with the cutter drum member as the cutter drum is raised and lowered to form a shear cut in the mine face.

  17. Seismic Evidence for a Resonance Layer in Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    "Booming sand dunes" are large desert dunes that emit a loud droning, low-frequency sound during an avalanche of sand on the leeward face of a dune. The monotone sound (70-105 Hz) may continue for up to a minute after initiation, even after all visible motion has ceased. The source of the booming sound has long been a mystery and no accepted scientific explanation has been proposed yet. Seismic refraction experiments conducted with a closely-spaced 48 channel system show a shallow (< 10 m) subsurface layering inside the dune with significant velocity contrasts between the individual layers. The seismic body wave velocities in the top three layers of sand (240 m/s, 360 m/s and 460 m/s) are very close to the acoustic velocity in air (355 m/s) while at the same time the surface waves are highly attenuated. The seismic velocity changes cannot be explained by increasing confined pressure but must be provided by a seasonally changing physical structure. From the seismic survey it is further noted that the layering narrows towards the foothill. During the sustained boom, the frequency rises slightly (from 85 Hertz to 95 Hertz) as the source due to the avalanche proceeds downwards. This observation was deduced from analyzing the booming emission on all 48 geophones in conjunction with a high-quality air microphone. The multi-layer internal structure of the dune provides a resonance cavity that amplifies particular frequencies and creates the loud booming sound. The resonance and its interaction with the air is modeled with finite- difference simulations.

  18. Unsaturated properties for non-Darcian water flow in clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Li, Lianchong; Birkholzer, Jens

    2012-04-01

    SummaryClay rock formations, and compacted clay (e.g., bentonite) used as backfill within disposal drifts, have been considered as natural and engineered barriers, respectively, for isolating high-level nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories. Accurately modeling unsaturated flow in those clay materials is important for assessing the performance of a geological repository. While the non-Darcian behavior of water flow in clay materials has been demonstrated in the literature, a systematic study of modeling unsaturated non-Darcian flow is still lacking. Based on a hypothesis that pore water in clay becomes non-Newtonian as a result of water-clay interaction, we propose new constitutive relationships for unsaturated flow, including a relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient and those among capillary pressure, water saturation, and hydraulic conductivity. An evaluation based on a set of laboratory experimental observations supports the usefulness of the proposed relationships. More experimental studies are desirable for further confirming the non-Newtonian water flow behavior in clay materials and evaluating the proposed relationships.

  19. Pore-Water Quality in the Clay-Silt Confining Units of the Lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation and Hypothetical Effects on Water Quality in the Atlantic City 800-Foot Sand, Northeastern Cape May County, New Jersey, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Keller, Elizabeth A.; Defawe, Rose M.

    2006-01-01

    Pore water was extracted from clay-silt core samples collected from a borehole at Ocean View, west of Sea Isle City, in northeastern Cape May County, New Jersey. The borehole intersects the lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation, which includes a thick sand and gravel unit between two clay-silt units. The sand and gravel unit forms a major confined aquifer in the region, known as the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the major source of potable water along the Atlantic Coast of southern New Jersey. The pore water from the core is of interest because the borehole intersects the aquifer in an area where the ground water is sodium-rich and sulfidic. Locally in the aquifer in central and southern Cape May County, sodium concentrations are near the New Jersey secondary drinking-water standard of 50 mg/L (milligrams per liter), and typically are greater than 30 mg/L, but chloride and sulfate do not approach their respective secondary drinking-water standards except in southernmost Cape May County. Pore waters from the confining units are suspected to be a source of sodium, sulfur, and chloride to the aquifer. Constituent concentrations in filtered pore-water samples were determined using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analytical technique to facilitate the determination of low-level concentrations of many trace constituents. Calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate, calcium-chloride-sulfate, calcium-sulfate, and sodium-sulfate-chloride-bicarbonate type waters characterize samples from the deepest part of the confining unit directly overlying the aquifer (termed the 'lower' confining unit). A sodium-chloride-sulfate type water is dominant in the composite confining unit below the aquifer. Sodium, chloride, and sulfate became increasingly dominant with depth. Pore water from the deepest sample recovered (1,390 ft (feet) below land surface) was brackish, with concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate of 5,930, 8,400, and 5,070 mg/L, respectively. Pore-water samples

  20. A Quick Method for Evaluating the Merits of a Proposed Low Sonic Boom Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of a proposed low-boom aircraft concept cannot be adequately assessed unless it is given an extensive, time-consuming, mission-performance, and sonic-boom analyses. So, it would be useful to have a method for performing a quick first-order sonic-boom and mission-range analysis. The evaluation method outlined in this report has the attributes of being both fast and reasonably accurate. It can also be used as a design tool to estimate the sonic-boom ground overpressures, mission range, and beginning-cruise weight of a new low-boom concept during the first stages of preliminary design.

  1. Implications for high speed research: The relationship between sonic boom signature distortion and atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Gionfriddo, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    In this study there were two primary tasks. The first was to develop an algorithm for quantifying the distortion in a sonic boom. Such an algorithm should be somewhat automatic, with minimal human intervention. Once the algorithm was developed, it was used to test the hypothesis that the cause of a sonic boom distortion was due to atmospheric turbulence. This hypothesis testing was the second task. Using readily available sonic boom data, we statistically tested whether there was a correlation between the sonic boom distortion and the distance a boom traveled through atmospheric turbulence.

  2. Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases, Ribose, and Phosphate by Some Clay Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Besides having a large capacity for taking up organic molecules, clay minerals can catalyze a variety of organic reactions. Derived from rock weathering, clay minerals would have been abundant in the early Earth. As such, they might be expected to play a role in chemical evolution. The interactions of clay minerals with biopolymers, including RNA, have been the subject of many investigations. The behavior of RNA components at clay mineral surfaces needs to be assessed if we are to appreciate how clays might catalyze the formation of nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides in the “RNA world”. The adsorption of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides from aqueous solution to clay minerals is affected by suspension pH. With montmorillonite, adsorption is also influenced by the nature of the exchangeable cations. Here, we review the interactions of some clay minerals with RNA components. PMID:25734235

  3. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  4. Vibro-Acoustic Response of Buildings Due to Sonic Boom Exposure: July 2007 Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    During the month of July 2007, a series of structural response measurements were made on a house on Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) property that was exposed to sonic booms of various amplitudes. The purpose of this report is to document the measurements that were made, the structure on which they were made, the conditions under which they were made, the sensors and other hardware that were used, and the data that were collected. To that end, Chapter 2 documents the house, its location, the physical layout of the house, the surrounding area, and summarizes the transducers placed in and around the house. Chapter 3 details the sensors and other hardware that were placed in the house during the experiment. In addition, day-to-day variations of hardware configurations and transducer calibrations are documented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 documents the boom generation process, flight conditions, and ambient weather conditions during the test days. Chapter 5 includes information about sub-experiments that were performed to characterize the vibro-acoustic response of the structure, the acoustic environment inside the house, and the acoustic environment outside the house. Chapter 6 documents the data format and presents examples of reduced data that were collected during the test days.

  5. Analytical Characterization of Natural Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sheikhy, Refat; Al-Shamrani, Mosleh

    2010-10-01

    The current paper introduces the study of morphology and electronic microscopy characterization of one type of the smectite Saudi nano clay montmorillonite type. During the last decade, nanotechnology achieved a recognized progress in many fields based mainly on synthesized materials. Much attention is devoted to produce natural nano particles. It was found that the clay is one of the rare materials which have platelets of nano scale size. The nano clay minerals are found in different types. It is investigated that the nano clay minerals have super properties which can not be found in the other materials. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has many zones having different types of good nano clays. These nano clays are found in certain mixtures with other different materials such as Mg, Ca, Fe and others. By developing an innovated technique we could extract Saudi Arabian nano clay with high grade purity. The results are very interesting. The produced nano clay particles are with good quality and super properties. It can be used in many fields of nanocomposites.

  6. Clay mineralogy of weathering profiles from the Carolina Piedmont.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Saprolite profiles (12) that formed over various crystalline rocks from the Charlotte 1o X 2o quadrangle showed overall similarity in their clay mineralogy to depths of 6 to 45 m indicating control by weathering processes rather than by rock type. Most saprolite contained 10-25% clay, and ranged 3 to 70%. Kaolinite and halloysite composed = or >75% of the clay fraction of most samples. The ratio kaolinite:halloysite ranged widely, from 95% kaolinite to 90% halloysite, independent of depth. Clay-size mica was present in all profiles, and ranged 5-75% over a sericite schist. Mixed-layer mica-smectite and mica-vermiculite were subordinate; discrete smectite and vermiculite were rare. The abundance of halloysite indicates a continuously humid environment since the time of profile formation, because of the rapidity with which halloysite dehydrates irreversibly. -R.S.M.

  7. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  8. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO2 (52.97 wt%) and Al2O3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal.

  9. CO2 adsorption isotherm on clay minerals and the CO2 accessibility into the clay interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Rother, Gernot; Krooß, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale CO2 storage in porous rock formations at 1-3 km depth is seen as a global warming mitigation strategy. In this process, CO2 is separated from the flue gas of coal or gas power plants, compressed, and pumped into porous subsurface reservoirs with overlying caprocks (seals). Good seals are mechanically and chemically stable caprocks with low porosity and permeability. They prevent leakage of buoyant CO2 from the reservoir. Caprocks are generally comprised of thick layers of shale, and thus mainly consist of clay minerals. These clays can be affected by CO2-induced processes, such as swelling or dissolution. The interactions of CO2 with clay minerals in shales are at present poorly understood. Sorption measurements in combination scattering techniques could provide fundamental insight into the mechanisms governing CO2-clay interaction. Volumetric sorption techniques have assessed the sorption of supercritical CO2 onto coal (Gensterblum et al., 2010; Gensterblum et al., 2009), porous silica (Rother et al., 2012a) and clays as a means of exploring the potential of large-scale storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geological reservoirs (Busch et al., 2008). On different clay minerals and shales, positive values of excess sorption were measured at gas pressures up to 6 MPa, where the interfacial fluid is assumed to be denser than the bulk fluid. However, zero and negative values were obtained at higher densities, which suggests the adsorbed fluid becomes equal to and eventually less dense than the corresponding bulk fluid, or that the clay minerals expand on CO2 charging. Using a combination of neutron diffraction and excess sorption measurements, we recently deduced the interlayer density of scCO2 in Na-montmorillonite clay in its single-layer hydration state (Rother et al., 2012b), and confirmed its low density, as well as the expansion of the basal spacings. We performed neutron diffraction experiments at the FRMII diffractometer on smectite, kaolinite and illite

  10. Adsorption, Mobility and Organisation of Organic Molecules at Clay Surfaces Probed by Photophysics and Photochemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    unambiguous. The time-dependent fluorescence of the organo - clay systems, has also been studied. Several functions have been used to describe the...ADSORPTION, MOBILITY AND ORGANISATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AT CLAY SURFACES PROBED BY PHOTOPHYSICS AND Lfl PHOTOCHEMISTRY C~%I SIXTH INTERIM REPORT...CONTENTS A.-iluster formation of detergents on the clay surface. B. kdsorption of aromatic compounds on colloidal silica C.-ttudy of the fluorescence decay

  11. Design for a Unitary Graphite Composite Instrument Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Wes; Carlos, Rene; Sturm, James; Rossoni, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development of a Unitary graphite composite instrument boom that incorporates carpenter-tape like hinges for stowage. While light and stiff, graphite composite is not ordinarily thought of as a flexible material. This design has taken advantage of the stiffness of the composite in tubular geometry, yet leveraged its thin- section behavior to place flexibility at the required locations. Key is the proprietary layup, which results in a tough yet flexible hinge capable of rotating over 90 degrees in each direction. When the boom deploys, there is enough torque to overcome parasitic resistance from harness, etc. It will snap to the fully extended, rigid shape. The design has addressed materials issues such as out-of-plane bending, edge cracking, and interlaminar ply separation.

  12. Sonic boom propagation through turbulence: A ray theory approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Leick D.

    1994-01-01

    A ray theory approach is used to examine the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent ground layer, and to make predictions about the received waveform. The rays are not propagated one at a time, as is typical in ray theory; instead, sufficient rays to represent a continuous wave front are propagated together. New rays are interpolated as needed to maintain the continuity of the wave front. In order to predict the received boom signature, the wave front is searched for eigenrays after it has propagated to the receiver. The Comte-Bellot turbulence model is used to generate an instantaneous 'snapshot' of the turbulent field. The transient acoustic wave is assumed to be sufficiently short in duration such that the time-dependacde of the turbulent field may be neglected.

  13. Sonic Boom Mitigation Through Aircraft Design and Adjoint Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Siriam K.; Diskin, Boris; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to design of the supersonic aircraft outer mold line (OML) by optimizing the A-weighted loudness of sonic boom signature predicted on the ground. The optimization process uses the sensitivity information obtained by coupling the discrete adjoint formulations for the augmented Burgers Equation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) equations. This coupled formulation links the loudness of the ground boom signature to the aircraft geometry thus allowing efficient shape optimization for the purpose of minimizing the impact of loudness. The accuracy of the adjoint-based sensitivities is verified against sensitivities obtained using an independent complex-variable approach. The adjoint based optimization methodology is applied to a configuration previously optimized using alternative state of the art optimization methods and produces additional loudness reduction. The results of the optimizations are reported and discussed.

  14. Sonic-boom ground-pressure measurements from Apollo 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.; Mckinney, R.

    1972-01-01

    Sonic boom pressure signatures recorded during the launch and reentry phases of the Apollo 15 mission are presented. The measurements were obtained along the vehicle ground track at 87 km and 970 km downrange from the launch site during ascent; and at 500 km, 55.6 km, and 12.9 km from the splashdown point during reentry. Tracings of the measured signatures are included along with values of the overpressure, impulse, time duration, and rise times. Also included are brief descriptions of the launch and recovery test areas in which the measurements were obtained, the sonic boom instrumentation deployment, flight profiles and operating conditions for the launch vehicle and spacecraft, surface weather information at the measuring sites, and high altitude weather information for the general measurement areas.

  15. Clay energetics in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Clays have been implicated in the origin of terrestrial life since the 1950's. Originally they were considered agents which aid in selecting, concentrating and promoting oligomerization of the organic monomeric substituents of cellular life forms. However, more recently, it has been suggested that minerals, with particular emphasis on clays, may have played a yet more fundamental role. It has been suggested that clays are prototypic life forms in themselves and that they served as a template which directed the self-assembly of cellular life. If the clay-life theory is to have other than conceptual credibility, clays must be shown by experiment to execute the operations of cellular life, not only individually, but also in a sufficiently concerted manner as to produce some semblance of the functional attributes of living cells. Current studies are focussed on the ability of clays to absorb, store and transfer energy under plausible prebiotic conditions and to use this energy to drive chemistry of prebiotic relevance. Conclusions of the work are applicable to the role of clays either as substrates for organic chemistry, or in fueling their own life-mimetic processes.

  16. Variability of measured sonic boom signatures. Volume 2: Data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, K. R.; Joshi, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Sonic boom signatures from two databases, the BOOMFILE and the XB-70, were analyzed in terms of C-weighted sound exposure level (CSEL), A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL), and Stevens Mark VII perceived level (PLdB), as well as the more traditional peak positive overpressure and rise time. The variability of these parameters due to propagation through atmosphere was analyzed for different aircraft Mach number and altitude groups. The low Mach number/low altitude group had significantly greater variation in rise time, overpressure, and loudness level than the high Mach number/high altitude group. The loudness of measured booms were found to have a variation of up to 25 dB relative to the loudness of boom predicted for a non-turbulent atmosphere. This is due primarily to the steeper ray paths of the high Mach number/high altitude group and the corresponding shorter distances traveled by these rays through the lower atmosphere resulting in reduced refraction effects. The general trend of decreased overpressure and loudness level with increasing lateral distance was also seen. Sonic boom signatures from early morning flights had less variation in rise time and overpressure than afternoon flights because of reduced turbulence. Measures of asymmetry (difference between compression and expansion portion of the signature) showed that the variability in Delta loudness level was greater than the variability in Delta overpressure due to the large influence of turbulence on rise time. Lastly, analysis of data within 50 percent of lateral cutoff showed that the mean value for overpressure and loudness level was independent of time of day but that the frequency with which it occurred was greater in the morning. This is a clear indicator of increased turbulence in the afternoon.

  17. Survey of Sonic Boom Phenomena for the Non-Specialist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    illustrate the strong effects which occur. FI04 B-58 N PEAKED ^^J NORMAL ROUNDED FIGURE 3.8 VARIATION IN SONIC-BOOM MEASURED SIGNATURES...range of 2 to 5 times normal have been found possible by Haglund and Kane under the special conditions of carefully controlled accelerated flight from...WHICH SWALLOWS SHOCKS that since the airplane designer normally does his best to reduce wave drag, he is not going to have an easy time doing much

  18. Variability of measured sonic boom signatures. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, K. R.; Joshi, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    Sonic boom signatures from two databases, the BOOMFILE and the XB-70, were analyzed in terms of C-weighted sound exposure level (CSEL), A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL), and Stevens Mark VII perceived level (PLdB), as well as the more traditional peak positive overpressure and rise time. The variability of these parameters due to propagation through atmosphere was analyzed for different aircraft Mach number and altitude groups. The low Mach number/low altitude group had significantly greater variation in rise time, overpressure, and loudness level than the high Mach number/high altitude group. The loudness of measured booms were found to have a variation of up to 25 dB relative to the loudness of boom predicted for a non-turbulent atmosphere. This is due primarily to the steeper ray paths of the high Mach number/high altitude group and the corresponding shorter distances traveled by these rays through the lower atmosphere resulting in reduced refraction effects. The general trend of decreased overpressure and loudness level with increasing lateral distance was also seen. Sonic boom signatures from early morning flights had less variation in rise time and overpressure than afternoon flights because of reduced turbulence. Measures of asymmetry (difference between compression and expansion portion of the signature) showed that the variability in Delta loudness level was greater than the variability in Delta overpressure due to the large influence of turbulence on rise time. Lastly, analysis of data within 50 percent of lateral cutoff showed that the mean value for overpressure and loudness level was independent of time of day but that the frequency with which it occurred was greater in the morning. This is a clear indicator of increased turbulence in the afternoon.

  19. Evaluation of Potential Damage to Unconventional Structures by Sonic Booms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    plaster and gypsum board caused by sonic boom is broken...on wood lath 3.3 5.6 2. Plaster on gyplath 7.5 16 3. Plaster on expanded metal lath 16 16 4. Plaster on concrete block 16 16 5. Gypsum board (new) 16... wallboard (also called plasterboard or drywall), it is assumed that interior walls of unconventional historic wood frame buildings used plaster instead.

  20. 4. VIEW FROM POINT OF BOOM LOOKING TOWARDS THE STERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW FROM POINT OF BOOM LOOKING TOWARDS THE STERN OF DREDGE. BOTH HALVES OF DIPPER STICK ARE IN FOREFRONT OF PICTURE. THE SADDLE BLOCK GOES THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE DIPPER STICK. ROLLERS, CALLED THE CAT HEADS, HELD THE DIPPER STICK RACK IRON TEETH IN MESH WITH THE PINION GEARS. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Loudness and annoyance response to simulated outdoor and indoor sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1993-01-01

    The sonic boom simulator of the Langley Research Center was used to quantify subjective loudness and annoyance response to simulated indoor and outdoor sonic boom signatures. The indoor signatures were derived from the outdoor signatures by application of house filters that approximated the noise reduction characteristics of a residential structure. Two indoor listening situations were simulated: one with the windows open and the other with the windows closed. Results were used to assess loudness and annoyance as sonic boom criterion measures and to evaluate several metrics as estimators of loudness and annoyance. The findings indicated that loudness and annoyance were equivalent criterion measures for outdoor booms but not for indoor booms. Annoyance scores for indoor booms were significantly higher than indoor loudness scores. Thus, annoyance was recommended as the criterion measure of choice for general use in assessing sonic boom subjective effects. Perceived level was determined to be the best estimator of annoyance for both indoor and outdoor booms, and of loudness for outdoor booms. It was recommended as the metric of choice for predicting sonic boom subjective effects.

  2. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  3. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  4. Influence of Chair Vibrations on Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    One goal of NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  5. Influence of chair vibrations on indoor sonic boom annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    One goal of NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  6. Large-Scale Low-Boom Inlet Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides a high level overview of the Large-Scale Low-Boom Inlet Test and was presented at the Fundamental Aeronautics 2011 Technical Conference. In October 2010 a low-boom supersonic inlet concept with flow control was tested in the 8'x6' supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The primary objectives of the test were to evaluate the inlet stability and operability of a large-scale low-boom supersonic inlet concept by acquiring performance and flowfield validation data, as well as evaluate simple, passive, bleedless inlet boundary layer control options. During this effort two models were tested: a dual stream inlet intended to model potential flight hardware and a single stream design to study a zero-degree external cowl angle and to permit surface flow visualization of the vortex generator flow control on the internal centerbody surface. The tests were conducted by a team of researchers from NASA GRC, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the University of Virginia

  7. Boom accomodation effects on plasma and field measurements with RPWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Correa, P.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Odelstad, E.; Vaivads, A.; Bergman, J.

    2013-09-01

    While the JUICE spacecraft configuration and main contractor are yet to be decided, it is still possible to investigate general issues on the impact of various boom accomodation alternatives for measurements of plasma and electric fields using the Langmuir probe system of the Radio and Plasma Waves Investigation. These probes can be used as classical Langmuir probes, as electric field probes, or for mutual impedance measurements, and the impact of e.g. varying illumination and wake interference are different for each type of measurement. While there is a nominal JUICE trajectory for the main science mission, we have to do assumptions on the spacecraft pointing, e.g. nadir pointing during flybys of the various moons. The detailed spacecraft layout is not known, but we can arrive at general conclusions on the suitability of various boom accomodations by assuming a cube-like spacecraft with solar panels as rectangular wings. For disturbing structures like wakes and photoelectron clouds we use simple models based on previous simulations. Even though the detailed pointing and spacecraft design will quite certainly deviate from our assumptions, and the model has uncertainties also in other respects, we can still give some general conclusions on boom accomodation alternatives.

  8. Unstructured Grids for Sonic Boom Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of two methods for improving the process for generating unstructured CFD grids for sonic boom analysis and design has been conducted. The process involves two steps: the generation of an inner core grid using a conventional unstructured grid generator such as VGRID, followed by the extrusion of a sheared and stretched collar grid through the outer boundary of the core grid. The first method evaluated, known as COB, automatically creates a cylindrical outer boundary definition for use in VGRID that makes the extrusion process more robust. The second method, BG, generates the collar grid by extrusion in a very efficient manner. Parametric studies have been carried out and new options evaluated for each of these codes with the goal of establishing guidelines for best practices for maintaining boom signature accuracy with as small a grid as possible. In addition, a preliminary investigation examining the use of the CDISC design method for reducing sonic boom utilizing these grids was conducted, with initial results confirming the feasibility of a new remote design approach.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of clays and clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Hughes, R.E.

    1971-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) proves to be ideally suited for studying the configuration, texture, and fabric of clay samples. Growth mechanics of crystalline units-interpenetration and interlocking of crystallites, crystal habits, twinning, helical growth, and topotaxis-also are uniquely revealed by the SEM. Authigenic kaolins make up the bulk of the examples because their larger crystallite size, better crystallinity, and open texture make them more suited to examination by the SEM than most other clay mineral types. ?? 1971.

  10. Geology of the "20-foot" clay and Gardiners clay in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doriski, T.P.; Wilde-Katz, Franceska

    1983-01-01

    Data from 1978-79 drilling was compiled with information from previous reports and historical records to prepare surface contour and isopach maps of the ' 20-foot ' clay and Gardiners Clay in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties. These units are major confining layers in the upper part of the groundwater reservoir along Long Island 's south shore. Where present, they influence the groundwater flow patterns locally. The ' 20-foot ' clay, previously mapped in Nassau County only, was found in test borings in Suffolk County also. Its surface altitude ranges from 20 to 40 ft below NGVD (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929); thickness ranges from 0 to 30 ft. The surface altitude of the Gardiners Clay ranges from 40 to 120 ft below NGVD; thickness ranges from 0 to 90 ft. Previously known discontinuities in both formations are more accurately delineated, and several new discontinuities have been inferred from the new data. The Matawan Group-Magothy Formation undifferentiated the Monmouth Group, and the Jameco Gravel directly underlie the Gardiners Clay. Revised surface altitudes of these formations are depicted on maps and cross sections of the south-shore area. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Characterization of clay scales forming in Philippine geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.G. ); Cardile, C.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Smectite scales occur in 24 out of the 36 blocked wells located in Tongonan, Palinpinon and Bacon-Manito. These comprise 2-85% of the well scales and form at depths of 33-2620 m, where measured and fluid inclusion temperatures are 40-320{sup 0}C. Most, however, occur below the production casing show where temperatures are {ge}230{sup 0}C, often at depths coinciding with aquifers. The clay scales are compositionally and structurally different from the bentonite used in drilling, which is essentially sodium-rich montmorillonite. The clay deposits are expanding, generally disordered, and combine the characteristics of a montmorillonite, saponite and vermiculite in terms of reaction to cationic exchange treatments, structure and composition. Six types of clay scales are identified, but the predominant one, comprising 60-100% of the clay deposits in a well, is Mg- and Fe-rich and referred to as a vermiculitic species. The crystallinity, degree of disorder, textures, optical characteristics, structure and relative amounts of structural Al, Mg and Fe vary with time, temperature and fluid composition, but not with depth and measured pressure. Despite its variance from bentonite characteristics, one of the dominant suggested mechanisms of clay scale formation uses the drilling mud in the well as a substrate, from which the Mg- and Fe-rich clay evolves.

  12. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  13. Using CFD Surface Solutions to Shape Sonic Boom Signatures Propagated from Off-Body Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design of a low-boom and low-drag supersonic aircraft remains a challenge despite significant progress in recent years. Inverse design using reversed equivalent area and adjoint methods have been demonstrated to be effective in shaping the ground signature propagated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) off-body pressure distributions. However, there is still a need to reduce the computational cost in the early stages of design to obtain a baseline that is feasible for low-boom shaping, and in the search for a robust low-boom design over the entire sonic boom footprint. The proposed design method addresses the need to reduce the computational cost for robust low-boom design by using surface pressure distributions from CFD solutions to shape sonic boom ground signatures propagated from CFD off-body pressure.

  14. The 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing the development of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop included these sessions: Session 1 - Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 - Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); and Session 3 - Acceptability Studies - Human and Animal.

  15. Estimating the magnus moment effect on stability of 30-mm boomed projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, R. H.; Cobb, K.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents the results obtained from a comparison of free-flight spark range tests and PRODASMAGNUS computer stability results for 30mm spin stabilized projectiles. Two configurations were considered, each with the same boom diameter of 0.5, 1.0 inch and 1.25 inch boom lengths. The results show that PRODASMAGNUS can accurately predict the effects of a boom's presence on projectile stability.

  16. Boom and the problems related to the supersonic flights of military aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thery, Christian; Lecomte, Claude

    1992-04-01

    The flight of a supersonic projectile is accompanied by a clapping called ballistic detonation. At the same time an aircraft in supersonic flight creates a boom which travels to the ground. The boom represents an impulsional characteristic which provokes a startled reaction in living beings and makes structures vibrate. Because of the elevated altitude of the flight of aircraft the boom is felt along a band of terrain situated along each side of the trajectory of the aircraft, as large as many tens of kilometers. The intensity of the boom essentially depends on the size of the aircraft that creates it, on its altitude, and on the maneuver that it is executing; the maneuvers which are executed by military aircraft provoke locally a very great intensification of booms, these are focalizations and superfocalizations. These phenomena appear especially at the time of transonic acceleration and when turning. The annoyance resulting from these focalized booms is therefore certain and related damage to aging or poorly constructed structures can occur; the sole means of limiting the nuisance which results will be to situate these focalized boom zones over uninhabited regions. A good preview of the affected zones requires precise a priori knowledge of the actual trajectory of the aircraft and the meteorological conditions; in practice therefore, the zones susceptible to being affected by these phenomena are fairly large. Above all, the effects of boom must not be overestimated. The first temporary damages to the auditory system are observed for levels of wave intensity greatly superior to the levels of booms (3000 to 5000 Pa as opposed to 50 or 70 Pa for a boom). The structural effects of normal booms are comparable to those resulting from natural inclemency (wind) or related to modern life (highway traffic). The focalized boom cannot have an impact on sound and well-constructed buildings except by cumulative effect (fatigue).

  17. Comparisons of Methods for Predicting Community Annoyance Due to Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to the prediction of community response to sonic boom exposure are examined and compared. The first approach is based on the wealth of data concerning community response to common transportation noises coupled with results of a sonic boom/aircraft noise comparison study. The second approach is based on limited field studies of community response to sonic booms. Substantial differences between indoor and outdoor listening conditions are observed. Reasonable agreement is observed between predicted community responses and available measured responses.

  18. Study to Determine Seismic Response of Sonic Boom-Coupled Rayleigh Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-26

    HSD-TP-90-026 AD- A225 105 STUDY TO DETERMINE SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SONIC BOOM-COUPLED RAYLEIGH WAVES Technical Literature Review Mark R. Legg Jerold M...booms: NASA Contractor Report, CR -451, Weidlinger Consulting Engineers, New York, NY. 49 pp. Bradley, J. & R. W. B. Stephens, 1973, Seismic vibrations...effects of sonic booms: NASA Report No. CR -1137, Teledyne Geotech, Garl- ., exas. Grant, F. S. & G. F. We,., ’o5, Interpretation Theory in Applied

  19. Statistical and numerical study of the relation between weather and sonic boom characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Lixin; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Mcbride, Walton E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA measured sonic boom characteristics near Edwards Air Force Base from 11/66 to 1/67. Thirty four flights by an F-104 were recorded at an altitude of about 31,000 feet and flying speed of Mach 1.3. Forty two microphones were placed on the ground directly under the fight track. Each microphone recorded boom shape, rise time, peak overpressure, total boom duration, positive duration, and positive impulse.

  20. Reactions of Residents to Long-Term Sonic Boom Noise Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.

    1997-01-01

    A combined social survey and noise measurement program has been completed in 14 communities in two regions of the western United States that have been regularly exposed to sonic booms for many years. A total of 1,573 interviews were completed. Three aspects of the sonic booms are most disturbing: being startled, noticing rattles or vibrations, and being concerned about the possibility of damage from the booms. Sonic boom annoyance is greater than that in a conventional aircraft environment with the same continuous equivalent noise exposure. The reactions in the two study regions differ in severity.

  1. An eight-meter inflatable reflectarray antenna and its inflatable/self-rigidizable booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Huang, John; Quijano, Ubaldo O.; Hsia, Lih-Min; Sorokin, Nicholas; Polanco, Otto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and test results related to buckling capability, modal characteristics, and thermal expansion coefficient of STR aluminum laminate inflatable/self-rigidizable booms with lengths up to 10 metes. STR booms are fundamental building blocks of space inflatable/self-rigidizable reflectarray antennas. These boom characteristics are essential for analyzing structural integrity, in orbit dynamic response, and in orbit thermal distortion of the 8-mter reflectarray antenna. Distinct advantages of the STR booms will also be identified and presented by this paper.

  2. A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2013-12-01

    Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

  3. [Netherlands Fertility Survey 1982: women from the postwar baby boom].

    PubMed

    Beets Gcn; Zakee, F P

    1984-10-01

    This article comprises some results of the Netherlands Fertility Survey 1982 (NFS '82) but only for those women born between 1945-49. For the most part, these women, about age 35 at the time of interview, are the result of a postwar baby boom. Of all the respondents (the entire survey comprised a sample of women born between 1945-64), this generation had the greatest demographic experience. Thus the survey provides additional information on differentials of cohabitation, nuptiality, fertility, and birth control which are not available readily from the integral population statistics. Population statistics have shown that in the Netherlands, women from the 1945-49 generation stood on the brink of a number of structural changes in the fields of relationship formation and childbearing. Marriage has lost some of its popularity; voluntary childlessness has been on the rise. In 1982, this generation numbered about 573,500 women in the Netherlands. Scheme 1 shows that by that time, 467,000 women (81%) were married for the 1st time; 11,000 (2%) for the 2nd time; 4000 were widowed; and 36,000 divorced. In all, 529,000 marriages had been contracted and 55,000 (10%) dissolved. The NFS '82 results further indicate that 73,000 women (13%) had ever cohabited. At the end of the interviews, 8000 never-married as well as 7000 formerly married women were cohabiting. From text table 3 it can be concluded that premarital cohabitation is no guarantee that marriage will be a success. The table (column 4) and graph 2 give information on the percentage of 1st marriages and the age at 1st marriage by background variables. Until 1982, these women had given birth to over 1 million children. About 90,000 women (16%) had not yet had a child. Graphs 3 and 4 present the age at childbearing by parity and background variables. As is the case for 1st marriages, the differentiation by education and parental family size is noteworthy. Almost all women had ever had a job but most of them stopped when

  4. Prions, Radionuclides and Clays: Impact of clay interlayer "acidity" on toxic compound speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, L.; Hureau, C.; Sobolev, O.; Cuello, G.; Chapron, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The physical and chemical processes that are the basis of contaminant retardation in clay rich medium, such as soil or nuclear waste repository, have been studied at the molecular level by a combination of molecular dynamics (MD), electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) and neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution (NDIS). The speciation of contaminants such as Sm, a radionuclide analogue, and Cu, bound to Prion protein (PrP), has been studied upon adsorption in clay interlayers. We used as molecular probe the P5-Cu(II) complex, where the P5 pentapeptide(92-96 PrP residues) represents one of the five Cu(II) binding site present in PrP, the key protein involved in diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In both cases, the pH of the interlayer has been inferred from the metal ion coordination, here used as a molecular reporter. In circum neutral pH waters, samarium is present as Sm(OH)3° species and should not be adsorbed in clay interlayer by "cation exchange" unless its hydrolysis is altered. Samarium NDIS results indicate that whether the number of oxygen nearest neighbours varies only from 8.5 to 7, as Sm penetrates the interlayer, the number of hydrogen nearest neighbours drops from 12 to 6. The high affinity of clay for Sm shows that a change in Sm hydrolysis occurs in the clay interlayer, but is directly followed by the formation of a surface complex with montmorillonite siloxane plane functional groups which prevents the determination of a "local pH". Conversely, has been found to be a much more sensitive interlayer water pH probe. and this peptide domain is involved in the misfolding of the protein,a transconformation which may lead to the pathogenic PrPSc form. We have therefore studied by EPR spectroscopy the adsorption of Cu(II)-P5 complexes on montmorillonite, and found the clay to have a large and selective adsorption capacity for the various [Cu(P5)H-n](2-n)+ complexes where n is the number of deprotonated amido function

  5. MSAT boom joint testing and load absorber design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinker, D. H.; Shuey, K.; St.clair, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Through a series of component and system-level tests, the torque margin for the MSAT booms is being determined. The verification process has yielded a number of results and lessons that can be applied to many other types of deployable spacecraft mechanisms. The MSAT load absorber has proven to be an effective way to provide high energy dissipation using crushable honeycomb. Using two stages of crushable honeycomb and a fusible link, a complex crush load profile has been designed and implemented. The design features of the load absorber lend themselves to use in other spacecraft applications.

  6. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  7. Hydrodynamic solutions at a sonic-boom focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. W.; Zalosh, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Study of the focusing of sonic-boom N waves using a numerical shock-following method. The computer code used in the calculations employs a moving mesh so that weak N wave shocks can be followed for large distances without numerical dissipation. In several sample calculations, overpressures at the focus ranging from 2 to 20 times the nominal overpressure have been computed. It is also found that weak shocks tend to cusp at the axis in accord with the geometric-acoustics description, whereas strong shocks straighten out without cusping.

  8. Computational Aeroelastic Analyses of a Low-Boom Supersonic Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Connolly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology (CST) Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) element is provided with a focus on recent computational aeroelastic analyses of a low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed-Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. The overview includes details of the computational models developed to date including a linear finite element model (FEM), linear unsteady aerodynamic models, unstructured CFD grids, and CFD-based aeroelastic analyses. In addition, a summary of the work involving the development of aeroelastic reduced-order models (ROMs) and the development of an aero-propulso-servo-elastic (APSE) model is provided.

  9. Mechanically infiltrated clays: recognition and influence in fluvial reservoirs of Reconcavo basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, M.A.S.; De Ros, L.F.

    1989-03-01

    Fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the Sergi Formation (Jurassic) are the main reservoirs of the Reconcavo basin in northeastern Brazil. These reservoirs contain significant amounts of interstitial detrital clays resulting from early diagenetic mechanical infiltration. The infiltration developed under arid/semiarid conditions, where the lowered water table allowed muddy waters of episodic runoff to infiltrate through the coarse alluvium. The main clay concentrations occurred in the upper phreatic zone and in proximity to sources of influent seepage. It is difficult to identify infiltrated clays in ancient sedimentary rocks due to a lack of well-established petrographic criteria. In this work, a series of petrographic criteria is proposed to recognize these clays in clastic reservoirs. These criteria include the anisophachous coatings of tangentially accreted lamellae and the geometric patterns developed due to shrinkage. The infiltrated clays are among the main controls of reservoir properties, and the horizons of maximum clay concentration are the main internal barriers in most Sergi reservoirs. In general, infiltrated clays damage reservoir quality by creating macroheterogeneities and microheterogeneities, by decreasing recovery efficiency and permeability, and by increasing water saturation. Also, they can cause formation damage either by their swelling properties or through the migration of loose particles left by shrinkage. As demonstrated in the Sergi Formation, infiltrated clays must be adequately identified for the definition of proper procedures for drilling, completion, reservoir development, and EOR programs.

  10. Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.; Hill, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with other industry organizations and academia, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The test helped to build a dataset that will go toward further understanding of the unique acoustic propagation characteristics near the sonic boom carpet extremity. The FaINT was an effort that collected finely-space sonic boom data across the entire lateral cutoff transition region. A major objective of the effort was to investigate the acoustic phenomena that occur at the audible edge of a sonic boom carpet, including the transition and shadow zones. A NASA F-18B aircraft made supersonic passes such that its sonic boom carpet transition zone would intersect a linear 60-microphone, 7500-ft long array. A TG-14 motor glider equipped with a microphone on its wing also attempted to capture the same sonic boom rays that were measured on the ground, at altitudes of 3000 - 6000 ft above ground level. This paper determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, and established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic levels defining the lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region; analyzed the change in sonic boom levels as a function of distance from flight path both on the ground and 4500 ft above the ground; and compared between sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  11. Pillared smectite clay coatings for ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jagota, S.; Harmer, M.A.; Lemon, M.F.; Jagota, A.; McCarron, E.M. III.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a novel route for the low-temperature formation of mullite, from pillared smectite clay precursors, for use as fiber coatings in ceramic-matrix composites. In particular, alumina-pillared bentonite converts in part to mullite at the unusually low temperature of about 800 C. The clay precursors display excellent film-forming capability and have been coated onto silicon carbide fibers. Mechanical tests on composites of the coated fibers and a borosilicate glass demonstrate their success as debond coatings, suggesting that this approach is a viable and simple route to oxide coatings for fibers.

  12. Iodide interactions with clay minerals: Batch and diffusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. W.; Kruichak, J.; Mills, M.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Iodine-129 is often the major driver of exposure risk from nuclear waste repositories at timescales >10,000 years. Therefore, understanding the geochemical cycling of iodine in clays is critical in developing defensible quantitative descriptions of nuclear waste disposal. Anions are not typically considered to interact with most clays as it is assumed that the fixed negative charge of clays actively repels the dissoloved anion. This is corroborated by many batch studies, but diffusion experiments in compacted clays have shown iodide retardation relative to chloride. The reasons for this are unknown; however, several possible hypotheses include: redox transformation controls on sorption behavior, complex surface charge environments due to overlapping charge domains, and sorption to ancillary minerals or weathering products. Seven different clay minerals have been examined using several techniques to chracterize the surface charge environment and iodide uptake. The use of a series of clays shifts the independent variable away from water chemistry characteristics (pH, contaminant concentration), and toward structural characterisitics of clay minerals including isomorphous substitution and clay texture. Iodide uptake batch experiments were completed with the clay minerals in a range of swamping electrolytes. The results give evidence for a novel uptake mechanism involving ion pair formation and iodide concentration within nano-confined environments. These results were further tested using diffusional columns where nano-confined regimes make up a larger proportion of the total porosity. These columns were compacted to different hydrostatic pressures and saturated with different ionic compositions. Porosity distributions were characterized with a fluoride tracer. Iodide diffusion characteristics were

  13. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  14. Progressive wave equations and algorithms for sonic boom propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Allan D.

    1993-01-01

    Raspet, Bass, and others have carried out a number of studies of sonic boom propagation using algorithms that can be traced back to a 1973 doctoral thesis written by Pestorius at the University of Texas. The algorithm was originally set forth without a formal derivation from a governing set of partial differential equations. Perusal of Pestorius's report and of subsequent reports from the Texas nonlinear accoustics group suggests that such a derivation has not yet appeared in the archival literature. The author and his colleagues, on the other hand, have been working with an explicit set of approximate partial differential equations analogous to Burgers' equation. The present paper traces through the pertinent statements in the Pestorius reports and shows that the derived algorithm, at least in the limit of sufficiently short steps, is equivalent to the numerical solution of a similar (and nearly equivalent) explicit set of partial differential equations. The tying-together of the two approaches is important because it is possible that some of the basic ideas embodied in the Pestorius algorithm may be incorporated in other contexts where more nearly general models of sonic boom propagation through realistic atmospheres are to be solved numerically.

  15. Sonic Boom Propagation Codes Validated by Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poling, Hugh W.

    1996-01-01

    The sonic boom propagation codes reviewed in this study, SHOCKN and ZEPHYRUS, implement current theory on air absorption using different computational concepts. Review of the codes with a realistic atmosphere model confirm the agreement of propagation results reported by others for idealized propagation conditions. ZEPHYRUS offers greater flexibility in propagation conditions and is thus preferred for practical aircraft analysis. The ZEPHYRUS code was used to propagate sonic boom waveforms measured approximately 1000 feet away from an SR-71 aircraft flying at Mach 1.25 to 5000 feet away. These extrapolated signatures were compared to measurements at 5000 feet. Pressure values of the significant shocks (bow, canopy, inlet and tail) in the waveforms are consistent between extrapolation and measurement. Of particular interest is that four (independent) measurements taken under the aircraft centerline converge to the same extrapolated result despite differences in measurement conditions. Agreement between extrapolated and measured signature duration is prevented by measured duration of the 5000 foot signatures either much longer or shorter than would be expected. The duration anomalies may be due to signature probing not sufficiently parallel to the aircraft flight direction.

  16. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level.

  17. Clay minerals for advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The author describes new and improved beneficiation techniques available to allow the production of clay minerals of exceptionally high purity. This is particularly true for kaolins and smectites. Wet processing techniques include particle size separation, high intensity magnetic separation, chemical leaching, flotation, and selective flocculation. The blending of clay minerals with other minerals provides opportunities to make special ceramic materials such as cordierite and other minerals that have very special ceramic properties including low heat expansion, high fired strength, low absorption, and other desired qualities.

  18. Assessment and design of low boom configurations for supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of presently utilized sonic boom prediction and minimization techniques. The three-pronged approach - acceptability studies, atmospheric propagation studies, and configuration design and operation, to the sonic boom problem as an element of the High Speed Research Program are discussed. Experimental and theoretical results of concepts designed to validate present minimization methods are given.

  19. What Do We Know: The Impact of the Baby Boom Echo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Lab. for Student Success, Philadelphia, PA.

    The dramatic increase in the number of births after World War II, the "baby boom," lasted until the early 1960s. Another surge in births was recorded in 1977, the start of the baby boom echo. However, the number of births is not expected to decline again, with long-range projections indicating a rising number of births over the coming…

  20. On the Cusp: A School District and Two Communities Respond to an Oil Pre-Boom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genareo, Vincent Roman

    2013-01-01

    This case study is an investigation of the attitudes, perceptions, and reactions of school staff and community members in a rural pre-boom school district. In the early stage of an oil boom, real and perceived disruptions commonly occur in the schools and communities that are affected. The preparations and responses that residents make to the…

  1. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  2. America's Baby Boom Generation: The Fateful Bulge. Population Bulletin. Vol. 35, No. 1. April 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.

    This bulletin examines the baby boom, its causes, its size, and its impact on U.S. society. Nearly 42 million births occurred in the U.S. from 1955 to 1964. Several reasons are given for this baby boom which interrupted a century long fertility decline. Demographically the primary causes were more people marrying and having at least two children…

  3. Human Response to Low-Intensity Sonic Booms Heard Indoors and Outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph D.; McCurdy, David A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Test subjects seated inside and outside a house were exposed to low-intensity N-wave sonic booms during a 3-week test period in June 2006- The house was instrumented to measure the booms both inside and out. F-18 aircraft were flown to achieve a variety of boom overpressures from approximately .1 to .6 psf During four test days, seventy-seven test subjects heard the booms while seated inside and outside the house. Using the Magnitude Estimation methodology and artificial reference sounds ; the subjects rated the annoyance of the booms. Since the same subjects heard similar booms both inside and outside the house, comparative ratings of indoor and outdoor annoyance were obtained. For a given metric level, indoor subjects gave higher annoyance scores than outdoor subjects. For a given boom; annoyance scores inside were on average the same as those outside. In a post-test questionnaire, the majority of subjects rated the indoor booms as more annoying than the outdoor ones. These results are discussed in this paper.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of the Flexible Boom in the N-ROSS Satellite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Simulation Language . Two cases of boom material, Aluminum Alloy and the Graphite epoxy composite material, are analyzed and the results ace compared. The...investigated by performing the dynamic simulation using the Dynamic Simulation Language . Two cases of boom material, Aluminum Alloy and the...computer program was used and Dynamic Simulation Language ( DSL ) was applied to solve the simultaneous, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations

  5. Simple atmospheric perturbation models for sonic-boom-signature distortion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Wurtele, Morton G.; Sharman, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    Sonic-boom propagation from flight level to ground is influenced by wind and speed-of-sound variations resulting from temperature changes in both the mean atmospheric structure and small-scale perturbations. Meteorological behavior generally produces complex combinations of atmospheric perturbations in the form of turbulence, wind shears, up- and down-drafts and various wave behaviors. Differences between the speed of sound at the ground and at flight level will influence the threshold flight Mach number for which the sonic boom first reaches the ground as well as the width of the resulting sonic-boom carpet. Mean atmospheric temperature and wind structure as a function of altitude vary with location and time of year. These average properties of the atmosphere are well-documented and have been used in many sonic-boom propagation assessments. In contrast, smaller scale atmospheric perturbations are also known to modulate the shape and amplitude of sonic-boom signatures reaching the ground, but specific perturbation models have not been established for evaluating their effects on sonic-boom propagation. The purpose of this paper is to present simple examples of atmospheric vertical temperature gradients, wind shears, and wave motions that can guide preliminary assessments of nonturbulent atmospheric perturbation effects on sonic-boom propagation to the ground. The use of simple discrete atmospheric perturbation structures can facilitate the interpretation of the resulting sonic-boom propagation anomalies as well as intercomparisons among varied flight conditions and propagation models.

  6. Display Provides Pilots with Real-Time Sonic-Boom Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed; Plotkin, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft generate shock waves that move outward and extend to the ground. As a cone of pressurized air spreads across the landscape along the flight path, it creates a continuous sonic boom along the flight track. Several factors can influence sonic booms: weight, size, and shape of the aircraft; its altitude and flight path; and weather and atmospheric conditions. This technology allows pilots to control the impact of sonic booms. A software system displays the location and intensity of shock waves caused by supersonic aircraft. This technology can be integrated into cockpits or flight control rooms to help pilots minimize sonic boom impact in populated areas. The system processes vehicle and flight parameters as well as data regarding current atmospheric conditions. The display provides real-time information regarding sonic boom location and intensity, enabling pilots to make the necessary flight adjustments to control the timing and location of sonic booms. This technology can be used on current-generation supersonic aircraft, which generate loud sonic booms, as well as future- generation, low-boom aircraft, anticipated to be quiet enough for populated areas.

  7. A laboratory study of subjective response to sonic booms measured at White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    The Sonic Boom Simulator of the Langley Research Center was used to quantify subjective loudness response to boom signatures consisting of: (1) simulator reproductions of booms recently recorded at White Sands Missile Range; (2) idealized N-waves; and (3) idealized booms having intermediate shocks. The booms with intermediate shocks represented signatures derived from CFD predictions. The recorded booms represented those generated by F15 and T38 aircraft flyovers and represented a variety of waveforms reflecting the effects of propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. These waveforms included the following shape categories: N-waves, peaked, rounded, and U-shaped. Results showed that Perceived Level and Zwicker Loudness Level were good estimators of the loudness of turbulence modified sonic booms. No significant differences were observed between loudness responses for the several shape categories when expressed in terms of Perceived Level. Thus, Perceived Level effectively accounted for waveform differences due to turbulence. Idealized booms with intermediate shocks, however, were rated as being approximately 2.7 dB(PL) less loud than the recorded signatures. This difference was not accounted for by PL.

  8. Porosity anisotropy of Opalinus Clay: implications for the poroelastic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lukas M.

    2017-03-01

    Regarding the storage of nuclear waste within clay rock formations, which are considered as natural seals, requires fundamental understanding of the poromechanical behaviour of this rock type with regard to the risk evaluation process. Here, the influence of pore fluid pressure on elastic properties of Opalinus Clay was studied on the basis of realistic pore microstructures, which were reconstructed from image data acquired by focused ion beam nanotomography. These microstructures were used as input pore geometries for linear elastic finite-element modeling in order to predict the anisotropic poroelastic properties of Opalinus Clay. The computational approach allowed determining complete sets of anisotropic poroelastic coefficients. It was found that the anisotropic pore structure of Opalinus Clay leads to a poroelastically anisotropic behaviour. In particular, the pore pressure affects vertical strain/stress differently when compared to the horizontal direction. Hence, long-term safety assessments related to a potential repository for nuclear waste within the Opalinus Clay unit should include anisotropic poroelasticity to predict the mechanical response of this geomaterial.

  9. A review of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The "boom and bust phenomenon": the hopes, dreams, and broken promises of the contraceptive revolution.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, H; Duran, V; Northington Gamble, V; Blumenthal, P; Dominguez, L; Pies, C

    2000-01-01

    The "boom and bust phenomenon" is a pattern that has emerged in the development, introduction, and delivery of a number of significant new contraceptive products in the United States. When a new contraceptive product is introduced with great promise and publicity, it usually experiences a "boom" during which sales, demand, and expectations are high. This boom is often followed by a "bust" phase during which a product does not live up to expectations, initial excitement falls off, and a drop in sales and use ensues. The boom and bust phenomenon goes to the heart of what some have referred to as the failed promise of the contraception revolution by creating obstacles to significant expansion of contraceptive choice in the United States. Case studies of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, and Norplant(R) are used to illustrate the boom and bust phenomenon and the effect it has had in shaping the direction of advances in contraceptive technology.

  11. Generation of Parametric Equivalent-Area Targets for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    A tool with an Excel visual interface is developed to generate equivalent-area (A(sub e)) targets that satisfy the volume constraints for a low-boom supersonic configuration. The new parametric Ae target explorer allows users to interactively study the tradeoffs between the aircraft volume constraints and the low-boom characteristics (e.g., loudness) of the ground signature. Moreover, numerical optimization can be used to generate the optimal A(sub e) target for given A(sub e) volume constraints. A case study is used to demonstrate how a generated low-boom Ae target can be matched by a supersonic configuration that includes a fuselage, wing, nacelle, pylon, aft pod, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. The low-boom configuration is verified by sonic-boom analysis with an off-body pressure distribution at three body lengths below the configuration

  12. Ray theory analysis and modelling of the secondary sonic boom propagation for realistic atmosphere conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Dallois, Laurent; Scott, Julian; Berger, Uwe; Allwright, David

    2006-05-01

    The shock waves generated by a supersonic aircraft are reflected in the upper part of the atmosphere. Back to the ground, they are indirect sonic booms called secondary sonic booms. The recorded signals of secondary sonic booms show a low amplitude and a low frequency. They sound like rumbling noises due to amplitude bursts. These signals strongly depend on the atmospheric conditions, in particular to the amplitude and to the direction of the wind in the stratopause. In the present work, the propagation of secondary sonic booms is studied using realistic atmospheric models up to the thermosphere. The secondary carpet position is investigated by solving temporal ray equations. An amplitude equation including nonlinearity, absorption and relaxation by various chemical species is coupled to the ray solver to get the secondary boom signature at the ground level. Multipath arrivals are directly linked to wind field or 3D inhomogeneities.

  13. Development of a Deployable Nonmetallic Boom for Reconfigurable Systems of Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Pryor, Mark; Holmes, Buck; Schaechter, David; Pedreiro, Nelson; Carrington, Connie

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, NASA commenced Phase 1 of the Modular Reconfigurable High Energy Technology Demonstrator (MRHE) program to investigate reconfigurable systems of small spacecraft. During that year, Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (ATC) led an accelerated effort to develop a 1-g MRHE concept demonstration featuring robotic spacecraft simulators equipped with docking mechanisms and deployable booms. The deployable boom built for MRHE was the result of a joint effort in which ATK was primarily responsible for developing and fabricating the Collapsible Rollable Tube (CRT patent pending) boom while Lockheed Martin designed and built the motorized Boom Deployment Mechanism (BDM) under a concurrent but separate IR&D program. Tight coordination was necessary to meet testbed integration and functionality requirements. This paper provides an overview of the CRT boom and BDM designs and presents preliminary results of integration and testing to support the MRHE demonstration.

  14. A Study in a New Test Facility on Indoor Annoyance Caused by Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    A sonic-boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed to research the indoor human response to low-amplitude sonic booms. The research goal is the development of a psychoacoustic model for individual sonic booms to be validated by future community studies. The study in this report assessed the suitability of existing noise metrics for predicting indoor human annoyance. The test signals included a wide range of synthesized and recorded sonic-boom waveforms. Results indicated that no noise metric predicts indoor annoyance to sonic-boom sounds better than Perceived Level, PL. During the study it became apparent that structural vibrations induced by the test signals were contributing to annoyance, so the relationship between sound and vibration at levels of equivalent annoyance has been quantified.

  15. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  16. Application of magnitude estimation scaling to the assessment of subjective loudness response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, S.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted for the following reasons: (1) to investigate the application of magnitude estimation scaling for evaluating the subjective loudness of sonic booms; and (2) to compare the relative merits of magnitude estimation and numerical category scaling for sonic boom loudness evaluation. The study was conducted in the NASA LeRC's sonic boom simulator and used a total of 80 test subjects (48 for magnitude estimation and 32 for numerical category scaling). Results demonstrated that magnitude estimation was a practical and effective method for quantifying subjective loudness of sonic booms. When using magnitude estimation, the subjects made valid and consistent ratio judgments of sonic boom loudness irrespective of the frequency of presentation of the standard stimulus. Presentation of the standard as every fourth stimulus was preferred by the subjects and is recommended as the standard presentation frequency to be used in future tests.

  17. Effects of clay dispersion on aquifer storage and recovery in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; August, L.L.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of freshwater in brackish aquifers is a form of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that can beneficially supplement water supplies in coastal areas. A 1970s field experiment in Norfolk, Virginia, showed that clay dispersion in the unconsolidated sedimentary aquifer occurred because of cation exchange on clay minerals as freshwater displaced brackish formation water. Migration of interstitial clay particles clogged pores, reduced permeability, and decreased recovery efficiency, but a calcium preflush was found to reduce clay dispersion and lead to a higher recovery efficiency. Column experiments were performed in this study to quantify the relations between permeability changes and clay mineralogy, clay content, and initial water salinity. The results of these experiments indicate that dispersion of montmorillonite clay is a primary contributor to formation damage. The reduction in permeability by clay dispersion may be expressed as a linear function of chloride content. Incorporating these simple functions into a radial, cross-sectional, variable-density, ground-water flow and transport model yielded a satisfactory simulation of the Norfolk field test - and represented an improvement over the model that ignored changes in permeability. This type of model offers a useful planning and design tool for ASR operations in coastal clastic aquifer systems.

  18. Evaluation of the healing activity of therapeutic clay in rat skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Dário, Giordana Maciel; da Silva, Geovana Gomes; Gonçalves, Davi Ludvig; Silveira, Paulo; Junior, Adilson Teixeira; Angioletto, Elidio; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2014-10-01

    The use of clays for therapeutic practice is widespread in almost all regions of the world. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological healing characteristics of a clay from Ocara, Brazil, popularly used for therapeutic uses, were analyzed. The presence of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Si was observed, which initially indicated that the clay had potential for therapeutic use. The average particle size of the clay (26.3 μm) can induce the microcirculation of the skin and the XRD analysis shows that the clay is formed by kaolinite and illite, a swelling clay. During the microbiological evaluation there was the need to sterilize the clay for later incorporation into the pharmaceutical formula. The accelerated stability test at 50°C for 3 months has showed that the pharmaceutical formula remained stable with a shelf life of two years. After the stability test the wound-healing capacity of the formulation in rats was evaluated. It was observed that the treatment made with the formulation containing the Ocara clay showed the best results since the formula allowed greater formation of collagen fibers and consequent regeneration of the deep dermis after seven days of treatment and reepithelialization and continuous formation of granulation tissue at the 14th day.

  19. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  20. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  1. Picasso Masks: Cubism in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project developed by the author which provides a way to further the children's understanding of Picasso's Cubism style in 3-D. Through this project, upper-elementary students learn a bit about the life and art of Picasso as they gain a firm understanding of the style of art known as Cubism, and apply clay techniques…

  2. Naphthene upgrading with pillared synthetic clay catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Catalytic hydrotreatment of methylcyclohexane was investigated to model upgrading of coal-derived naphthenes. Nickel-substituted synthetic mica montmorillonite (NiSMM), alumina-pillared NiSMM and Zirconia-pillared NiSMM were prepared and tested for hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of methylcyclohexane. Infrared and thermal desorption studies of the pyridine-adsorbed catalysts indicated the presence of Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. Total acidity and surface area increased with pillaring of NiSMM with polyoxy aluminum and polyoxy zirconium cations. Methylcyclohexane was reacted with these catalysts under a variety of conditions. Pillared clays gave higher gas yields and higher hydrocracking but lower hydroisomerization activity than nonpillared clay. The majority of the products were branched alkanes (isoparaffinic). These catalysts effectively use hydrogen as indicated by the minimal formation of aromatic hydrocarbons, coke, or other oligomeric materials. The effect of various operating conditions, i.e., reaction temperature, contact time, H{sub 2} pressure, and catalyst, on the product distribution will be described.

  3. Effect of sonic boom on avalanches. Preparation for flight of a supersonic jet over the Lavay Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffar, M.; Carrie, B.; Amardeil, P.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment to determine the effect of sonic booms on the stability of the snow mantle in the Lavey Valley is proposed. It includes provisions for the aircraft trajectory, line of fucus, boom zone, as well as the determination of boom intensity levels for the whole valley.

  4. Multifunctional epoxy composites with natural Moroccan clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsif, M.; Zerouale, A.; Kandri, N. Idrissi; Allali, F.; Sgarbossa, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Tamburini, S.; Bertani, R.

    2016-05-01

    Two natural Moroccan clays, here firstly completely characterized, have been used as fillers without modification in epoxy composites. Mechanical properties resulted to be improved and a significant antibacterial activity is exhibited by the epoxy composite containing the C2 clay.

  5. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  6. Clay complexes support HDS catalyst.

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C. L.; Carrado, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-01-01

    Hydroprocessing represents a crucial component of petroleum refining operations both in terms of environmental and economic considerations. Regulations concerning maximum amount of sulfur content of gasoline and emissions of sulfur-oxide compounds upon combustion are becoming more and more stringent. One 1994-2000 focus of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been the development of catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS). Typical HDS catalysts are comprised of Co-Mo sulfides or Ni-Mo sulfides on an alumina support. Modification of the pore structure of the support has generated great attention among researchers. Most desulfurization test reactions have used dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the model compound to test various configurations of support material with Co-Mo-S and Ni-Mo-S catalysts. In this testing, the desired product would be biphenyl and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). A competing reaction creates cyclohexylbenzene by saturating one aromatic ring prior to desulfurization. Ring saturation requires more costly hydrogen and is not desirable. Fortunately, a more effective catalyst for adding hydrogen at the sulfur site with hydrogenating the aromatic rings has been found. However, this has only been tested on DBT. HDS uses various types of catalysts to add hydrogen to reduce unwanted sulfur compounds. Typically this requires expensive, high-pressure, high-temperature equipment to produce the environmentally friendly low-sulfur fuels. ANL scientists identified several new desulfurization catalysts with improved HDS activity and selectivity. From these new catalysts, it may be possible to achieve HDS processing at lower temperature and pressure. The catalysts used for HDS at ANL are various clay complexes. Natural clays have a history of use in the hydroprocessing industry since they are abundant and inexpensive. ANL's approach is to create synthetic organo-clay complexes (SOCC). An advantage of SOCCs is that the pore size and distribution can be controlled by

  7. Mineral resource of the month: clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Clays represent one of the largest mineral commodities in the world in terms of mineral and rock production and use. Many people, however, do not recognize that clays are used in an amazingly wide variety of applications. Use continues to increase worldwide as populations and their associated needs increase. Robert Virta, clay and shale commodity specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, has prepared the following information about clays.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and....1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain varying quantities of alkalies...

  12. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  13. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Weck, Philippe F.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Kunhwi; Houseworth, James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Cheshire, Michael; Palaich, Sarah; Norskog, Katherine E.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Wolery, Thomas J.; Jerden, James L.; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Cruse, Terry; Ebert, William L.

    2015-09-04

    Deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations has received much consideration given its desirable attributes such as isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, slow diffusion, sorbtive mineralogy, and geologically widespread (Jové Colón et al., 2014). There is a wealth of gained scientific expertise on the behavior of clay/shale/ argillaceous rock given its focus in international nuclear waste repository programs that includes underground research laboratories (URLs) in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. Jové Colón et al. (2014) have described some of these investigative efforts in clay rock ranging from site characterization to research on the engineered barrier system (EBS). Evaluations of disposal options that include nuclear waste disposition in clay/shale/argillaceous rock have determined that this host media can accommodate a wide range of waste types. R&D work within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) assessing thermal effects and fluid-mineral interactions for the disposition of heat-generating waste have so far demonstrated the feasibility for the EBS and clay host rock to withstand high thermal loads. This report represents the continuation of disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), hydrothermal experiments on clay interactions, used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development. The development and implementation of a clay/shale/argillite reference case described in Jové Colón et al. (2014) for FY15 will be documented in another report (Mariner et al. 2015) – only a brief description will be given here. This clay reference case implementation is the result of integration efforts between the GDSA PA and disposal in argillite work packages. The assessment of sacrificial zones in the EBS is being addressed through experimental work along with 1D reactive

  14. Speciation of neptunium during sorption and diffusion in natural clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, T.; Amayri, S.; Bӧrner, P. J. B.; Drebert, J.; Frӧhlich, D. R.; Grolimund, D.; Kaplan, U.

    2016-05-01

    In argillaceous rocks, which are considered as a potential host rock for nuclear waste repositories, sorption and diffusion processes govern the migration behaviour of actinides like neptunium. For the safety analysis of such a repository, a molecular-level understanding of the transport and retardation phenomena of radioactive contaminants in the host rock is mandatory. The speciation of Np during sorption and diffusion in Opalinus Clay was studied at near neutral pH using a combination of spatially resolved synchrotron radiation techniques. During the sorption and diffusion experiments, the interaction of 8 μM Np(V) solutions with the clay lead to the formation of spots at the clay-water interface with increased Np concentrations as determined by μ-XRF. Several of these spots are correlated with areas of increased Fe concentration. Np L3-edge μ-XANES spectra revealed that up to 85% of the initial Np(V) was reduced to Np(IV). Pyrite could be identified by μ-XRD as a redox-active mineral phase responsible for the formation of Np(IV). The analysis of the diffusion profile within the clay matrix after an in-diffusion experiment for two months showed that Np(V) is progressively reduced with diffusion distance, i.e. Np(IV) amounted to ≈12% and ≈26% at 30 μm and 525 μm, respectively.

  15. Immersion freezing of clay minerals and bacterial ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Möhler, Ottmar; Bingemer, Heinz; Bundke, Ulrich; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Danielczok, Anja; Ebert, Martin; Garimella, Sarvesh; Hoffmann, Nadine; Höhler, Kristina; Kanji, Zamin A.; Kiselev, Alexei; Raddatz, Michael; Stetzer, Olaf

    2013-05-01

    The immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals and biological aerosols has been investigated using the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber. Both monodisperse and polydisperse populations of (1) various clay dust samples as well as (2) Snomax® (a proxy for bacterial ice nucleators) and (3) hematite are examined in the temperature range between -4°C and -35°C. The temperature dependence of ice formation inferred by the INAS (Ice Nucleation Active Surface-Site) density is investigated and discussed as a function of cooling rate and by comparing to predicted nucleation rates (i.e., classical nucleation theory with θ-probability density function nucleation scheme). To date, we observe that maintaining constant AIDA temperature does not trigger any new ice formation during the immersion freezing experiments with clay dust samples and Snomax®, implying strong temperature dependency (and weak time dependency) within our time scales and conditions of experiments. Ice residuals collected through a newly developed PCVI (Pumped ounter-flow Virtual Impactor) with the 50% cut size diameter of 10 to 20 μm have also been examined by electron microscope analyses to seek the chemical and physical identity of ice nuclei in clay minerals. In addition to the AIDA results, complementary measurements with mobile ice nucleation counters are also presented.

  16. Clay & Children: More than Making Pots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Working with clay enables young children to express, explore, and communicate their feelings and ideas. This resource booklet for early childhood practitioners and it promotes the clay table as a special place for shared discoveries, social interaction, and discussion. The booklet provides a glossary of terms used in clay work, as well as reasons…

  17. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  18. Breakdown of Clays by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Through Changes in Oxidation State of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arocena, J. M.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organisms are known to play a significant role in the transformation of clay minerals in soils. In our earlier work on canola, barley and alfalfa, we reported that Glomus, an arbuscular mycorrhizae, selectively transformed biotite into 2:1 expanding clays through the oxidation of Fe (II) in biotite to Fe(III). In this presentation, we will share similar results on clay transformations mediated by ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing the roots of coniferous trees. Clay samples were isolated from rhizosphere soils of sub-alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in northern British Columbia (Canada). Chemical and mineralogical properties of these soils had been reported in our earlier paper. In this study, we subjected the clay samples to iron X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (Fe-XANES) at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron facility in Saskatoon (Canada). Our initial results showed relatively higher amounts of Fe (III) than Fe(II) in clays collected from rhizosphere of Piloderma (an ectomycorrhizal fungus) compared to soils influenced by non-Piloderma species and Control (non-rhizosphere soil). Coupled with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, there seems to be a positive relationship between the relative amounts of Fe(III) and the 2:1 expanding clays. This relationship is consistent with our results on agricultural plants in laboratory experiments on biotites where we suggested that oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) results in the formation of 2:1 expanding clays. In a related data set on chlorite alteration we observed that after dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment, the d-spacing of a slight portion of chloritic expanding clays shifted to higher angles indicating decreased d-spacing towards micaceous clays. The reductive process initiated through the action of the DCB treatment seems to indicate the collapsed of expandable clays upon the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Initial results from the Fe-XANES and XRD analysis of DCB

  19. Substantial iron sequestration during green-clay authigenesis in modern deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldermann, A.; Warr, L. N.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Mavromatis, V.

    2015-11-01

    In much of the global ocean, iron is a limiting nutrient for marine productivity. The formation of pyrite has been considered the most important sink of reactive iron in modern, organic-rich sediments. However, clay mineral transformations can also lead to long-term sequestration of iron during late diagenesis and in hydrothermal settings. Here we present evidence for substantial iron sequestration during the early diagenetic formation of ferruginous clay minerals, also called green-clay authigenesis, in the deep-sea environment of the Ivory Coast-Ghana Marginal Ridge. Using high-resolution electron microscopic methods and sequential sediment extraction techniques, we demonstrate that iron uptake by green-clay authigenesis can amount to 76 +/- 127 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1, which is on average six times higher than that of pyrite in suboxic subsurface sediments 5 m below the sea floor or shallower. Even at depths of 15 m below the sea floor or greater, rates of iron burial by green clay and pyrite are almost equal at ~80 μmol Fe cm-2 kyr-1. We conclude that green-clay formation significantly reduces the pore water inventory of dissolved iron in modern and ancient pelagic sediments, which challenges the long-standing conceptual view that clay mineral diagenesis is of little importance in current biogeochemical models of the marine iron cycle.

  20. The linear boom actuator designed for the Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    Because the linear boom actuator is to be used on a flight spacecraft, as opposed to a ground based application, there is a comprehensive set of requirements. First, of course, the actuator must be capable of positioning and holding the load. Initially the load as predicted to be 4448 N (1000 lb) but with subsequent spacecraft configuration changes the load has been greatly reduced to a constant tensile pull of 1477 N (332 lb) due to centrifugal force. Lesser compressive loads of 1317 N (296 centrifugal lb) may be experienced during launch and deployment. This actuator must have the maximum redundancy possible. Life requirements were defined by the 10.16 to 15.24 cm (4 to 6 in.) total liner travel expected during the five-year flight duration. Liner range required of the actuator was set at plus and minus 5.08 cm to accommodate configuration changes.

  1. Active control of shocks and sonic boom ground signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagiz, Bedri

    The manipulation of a flow field to obtain a desired change is a much heightened subject. Active flow control has been the subject of the major research areas in fluid mechanics for the past two decades. It offers new solutions for mitigation of shock strength, sonic boom alleviation, drag minimization, reducing blade-vortex interaction noise in helicopters, stall control and the performance maximization of existing designs to meet the increasing requirements of the aircraft industries. Despite the wide variety of the potential applications of active flow control, the majority of studies have been performed at subsonic speeds. The active flow control cases were investigated in transonic speed in this study. Although the active flow control provides significant improvements, the sensibility of aerodynamic performance to design parameters makes it a nontrivial and expensive problem, so the designer has to optimize a number of different parameters. For the purpose of gaining understanding of the active flow control concepts, an automated optimization cycle process was generated. Also, the optimization cycle reduces cost and turnaround time. The mass flow coefficient, location, width and angle were chosen as design parameters to maximize the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. As the main contribution of this study, a detailed parametric study and optimization process were presented. The second step is to appraise the practicability of weakening the shock wave and thereby reducing the wave drag in transonic flight regime using flow control devices such as two dimensional contour bump, individual jet actuator, and also the hybrid control which includes both control devices together, thereby gaining the desired improvements in aerodynamic performance of the air-vehicle. After this study, to improve the aerodynamic performance, the flow control and shape parameters are optimized separately, combined, and in a serial combination. The remarkable part of all these

  2. Computational Analysis of a Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2011-01-01

    A low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for use on a conceptual small supersonic aircraft that would cruise with an over-wing Mach number of 1.7. The inlet was designed to minimize external overpressures, and used a novel bypass duct to divert the highest shock losses around the engine. The Wind-US CFD code was used to predict the effects of capture ratio, struts, bypass design, and angles of attack on inlet performance. The inlet was tested in the 8-ft by 6-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with capture ratios near one, a peak core total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a stable operating range much larger than that of an engine. Predictions generally compared very well with the experimental data, and were used to help interpret some of the experimental results.

  3. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment.

  4. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied.

  5. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  6. Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Hilliard, R. David

    2004-09-01

    In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys and a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory. A system was deployed for eight weeks in each of 33 homes. Each day from 4 to 63 sonic booms were played as the test subject went about his or her normal activities. At the end of the day, the test subjects rated their annoyance to the sonic booms heard during the day. The sonic booms consisted of different combinations of waveforms, levels, and occurrence rates. The experiment confirmed that the increase in annoyance resulting from multiple occurrences can be modeled by the addition of the term ``10 * log(number of occurrences)'' to the sonic boom level. Of several noise metrics considered, perceived level was the best annoyance predictor. Comparisons of the subjective responses to the different sonic boom waveforms found no differences that were not accounted for by the noise metrics.

  7. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The sonic boom flight test program conducted at Jackass Flats, Nevada, during the summer and fall of 1970 consisted of 121 sonic-boom-generating flights over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower. This test program was designed to provide information on several aspects of sonic boom, including caustics produced by longitudinal accelerations, caustics produced by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, sonic boom characteristics near lateral cutoff, and the vertical extent of shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes. The measured test data, except for the near-sonic flight data, were analyzed in detail to determine sonic boom characteristics for these flight conditions and to determine the accuracy and the range of validity of linear sonic boom theory. The caustic phenomena observed during the threshold Mach number flights and during the transonic acceleration flights are documented and analyzed in detail. The theory of geometric acoustics is shown to be capable of predicting shock wave-ground intersections, and current methods for calculating sonic boom pressure signature away from caustics are shown to be reasonably accurate.

  8. Integration of Off-Track Sonic Boom Analysis in Conceptual Design of Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    A highly desired capability for the conceptual design of aircraft is the ability to rapidly and accurately evaluate new concepts to avoid adverse trade decisions that may hinder the development process in the later stages of design. Evaluating the robustness of new low-boom concepts is important for the conceptual design of supersonic aircraft. Here, robustness means that the aircraft configuration has a low-boom ground signature at both under- and off-track locations. An integrated process for off-track boom analysis is developed to facilitate the design of robust low-boom supersonic aircraft. The integrated off-track analysis can also be used to study the sonic boom impact and to plan future flight trajectories where flight conditions and ground elevation might have a significant effect on ground signatures. The key enabler for off-track sonic boom analysis is accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions for off-body pressure distributions. To ensure the numerical accuracy of the off-body pressure distributions, a mesh study is performed with Cart3D to determine the mesh requirements for off- body CFD analysis and comparisons are made between the Cart3D and USM3D results. The variations in ground signatures that result from changes in the initial location of the near-field waveform are also examined. Finally, a complete under- and off-track sonic boom analysis is presented for two distinct supersonic concepts to demonstrate the capability of the integrated analysis process.

  9. Full-Carpet Design of a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Wintzer, Mathias; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2015-01-01

    The Cart3D adjoint-based design framework is used to mitigate the undesirable o -track sonic boom properties of a demonstrator concept designed for low-boom directly under the flight path. First, the requirements of a Cart3D design mesh are determined using a high-fidelity mesh adapted to minimize the discretization error of the CFD analysis. Low-boom equivalent area targets are then generated at the under-track and one off-track azimuthal position for the baseline configuration. The under-track target is generated using a trim- feasible low-boom target generation process, ensuring that the final design is not only low-boom, but also trimmed at the specified flight condition. The o -track equivalent area target is generated by minimizing the A-weighted loudness using an efficient adjoint-based approach. The configuration outer mold line is then parameterized and optimized to match the off-body pressure distributions prescribed by the low-boom targets. The numerical optimizer uses design gradients which are calculated using the Cart3D adjoint- based design capability. Optimization constraints are placed on the geometry to satisfy structural feasibility. The low-boom properties of the final design are verified using the adaptive meshing approach. This analysis quantifies the error associated with the CFD mesh that is used for design. Finally, an alternate mesh construction and target positioning approach offering greater computational efficiency is demonstrated and verified.

  10. Prediction of booming sensation and its difference limen for just noticeable change in frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Hwan; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2003-10-01

    Among many auditory feelings for the car interior noise, the booming sensation is considered the most important nuisance to the passengers. Although there are many origins for the booming noise of vehicles in general, the most important one is the engine boom that consists of tonal components related to fundamental engine rotation and its harmonics including the firing frequency. Because the degree of booming sensation is increased when these tonal components are dominating in car interior noise, it is demanded to extract the aurally relevant tonal components only. Although the pitch extraction model based on the place theory enables to find aurally relevant tonal components, there is a difference between booming sensation and pitch perception according to a frequency change of the tonal component. In this study, a subjective listening test using a tracking method is performed to find the difference limen for just a noticeable change of booming sensation in frequency. By applying the resultant data and also the empirical data by Zwicker, the existing pitch extraction model is modified. This refined model and loudness analysis can be used for predicting the degree of booming sensation. [Work supported by the BK21 project and NRL.

  11. Laboratory Headphone Studies of Human Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms and Rattle Heard Indoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Rathsam, Jonathan; Gavin, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Human response to sonic booms heard indoors is affected by the generation of contact-induced rattle noise. The annoyance caused by sonic boom-induced rattle noise was studied in a series of psychoacoustics tests. Stimuli were divided into three categories and presented in three different studies: isolated rattles at the same calculated Perceived Level (PL), sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at a single PL, and sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at three different PL. Subjects listened to sounds over headphones and were asked to report their annoyance. Annoyance to different rattles was shown to vary significantly according to rattle object size. In addition, the combination of low-amplitude sonic booms and rattles can be more annoying than the sonic boom alone. Correlations and regression analyses for the combined sonic boom and rattle sounds identified the Moore and Glasberg Stationary Loudness (MGSL) metric as a primary predictor of annoyance for the tested sounds. Multiple linear regression models were developed to describe annoyance to the tested sounds, and simplifications for applicability to a wider range of sounds are presented.

  12. Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Hilliard, R. David

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys and a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory. A system was deployed for eight weeks in each of 33 homes. Each day from 4 to 63 sonic booms were played as the test subject went about his or her normal activities. At the end of the day, the test subjects rated their annoyance to the sonic booms heard during the day. The sonic booms consisted of different combinations of waveforms, levels, and occurrence rates. The experiment confirmed that the increase in annoyance resulting from multiple occurrences can be modeled by the addition of the term "10 * log(number of occurrences)" to the sonic boom level. Of several noise metrics considered, perceived level was the best annoyance predictor. Comparisons of the subjective responses to the different sonic boom waveforms found no differences that were not accounted for by the noise metrics.

  13. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2009-01-01

    An axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics study is conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock research airplane, is considered. The computational fluid dynamics code is validated using available wind-tunnel sonic boom experimental data. The effects of grid size, spatial order of accuracy, grid type, and flow viscosity on the accuracy of the predicted sonic boom pressure signature are quantified. Grid lines parallel to the Mach wave direction are found to give the best results. Second-order accurate upwind methods are required as a minimum for accurate sonic boom simulations. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. Axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics simulations show the flow physics inside the F-15 nozzle to be nonisentropic and complex. Although the one-dimensional isentropic nozzle plume results look reasonable, they fail to capture the sonic boom shock train in the highly underexpanded nozzle flow.

  14. Salinity Effects on Cracking Morphology and Dynamics in Desiccating Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, K.; Shokri, N.

    2013-12-01

    Saline conditions induce not only chemical but physical changes in swelling clays, and have a significant influence on the crack dynamics in desiccating clays. In this study, we used X-ray computerized tomography (CT) to experimentally investigate the effects of sodium chloride on the morphology and dynamics of desiccation cracks in three-dimensional mixtures of sand-bentonite slurry under varying rheological conditions. Rectangular glass containers (40.5x40.5x56 mm^3) were packed with sand-bentonite slurries of different salt concentrations, with the top boundary exposed to air for evaporation. The growth and propagation of the cracking network that subsequently formed was visualized in 3D at multiple intervals. 3D characterization of cracking dynamics shows a high extent of localized superficial crack networks at low salinity, with a transition to less extensive but deeper, more centralized crack networks with increased salinity. The observed behavior was described in the context of rheological and colloidal properties of the clay, which suggest the transition from a voluminous and poorly-sorted stacked clay structure to a more compact and highly cohesive entangled clay structure as salt concentration increases in the evaporating samples. This is further corroborated by vertical profiles of sample water distribution, which shows localized uniform drying at the higher salt concentrations. Our results provide new insights regarding the formation, patterns, dynamics and characteristics of desiccation cracks formed during evaporation from 3D saline clay structures, which will be useful in various hydrological applications including water management, land surface evaporation, and subsurface contaminant transport.

  15. Kinetic study of aluminum adsorption by aluminosilicate clay minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, W.J.; Cronan, C.S.; Patterson, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of Al/sup 3 +/ by montmorillonite, kaolinite, and vermiculite were investigated as a function of the initial Al concentration, the surface area of the clay, and H/sup +/ concentration, at 25/sup 0/, 18/sup 0/, and 10/sup 0/C. In order to minimize complicated side reactions the pH range was kept between 3.0 and 4.1. Results showed that the adsorption rate was first order with respect to both the initial Al concentration and the clay surface area. Changes in pH within this narrow range had virtually no effect on adsorption rate. This zero order reaction dependence suggested that the H/sup +/, compared to Al, has a weak affinity for the surface. The rates of adsorption decreased in the order of montmorillonite > kaolinite > vermiculite when compared on the basis of equal surface areas, but changed to kaolinite > montmorillonite > vermiculite when the clays were compared on an equal exchange capacity basis. The calculated apparent activation energies were < 32 kJ mol/sup -1/, indicating that over the temperature range of the study the adsorption process is only marginally temperature sensitive. The mechanism is governed by a simple electrostatic cation exchange involving outer sphere complexes between adsorbed Al and the clay surface. Vermiculite, may have a second reaction step governed by both electrostatic attraction and internal ion diffusion. Equilibrium constants for the formation of an adsorbed Al clay complex were also estimated and are 10/sup 5.34/, 10/sup 5.18/, and 10/sup 4.94/ for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite, respectively, suggesting that these clays could play a significant role in controlling soil solutions Al concentrations.

  16. Reversibility of soil forming clay mineral reactions induced by plant - clay interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, P.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recent data based upon observations of field experiments and laboratory experiments suggest that changes in phyllosilicate mineralogy, as seen by X-ray diffraction analysis, which is induced by plant action can be reversed in relatively short periods of time. Changes from diagenetic or metamorphic mineral structures (illite and chlorite) to those found in soils (mixed layered minerals in the smectite, hydroxy-interlayer mineral and illites) observed in Delaware Bay salt marsh sediments in periods of tens of years and observed under different biologic (mycorhize) actions in coniferous forests in the soil environment can be found to be reversed under other natural conditions. Reversal of this process (chloritisation of smectitic minerals in soils) has been observed in natural situations over a period of just 14 years under sequoia gigantia. Formation of smectite minerals from illite (potassic mica-like minerals) has been observed to occur under intensive agriculture conditions over periods of 80 years or so under intensive zea mais production. Laboratory experiments using rye grass show that this same process can be accomplished to a somewhat lesser extent after one growing season. However experiments using alfalfa for 30 year growing periods show that much of the illite content of a soil can be reconstituted or even increased. Observations on experiments using zea mais under various fertilizer and mycorhize treatments indicate that within a single growing season potassium can be extracted from the clay (illite layers) but at the end of the season the potassium can be restored to the clay structures and more replaced that extracted. Hence it is clear that the change in clay mineralogy normally considered to be irreversible, illite to smectite or chlorite to smectite observed in soils, is a reversible process where plant systems control the soil chemistry and the soil mineralogy. The changes in clay mineralogy concern mostly the chemical composition of the interlayer

  17. Subjective response to sonic booms having different shapes, rise times, and durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the subjective response of people to simulated outdoor sonic booms having different pressure signatures. The specific objectives of the experiments were to compare subjective response to sonic booms when described in terms of 'loudness' and 'annoyance'; to determine the ability of various noise metrics to predict subjective response to sonic booms; to determine the effects on subjective response of rise time, duration, and level; and to compare the subjective response to 'N-wave' sonic boom signatures with the subjective response to 'minimized' sonic boom signatures. The experiments were conducted in a computer-controlled, man-rated sonic boom simulator capable of reproducing user-specified pressure signatures for a wide range of sonic boom parameters. One hundred and fifty sonic booms representing different combinations of two wave shapes, four rise times, seven durations, and three peak overpressures were presented to 36 test subjects in each experiment. The test subjects in the first experiment made judgments of 'loudness' while the test subjects in the second experiment judged 'annoyance.' Subjective response to sonic booms was the same whether expressed in terms of loudness or in terms of annoyance. Analyses of several different noise metrics indicated that A-weighted sound exposure level and Perceived Level were the best predictors of subjective response. Further analyses indicated that, of these two noise metrics, only Perceived Level completely accounted for the effects of wave shape, rise time, and peak overpressure. Neither metric fully accounted for the effect of duration. However, the magnitude of the duration effect was small over the very wide range of durations considered.

  18. An in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Hilliard, R. David

    1994-01-01

    The proposed development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport has resulted in increased research efforts to provide an environmentally acceptable aircraft. One of the environmental issues is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonically over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public and could possibly permit overland supersonic flight. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' rating and can be placed and operated in individuals' homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment.

  19. Energy conserving process for calcining clay

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.P.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an energy conversing process for calcining a clay. It comprises feeding a dry pulverized clay powder as feed material to a calciner to be calcined therein; passing the clay powder to be calcined through the calciner in direct heat exchange contact with a hot calcining gas passing therethrough whereby the clay powder is sufficiently heated to calcine substantially all the clay powder passing through the calciner and the hot calcining has is somewhat cooled; removing the calcined clay powder from the calciner and discharging the calcining from the calciner; subjecting the calciner discharge gas to electrostatic precipitation to clean the calciner discharge gas prior to venting the calciner discharge gas to the atmosphere whereby at least a substantial portion of calcined clay powder entrained in the calciner discharge gas is removed therefrom; collecting the hot calcined clay powder separated from the gas during electrostatic precipitation and mixing the collected hot calcined clay powder with the clay feed material being supplied to the calciner without substantially cooling the collected hot calcined clay powder prior to mixing with the feed material; and passing the calciner discharge has in heat exchange relationship with at least a portion of a cooling fluid prior to subjecting the calciner discharge gas to electrostatic precipitation.

  20. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, Stacey Leigh

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  1. The Effectiveness and Influences of the Navigation Ice Booms on the St. Marys River,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    background .... 3 4. Plan view of ice booms showing anchor lines and force sensor locations 4 TABLES Table 1. Maximum forces developed in selected ice boom...local personel . OD, Ŕ 13 coma* or Imos a aisuosar sCUIm, CLASSFICATIOM OF TiO P.MNI S De ie4 j BiiB IImI .. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Wmn...a length of as much as 1 V/ miles (2.4 km) and apply forces that damaged some components of this boom. The site plan of the ma- SHIP TRAFFIC jor

  2. Economic booms and risky sexual behavior: evidence from Zambian copper mining cities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions.

  3. Methodology for the Regulation of Boom Sprayers Operating in Circular Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ramos, Francisco Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Serreta, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius) and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m2). Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in the sprayer boom

  4. Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS-4 reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Formal documentation for measurement procedures and system specifications, and general information relating to the Space Shuttle STS-4 Sonic Boom Measurement Program are supplied. This test plan is designed to provide information, guidance, and assignment of responsibilities for the acquisition of sonic boom and atmospheric measurements, timing correlation, communications and other necessary supporting tasks. Specifically included are details such as mobile data acquisition station locations, measurement systems calibration levels, predicted sonic boom overpressure levels, overpressure level assignment for each data acquisition station, data recording times on and off, universal coordinated time, and measurement system descriptions.

  5. Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS-1 reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    Formal documentation for measurement procedures and system specifications, and general information are relating to the Space Shuttle STS-1 Sonic Boom Measurement Program are supplied. This test plan is designed to provide information, guidance, and assignment of responsibilities for the acquisition of sonic boom and atmospheric measurements, timing correlation, communications and other necessary supporting tasks. Specifically included are details such as mobile data acquisition station locations, measurement systems calibration levels, predicted sonic boom overpressure levels, overpressure level assignment for each data acquisition station, data recording times on and off, universal coordinated time, and measurement system descriptions.

  6. Laboratory study of sonic booms and their scaling laws. [ballistic range simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toong, T. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This program undertook to seek a basic understanding of non-linear effects associated with caustics, through laboratory simulation experiments of sonic booms in a ballistic range and a coordinated theoretical study of scaling laws. Two cases of superbooms or enhanced sonic booms at caustics have been studied. The first case, referred to as acceleration superbooms, is related to the enhanced sonic booms generated during the acceleration maneuvers of supersonic aircrafts. The second case, referred to as refraction superbooms, involves the superbooms that are generated as a result of atmospheric refraction. Important theoretical and experimental results are briefly reported.

  7. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  8. Cracking of Clay Due to Contact with Waste Chlorinated Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, M.; Ayral, D.; Shipan, J.; Goltz, M. N.; Huang, J.; Demond, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Clays are known to crack upon desiccation. Desiccation cracks of up to 3 cm wide have been reported in natural soils. This raises the question if a similar behavior is seen when a dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) waste is in contact with clay. The contact with organic liquids causes the clay structure to shrink, leading to the formation of cracks. Moreover, DNAPL waste not only contains the organic liquid solvent but also includes surface-active solutes or surfactants. Such solutes can enhance the interaction of the organic solvents with the clay. This research will assess whether or not contact with chlorinated organic waste causes cracking. In order to evaluate the possibility of cracking in the clay, microcosms have been constructed that mimic aquifer systems, consisting of a saturated layer of sand, a saturated layer of bentonite clay and a 2.5 cm layer of either pure chlorinated solvents or DNAPL waste. The onset of cracking for the microcosm with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) waste as the DNAPL layer occurred after ten days of contact. Similarly, at eight days, cracks were observed in a microcosm containing trichloroethylene (TCE) waste . Forty-four days later, the length and number of cracks have grown considerably; with a total crack length of 50 cm on a surface of 80 cm2 in the microcosm containing PCE waste. On the other hand it took approximately 161 days for the clay layer in the microcosm containing pure PCE to crack. To quantity the degree of cracking, crack maps were developed using the image software, Image J. Characteristics like crack length, crack aperture, and the percentage of total length for a range of apertures were calculated using this software. For example, for the PCE waste microcosm, it was calculated that 3.7% of the crack length had an aperture of 100-300 microns, 15.1% of the crack length had an aperture of 300-500 microns, 29.7% of the crack length had an aperture of 500-700 microns, 40.1% of the crack length had an aperture of

  9. Modernity and putty-clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Trichur Kailas

    This dissertation addresses issues arising out of the problems of capital accumulation, productivity growth and 'putty-clay' technology. The concept of economic modernity occupies a central place in the subject-matter studied here in that it expresses both the incessant drive for newness that characterizes economic reality and the persistence of dated techniques that successfully resist replacement. This study examines the way in which an expansive development-theoretic 'putty-clay' framework may be employed to explain the historical processes behind both the avalanche of newness (innovations) and the conservatism of technology in the U.S. economy. The guiding link is the fixity of investments in physical capital equipment over time and space. The dilemma of fixed capital is studied in the context of the constant entrepreneurial search for flexibility and liquidity. The thesis advanced is that a development (Entwicklung)-theoretic 'putty-clay' conceptualization of the economic system adequately addresses the recurring problems of fixity, flexibility, and liquidity, and thereby permits important insights into the enigma surrounding the persistent productivity growth slowdown and 'stagflation' of the late sixties and seventies and the related phenomena of physical 'capital obsolescence' and the financial or 'speculative explosions' of our times. The notion of 'putty-clay' used here is an innovative one in that it departs from the growth-theoretic literature to re-appear as a Schumpeterian theory of modernity modified by a Veblenite view of an economic system directed by the exigencies of the 'machine-process'. The empirical aptitude of a macroeconomic 'putty-clay' model to explain capital obsolescence mediated by the energy 'crises' (supply shocks) of the seventies and eighties is examined in a separate chapter with results that differ markedly from the standard (Berndt and Wood) conclusions for the U.S. economy. The final chapter in the dissertation reverts to the

  10. Clay with Desiccation Cracks is an Advection Dominated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Sher, Y.; Ronen, Z.; Dahan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy clay sediments are regarded "safe" from the hydrological point of view due to their low hydraulic conductivities. However, the formation of desiccation cracks in dispersive clays may dramatically change their bulk hydraulic properties. The impact of desiccation cracks on water percolation, dissolved salts and contaminants transport and redox related reactions (microbial ammonium oxidation and denitrification) were investigated in 6 -12 m clay layer near a diary farm waste lagoon. The study implemented unique vadose-zone monitoring systems that enable in-situ measurements of the temporal variation of the sediment's water content along with frequent sampling of the sediment's pore water along the entire vadose zone (> 30 m). Results from four years of continuous measurements showed quick rises in sediment water content following rain events and temporal wastewater overflows. The percolation pattern indicated dominance of preferential flow through a desiccation-cracks network crossing the entire clay sediment layer. High water-propagation velocities (0.4 - 23.6 m h-1) were observed, indicating that the desiccation-crack network remains open and serves as a preferential flow pathway year-round, even at high sediment water content (~0.50 m3 m-3). The rapid percolation bypassed the most bio-geo-active parts of the soil, transporting even highly sorptive contaminants (testosterone and estrogen) in to the deep sections of the vadose zone, accelerating the underlying groundwater contamination. The ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the vadose zone and the high number of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (~108 gene copies gdry-sediemt-1, each) found in the sediment indicated that the entire vadose zone is aerated even at high water content conditions (~0.55 m3 m-3). The dissolved salts concentration in the pore-water and the δ2H-H2O and δ18O-H2O values of the pore-water substantially increased with depth (becoming less depleted) in the clay sediment

  11. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  12. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... overhead powerlines is 69,000 volts, or more, the minimum distance from the boom or mast shall be as follows: Nominal power line voltage (in 1,000 volts) Minimum distance (feet) 69 to 114 12 115 to 229...

  13. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... overhead powerlines is 69,000 volts, or more, the minimum distance from the boom or mast shall be as follows: Nominal power line voltage (in 1,000 volts) Minimum distance (feet) 69 to 114 12 115 to 229...

  14. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... overhead powerlines is 69,000 volts, or more, the minimum distance from the boom or mast shall be as follows: Nominal power line voltage (in 1,000 volts) Minimum distance (feet) 69 to 114 12 115 to 229...

  15. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... overhead powerlines is 69,000 volts, or more, the minimum distance from the boom or mast shall be as follows: Nominal power line voltage (in 1,000 volts) Minimum distance (feet) 69 to 114 12 115 to 229...

  16. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... overhead powerlines is 69,000 volts, or more, the minimum distance from the boom or mast shall be as follows: Nominal power line voltage (in 1,000 volts) Minimum distance (feet) 69 to 114 12 115 to 229...

  17. A NASTRAN investigation of simulated projectile damage effects on a UH-1B tail boom model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futterer, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A NASTRAN model of a UH-1B tail boom that had been designed for another project was used to investigate the effect on structural integrity of simulated projectile damage. Elements representing skin, and sections of stringers, longerons and bulkheads were systematically deleted to represent projectile damage. The structure was loaded in a manner to represent the flight loads that would be imposed on the tail boom at a 130 knot cruise. The deflection of four points on the rear of the tail boom relative to the position of these points for the unloaded, undamaged condition of the tail boom was used as a measure of the loss of structural rigidity. The same procedure was then used with the material properties of the aluminum alloys replaced with the material properties of T300/5208 high strength graphite/epoxy fibrous composite material, (0, + or - 45, 90)s for the skin and (0, + or - 45)s for the longerons, stringers, and bulk heads.

  18. Integration of Engine, Plume, and CFD Analyses in Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard; Geiselhart, Karl; Shields, Elwood; Nayani, Sudheer; Shenoy, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an integration of engine, plume, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses in the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft, using a variable fidelity approach. In particular, the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) is used for propulsion system cycle analysis and nacelle outer mold line definition, and a low-fidelity plume model is developed for plume shape prediction based on NPSS engine data and nacelle geometry. This model provides a capability for the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft that accounts for plume effects. Then a newly developed process for automated CFD analysis is presented for CFD-based plume and boom analyses of the conceptual geometry. Five test cases are used to demonstrate the integrated engine, plume, and CFD analysis process based on a variable fidelity approach, as well as the feasibility of the automated CFD plume and boom analysis capability.

  19. The marriage boom and marriage bust in the United States: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona

    2017-03-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s there was an unprecedented marriage boom in the United States. This was followed in the 1970s by a marriage bust. Some argue that both phenomena are cohort effects, while others argue that they are period effects. The study reported here tested the major period and cohort theories of the marriage boom and bust, by estimating an age-period-cohort model of first marriage for the years 1925-79 using census microdata. The results of the analysis indicate that the marriage boom was mostly a period effect, although there were also cohort influences. More specifically, the hypothesis that the marriage boom was mostly a response to rising wages is shown to be consistent with the data. However, much of the marriage bust can be accounted for by unidentified cohort influences, at least until 1980.

  20. Flight Demonstration Of Low Overpressure N-Wave Sonic Booms And Evanescent Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haering, Edward A.; Smolka, James W.; Murray, James E.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2006-05-01

    The recent flight demonstration of shaped sonic booms shows the potential for quiet overland supersonic flight, which could revolutionize air transport. To successfully design quiet supersonic aircraft, the upper limit of an acceptable noise level must be determined through quantitative recording and subjective human response measurements. Past efforts have concentrated on the use of sonic boom simulators to assess human response, but simulators often cannot reproduce a realistic sonic boom sound. Until now, molecular relaxation effects on low overpressure rise time had never been compared with flight data. Supersonic flight slower than the cutoff Mach number, which generates evanescent waves, also prevents loud sonic booms from impacting the ground. The loudness of these evanescent waves can be computed, but flight measurement validation is needed. A novel flight demonstration technique that generates low overpressure N-waves using conventional military aircraft is outlined, in addition to initial quantitative flight data. As part of this demonstration, evanescent waves also will be recorded.

  1. Flight Demonstration Of Low Overpressure N-Wave Sonic Booms And Evanescent Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Smolka, James W.; Murray, James E.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    The recent flight demonstration of shaped sonic booms shows the potential for quiet overland supersonic flight, which could revolutionize air transport. To successfully design quiet supersonic aircraft, the upper limit of an acceptable noise level must be determined through quantitative recording and subjective human response measurements. Past efforts have concentrated on the use of sonic boom simulators to assess human response, but simulators often cannot reproduce a realistic sonic boom sound. Until now, molecular relaxation effects on low overpressure rise time had never been compared with flight data. Supersonic flight slower than the cutoff Mach number, which generates evanescent waves, also prevents loud sonic booms from impacting the ground. The loudness of these evanescent waves can be computed, but flight measurement validation is needed. A novel flight demonstration technique that generates low overpressure N-waves using conventional military aircraft is outlined, in addition to initial quantitative flight data. As part of this demonstration, evanescent waves also will be recorded.

  2. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  3. Development of Multiobjective Optimization Techniques for Sonic Boom Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Rajadas, John Narayan; Pagaldipti, Naryanan S.

    1996-01-01

    improve the aerodynamic, the sonic boom and the structural characteristics of the aircraft. The flow solution is obtained using a comprehensive parabolized Navier Stokes solver. Sonic boom analysis is performed using an extrapolation procedure. The aircraft wing load carrying member is modeled as either an isotropic or a composite box beam. The isotropic box beam is analyzed using thin wall theory. The composite box beam is analyzed using a finite element procedure. The developed optimization procedures yield significant improvements in all the performance criteria and provide interesting design trade-offs. The semi-analytical sensitivity analysis techniques offer significant computational savings and allow the use of comprehensive analysis procedures within design optimization studies.

  4. A laboratory study of subjective annoyance response to sonic booms and aircraft flyovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1994-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine subjective equivalence of aircraft subsonic flyover noise and sonic booms. Two of the experiments were conducted in a loudspeaker-driven sonic boom simulator, and the third in a large room containing conventional loudspeakers. The sound generation system of the boom simulator had a frequency response extending to very low frequencies (about 1 Hz) whereas the large room loudspeakers were limited to about 20 Hz. Subjective equivalence between booms and flyovers was quantified in terms of the difference between the noise level of a boom and that of a flyover when the two were judged equally annoying. Noise levels were quantified in terms of the following noise descriptors: Perceived Level (PL), Perceived Noise Level (PNL), C-weighted sound exposure level (SELC), and A-weighted sound exposure level (SELA). Results from the present study were compared, where possible, to similar results obtained in other studies. Results showed that noise level differences depended upon the descriptor used, specific boom and aircraft noise events being compared and, except for the PNL descriptor, varied between the simulator and large room. Comparison of noise level differences obtained in the present study with those of other studies indicated good agreement across studies only for the PNL and SELA descriptors. Comparison of the present results with assessments of community response to high-energy impulsive sounds made by Working Group 84 of the National Research Council's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) showed good agreement when boom/flyover noise level differences were based on SELA. However, noise level differences obtained by CHABA using SELA for aircraft flyovers and SELC for booms were not in agreement with results obtained in the present study.

  5. A laboratory study of subjective annoyance response to sonic booms and aircraft flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine subjective equivalence of aircraft subsonic flyover noise and sonic booms. Two of the experiments were conducted in a loudspeaker-driven sonic boom simulator, and the third in a large room containing conventional loudspeakers. The sound generation system of the boom simulator had a frequency response extending to very low frequencies (about 1 Hz) whereas the large room loudspeakers were limited to about 20 Hz. Subjective equivalence between booms and flyovers was quantified in terms of the difference between the noise level of a boom and that of a flyover when the two were judged equally annoying. Noise levels were quantified in terms of the following noise descriptors: Perceived Level (PL), Perceived Noise Level (PNL), C-weighted sound exposure level (SELC), and A-weighted sound exposure level (SELA). Results from the present study were compared, where possible, to similar results obtained in other studies. Results showed that noise level differences depended upon the descriptor used, specific boom and aircraft noise events being compared and, except for the PNL descriptor, varied between the simulator and large room. Comparison of noise level differences obtained in the present study with those of other studies indicated good agreement across studies only for the PNL and SELA descriptors. Comparison of the present results with assessments of community response to high-energy impulsive sounds made by Working Group 84 of the National Research Council's Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) showed good agreement when boom/flyover noise level differences were based on SELA. However, noise level differences obtained by CHABA using SELA for aircraft flyovers and SELC for booms were not in agreement with results obtained in the present study.

  6. Prototype Development and Dynamic Characterization of Deployable CubeSat Booms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    reflected photons of light for spacecraft propulsion . As acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass for a constant thrust , this method of...imaging 2 of Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In addition, knowledge of the exact boom-reflector vibrational behavior is desired as later analysis should reveal...D. These booms were augmented with reflective membranes and specifically designed to deploy on orbit for the purpose of ground observation

  7. Sonic boom measurement test plan for Space Shuttle STS-3 reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The lateral area from the reentry ground track affected by sonic boom overpressure levels is determined. Four data acquisition stations are deployed laterally to the STS-3 reentry flight track. These stations provide six intermediate band FM channels of sonic boom data, universal time synchronization, and voice annotation. All measurements are correlated with the vehicle reentry flight track information along with atmospheric and vehicle operation conditions.

  8. Numerical modelling and experimentation of oil-spill curtain booms: Application to a harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttin, F.; Campbell, R.; Ouansafi, A.; Benelmostafa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Oil-spill curtain booms are an important response device dedicated to containing and deviating floating pollutants. The hydrodynamic and structural limitations of curtain booms necessitate numerical modelling for efficient usage assessment. A four step model is proposed and applied during an exercise performed in the Galician region of Spain. Experimental results are used to produce a re-analysis of the model and improve contingency planning.

  9. Residents' reactions to long-term sonic boom exposure: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.; Moulton, Carey; Baumgartner, Robert M.; Thomas, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    This presentation is about residents' reactions to sonic booms in a long-term sonic boom exposure environment. Although two phases of the data collection have been completed, the analysis of the data has only begun. The results are thus preliminary. The list of four authors reflects the complex multi-disciplinary character of any field study such as this one. Carey Moulton is responsible for Wyle Laboratories' acoustical data collection effort. Robert Baumgartner and Jeff Thomas of HBRS, a social science research firm, are responsible for social survey field work and data processing. The study is supported by the NASA Langley Research Center. The study has several objectives. The preliminary data addresses two of the primary objectives. The first objective is to describe the reactions to sonic booms of people who are living where sonic booms are a routine, recurring feature of the acoustical environment. The second objective is to compare these residents' reactions to the reactions of residents who hear conventional aircraft noise around airports. Here is an overview of the presentation. This study will first be placed in the context of previous community survey research on sonic booms. Next the noise measurement program will be briefly described and part of a social survey interview will be presented. Finally data will be presented on the residents' reactions and these reactions will be compared with reactions to conventional aircraft. Twelve community studies of residents' reactions to sonic booms were conducted in the United States and Europe in the 1960's and early 1970's. None of the 12 studies combined three essential ingredients that are found in the present study. Residents' long-term responses are related to a measured noise environment. Sonic booms are a permanent feature of the residential environment. The respondents' do not live on a military base. The present study is important because it provides the first dose/response relationship for sonic booms

  10. Extended torsional tests of an interlocked bi-stem satellite boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercrombie, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The effect is reported of continued oscillations of a 1.27-cm interlocked bi-stem satellite boom. The test setup oscillated a boom continuously between set torque limits and periodically recorded its hysteresis characteristics. Results showed that repeated oscillations affected torsional characteristics and that torsional rigidity changed as a function of the number of cycles oscillated within certain torque limits. Torsional characteristics changes caused by repeated oscillations were retained.

  11. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. These proposed safety zones... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request...

  12. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg CL(-1)) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax=4.71 d(-1), i.e., 6.8 doublings d(-1)) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments.

  13. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg C L−1) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax = 4.71 d−1, i.e. 6.8 doublings d−1) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments. PMID:23541138

  14. The Origin of Inlet Buzz in a Mach 1.7 Low Boom Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Weir, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic inlets with external compression, having a good level performance at the critical operating point, exhibit a marked instability of the flow in some subcritical operation below a critical value of the capture mass flow ratio. This takes the form of severe oscillations of the shock system, commonly known as "buzz". The underlying purpose of this study is to indicate how Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) analysis of supersonic inlets will alter how we envision unsteady inlet aerodynamics, particularly inlet buzz. Presented in this paper is a discussion regarding the physical explanation underlying inlet buzz as indicated by DES analysis. It is the normal shock wave boundary layer separation along the spike surface which reduces the capture mass flow that is the controlling mechanism which determines the onset of inlet buzz, and it is the aerodynamic characteristics of a choked nozzle that provide the feedback mechanism that sustains the buzz cycle by imposing a fixed mean corrected inlet weight flow. Comparisons between the DES analysis of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMCO) N+2 inlet and schlieren photographs taken during the test of the Gulfstream Large Scale Low Boom (LSLB) inlet in the NASA 8x6 ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) show a strong similarity both in turbulent flow field structure and shock wave formation during the buzz cycle. This demonstrates the value of DES analysis for the design and understanding of supersonic inlets.

  15. Infectivity, distribution, and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae all strain (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) applied by sprinklers or boom sprayer to dry-pick cranberries.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A E; Fitzpatrick, S M; Webster, J M

    1999-06-01

    maximum of 45% on the 3rd d after application by boom sprayer and declined thereafter. In the fall, when assays lasted 10 d, percentage of infectivity rose to a maximum of 58% on the 7th d after application through sprinklers and remained between 20 and 58% until day 135, declining thereafter; infectivity after boom application remained between 37 and 45% on days 3 and 7, and began to decline on day 25. Nematode infectivity was not compromised in peat soil, muck, or silty clay loam, but infectivity in loam (that may have contained nematicide residues) was very low. We suggest that the inconsistent control of O. sulcatus by S. carpocapsae on British Columbia cranberry farms may be partially explained by problems associated with application and factors related to nematode entry into the soil.

  16. An Analysis of Measured Pressure Signatures From Two Theory-Validation Low-Boom Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Two wing/fuselage/nacelle/fin concepts were designed to check the validity and the applicability of sonic-boom minimization theory, sonic-boom analysis methods, and low-boom design methodology in use at the end of the 1980is. Models of these concepts were built, and the pressure signatures they generated were measured in the wind-tunnel. The results of these measurements lead to three conclusions: (1) the existing methods could adequately predict sonic-boom characteristics of wing/fuselage/fin(s) configurations if the equivalent area distributions of each component were smooth and continuous; (2) these methods needed revision so the engine-nacelle volume and the nacelle-wing interference lift disturbances could be accurately predicted; and (3) current nacelle-configuration integration methods had to be updated. With these changes in place, the existing sonic-boom analysis and minimization methods could be effectively applied to supersonic-cruise concepts for acceptable/tolerable sonic-boom overpressures during cruise.

  17. Focused and Steady-State Characteristics of Shaped Sonic Boom Signatures: Prediction and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Bobbitt, Percy J.; Massey, Steven J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Kandil, Osama A.; Zheng, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of flight, at off-design conditions, on the propagated sonic boom pressure signatures of a small "low-boom" supersonic aircraft. The amplification, or focusing, of the low magnitude "shaped" signatures produced by maneuvers such as the accelerations from transonic to supersonic speeds, climbs, turns, pull-up and pushovers is the concern. To analyze these effects, new and/or improved theoretical tools have been developed, in addition to the use of existing methodology. Several shaped signatures are considered in the application of these tools to the study of selected maneuvers and off-design conditions. The results of these applications are reported in this paper as well as the details of the new analytical tools. Finally, the magnitude of the focused boom problem for "low boom" supersonic aircraft designs has been more accurately quantified and potential "mitigations" suggested. In general, "shaped boom" signatures, designed for cruise flight, such as asymmetric and symmetric flat-top and initial-shock ramp waveforms retain their basic shape during transition flight. Complex and asymmetric and symmetric initial shock ramp waveforms provide lower magnitude focus boom levels than N-waves or asymmetric and symmetric flat-top signatures.

  18. USAF Flight Test Investigation of Focused Sonic Booms: Project Have Bears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, Micah; Zamot, Noel; Moss, Chris; Morin, Daniel; Wolski, Ed; Chung, Sukhwan; Plotkin, Kenneth; Maglieri, Domenic

    1996-01-01

    Supersonic operations from military aircraft generate sonic booms that can affect people, animals and structures. A substantial experimental data base exists on sonic booms for aircraft in steady flight and confidence in the predictive techniques has been established. All the focus sonic boom data that are in existence today were collected during the 60's and 70's as part of the information base to the US Supersonic Transport program and the French Jericho studies for the Concorde. These experiments formed the data base to develop sonic boom propagation and prediction theories for focusing. There is a renewed interest in high-speed transports for civilian application. Moreover, today's fighter aircraft have better performance capabilities, and supersonic flights ars more common during air combat maneuvers. Most of the existing data on focus booms are related to high-speed civil operations such as transitional linear accelerations and mild turns. However, military aircraft operating in training areas perform more drastic maneuvers such as dives and high-g turns. An update and confirmation of USAF prediction capabilities is required to demonstrate the ability to predict and control sonic boom impacts, especially those produced by air combat maneuvers.

  19. Modeling of secondary sonic booms: Influence of the variability of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallois, Laurent; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Scott, Julian

    2003-10-01

    The shock waves generated by a supersonic aircraft are reflected in the upper part of the atmosphere. Back to the ground, they are indirect sonic booms called secondary sonic booms. The recorded signals of secondary sonic booms show a low amplitude and a low frequency. They sound like rumbling noises due to amplitude bursts. These signals strongly depend on the atmospheric conditions, in particular to the amplitude and to the direction of the wind in the stratopause. The propagation of the secondary sonic boom is studied using atmospheric models up to the thermosphere. By solving temporal ray equations, the secondary carpet position is investigated. An amplitude equation including nonlinearity, absorption, and relaxation by various chemical species is coupled to the ray solver in order to get information on the amplitude and on the frequency of the sonic boom at the ground level. Using this propagation model and the atmospheric model, the seasonal dependencies of the secondary sonic boom are investigated. Multipath arrivals are directly linked to wind field or 3-D inhomogeneities. They have been of special concern as a way to explain the rumble noise as a summation over different ray contributions.

  20. SCAMP: Rapid Focused Sonic Boom Waypoint Flight Planning Methods, Execution, and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Delaney, Michael M., Jr.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Maglieri, Domenic J.; Brown, Jacob C.

    2012-01-01

    Successful execution of the flight phase of the Superboom Caustic Analysis and Measurement Project (SCAMP) required accurate placement of focused sonic booms on an array of prepositioned ground sensors. While the array was spread over a 10,000-ft-long area, this is a relatively small region when considering the speed of a supersonic aircraft and sonic boom ray path variability due to shifting atmospheric conditions and aircraft trajectories. Another requirement of the project was to determine the proper position for a microphone-equipped motorized glider to intercept the sonic boom caustic, adding critical timing to the constraints. Variability in several inputs to these calculations caused some shifts of the focus away from the optimal location. Reports of the sonic booms heard by persons positioned amongst the array were used to shift the focus closer to the optimal location for subsequent passes. This paper describes the methods and computations used to place the focused sonic boom on the SCAMP array and gives recommendations for their accurate placement by future quiet supersonic aircraft. For the SCAMP flights, 67% of the foci were placed on the ground array with measured positions within a few thousand feet of computed positions. Among those foci with large caustic elevation angles, 96% of foci were placed on the array, and measured positions were within a few hundred feet of computed positions. The motorized glider captured sonic booms on 59% of the passes when the instrumentation was operating properly.