Science.gov

Sample records for booster ramping power

  1. Detecting and characterising ramp events in wind power time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Cristóbal; Cuerva, Álvaro; Costa, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In order to implement accurate models for wind power ramp forecasting, ramps need to be previously characterised. This issue has been typically addressed by performing binary ramp/non-ramp classifications based on ad-hoc assessed thresholds. However, recent works question this approach. This paper presents the ramp function, an innovative wavelet- based tool which detects and characterises ramp events in wind power time series. The underlying idea is to assess a continuous index related to the ramp intensity at each time step, which is obtained by considering large power output gradients evaluated under different time scales (up to typical ramp durations). The ramp function overcomes some of the drawbacks shown by the aforementioned binary classification and permits forecasters to easily reveal specific features of the ramp behaviour observed at a wind farm. As an example, the daily profile of the ramp-up and ramp-down intensities are obtained for the case of a wind farm located in Spain.

  2. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  3. Status of the SNS Power Ramp Up

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. Since formal operations began in 2006, the beam power has been steadily increasing toward the design goal of 1.4 MW. In September 2009 the power surpassed 1 MW for the first time, and operation at the 1 MW level is now routine. The status of the beam power ramp-up program and present operational limitations will be described.

  4. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2016-05-05

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  5. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  6. CFD Assessment of Forward Booster Separation Motor Ignition Overpressure on ET XT 718 Ice/Frost Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejnil, Edward; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics assessment of the forward booster separation motor ignition over-pressure was performed on the space shuttle external tank X(sub T) 718 ice/frost ramp using the flow solver OVERFLOW. The main objective of this study was the investigation of the over-pressure during solid rocket booster separation and its affect on the local pressure and air-load environments. Delta pressure and plume impingement were investigated as a possible contributing factor to the cause of the debris loss on shuttle missions STS-125 and STS-127. A simplified computational model of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle was developed consisting of just the external tank and the solid rocket boosters with separation motor nozzles and plumes. The simplified model was validated by comparison to full fidelity computational model of the Space Shuttle without the separation motors. Quasi steady-state plume solutions were used to calibrate the thrust of the separation motors. Time-accurate simulations of the firing of the booster-separation motors were performed. Parametric studies of the time-step size and the number of sub-iterations were used to find the best converged solution. The computed solutions were compared to previous OVERFLOW steady-state runs of the separation motors with reaction control system jets and to ground test data. The results indicated that delta pressure from the overpressure was small and within design limits, and thus was unlikely to have contributed to the foam losses.

  7. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  8. Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Frame, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are underway with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant grain, asbestos-free case insulation, a redesigned nozzle, streamlined manufacturing

  9. Characterizing and analyzing ramping events in wind power, solar power, load, and netload

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Cong; ...

    2017-04-07

    Here, one of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of renewable energy into the power grid is the ability to handle large ramps in the renewable power output. For the sake of system reliability and economics, it is essential for power system operators to better understand the ramping features of renewable, load, and netload. An optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) is used and extended to accurately and efficiently detect ramping events. For wind power ramps detection, a process of merging 'bumps' (that have a different changing direction) into adjacent ramping segments is included to improve the performancemore » of the OpSDA method. For solar ramps detection, ramping events that occur in both clear-sky and measured (or forecasted) solar power are removed to account for the diurnal pattern of solar generation. Ramping features are extracted and extensively compared between load and netload under different renewable penetration levels (9.77%, 15.85%, and 51.38%). Comparison results show that (i) netload ramp events with shorter durations and smaller magnitudes occur more frequently when renewable penetration level increases, and the total number of ramping events also increases; and (ii) different ramping characteristics are observed in load and netload even with a low renewable penetration level.« less

  10. Return time statistic of wind power ramp events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.

    2015-04-01

    Detection and forecasting of wind power ramp events is a critical issue for the management of power generated by wind turbine and a cluster of wind turbines. The wind power ramp events occur suddenly with larges changes (increases or decreases) of wind power output. In this work, the statistic and the dynamic of wind power ramp events are examined. For that, we analyze several datasets of wind power output with different sampling rate and duration. The data considered are delivered by five wind farms and two single turbines, located at different geographic locations. From these datasets, the return time series τr of wind power ramp events, i.e., the time between two successive ramps above a given threshold Δ p. The return time statistic is investigated plotting the complementary cumulative distribution C(τ_r) in log-log representation. Using a robust method developed by Clauset et al., combining maximum-likelihood fitting methods with goodness-of-fit tests based on the Kolmogorov Smirnov statistic, we show a scaling behavior of the return time statistic, of the form: C(τ_r)˜ kτ_r-α where k is a positive constant and the exponent α called the tail exponent of the distribution. In this study, the value of α ranges from 1.68 to 2.20. This result is a potential information for the estimation risk of wind power generation based on the return time series. Clauset A, Shalizi CR, Newman MEJ. Power-Law distributions in empirical data. SIAM Review 2009;51(4):661-703.

  11. The Solid Rocket Booster Auxiliary Power Unit: Meeting the Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The thrust vector control systems of the solid rocket boosters are turbine-powered, electrically controlled hydraulic systems which function through hydraulic actuators to gimbal the nozzles of the solid rocket boosters and provide vehicle steering for the Space Shuttle. Turbine power for the thrust vector control systems is provided through hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units which drive the hydraulic pumps. The solid rocket booster auxiliary power unit resulted from trade studies which indicated significant advantages would result if an existing engine could be found to meet the program goal of 20 missions reusability and adapted to meet the seawater environments associated with ocean landings. During its maturation, the auxiliary power unit underwent many design iterations and provided its flight worthiness through full qualification programs both as a component and as part of the thrust vector control system. More significant, the auxiliary power unit has successfully completed six Shuttle missions.

  12. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-07-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system.

  13. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-12-31

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  14. Control system for NSLS booster power supply upgrade II

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-07-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second by means of the installation of new dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole power supplies. Here the authors outline the design of the power supply control system.

  15. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J. ); Murray, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  16. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO's substation.

  17. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO`s substation.

  18. Status of the SNS Ring Power Ramp UP

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A; Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Allen, Christopher K; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Galambos, John D; Holmes, Jeffrey A; Jeon, Dong-O; Pelaia II, Tom; Shishlo, Andrei P; Zhang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Beam was first circulated in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring in January 2006. Since that time we have been working to raise the beam power to the design value of 1.4 MW. In general the power ramp up has been proceeding very well, but several issues have been uncovered. Examples include poor transmission of the waste beams in the injection dump beam line, and cross-plane coupling in the ring to target beam transport line. In this paper we will discuss these issues and present an overall status of the ring and the transport beam lines.

  19. Feedback simulation of ramped power transients using transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic simulation of reactor transients is important in determining the feedback and temperature responses of various subassembly components. One method of determining component feedbacks (or associated temperature increments) is by using the feedback reactivity transfer functions of the system. For any variation of power with time the component feedback reactivity responses are then obtained by the convolutions of the feedback reactivity transfer functions and the fractional change in system power. (The nodal feedback reactivity transfer functions for the system were obtained, using the EROS computer code, from nodal feedback responses for a step change in power.) This paper discusses the application of these transfer functions in calculating nodal feedback reactivities in the experimental breeder reactor-II (EBR-II) reactor assuming a fractional power shape that can be defined by a series of ramp inputs. For a comparison, these transfer-function calculated nodal reactivities are compared with nodal reactivities calculated using the EROS kinetics code assuming an input reactivity which gives the described ramp power shape.

  20. Pressurized heavy water reactor fuel behaviour in power ramp conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uţă, O.; Pârvan, M.; Ohâi, D.

    2009-03-01

    In order to check and improve the quality of the Romanian CANDU fuel, an assembly of six CANDU fuel rods has been subjected to a power ramping test in the 14 MW TRIGA reactor at INR. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of the six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel enabled the characterization of the behaviour of the Romanian CANDU fuel in power ramping conditions performed in the TRIGA materials testing reactor.

  1. Power booster internal combustion engine flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Dingess, B.E.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes a flywheel apparatus for an internal combustion engine. The engine comprises a crankshaft, a cam shaft, a means of advancing the crankshaft in rotation on the power strokes to that of the flywheel, means of retarding the crankshaft on the compression strokes the flywheel. The apparatus further comprising, a first flywheel, linkage means connecting a flywheel shaft to the crankshaft, a first flywheel housing, bearing means of linking the first flywheel to the flywheel shaft, a plurality of cylinders housed to the first flywheel housing, a plurality of nitrogen charged bladders housed within the cylinders, a plurality of cam action rods housed within the cylinders, a cam housed to the flywheel shaft, linkage means linking the cam action rods to the bladders, second linkage means linking the cam action rods by way of a cam roller to the cam, a freewheeling flywheel housing, bearing means linking the freewheeling flywheel to the flywheel shaft, third linkage means linking a freewheeling clutch between the freewheeling flywheel housing and the flywheel shaft, a shifter apparatus comprising means of locking the first flywheel housing to the freewheeling flywheel housing in a first position, means of connecting the flywheel shaft and the freewheeling flywheel housing by way of the freewheeling clutch in a second position, a front flywheel comprising means of driving the cam shaft at a balanced rotational speed from the crankshaft when the crankshaft is rotating at varying rotational speeds within each revolution of the crankshaft.

  2. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  3. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  4. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual... non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV...

  5. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-06

    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  6. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  7. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Part 5—Experimental authorizations. Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. Section 73.658—Affiliation agreements and network...

  8. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast... TV translator, low power TV, and TV booster stations: Part 5—Experimental authorizations. Section 73.653—Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. Section 73.658—Affiliation agreements and network...

  9. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  10. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-05

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to enhance the state of the art in SPRE detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  11. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  12. Probabilistic Swinging Door Algorithm as Applied to Photovoltaic Power Ramping Event Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, Anthony; Zhang, Jie; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Cui, Mingjian

    2015-10-02

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation experiences power ramping events due to cloud interference. Depending on the extent of PV aggregation and local grid features, such power variability can be constructive or destructive to measures of uncertainty regarding renewable power generation; however, it directly influences contingency planning, production costs, and the overall reliable operation of power systems. For enhanced power system flexibility, and to help mitigate the negative impacts of power ramping, it is desirable to analyze events in a probabilistic fashion so degrees of beliefs concerning system states and forecastability are better captured and uncertainty is explicitly quantified. A probabilistic swinging door algorithm is developed and presented in this paper. It is then applied to a solar data set of PV power generation. The probabilistic swinging door algorithm builds on results from the original swinging door algorithm, first used for data compression in trend logging, and it is described by two uncertain parameters: (i) e, the threshold sensitivity to a given ramp, and (ii) s, the residual of the piecewise linear ramps. These two parameters determine the distribution of ramps and capture the uncertainty in PV power generation.

  13. Gas turbine power plant with supersonic shock compression ramps

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2008-10-14

    A gas turbine engine. The engine is based on the use of a gas turbine driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. The supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdynamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by use of a lean pre-mix system, a pre-swirl compressor, and a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor to the combustion gas outlet. Use of a stationary low NOx combustor provides excellent emissions results.

  14. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  15. Preferential Magnetospheric Power Excitation by Rising Frequency Ramps from 1986 Siple Station Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Spasojevic, M.; Harid, V.; Golkowski, M.; Carpenter, D. L.; Inan, U.

    2013-12-01

    Controlled experiments using ground-based ELF/VLF transmitters are invaluable in studying nonlinear wave growth and triggered emissions resulting from gyroresonant interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons in the magnetosphere. Typical studies have focused on the narrowband and discrete features present in the received signal and triggered emissions, but have not considered the potential total power excited during the interaction in the magnetosphere. Here, we develop a metric for estimating the total magnetospheric power excited in the propagation ducts and apply this metric to data transmitted from Siple Station, Antarctica. The transmitted STACO format in 1986 includes a series of ascending and descending ramp and staircase elements, allowing for a quantitative comparison of total power excited by frequency ramps of different orientations. We find that rising frequency ramps result in preferentially higher power excitation and that higher noise measurements in the duct correspond to significantly higher measures of power excitation by the transmitted signal. These results provide insight into the structure of the background cold plasma and the distribution of the hot plasma and the conditions favorable for nonlinear wave amplification and triggering. Portion of the STACO transmissions format on 8/18/1986 at 12:21:00 UT, illustrating the differences in magnetospheric amplification and generation for ascending and descending ramp segments.

  16. The constant work rate critical power protocol overestimates ramp incremental exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew I; Jones, Andrew M; Kelly, James A; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2016-12-01

    The parameters of the power-duration relationship (i.e., the critical power, CP, and the curvature constant, W') may theoretically predict maximal performance capability for exercise above the CP. The CP and W' are associated with the parameters of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) kinetics, which can be altered by manipulation of the work-rate forcing function. We tested the hypothesis that the CP and W' derived from constant work-rate (CWR) prediction trials would overestimate ramp incremental exercise performance. Thirty subjects (males, n = 28; females, n = 2) performed a ramp incremental test, and 3-5 CWR prediction trials for the determination of the CP and W'. Multiple ramp incremental tests and corresponding CP and W' estimates were available for some subjects such that in total 51 ramp test performances were predicted. The ramp incremental test performance (729 ± 113 s) was overestimated by the CP and W' estimates derived from the best (751 ± 114 s, P < 0.05) and worst (749 ± 111 s, P < 0.05) individual fits of CWR prediction trial data. The error in the prediction was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the W' for the best (r = -0.56, P < 0.05) and worst individual fits (r = -0.36, P < 0.05). The overestimation of ramp incremental performance suggests that the CP and W' derived from different work-rate forcing functions, thus resulting in different [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics, cannot be used interchangeably. The present findings highlight a potential source of error in performance prediction that is of importance to both researchers and applied practitioners.

  17. Software environment and configuration for the DSP controlled NSLS booster power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-07-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second by means of the installation of new dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole power supplies. The control system of these power supplies employs general purpose digital signal processing modules, and therefore, software support is required. This paper outlines the development system configuration, and the software environment.

  18. Enhancing Power System Operational Flexibility With Flexible Ramping Products: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-12-09

    With the increased variability and uncertainty of net load induced from high penetrations of renewable energy resources and more flexible interchange schedules, power systems are facing great operational challenges in maintaining balance. Among these, the scarcity of ramp capability is an important culprit of power balance violations and high scarcity prices. To address this issue, market-based flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been proposed in the industry to improve the availability of ramp capacity. This paper presents an in-depth review of the modeling and implementation of FRPs. The major motivation is that although FRPs are widely discussed in the literature, itmore » is still unclear to many how they can be incorporated into a co-optimization framework that includes energy and ancillary services. The concept and a definition of power system operational flexibility as well as the needs for FRPs are introduced. The industrial practices of implementing FRPs under different market structures are presented. Market operation issues and future research topics are also discussed. In conclusion, this paper can provide researchers and power engineers with further insights into the state of the art, technical barriers, and potential directions for FRPs.« less

  19. Enhancing Power System Operational Flexibility With Flexible Ramping Products: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-12-09

    With the increased variability and uncertainty of net load induced from high penetrations of renewable energy resources and more flexible interchange schedules, power systems are facing great operational challenges in maintaining balance. Among these, the scarcity of ramp capability is an important culprit of power balance violations and high scarcity prices. To address this issue, market-based flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been proposed in the industry to improve the availability of ramp capacity. This paper presents an in-depth review of the modeling and implementation of FRPs. The major motivation is that although FRPs are widely discussed in the literature, it is still unclear to many how they can be incorporated into a co-optimization framework that includes energy and ancillary services. The concept and a definition of power system operational flexibility as well as the needs for FRPs are introduced. The industrial practices of implementing FRPs under different market structures are presented. Market operation issues and future research topics are also discussed. In conclusion, this paper can provide researchers and power engineers with further insights into the state of the art, technical barriers, and potential directions for FRPs.

  20. SNS Ring Operational Experience and Power Ramp Up Status

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The SNS Ring has now been operating for about 3.5 years, and our march continues to increase the beam power to the full design value of 1.4 MW. The Ring is a loss-limited machine, and in general the radioactivation levels are good, but there are some unanticipated hot spots that we are working to improve. High intensity collective effects such as space-charge and beam instability have had minimal impact on beam operations to date. The cross plane coupling issue in the ring to target beam transport line has been solved. We will also discuss the status of equipment upgrades in the high-energy beam transport beam line, the injection-dump beam transport line, the ring, and the ring-to-target beam transport line.

  1. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal...

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  3. Determinants of VO(2) kinetics at high power outputs during a ramp exercise protocol.

    PubMed

    Lucía, Alejandro; Rivero, José-Luis L; Pérez, Margarita; Serrano, Antonio L; Calbet, José A L; Santalla, Alfredo; Chicharro, José L

    2002-02-01

    To determine the relationship between the additional, nonlinear increase in oxygen uptake (Delta VO(2)) that occurs at high power outputs during a ramp cycle ergometer test, on one hand; and possible explanatory mechanisms of the phenomenon, such as cardiorespiratory work, blood lactate, fitness level, or muscle fiber distribution, on the other. Ten healthy, sedentary young adults (age (mean +/- SEM), 22 +/- 1 yr) were chosen as subjects. A muscle biopsy specimen was taken from the vastus lateralis of the right leg to determine fiber type distribution by immunohistochemical identification of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. During the ramp tests (power output increases of 5 W every 15-s interval), the ventilatory threshold (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) were measured. We defined Delta VO(2) as the difference between "true" VO(2) values observed at the maximal power output (VO(2)obs) and those expected (VO(2)exp) from the previous linear VO2:power output relationship below the VT. A nonlinear increase was observed in VO2 (Delta VO(2) = 239 +/- 79 mL x min(-1), P < 0.05 for VO(2)obs vs VO(2)exp), which was significantly correlated with the percentage of type IIX fibers (r = 0.80, P < 0.05). No other correlations were found between Delta VO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. A greater percentage of type IIX fibers is associated with a higher excess VO(2) at high power outputs (above VT).

  4. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  5. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  6. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  7. Ramping up the SNS Beam Power with the H- Source using 0 mg Cs/Day

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the ramp up of the beam power for the Spallation Neutron Source by ramping up the pulse length, the repetition rate, and the beam current emerging from the H- source. Starting out with low rep rates (<10 Hz) and short pulse lengths (<<0.3 ms) the H- source and LEBT delivered from LBNL exceeded the requirements with almost perfect availability. This paper discusses the modifications that were required to exceed 0.2 ms pulse length and 0.2% duty factor with acceptable availability and performance. Currently the source is supporting neutron production at 1 MW with 38 mA LINAC beam current at 60 Hz and 0.9 ms pulse length. The pulse length will be increased to ~1.1 ms to meet the requirements for neutron production with a power between 1 and 1.4 MW. A MEBT beam current of 46 mA with a 5.4% duty factor has been demonstrated for 32 hours. A 56mA MEBT beam current with a 4.1% duty factor has been demonstrated for 20 minutes at the conclusion of a 12 day production run. This is close to the 59 mA needed for 3 MW neutron productions. Also notable is the Cs2CrO4 cesium system, which dispenses ~10 mg of Cs during the startup of the ion source, sufficient for producing the required 38 mA for 4 weeks without significant degradation.

  8. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  9. A power ramped pulsed mode laser piercing technique for improved CO 2 laser profile cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumala Rao, B.; Ittoop, M. O.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2009-11-01

    Laser piercing is one of the inevitable requirements of laser profile cutting process and it has a direct bearing on the quality of the laser cut profiles. We have developed a novel power ramped pulsed mode (PRPM) laser piercing technique to produce much finer pierced holes and to achieve a better control on the process parameters compared to the existing methodology based on normal pulsed mode (NPM). Experiments were carried out with both PRPM and NPM laser piercing on 1.5-mm-thick mild steel using an in-house developed high-power transverse flow continuous wave (CW)-CO 2 laser. Significant improvements in the spatter, circularity of the pierced hole and reproducibility were achieved through the PRPM technique. We studied, in detail, the dynamics of processes involved in PRPM laser piercing and compared that with those of the NPM piercing.

  10. Scheduling and Pricing for Expected Ramp Capability in Real-Time Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Higher variable renewable generation penetrations are occurring throughout the world on different power systems. These resources increase the variability and uncertainty on the system which must be accommodated by an increase in the flexibility of the system resources in order to maintain reliability. Many scheduling strategies have been discussed and introduced to ensure that this flexibility is available at multiple timescales. To meet variability, that is, the expected changes in system conditions, two recent strategies have been introduced: time-coupled multi-period market clearing models and the incorporation of ramp capability constraints. To appropriately evaluate these methods, it is important to assess both efficiency and reliability. But it is also important to assess the incentive structure to ensure that resources asked to perform in different ways have the proper incentives to follow these directions, which is a step often ignored in simulation studies. We find that there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. We also find that look-ahead horizon length in multi-period market models can impact incentives. This paper proposes scheduling and pricing methods that ensure expected ramps are met reliably, efficiently, and with associated prices based on true marginal costs that incentivize resources to do as directed by the market. Case studies show improvements of the new method.

  11. Dynamic Behaviors of Materials under Ramp Wave Loading on Compact Pulsed Power Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianheng; Luo, Binqiang; Wang, Guiji; Chong, Tao; Tan, Fuli; Liu, Cangli; Sun, Chengwei

    The technique using intense current to produce magnetic pressure provides a unique way to compress matter near isentrope to high density without obvious temperature increment, which is characterized as ramp wave loading, and firstly developed by Sandia in 1998. Firstly recent advances on compact pulsed power generators developed in our laboratory, such as CQ-4, CQ-3-MMAF and CQ-7 devices, are simply introduced here, which devoted to ramp wave loading from 50GPa to 200 GPa, and to ultrahigh-velocity flyer launching up to 30 km/s. And then, we show our progress in data processing methods and experiments of isentropic compression conducted on these devices mentioned above. The suitability of Gruneisen EOS and Vinet EOS are validated by isentropic experiments of tantalum, and the parameters of SCG constitutive equation of aluminum and copper are modified to give better prediction under isentropic compression. Phase transition of bismuth and tin are investigated under different initial temperatures, parameters of Helmholtz free energy and characteristic relaxation time in kinetic phase transition equation are calibrated. Supported by NNSF of China under Contract No.11327803 and 11176002

  12. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  13. ARQ-Aided Downlink Time Switched Transmit Diversity with Power Ramping in the WCDMA LCR-TDD System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seung-Hoon; Jeon, Cha-Eul; Ma, Ri-A.

    This paper investigates the performance of ARQ-aided downlink Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) in the WCDMA Low Chip Rate (LCR)-Time Division Duplex (TDD) system, when antenna switching and power ramping are applied. With the help of the ARQ signal, where the receiver sends the acknowledgement (ACK or NACK) to the transmitter, the proposed TSTD scheme switches the transmit antenna and ramps up the transmission power for the retransmitted data, when the transmitter receives a NACK signal. Simulation results demonstrate, that when the mobile speed is 3km/h and a frame error rate (FER) is set to 1%, the antenna switching scheme yields 2dB to 3dB performance gain in terms of average Eb/N0, and the power ramping gives 0.7dB to 1.6dB gain, compared with the conventional ARQ-aided TSTD. In addition, 6% of throughput gain is shown by amalgamating the antennas switching as well as the power ramping, when the average Eb/N0 is equal to 0dB.

  14. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  15. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  17. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  18. System overview for the multi-element corrector magnets and controls for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, C.; Ball, M.; Franck, A.R.; Harding, D.J.; Kasley, P.A.; Krafczyk, G.E.; Kucera, M.J.; Lackey, J.; McArthur, D.; Misek, J.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To better control the beam position, tune, and chromaticity in the Fermilab Booster synchrotron, a new package of six corrector elements has been designed, incorporating both normal and skew orientations of dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. The devices are under construction and will be installed in 48 locations in the Booster accelerator. Each of these 288 corrector magnets will be individually powered. Each of the magnets will be individually controlled using operator programmed current ramps designed specifically for each type of Booster acceleration cycle. This paper provides an overview of the corrector magnet installation in the accelerator enclosure, power and sensor interconnections, specifications for the switch-mode power supplies, rack and equipment layouts, controls and interlock electronics, and the features of the operator interface for programming the current ramps and adjusting the timing of the system triggers.

  19. Enhanced IGCC regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for improving power ramp rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  20. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was compared through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.

  1. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; ...

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was comparedmore » through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.« less

  2. Does a booster intervention augment the preventive effects of an abbreviated version of the coping power program for aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Lochman, John E; Baden, Rachel E; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin; Salekin, Karen L; Windle, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Booster interventions have been presumed to be important methods for maintaining the effects of evidence-based programs for children with behavioral problems, but there has been remarkably little empirical attention to this assumption. The present study examines the effect of a child-oriented booster preventive intervention with children who had previously received an abbreviated version (24 child sessions, 10 parent sessions) of the Coping Power targeted prevention program. Two hundred and forty-one children (152 boys, 89 girls) were screened as having moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior in 4th grade, then half were randomly assigned to receive the abbreviated Coping Power program in 5th grade, and half of the preventive intervention children were then randomly assigned to a Booster condition in 6th grade. The Booster sessions consisted of brief monthly individual contacts, and were primarily with the children. Five assessments across 4 years were collected from teachers, providing a three-year follow-up for all children who participated in the project. Results indicated that the abbreviated Coping Power program (one-third shorter than the full intervention) had long-term effects in reducing children's externalizing problem behaviors, proactive and reactive aggression, impulsivity traits and callous-unemotional traits. The Booster intervention did not augment these prevention effects. These findings indicate that a briefer and more readily disseminated form of an evidence-based targeted preventive intervention was effective. The findings have potential implications for policy and guidelines about possible intervention length and booster interventions.

  3. Does a Booster Intervention Augment the Preventive Effects of an Abbreviated Version of the Coping Power Program for Aggressive Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lochman, John E.; Baden, Rachel E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Powell, Nicole P.; Qu, Lixin; Salekin, Karen L.; Windle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Booster interventions have been presumed to be important methods for maintaining the effects of evidence-based programs for children with behavioral problems, but there has been remarkably little empirical attention to this assumption. The present study examines the effect of a child-oriented booster preventive intervention with children who had previously received an abbreviated version (24 child sessions, 10 parent sessions) of the Coping Power targeted prevention program. Two hundred and forty-one children (152 boys, 89 girls) were screened as having moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior in 4th grade, then half were randomly assigned to receive the abbreviated Coping Power program in 5th grade, and half of the preventive intervention children were then randomly assigned to a Booster condition in 6th grade. The Booster sessions consisted of brief monthly individual contacts, and were primarily with the children. Five assessments across four years were collected from teachers, providing a three-year follow-up for all children who participated in the project. Results indicated that the abbreviated Coping Power program (one-third shorter than the full intervention) had long-term effects in reducing children’s externalizing problem behaviors, proactive and reactive aggression, impulsivity traits and callous-unemotional traits. The Booster intervention did not augment these prevention effects. These findings indicate that a briefer and more readily disseminated form of an evidence-based targeted preventive intervention was effective. The findings have potential implications for policy and guidelines about possible intervention length and booster interventions. PMID:23417235

  4. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  5. Curvilinear VO(2):power output relationship in a ramp test in professional cyclists: possible association with blood hemoglobin concentration.

    PubMed

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Chicharro, José L

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if there exists an additional, nonlinear increase (DeltaVO(2)) in the oxygen uptake observed (VO2 (obs)) at the maximal power output reached during a ramp cycle ergometer test and that expected (VO2 (exp)) from the linear relationship between VO(2) and power output below the lactate threshold (LT) in professional riders, and (2) the relationship between DeltaVO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. Each of 12 professional cyclists (25 +/- 1 years; VO(2 max): 71.3 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed a ramp test until exhaustion (power output increases of 25 W x min(-1)) during which several gas-exchange and blood variables were measured (including lactate, HCO(3)(-) and K(+)). VO(2) was linearly related to power output until the LT in all subjects. Afterward, a nonlinear deflection was observed in the VO(2):power output relationship (DeltaVO(2) = 2492 +/- 55 ml x min(-1) and p < 0.05 for VO2 (obs) vs. VO2 (exp)). A significant negative correlation was encountered between DeltaVO(2) and resting hemoglobin levels before the tests (r = 20.61; p < 0.05). In conclusion, professional cyclists exhibit an attenuation of the VO(2) rise above the LT.

  6. FUEL PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Power-Ramp Testing and Postirradiation Examination of PCI- Resistant LWR Fuel Rod Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J. O.; Guenther, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the power-ramp testing results from 10 fuel rods irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), Halden, Norway. Tne work is part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP), which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DUE) and is conducted through the joint efforts of Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, lnc., and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the FPlP is to identify and demonstrate fuel concepts with improved pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) behavior that will be capable of extended burnup. The postirradiation examination results obtained from one nonramped rod are also presented. The power-ramping behavior of three basic fuel rod types--rods with annular-pellet fuel, sphere-pac fuel, and dished-pellet (reference) fuel--are compared in terms of mechanisms known to promote PCl failures. The effects of graphite coating on the inside cladding surface and helium pressurization in rods witn annular fuel are also evaluated .

  7. AlGaN/GaN-on-Si monolithic power-switching device with integrated gate current booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang-Woo; Jo, Min-Gi; Kim, Hyungtak; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Cha, Ho-Young

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a monolithic gate current booster integrated with an AlGaN/GaN-on-Si power-switching device. The integrated gate current booster was implemented by a single-stage inverter topology consisting of a recessed normally-off AlGaN/GaN MOS-HFET and a mesa resistor. The monolithically integrated gate current booster in a switching FET eliminated the parasitic elements caused by external interconnection and enabled fast switching operation. The gate charging and discharging currents were boosted by the integrated inverter, which significantly reduced both rise and fall times: the rise time was reduced from 626 to 41.26 ns, while the fall time was reduced from 554 to 42.19 ns by the single-stage inverter. When the packaged monolithic power chip was tested under 1 MHz hard-switching operation with VDD = 200 V, the switching loss was found to have been drastically reduced, from 5.27 to 0.55 W.

  8. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ˜ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  9. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32 μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ~ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  10. A steep ramp test is valid for estimating maximal power and oxygen uptake during a standard ramp test in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, R; Bussmann, J B J; Lesaffre, E; Stam, H J; Praet, S F E

    2015-10-01

    A short maximal steep ramp test (SRT, 25 W/10 s) has been proposed to guide exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes, but requires validation. This study aims to (a) determine the relationship between Wmax and V˙O2peak reached during SRT and the standard ramp test (RT); (b) obtain test-retest reliability; and (c) document electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities during SRT. Type 2 diabetes patients (35 men, 26 women) performed a cycle ergometer-based RT (women 1.2; men 1.8 W/6 s) and SRT on separate days. A random subgroup (n = 42) repeated the SRT. ECG, heart rate, and V˙O2 were monitored. Wmax during RT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 106 ± 33 W (women). Wmax during SRT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 188 ± 55 W (women). The relationship between RT and SRT was described by men RT V˙O2peak (mL/min) = 152 + 7.67 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.859); women RT V ˙ O 2 p e a k (mL/min) = 603 + 4.75 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.771); intraclass correlation coefficients between first (SRT1) and second SRT Wmax (SRT2) were men 0.951 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.899-0.977] and women 0.908 (95% CI 0.727-0.971). No adverse events were noted during any of the exercise tests. This validation study indicates that the SRT is a low-risk, accurate, and reliable test to estimate maximal aerobic capacity during the RT to design exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes patients.

  11. Skeletal muscle power and fatigue at the tolerable limit of ramp-incremental exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; Coelho, Ana Claudia; Cao, Robert; Cheng, Andrew; Porszasz, Janos; Casaburi, Richard; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-12-01

    Muscle fatigue (a reduced power for a given activation) is common following exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether muscle fatigue, and reduced maximal voluntary locomotor power, are sufficient to limit whole body exercise in COPD is unknown. We hypothesized in COPD: 1) exercise is terminated with a locomotor muscle power reserve; 2) reduction in maximal locomotor power is related to ventilatory limitation; and 3) muscle fatigue at intolerance is less than age-matched controls. We used a rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling to measure the decline in peak isokinetic power at the limit of incremental exercise ("performance fatigue") in 13 COPD patients (FEV1 49 ± 17%pred) and 12 controls. By establishing the baseline relationship between muscle activity and isokinetic power, we apportioned performance fatigue into the reduction in muscle activation and muscle fatigue. Peak isokinetic power at intolerance was ~130% of peak incremental power in controls (274 ± 73 vs. 212 ± 84 W, P < 0.05), but ~260% in COPD patients (187 ± 141 vs. 72 ± 34 W, P < 0.05), greater than controls (P < 0.05). Muscle fatigue as a fraction of baseline peak isokinetic power was not different in COPD patients vs. controls (0.11 ± 0.20 vs. 0.19 ± 0.11). Baseline to intolerance, the median frequency of maximal isokinetic muscle activity, was unchanged in COPD patients but reduced in controls (+4.3 ± 11.6 vs. -5.5 ± 7.6%, P < 0.05). Performance fatigue as a fraction of peak incremental power was greater in COPD vs. controls and related to resting (FEV1/FVC) and peak exercise (V̇E/maximal voluntary ventilation) pulmonary function (r(2) = 0.47 and 0.55, P < 0.05). COPD patients are more fatigable than controls, but this fatigue is insufficient to constrain locomotor power and define exercise intolerance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-07-01

    When wind plants serve load within the balancing area, no additional capacity required to integrate wind power into the system. We present some thought experiments to illustrate some implications for wind integration studies.

  13. Advanced regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for IGCC targeted towards improving power ramp-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  14. 47 CFR 20.21 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CMRS spectrum bands. (8) Wideband Consumer Signal Boosters. A Wideband Consumer Signal Booster will... uplink mid-band frequency of the supported spectrum bands in MHz. (ii) Mobile booster maximum noise power... prohibited. Spectrum block filtering may be used provided the uplink filter attenuation is not less than...

  15. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...: On occasion reporting requirement; one time reporting requirement; third party disclosure requirement... to require all low power station with facilities on out-of- core channels (channels 52-59) to submit a digital displacement (FCC Form 346) application proposing an in-core channel (channels...

  16. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used..., or adjustments. (b) In the event of main or booster fan failure due to a malfunction, accident, power...

  17. Ram booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter Ray (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is a space launch system and method to propel a payload bearing craft into earth orbit. The invention has two, or preferably, three stages. The upper stage has rocket engines capable of carrying a payload to orbit and provides the capability of releasably attaching to the lower, or preferably, middle stage. Similar to the lower stage, the middle stage is a reusable booster stage that employs all air breathing engines, is recoverable, and can be turned-around in a short time between missions.

  18. Experimental evidence of oxygen thermo-migration in PWR UO2 fuels during power ramps using in-situ oxido-reduction indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Sercombe, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Noirot, J.; Roure, I.; Blay, T.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-11-01

    The present study describes the in-situ electrochemical modifications which affect irradiated PWR UO2 fuels in the course of a power ramp, by means of in-situ oxido-reduction indicators such as chromium or neo-formed chemical phases. It is shown that irradiated fuels (of nominal stoichiometry close to 2.000) under temperature gradient such as that occurring during high power transients are submitted to strong oxido-reduction perturbations, owing to radial migration of oxygen from the hot center to the cold periphery of the pellet. The oxygen redistribution, similar to that encountered in Sodium Fast Reactors fuels, induces a massive reduction/precipitation of the fission products Mo, Ru, Tc and Cr (if present) in the high temperature pellet section and the formation of highly oxidized neo-formed grey phases of U4O9 type in its cold section, of lower temperature. The parameters governing the oxidation states of UO2 fuels under power ramps are finally debated from a cross-analysis of our results and other published information. The potential chemical benefits brought by oxido-reductive additives in UO2 fuel such as chromium oxide, in connection with their oxygen buffering properties, are discussed.

  19. Capture, acceleration and bunching rf systems for the MEIC booster and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC), proposed by Jefferson Lab, consists of a series of accelerators. The electron collider ring accepts electrons from CEBAF at energies from 3 to 12 GeV. Protons and ions are delivered to a booster and captured in a long bunch before being ramped and transferred to the ion collider ring. The ion collider ring accelerates a small number of long ion bunches to colliding energy before they are re-bunched into a high frequency train of very short bunches for colliding. Two sets of low frequency RF systems are needed for the long ion bunch energy ramping in the booster and ion collider ring. Another two sets of high frequency RF cavities are needed for re-bunching in the ion collider ring and compensating synchrotron radiation energy loss in the electron collider ring. The requirements from energy ramping, ion beam bunching, electron beam energy compensation, collective effects, beam loading and feedback capability, RF power capability, etc. are presented. The preliminary designs of these RF systems are presented. Concepts for the baseline cavity and RF station configurations are described, as well as some options that may allow more flexible injection and acceleration schemes.

  20. Rock ramp design guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, David M.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Broderick, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Rock ramps or roughened channels consist of steep reaches stabilized by large immobile material (riprap). Primary objectives for rock ramps include: Create adequate head for diversionMaintain fish passage during low-flow conditionsMaintain hydraulic conveyance during high-flow conditionsSecondary objectives for rock ramp design include:Emulate natural systemsMinimize costsThe rock ramp consists of a low-flow channel designed to maintain biologically adequate depth and velocity conditions during periods of small discharges. The remainder of the ramp is designed to withstand and pass large flows with minimal structural damage. The following chapters outline a process for designing rock ramps.

  1. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  2. Climatological attribution of wind power ramp events in East Japan and their probabilistic forecast based on multi-model ensembles downscaled by analog ensemble using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Masamichi; Nohara, Daisuke; Kadokura, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Severe storms or other extreme weather events can interrupt the spin of wind turbines in large scale that cause unexpected "wind ramp events". In this study, we present an application of self-organizing maps (SOMs) for climatological attribution of the wind ramp events and their probabilistic prediction. The SOM is an automatic data-mining clustering technique, which allows us to summarize a high-dimensional data space in terms of a set of reference vectors. The SOM is applied to analyze and connect the relationship between atmospheric patterns over Japan and wind power generation. SOM is employed on sea level pressure derived from the JRA55 reanalysis over the target area (Tohoku region in Japan), whereby a two-dimensional lattice of weather patterns (WPs) classified during the 1977-2013 period is obtained. To compare with the atmospheric data, the long-term wind power generation is reconstructed by using a high-resolution surface observation network AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) in Japan. Our analysis extracts seven typical WPs, which are linked to frequent occurrences of wind ramp events. Probabilistic forecasts to wind power generation and ramps are conducted by using the obtained SOM. The probability are derived from the multiple SOM lattices based on the matching of output from TIGGE multi-model global forecast to the WPs on the lattices. Since this method effectively takes care of the empirical uncertainties from the historical data, wind power generation and ramp is probabilistically forecasted from the forecasts of global models. The predictability skill of the forecasts for the wind power generation and ramp events show the relatively good skill score under the downscaling technique. It is expected that the results of this study provides better guidance to the user community and contribute to future development of system operation model for the transmission grid operator.

  3. 43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE RAMP WAS USED TO GUIDE RUN-OFF FROM THUNDERSTORMS AWAY FROM THE PORTAL. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  4. A column level, low power, 1 M sample/s double ramp A/D converter for monolithic active pixel sensors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, N.; Heini, S.; Hu, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) using standard low cost CMOS technologies available from industrial manufacturers have demonstrated excellent tracking performances for minimum ionizing particles. The need for highly granular, fast, thin sensors with a full digital output drives an R&D effort, aiming to design and optimize a low power high speed A/D converter integrated at the column level. Following this main issue, a double digital ramp A/D converter has been proposed for CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors in this paper. This A/D converter responds to the constraints of size, power dissipation and precision for CMOS sensors for particle detection. It also represents a first step in order to reach the high speed of conversion needed for this kind of application. The A/D converter has a resolution of 4 bits for conversion speed of 1 M sample/s with only 264 μW of static consumption in a very particular pitch of 25 μm×900 μm.

  5. Crucial Booster Test Fires Up in Utah

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A booster for the most powerful rocket in the world, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), successfully fired up Tuesday for its second qualification ground test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Pro...

  6. RAMP MANAGEMENT IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.

    1999-03-29

    In RHIC, magnets and RF cavities are controlled by Wave Form Generators (WFGs), simple real time computers which generate the set points. The WFGs are programmed to change set points from one state to another in a synchronized way. Such transition is called a ''Ramp'' and consists of a sequence of ''stepping stones'' which contain the set point of every WFG controlled device at a point in time. An appropriate interpolation defines the set points between these stepping stones. This report describes the implementation of the ramp system. The user interface, tools to create and modify ramps, interaction with modeling tools and measurements and correction programs are discussed.

  7. Pathfinder Ramp Deploy Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Sojourner can be seen still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal. The imager helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00628

  8. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill," which Sojourner will later study. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00627

  9. SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE STACKING IN THE NSLS-II BOOSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III, R.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.

  10. Tracking study of hadron collider boosters

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Bourianoff, G.; Huang, Y.; Mahale, N.

    1992-07-01

    A simulation code SIMPSONS (previously called 6D-TEASE T) of single- and multi-particle tracking has been developed for proton synchrotrons. The 6D phase space coordinates are calculated each time step including acceleration with an arbitrary ramping curve by integration of the rf phase. Space-charge effects are modelled by means of the Particle In Cell (PIC) method. We observed the transverse emittance growth around the injection energy of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) with and without second harmonic rf cavities which reduce peak line density. We also employed the code to see the possible transverse emittance deterioration around the transition energy in the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) and to estimate the emittance dilution due to an injection error of the MEB.

  11. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  12. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 5: Space shuttle powered explicit guidance. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    An optimum powered explicit guidance algorithm capable of handling all space shuttle exoatospheric maneuvers is presented. The theoretical and practical basis for the currently baselined space shuttle powered flight guidance equations and logic is documented. Detailed flow diagrams for implementing the steering computations for all shuttle phases, including powered return to launch site (RTLS) abort, are also presented. Derivation of the powered RTLS algorithm is provided, as well as detailed flow diagrams for implementing the option. The flow diagrams and equations are compatible with the current powered flight documentation.

  13. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  14. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  15. Ramped-amplitude NOVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, T. V.; Weber, R. T.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2017-04-01

    We present a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study using a ramped-amplitude nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (RA-NOVEL) sequence that utilizes a fast arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to modulate the microwave pulses together with samples doped with narrow-line radicals such as 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA), and trityl-OX063. Similar to ramped-amplitude cross polarization in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, RA-NOVEL improves the DNP efficiency by a factor of up to 1.6 compared to constant-amplitude NOVEL (CA-NOVEL) but requires a longer mixing time. For example, at τmix = 8 μs, the DNP efficiency reaches a plateau at a ramp amplitude of ˜20 MHz for both SA-BDPA and trityl-OX063, regardless of the ramp profile (linear vs. tangent). At shorter mixing times (τmix = 0.8 μs), we found that the tangent ramp is superior to its linear counterpart and in both cases there exists an optimum ramp size and therefore ramp rate. Our results suggest that RA-NOVEL should be used instead of CA-NOVEL as long as the electronic spin lattice relaxation T1e is sufficiently long and/or the duty cycle of the microwave amplifier is not exceeded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a time domain DNP experiment that utilizes modulated microwave pulses. Our results also suggest that a precise modulation of the microwave pulses can play an important role in optimizing the efficiency of pulsed DNP experiments and an AWG is an elegant instrumental solution for this purpose.

  16. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Andy; Greene, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Goals of NASA's Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS. (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. SLS Block 1 vehicle is being designed to carry 70 mT to LEO: (1) Uses two five-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) similar to the boosters that helped power the space shuttle to orbit. Evolved 130 mT payload class rocket requires an advanced booster with more thrust than any existing U.S. liquid-or solid-fueled boosters

  17. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  18. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Costa, D C; Santi, G L de; Crescêncio, J C; Seabra, L P; Carvalho, E E V; Papa, V; Marques, F; Gallo Junior, L; Schmidt, A

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG) was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2)peak(predicted)and V˙O2peak(real)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(real)was 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin's coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer.

  19. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, D. C.; de Santi, G. L.; Crescêncio, J. C.; Seabra, L. P.; Carvalho, E. E. V.; Papa, V.; Marques, F.; Gallo, L.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG) was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2)peak(predicted)and V˙O2peak(real)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(real)was 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin’s coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer. PMID:26397972

  20. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  1. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  2. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  3. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  4. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  5. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT EFFECTS IN BNL'S AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; GARDNER, C.; GLENN, J.W.; HARVEY, M.; MENG, W.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    Recent beam experiments at BNL's AGS Booster have enabled us to study in more detail the effects of eddy currents on the lattice structure and our control over the betatron tune. The Booster is capable of operating at ramp rates as high as 9 T/sec. At these ramp rates eddy currents in the vacuum chambers significantly alter the fields and gradients seen by the beam as it is accelerated. The Booster was designed with these effects in mind and to help control the field uniformity and linearity in the Booster Dipoles special vacuum chambers were designed with current windings to negate the affect of the induced eddy currents. In this report results from betatron tune measurements and eddy current simulations will be presented. We will then present results from modeling the accelerator using the results of the magnetic field simulations and compare these to the measurements.

  7. A simple computer-controlled analogue ramp generator for producing multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli.

    PubMed

    Matheson, T; Ditz, F

    1991-08-01

    This report describes an inexpensive ramp generator which produces multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli ("staircase-type" wave forms). The output voltage is analogue and is, therefore, free of stepping artifacts characteristic of digital function generators. When coupled with a standard power amplifier and mechanical vibrator, this system is particularly suitable for stimulation of mechanoreceptive sense organs. Connection to the serial port of an IBM personal computer, or the user port of a BBC computer allows complex ramp-and-hold sequences to be developed and repeated. The number, duration and sign of ramps, and the duration of intervening hold periods can be set using the computer. This system has been used successfully to characterise phasic and tonic neurones in the locust metathoracic femoral chordotonal organ (a leg position and movement detector).

  8. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  9. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  10. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  11. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  12. Model Calibration and Optics Correction Using Orbit Response Matrix in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Prebys, E.; Petrenko, A.V.; Kopp, S.E.; McAteer, M.J.; /Texas U.

    2012-05-01

    We have calibrated the lattice model and measured the beta and dispersion functions in Fermilab's fast-ramping Booster synchrotron using the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) method. We used the calibrated model to implement ramped coupling, dispersion, and beta-beating corrections throughout the acceleration cycle, reducing horizontal beta beating from its initial magnitude of {approx}30% to {approx}10%, and essentially eliminating vertical beta-beating and transverse coupling.

  13. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  14. Perpendicular Biased Ferrite Tuned Cavities for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Awida, Mohamed; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Pellico, William; Tan, Cheng-Yang; Terechkine, Iouri; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The aging Fermilab Booster RF system needs an upgrade to support future experimental program. The important feature of the upgrade is substantial enhancement of the requirements for the accelerating cavities. The new requirements include enlargement of the cavity beam pipe aperture, increase of the cavity voltage and increase in the repetition rate. The modification of the present traditional parallel biased ferrite cavities is rather challenging. An alternative to rebuilding the present Fermilab Booster RF cavities is to design and construct new perpendicular biased RF cavities, which potentially offer a number of advantages. An evaluation and a preliminary design of the perpendicular biased ferrite tuned cavities for the Fermilab Booster upgrade is described in the paper. Also it is desirable for better Booster performance to improve the capture of beam in the Booster during injection and at the start of the ramp. One possible way to do that is to flatten the bucket by introducing second harmonic cavities into the Booster. This paper also looks into the option of using perpendicularly biased ferrite tuners for the second harmonic cavities.

  15. Design features of portable wheelchair ramps and their implications for curb and vehicle access.

    PubMed

    Storr, Tim; Spicer, Julie; Frost, Peggy; Attfield, Steve; Ward, Christopher D; Pinnington, Lorraine L

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated a range of portable wheelchair ramps to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of use when wheelchair users climb curbs or access vehicles. Twelve portable ramps were evaluated. Although all the ramps were designed to load powered wheelchairs into motor vehicles, they were manufactured in different designs. The ramps were based on a "singlewide" platform or "channel" design. Some ramps had fixed dimensions, whereas others could be reduced in size because they were telescopic or designed to allow folding. Overall, the ramps could be divided into four subgroups on the basis of their key features. These were horizontally and longitudinally folding ramps, telescopic ramps, and ramps with fixed dimensions. The telescopic ramps could be subdivided into "U"-shaped gutter ramps and reverse profile ramps. Product appraisals and trials involving wheelchair users and caregivers of wheelchair users were done to evaluate each of these ramp designs. Although wheelchair ramps are available in a wide range of designs and configurations, we found that no single ramp design successfully met the needs of all wheelchair users or their caregivers. The evaluation highlighted a number of specific problems and potential hazards. Some ramps were found to move during a maneuver, showed poor stability when used with some vehicles, or were too narrow to allow wheelchair castors to pass through the channel without jamming. Some features, such as handles and locking mechanisms, influenced the ease with which the caregivers could use the ramps. Wheelchair users preferred the wide platform ramps because they were able to drive up these with ease and little preparation. The caregivers preferred folding or telescopic channel ramps because these were easier to handle and store.

  16. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Appendix C: Battery report for the liquid rocket booster TVC actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The actuators for control of engine valves and gimbals for a booster require 165 kW or more peak power at 270 volts direct current (VDC) during the 2 or 3 minutes of first stage ascent; other booster devices require much less power at 28 VDC. It is desired that a booster supply its own electrical power and satisfy redundancy requirements of the Solid Rocket Booster Shuttle, when applicable. The power of a Liquid Rocket Booster is therefore provided by two subsystems: Actuator Battery Power (270 VDC) Subsystem for the engine actuators, and Electrical Power and Distribution (28 VDC) Subsystem, to power everything else. Boosters will receive no electrical power from Orbiter, only commands and data, according to current plans. It was concluded that nine 30 volt silver-zinc batteries-in-series be used to provide the 270 volt, 37 kW average (165 kW peak).

  17. Single bunch and multi-bunch injection schemes for Iranian Light Source Facility booster synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design proposal for the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) chopper is presented and the expected performance of both single bunch and multi-bunch modes of beam injection into the booster synchrotron is described. For the multi-bunch mode, a 100 MHz sub-harmonic pre-buncher is proposed to be employed next to the electron gun particularly to reduce the particle loss during the energy ramp of the booster. The results indicated significant improvement of the injection efficiency into the booster. The total particle loss rate for the multi-bunch injection is reduced from 35% to 4%.

  18. Booster Interface Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steve; Wood, Bill; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between shock waves and the wake shed from the forward booster/core attach hardware results in unsteady pressure fluctuations, which can lead to large buffeting loads on the vehicle. This task investigates whether computational tools can adequately predict these flows, and whether alternative booster nose shapes can reduce these loads. Results from wind tunnel tests will be used to validate the computations and provide design information for future Space Launch System (SLS) configurations. The current work combines numerical simulations with wind tunnel testing to predict buffeting loads caused by the boosters. Variations in nosecone shape, similar to the Ariane 5 design (fig. 1), are being evaluated with regard to lowering the buffet loads. The task will provide design information for the mitigation of buffet loads for SLS, along with validated simulation tools to be used to assess future SLS designs.

  19. StarBooster Demonstrator Cluster Configuration Analysis/Verification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeTurris, Dianne J.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the flight dynamics of the cluster configuration of two first stage boosters and upper-stage, flight-testing of subsonic sub-scale models has been undertaken using two glideback boosters launched on a center upper-stage. Three high power rockets clustered together were built and flown to demonstrate vertical launch, separation and horizontal recovery of the boosters. Although the boosters fly to conventional aircraft landing, the centerstage comes down separately under its own parachute. The goal of the project has been to collect data during separation and flight for comparison with a six degree of freedom simulation. The configuration for the delta wing canard boosters comes from a design by Starcraft Boosters, Inc. The subscale rockets were constructed of foam covered in carbon or fiberglass and were launched with commercially available solid rocket motors. The first set of boosters built were 3-ft tall with a 4-ft tall centerstage, and two additional sets of boosters were made that were each over 5-ft tall with a 7.5 ft centerstage. The rocket cluster is launched vertically, then after motor bum out the boosters are separated and flown to a horizontal landing under radio-control. An on-board data acquisition system recorded data during both the launch and glide phases of flight.

  20. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  1. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  2. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  3. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  4. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    's mission control center. The Structures group was responsible for ensuring the structural integrity of the vehicle. Their designs included the payload shroud, payload support structure, exterior hull and engine support struts. The Gryphon's power requirements were determined by the Power/Thermal/Attitude Control Group. booster aircraft connection. *This included the design of the connection structure and the drop mechanism. -This group also designed the vehicle assembly facility and identified possible ground bases for the plane.

  5. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    's mission control center. The Structures group was responsible for ensuring the structural integrity of the vehicle. Their designs included the payload shroud, payload support structure, exterior hull and engine support struts. The Gryphon's power requirements were determined by the Power/Thermal/Attitude Control Group. This group then selected suitable batteries and other components to meet these requirements. The group also designed heat shielding and cooling systems to ensure subsystem performance. In addition to these responsibilities this group designed the attitude control methods and RCS components for the vehicle. The Aircraft Integration Group was responsible for all aspects of the booster aircraft connection. This included the design of the connection structure and the drop mechanism. This group also designed the vehicle assembly facility and identified possible ground bases for the plane.

  6. Gullfaks multiphase booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Vangen, G.; Carstensen, C.; Bakken, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    A Poseidon Multiphase Pump has been Installed and is presently running on Statoil`s Gullfaks A platform in the North Sea, giving additional pressure to one of the wells. The main objective of this work has been to qualify the Poseidon Booster Technology, technically and operationally, and to provide a reliable and industrialized tool for multiphase boosting, either sub sea or installed topside a platform. The paper gives a brief summary of the project and describes the Poseidon pump, the platform installation and outlines the experience and results from the ongoing qualification test. The Gullfaks booster, as delivered by Framo Engineering AS, has up to January 1995 accumulated 2,400 running hours. The booster is fully integrated into the production systems on the platform. The daily operations are carried out from the central control room by the ordinary platform staff. The objectives of the test program have so far been successfully fulfilled. Multiphase booster technology combined with progress in multiphase flow technology will have a significant impact on development and production of smaller oil and gas fields that today are assumed to be non-profitable.

  7. Using the transverse digital damper as a real-time tune monitor for the Booster synchrotron at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /FERMILAB

    2011-08-01

    The Fermilab Booster is a fast ramping (15Hz) synchrotron which accelerates protons from 400MeV to 8GeV. During commissioning of a transverse digital damper system, it was shown that the damper could provide a measurement of the machine tune throughout the cycle by exciting just 1 of the 84 bunches with minimal impact on the machine operation. The algorithms used to make the measurement have been incorporated into the damper FPGA firmware allowing for real-time tune monitoring of all Booster cycles. A new Booster tune monitor was implemented in the digital damper which has minimal impact on the Booster operation. The tune measures the tunes in two planes over the energy ramping cycle with an accuracy of 0.01 in real time.

  8. Truck ramp construction from clean coal technology waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    The construction and performance of a truck ramp made from clean coal technology waste products are described. The specific waste product used in this project was generated at the power plant located on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus. The ramp is used by University vehicles depositing hard trash at a central disposal facility on the OSU campus. Laboratory tests which had been conducted on samples made from the power plant waste product clearly showed that, when the material is property compacted, strengths could be obtained that were much higher than those of the natural soils the clean coal waste would replace. In addition, the permeability and swelling characteristics of the waste product should make it an attractive alternative to importing select borrow materials. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a decision was made to use the power plant waste in the truck ramp rather than the soil that was called for in the original design. Prior to the start of construction, the area on which the ramp was to be located was covered with an impermeable geomembrane. Drain lines were installed on top of the geomembrane so that water that might leach through the ramp could be collected. The waste product from the power plant was placed on the geomembrane in 20 to 30 centimeter lifts by University maintenance personnel without special equipment. A drain line was installed across the toe of the ramp to intercept surface runoff, and a wearing surface of 7 to 15 centimeters of crushed limestone was placed over the compacted ash. The finished ramp structure recycled approximately 180 metric tons of the power plant byproduct. After over a year in service there is no indication of erosion or rutting in the ramp surface. Tests performed on the leachate and runoff water have shown the high pH characteristic of these materials, but concentrations of metals fall below the established limits.

  9. Summary of Booster Development and Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, Elizabeth G.; Harry, Herbert H.; Hartline, Ernest L.; Hooks, Daniel E.; Johnson, Carl E.; Morris, John S.; Novak, Alan M.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Sanders, Victor E.; Scovel, Christina A.; Lorenz, Thomas; Wright, Mark; Botcher, Tod; Marx, Erin; Gibson, Kevin

    2012-06-21

    This report outlines booster development work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 2007 to present. The booster is a critical link in the initiation train of explosive assemblies, from complex devices like nuclear weapons to conventional munitions. The booster bridges the gap from a small, relatively sensitive detonator to an insensitive, but massive, main charge. The movement throughout the explosives development community is to use more and more insensitive explosive components. With that, more energy is needed out of the booster. It has to initiate reliably, promptly, powerfully and safely. This report is divided into four sections. The first provides a summary of a collaborative effort between LANL, LLNL, and AWE to identify candidate materials and uniformly develop a testing plan for new boosters. Important parameters and the tests required to measure them were defined. The nature of the collaboration and the specific goals of the participating partners has changed over time, but the booster development plan stands on its own merit as a complete description of the test protocol necessary to compare and qualify booster materials, and is discussed in its entirety in this report. The second section describes a project, which began in 2009 with the Department of Defense to develop replacement booster formulations for PBXN-7. Replacement of PBXN-7 was necessary because it contained Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which was becoming unavailable to the DoD and because it contained Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), which was sensitive and toxic. A LANL-developed explosive, Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF), was an important candidate. This project required any replacement formulation be a drop-in replacement in existing munitions. This project was timely, in that it made use of the collaborative booster development project, and had the additional constraint of matching shock sensitivity. Additionally it needed to be a safety improvement, and a performance

  10. Factors Affecting Booster Seat Use.

    PubMed

    Aita-Levy, Jerussa; Henderson, Lauren

    2016-10-01

    Objective To identify general awareness of booster seats as well as reasons for use and nonuse in an urban pediatric emergency room. Methods A total of 100 questionnaires were completed consisting of 24 questions each. Questions included knowledge of booster seat guidelines, source of knowledge, awareness of risks, and confidence in booster seats. Afterward, participants were provided an educational handout. Results Majority of parents reported currently using or having used a booster seat. The most popular reason was to protect from injury (78%), and reason for nonuse was size (44%). Majority of parents agreed that motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death in children. However, 56% of parents prematurely transitioned child out of a booster seat. Only 20% reported learning about booster seats from their pediatrician. Conclusion Parents continue to transition their children prematurely from booster seats. Current state laws need revision as well as further education using simplified illustrated guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  12. Repair and Maintenance Programs (RAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explain in a general way how the development of Komatsu RAMPs can help accomplish the worthy ideal set forth in that theme for all parties involved--the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), the equipment dealer, and the mining company. The goal of the RAMP is to utilize the resources of the OEM, the dealer, and the mining company to minimize the costs, maximize the efficiency, increase the productivity, and improve the profits of all parties. The paper describes how a RAMP works.

  13. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Dryden Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership sits on the ramp in front of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  14. NASA SLS Booster Nozzle Plug Pieces Fly During Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-28

    On June 28, a test version of the booster that will help power NASA's new rocket, the Space Launch System, fired up at nearly 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit for a successful, two-minute qualification test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Promontory, Utah. This video shows the booster's nozzle plug intentionally breaking apart. The smoky ring coming off the booster is condensed water vapor created by a pressure difference between the motor gas and normal air. The nozzle plug is an environmental barrier to prevent heat, dust and moisture from getting inside the booster before it ignites. The plug isn't always part of a static test but was included on this one due to changes made to the hardware. The foam on the plug is denser than previous NASA launch vehicles, as the engines are now in the same plane as the boosters. A numbered grid was placed on the exterior of the plug before the test so the pieces retrieved could support plug breakup assessment and reconstruction. Along with video, collecting the pieces helps determine the size and speed of them when they break apart. Nozzle plug pieces were found as far as 1,500 to 2,000 feet away from the booster. This is the last full-scale qualification test for the booster before the first, uncrewed flight of SLS with the Orion spacecraft in 2018.

  15. Booster biocides and microfouling.

    PubMed

    Faÿ, Fabienne; Linossier, Isabelle; Carteau, David; Dheilly, Alexandra; Silkina, Alla; Vallée-Rééhel, Karine

    2010-10-01

    Antifouling (AF) paints are used to prevent the attachment of living organisms to the submerged surfaces of ships, boats and aquatic structures, usually by the release of biocides. Apart from copper, organic booster biocides are the main active components in AF paints, but their use can have a negative impact on the marine environment. The direct effects of biocides on marine bacteria are poorly known. This work investigates the impact of two biocides, viz. diuron and tolylfluanid, on the growth and the viability of marine microorganisms and on their ability to form biofilms. The biocides in solution were found to inhibit growth of two strains of marine bacteria, viz. Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio vulnificus, at a high concentration (1000 microg ml(-1)), but only a small effect on viability was observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that the booster biocides decreased biofilm formation by both bacteria. At a concentration of 10 microg ml(-1), the biocides inhibited cell attachment and reduced biofilm thickness on glass surfaces. The percentage of live cells in the biofilms was also reduced. The effect of the biocides on two diatoms, Fragilaria pinnata and Cylindrotheca closterium, was also evaluated in terms of growth rate, biomass, chlorophyll a content and attachment to glass. The results demonstrate that diuron and tolylfluanid are more active against diatoms than bacteria.

  16. Ramp-rate limitation experiments using a hybrid superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Schultz, J. H.; Takayasu, M.; Vysotsky, V.; Michael, P. C.; Warnes, W.; Shen, S.

    Ramp-rate limitation experiments were done in a new facility at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Plasma Fusion Center. The features of this new facility include (1) a superconducting pulse coil that can superimpose high ramp-down rates, up to 25 T s -1, (2 T in 80 ms) at a background field up to 5 T, (2) new power supplies that can supply high rates of dl/dt and dB/dt to the sample under test and (3) a forced-flow supercritical helium system for cooling CICCs (Cable-In-Conduit Conductors). This paper discusses the results of the ramp-rate limitation experiments on a 27-strand hybrid Nb 3Sn cable. The cable was tested under field ramps of up to 2.5 T s -1 with various operating currents. It did not quench with dB/dt, field and average strand currents that were simultaneously above the operating range of TPX-PF (Tokamak Physics Experiment Poloidal Field) coils. Further ramp-rate limitation experiments revealed that the tested 27-strand hybrid cable has very high transient stability at ramped fields, extending out to average strand currents that are nearly triple the TPX-PF operating current.

  17. OCO-2 Booster Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – Workers secure the Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, onto a transportation hardware cradle in the Building 836 hangar at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  18. OCO-2 Booster Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – A worker surveys the Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, secured in a transportation hardware cradle, that he delivered to the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  19. OCO-2 Booster Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – The Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, secured in a transportation hardware cradle, is towed to the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  20. The Booster Applications Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, David P.

    2001-02-01

    In support of the human exploration program, NASA is providing $33 million to the U.S. Department of Energy to construct a radiation simulator, known as the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The BAF justification is briefly reviewed (e.g., to reduce the radiation risk uncertainties from its present factor of 4 to 15). The BAF beam specifications are provided, as are discussions of the BAF construction schedule and anticipated operating schedules (e.g., initial operation anticipated for October 1, 2002). A breakdown of the BAF construction costs is included and the operating costs are discussed (e.g., $5 to $6 million per year). The BAF laboratory layout and the various types of DOE support for the BAF are summarized, as are the peer reviews of the project. The characteristic parameters of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron are also included. .

  1. OCO-2 Booster Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – The Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, is towed to the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  2. OCO-2 Booster Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – The Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, arrives at the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  3. OCO-2 Booster Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-20

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – A worker maneuvers the transporter towing the Delta first-stage booster for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2, at the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket in July. The observatory will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  4. Analytical results of asymmetric exclusion processes with ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2005-07-01

    We present the analytical results in a simple traffic model describing a single-lane highway with ramps. Both on-ramps and off-ramps are considered. Complete classification of distinct phases is achieved. Exact phase diagrams are derived. In the case of a single ramp (either on-ramp or off-ramp), the bottleneck effect is absent. The traffic conditions of congestion before the ramp and free-flowing after the ramp cannot be realized. In the case of two consecutive ramps, the bottleneck emerges when the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp and the flow in between the ramps saturates.

  5. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  6. Bell 47 #822 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Bell 47 #822 on ramp. The helicopter arrived at the NASA Flight Research Center on November 4, 1973 from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas. It operated for more than 11 years, before being sent to the Napa City Fire Department on June 21, 1985.

  7. Model for RHIC ramp controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch, J.; Mane, V.; Clifford, T.; Hartmann, H.; Kahn, T.; Oerter, B.; Peggs, S.

    1994-08-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software concepts for the implementation of the ramp controls. The hardware part of the ramp controls consists of a number of multi-purpose Wave Form Generators (WFGS) which control the settings of accelerator hardware directly or indirectly by controlling their WFG. A Real Time Data Link (RTDL) data transfer system connects the WFGs in a three layer architecture. To the usual two layers which generate an independent timing signal and dependent set points, respectively, an intermediate layer is added which produces accelerator parameters such as the magnet strength. The task of the bottom layer is therefore reduced to the function of implementing those parameters. This architecture de-couples two independent functions which axe normally folded together. The function of the hardware becomes modular and easily maintainable. The ramp control software is layered in the same way. Between the top layer (the ramp procedure application program) and the bottom layer (the hardware interface) an additional layer of ``manager`` programs allow operation of accelerator subsystems.

  8. Booster rocket range safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzi, John R.

    1992-06-01

    In response to an abort command, fragmentation of a propellant booster rocket carried on a missile is limited by positioning of annular shaped charges at axially spaced locations on the outer shell of the booster rocket. Detonation of the charges thereby severs an intermediate section of the rocket from forward and aft sections which remain attached to the missile. The intermediate section is separated from the missile by such severing action to prevent further fragmenting forces from being imparted thereto.

  9. 24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January 1981. Revised in June 1981. Reference No. BA-081 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  10. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-08-15

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research vehicle, is seen just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus A had a unique method of takeoff and landing. To make the aircraft as aerodynamic and lightweight as possible, designers gave it only two very small centerline wheels for landing. These wheels were very close to the fuselage, and therefore produced very little drag. However, since the fuselage sat so close to the ground, it was necessary to keep the large propeller at the rear of the aircraft locked in a horizontal position during takeoff. The aircraft was towed to about 700 feet in the air, where the engine was started and the aircraft began flying under its own power.

  11. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research vehicle, is seen just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus A had a unique method of takeoff and landing. To make the aircraft as aerodynamic and lightweight as possible, designers gave it only two very small centerline wheels for landing. These wheels were very close to the fuselage, and therefore produced very little drag. However, since the fuselage sat so close to the ground, it was necessary to keep the large propeller at the rear of the aircraft locked in a horizontal position during takeoff. The aircraft was towed to about 700 feet in the air, where the engine was started and the aircraft began flying under its own power. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage

  12. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research vehicle, is seen just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus A had a unique method of takeoff and landing. To make the aircraft as aerodynamic and lightweight as possible, designers gave it only two very small centerline wheels for landing. These wheels were very close to the fuselage, and therefore produced very little drag. However, since the fuselage sat so close to the ground, it was necessary to keep the large propeller at the rear of the aircraft locked in a horizontal position during takeoff. The aircraft was towed to about 700 feet in the air, where the engine was started and the aircraft began flying under its own power. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage

  13. Booster Synchrotron RF System Upgrade for SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sanghyun; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Recent progress at the SPEAR3 includes the increase in stored current from 100 mA to 200 mA and top-off injection to allow beamlines to stay open during injection. Presently the booster injects 3.0 GeV beam to SPEAR3 three times a day. The stored beam decays to about 150 mA between the injections. The growing user demands are to increase the stored current to the design value of 500 mA, and to maintain it at a constant value within a percent or so. To achieve this goal the booster must inject once every few minutes. For improved injection efficiency, all RF systems at the linac, booster and SPEAR3 need to be phase-locked. The present booster RF system is basically a copy of the SPEAR2 RF system with 358.5 MHz and 40 kW peak RF power driving a 5-cell RF cavity for 1.0 MV gap voltage. These requirements entail a booster RF system upgrade to a scaled down version of the SPEAR3 RF system of 476.3 MHz with 1.2 MW cw klystron output power capabilities. We will analyze each subsystem option for their merits within budgetary and geometric space constraints. A substantial portion of the system will come from the decommissioned PEP-II RF stations.

  14. Solid Rocket Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway of the solid rocket booster (SRB) sections with callouts. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  15. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast... considered minor only if the change(s) will not increase the signal range of the Class A TV, low power TV...

  16. Ramp-induced transitions in traffic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2006-01-01

    We present the analytical results of ramp effects in asymmetric simple exclusion processes. Both on-ramp and off-ramp are included in between the two open boundaries. The ramps can be taken as the nontrivial boundaries to trigger the phase transitions. Exact phase diagrams are obtained analytically in the full parameter space. We find that the order of the two ramps is crucial. When the on-ramp is placed after the off-ramp along the traffic direction, there are only four distinct phases: free-free-free, free-free-jam, free-jam-jam, and jam-jam-jam. The other four phases from naive expectation cannot be realized, i.e., jam-free-free, jam-jam-free, jam-free-jam, and free-jam-free are all absent. The free flow will not follow the congestion. When the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp, we observe an interesting phase: jam-max.-free. The bottleneck emerges as the flow in between the two ramps saturates to its maximum. We further show that the roadway configuration is equivalent to a nonstandard intersection. Applications to a traffic rotary are discussed.

  17. Space Launch System Booster Test- Behind the Scenes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-24

    Get a sneak peek behind the scenes of how engineers and technicians at Orbital ATK in Promontory, Utah, are coming together to test the most powerful booster for NASA’s new rocket, the Space Launch System. SLS will make missions possible to an asteroid and the journey to Mars. For more information on SLS, visit www.nasa.gov/sls.

  18. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  19. Space Launch System Booster Passes Major Ground Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-11

    The largest, most powerful rocket booster ever built successfully fired up Wednesday for a major-milestone ground test in preparation for future missions to help propel NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and Orion spacecraft to deep space destinations, including an asteroid and Mars. The booster fired for two minutes, the same amount of time it will fire when it lifts the SLS off the launch pad, and produced about 3.6 million pounds of thrust. The test was conducted at the Promontory, Utah test facility of commercial partner Orbital ATK.

  20. Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.

  1. Current ramp-up with lower hybrid current drive in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, H.; Li, J. G.; Wilson, J. R.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Gong, X. Z.; Shen, B.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    More economical fusion reactors might be enabled through the cyclic operation of lower hybrid current drive. The first stage of cyclic operation would be to ramp up the plasma current with lower hybrid waves alone in low-density plasma. Such a current ramp-up was carried out successfully on the EAST tokamak. The plasma current was ramped up with a time-averaged rate of 18 kA/s with lower hybrid (LH) power. The average conversion efficiency Pel/PLH was about 3%. Over a transient phase, faster ramp-up was obtained. These experiments feature a separate measurement of the L/R time at the time of current ramp up.

  2. Integrated Booster-Rocket Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Dickinson, William J.; Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Report summarizes study of conceptual integrated booster propulsion module for use in launching spacecraft. Substitution of integrated propulsion modules for multiple engines of present booster rockets intended to simplify ground operations and reduce costs.

  3. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  4. ION BEAM POLARIZATION DYNAMICS IN THE 8 GEV BOOSTER OF THE JLEIC PROJECT AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yuhong; Filatov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    In the Jefferson Lab’s Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) project, an injector of polarized ions into the collider ring is a superconducting 8 GeV booster. Both figure-8 and racetrack booster versions were considered. Our analysis showed that the figure-8 ring configuration allows one to preserve the polarization of any ion species during beam acceleration using only small longitudinal field with an integral less than 0.5 Tm. In the racetrack booster, to pre-serve the polarization of ions with the exception of deu-terons, it suffices to use a solenoidal Siberian snake with a maximum field integral of 30 Tm. To preserve deuteron polarization, we propose to use arc magnets for the race-track booster structure with a field ramp rate of the order of 1 T/s. We calculate deuteron and proton beam polari-zations in both the figure-8 and racetrack boosters includ-ing alignment errors of their magnetic elements using the Zgoubi code.

  5. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  6. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  7. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  8. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  9. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  10. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  11. 47 CFR 22.527 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal boosters. 22.527 Section 22.527... Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.527 Signal boosters. Licensees may install and operate signal boosters on channels listed in § 22.531 only in accordance with the provisions of § 22.165 governing...

  12. 47 CFR 22.527 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal boosters. 22.527 Section 22.527... Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.527 Signal boosters. Licensees may install and operate signal... additional transmitters for existing systems. Licensees must not allow any signal booster that they operate...

  13. 47 CFR 22.527 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal boosters. 22.527 Section 22.527... Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.527 Signal boosters. Licensees may install and operate signal... additional transmitters for existing systems. Licensees must not allow any signal booster that they operate...

  14. 47 CFR 22.527 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal boosters. 22.527 Section 22.527... Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.527 Signal boosters. Licensees may install and operate signal... additional transmitters for existing systems. Licensees must not allow any signal booster that they operate...

  15. 47 CFR 22.527 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal boosters. 22.527 Section 22.527... Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.527 Signal boosters. Licensees may install and operate signal... additional transmitters for existing systems. Licensees must not allow any signal booster that they operate...

  16. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  17. Fox-7 for Insensitive Boosters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Sensitivity RDX. Current research interests include the characterisation of multiphase blast explosives, and the effect of ageing on properties of...momentum. Rounding of this nature is highly desirable in terms of both compaction and flow properties. Application of continuous ultrasound with...1989) An Evaluation of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers as Desensitizers for RDX in Insensitive Booster Compositions Prepared by Slurry Coating

  18. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  19. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  20. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  1. A Framework to Support Generator Ramping Uncertainty Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    Power system operation requires maintaining a continuous balance between system demand and generation within certain constraints. Traditionally, the balancing processes are based on deterministic models, which do not consider possible random deviations of system generation and load from their predicted values. With the increasing penetration of the renewable generation, unexpected balancing problems can happen due to the deviations. This can result in serious risks to system reliability and efficiency. When the available balancing reserve is not enough to cover the predicted net load range with uncertainty, deficiency of balancing needs occurs. In this case, it is necessary to commit or de-commit additional conventional generators to achieve the desired confidence level for the balancing needs. The framework is built for solving this problem. The ramping tool engine is used to predict additional balancing requirements caused by the variability and uncertainty of the renewable energy, under the constraints of the generation ramping capability and interchange schedule. The webbrowser- based GUI is used to visualize the data in web-environment, which provides flexibility to allow user to see the ramping outputs in any platform. The GOSS structure provides strong support to allow easy communication between ramping engine, and system inputs, as well as the GUI.

  2. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  3. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Olsen, R. )

    1992-01-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  4. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Olsen, R.

    1992-11-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  5. Ramp generator circuit for probe diagnostics using microcontroller for LHCD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virani, C. G.; Sharma, P. K.; Lhcd Group

    2010-02-01

    It is well known that in LHCD system, the rf power coupling between antenna and plasma strongly depends on the edge plasma parameter. Thus it is mandatory to monitor edge plasma parameter to establish proper impedance matching condition when LHCD power is launched into the plasma. For SST1 LHCD system, we intend to monitor the edge plasma parameter employing electric probes, connected to the grill antenna sides for the said purpose. In SST1, initially LHCD system would couple rf power to plasmas lasting for small durations. Gradually the power and pulse length would be increased to eventually get 1000 seconds plasma. To monitor the edge plasma parameter, over such a wide spectrum (say few millisecond to seconds) during the above campaign, a flexible measurement scheme is desired which would cater to entire spectrum of operation. Normally a ramp is utilized to bias the electric probe, which yields various plasma parameters. To cater our requirement, the ramp generator must have facility to change ramp-up rate to meet our pulse length requirement. Further during SST operation, the human access near the machine would not be permitted and ramp circuit might not be accessible for manual settings. Thus remote setting facility to change ramp-up rate is also desired. Keeping these constraints in mind, a ramp circuit has been designed using Analog Device micro-controller ADuC842. The circuit has both manual and remote setting facility. Ramp generator parameters like Ramp-up rate, Trigger mode, number of cycles, etc. can be set from PC through RS-485 serial link. Initially low voltage (0-5V) ramp signal is generated using micro-controller and inbuilt DAC. This low voltage ramp is then amplified with PA-85 op-amp to get desired probe biasing voltage (-110V to +110V). The ramp period can be change form (1ms to 1000 ms) to cater to different plasma pulse length. Programming for micro-controller is done in structured language-C with the help of "Keil" IDE. In this paper, a

  6. Booster aerodynamic heating: Test support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Reardon, J. E.; Fuller, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Several technical areas were encompassed in providing support for booster thermal environment test work. These areas included: (1) cavity flow heating, (2) rarefied flow heating, and (3) impulse operated model research and testing. Cavity flow heating problems were studied with respect to the proposed altitude control motors for the space shuttle. Available literature on this subject was reviewed and analytical predictive methods were summarized for use in planning testing work. Rarefied flow heating data was reviewed and correlated. The study showed the importance of considering rarefied flow conditions in launch thermal environment prediction. Impulse operated model research and testing was conducted to provide a basis for understanding and designing such models for booster thermal environment testing.

  7. B-47A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Boeing B-47A (NACA 150) shown on the ramp near NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station at South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1953. The B-47A Stratojet's wing is mounted high on the fuselage with a sweep back of 36 degrees and a span of 116 feet, with wing vortex generators installed. A two engine pod under each wing, and an additional engine pod at each wing tip using General Electric J-47-GE-23 turbojets. The airplane is fitted with a nose boom for measuring airspeed, altitude, angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip, and an optigraph for measuring the movements of target lights on the wing and tail.

  8. GLOBAL DECOUPLING ON THE RHIC RAMP.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; FISCHER, W.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  9. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  10. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  11. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  12. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  13. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  14. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  15. Comparison of energy output during ramp and staircase shortening in frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Linari, M; Woledge, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. We compared the rates of work and heat production during ramp shortening with those during staircase shortening (sequence of step releases of the same amplitude, separated by regular time intervals). Ramp or staircase shortening was applied to isolated muscle fibres (sarcomere length, 2.2 microns; temperature, approximately 1 degree C) at the plateau of an isometric tetanus. The total amount of shortening was no greater than 6% of the fibre length. 2. During ramp shortening the power output showed a maximum at about 0.8 fibre lengths per second (Lo s-1), which corresponds to 1/3 the maximum shortening velocity (Vo). For the same average shortening velocity during staircase shortening (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) the power output was 40-60% lower. The rate of heat production for the same average shortening velocity was approximately 45% higher during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. 3. The relation between rate of total energy output and shortening velocity was well described by a second order regression line in the range of velocities used (0.1-2.3 Lo s-1). For any shortening velocity the rate of total energy output (power plus heat rate) was not statistically different for staircase (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) and ramp shortening. 4. The mechanical efficiency (the ratio of the power over the total energy rate) during ramp shortening had a maximum value of 0.36 at 1/5 Vo; during staircase shortening, for any given shortening velocity, the mechanical efficiency was reduced compared with ramp shortening: with a staircase step of about 0.5% Lo at 1/5 Vo the efficiency was approximately 0.2. 5. The results indicate that a cross-bridge is able to convert different quantities of energy into work depending on the different shortening protocol used. The fraction of energy dissipated as heat is larger during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. PMID:8544132

  16. Design considerations of a power supply system for fast cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 Tesla b-field generated by a conductor of 100 kA current

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Steve; Piekarz, Henryk; Pfeffer, Howie; Claypool, Brad; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Recently proposed fast cycling accelerators for proton drivers (SF-SPS, CERN and SF-MR, SF-BOOSTER, FNAL) neutrino sources require development of new magnet technology. In support of this magnet development a power supply system will need to be developed that can support the high current and high rate of power swing required by the fast cycling (1 sec rise and fall in the SF-MR, 5Hz in Booster). This paper will outline a design concept for a +/- 2000 V and 100,000 A fast ramping power supply system. This power supply design is in support of a 6.44 km magnet system at 0.020 H and 330 m 5 Hz, 0.00534 H superconducting loads. The design description will include the layout and plan for extending the present FNAL Main Injector style ramping power supply to the higher currents needed for this operation. This will also include the design for a harmonic filter and power factor corrector that will be needed to control the large power swings caused by the fast cycle time. A conceptual design for the current regulation system and control will also be outlined. The power circuit design will include the bridge, filter and transformer plan based on existing designs.

  17. Physical design study of the CEPC booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang

    2016-09-01

    A physical design study of the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams for the CEPC collider with top-up injection. The booster is mounted above the collider in the same tunnel. To save cost, the energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6 GeV, corresponding to a magnetic field of 30.7 Gs. In this paper, the booster lattice is described and optimization of the cell length is discussed. A novel scheme of bypass near the detector of the collider is designed. The extremely low magnetic field caused by low injection energy is studied, and a new ideal of wiggling bands is proposed to mitigate the low-field problem. Beam transfer and injection from the linac to the booster are considered.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS OF THE RHIC RAMP EFFICIENCY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; PTITSYN,V.; FISCHER,W.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; HAYES,T.; PILAT,F.; ROSER,T.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    The last nms in both gold-gold and polarized proton-proton required necessary corrections in the ramp as the intensities in the two rings were rising towards design values. Corrections were made with respect to the beam-beam effects, transverse and longitudinal instabilities, transition crossing (for the gold-gold ramps), transverse tune resonances, local and global coupliug problems, aperture restrictions, chromatic effects. Along the ramps we had to use the beam separation, ''Landau'' cavities, chromatic and tune control, orbit correction, special gamma-t quadrupole system for the transition crossing in the gold run, correction octupole circuits, beam position monitor system decoupling etc.

  19. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  20. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) An authorized LPFM station...

  1. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  2. A rookie's guide to Booster operations. Booster technical note no. 231

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    1998-09-29

    The purpose of the Booster is to act as an injector for the AGS. It accelerates both protons and other ions. Proton acceleration is distinguished from the acceleration of other ions for several reasons. First, the experimental physics associated with protons, called High Energy Physics is different than that associated with other Ions, called Heavy Ion Physics. From the machine perspective, the process of injection of so called Heavy Ions (ions which are not protons), is distinctly different, from that of protons. A different preinjector, or injector for the Booster, is used for each case. For Protons, a 200 MeV Linear accelerator (The Linac) serves as a preinjector; for Heavy Ions, the Tandem Van De Graaf (The Tandem) is the preinjector. An attribute of the circulating beam which determines to a large degree what problems and what type of machine setup is involved is the beam intensity. The author's focus in this guide is on trying to convey the knowledge and experience involved in the operation of the Booster. Many of the problems encountered can be traced back to equipment failures, often power supplies. Although diagnostics are used, there can also be issues with the controls system itself. Problems with the controls system and prevent fixing or even finding a problem with a machine. The issue of improving a machines' performance can often involve trial and error and observations. The hard part is finding the relationships between things in the day to day operation of the machine. Abstractions about physics, information about controls and instrumentation, and purely empirical observations of how the machine behaves are all part of it.

  3. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  5. Analysis of measured post-coupler fields in a ramped-gradient drift-tube linac

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Post couplers longitudinally stabilize the axial electric field in a drift-tube linac (DTL) against tuning errors. Displacing the post couplers toward one end of the structure results in a ramped field that increases toward the other end. Such a ramped-gradient DTL is also stable, but some of the cavity power is dissipated on the post couplers to maintain the ramp. This paper reports bead-perturbation measurements of the post-coupler magnetic fields near the tank well. A simple physical model reproduces the measured fields with an accuracy of about 2% and yields current-density distributions on the post couplers in terms of the current density on the cavity wall. The peak power density occurs on the sides of the post couplers where the TM/sub 010/ magnetic field adds to the post-coupler magnetic field. In the Los Alamos Ramped-Gradient DTL (RGDTL), the peak power densities on post couplers located in the steepest part of the ramp exceed by more than 10 times the maximum power density on the tank wall far from any post couplers. Methods to reduce such power losses to levels comparable to a flat-gradient DTL will be discussed. 2 refs. , 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Instrumentation and control of the AGS Booster vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabusi, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.C.; Rosas, P.; Sandburg, J.; Shen, B.; Stattel, P.; Zapasek, R.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. A pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} Torr is required for the acceleration of the partially stripped, low {Beta}, very heavy ions. This paper describes the power supplies and controls for this ultra-high vacuum system with the emphasis on the operation of the ion gauge system over long cable length and on equipment interlock 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-02-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  8. Solid rocket booster retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster Retrieval operations are discussed in detail. The recovery of expended boosters and associated hardware without damage attributable to retrieval procedures is the main goal. The retrieval force consists tof ship's personnel and retrieval team members, each of whom has been trained and is highly skilled in multi-faceted operations. The retrieval force is equipped with two specially-built, highly maneuverable ships outfitted with parachute reels, retrieval cranes, towing winches, large volume-low pressure air compressors, SCUBA diving gear, inflatable boats with outboard motors and diver-operated SRB dewatering devices. The two ships are deployed in sufficient time to conduct an electronic and visual search of the impact area prior to launch. Upon search completeion, each ship takes station a safe distance from the predetermined impact point initiating both visual and electronic search in the direction of flight path, ensuring SRB acquisition at splashdown. When safe, the ships enter the impact area and commence recovery of all floating flight hardware which is subsequently returned to the Disassembly Facility for refurbishment and reuse. Retrieval techniques have evolved in parallel with equipment and flight hardware configuration changes. Additional changes have been initiated to improve personnel safety.

  9. Early Beam Injection Scheme for the Fermilab Booster: A Path for Intensity Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2015-10-28

    Over the past decade, Fermilab has focused efforts on the intensity frontier physics and is committed to increase the average beam power delivered to the neutrino and muon programs substantially. Many upgrades to the existing injector accelerators, namely, the current 400 MeV LINAC and the Booster, are in progress under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) proposes to replace the existing 400 MeV LINAC by a new 800 MeV LINAC, as an injector to the Booster which will increase Booster output power by nearly a factor of two from the PIP design value by the end of its completion. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for nearly next two decades. In this context, I have developed and investigated a new beam injection scheme called "early injection scheme" (EIS) for the Booster with the goal to significantly increase the beam intensity output from the Booster thereby increasing the beam power to the HEP experiments even before PIP-II era. The scheme, if implemented, will also help improve the slip-stacking efficiency in the MI/RR. Here I present results from recent simulations, beam studies, current status and future plans for the new scheme.

  10. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  11. Booster Separation Motor (BSM) Test Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This photograph depicts a hot fire test of the Shuttle Booster Separation Motor (BSM) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) test stand 116. The objective of the test was to test the aft heat seal in flight configuration. The function of the motor is to separate the Shuttle vehicle from the boosters that carry it into space.

  12. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  13. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  14. Improving Wind Ramp Forecasts by the HRRR System via Statistical Postprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, Rochelle; Scheuerer, Michael; Hamill, Thomas M.

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasting is gaining enormous international significance as more and more countries and regions enact policies to increase the use of renewable energy. Wind ramps pose a particular challenge in decision-making processes in the wind energy industry since a sudden decrease or increase in wind energy production must be balanced by conventional power generators and could be costly for wind farm operators. In this study, we assess the performance of the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) numerical weather prediction model in predicting wind ramps with up to 12 hours of lead time at two wind tower locations in the United States. Novel statistical postprocessing methodology is used to generate scenarios of short-term wind power production; this probabilistic enhancement of the deterministic HRRR forecasts significantly improves the skill in predicting wind ramp events, and could be implemented by wind farm operators to support decision-making.

  15. Booster Long 13 irradiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leveling, A.; Mokhov, N.; Moore, C.D.; /Fermilab

    1998-06-01

    Extraction from the Booster to the Main Ring occurred at Long Straight 13. The nature of the extraction process was such that 1% to 2% of the beam was lost in this region. There was an appreciable amount of beam extracted as shown in Table 1, which gives the yearly integrated intensities from 1973 to 1997. A simple model of the extraction losses was set up by Chandra Bhat utilizing the program CASIM. A sample output I shown in figure 1 which gives contours of stars/cm3 in the dirt, also schematically depicted are the three six feet deep sampling holes which were drilled to map out this cascade. One aspect of this study has been the study of the production of non-migrating nuclides and further study may in fact yield better values for the K parameter, the probability per star that an atom of the particular nuclide will be produced. Also the results of this study can give experimental numbers for the production of other nuclides when the amount of Na22 has been calculated. However, the most important part of this study has been the determination of the amount of tritium produced by extraction from the Booster and the experimentally determined migration rate. If we look at the top sample result in hole S2 of 777 pCi/ml of tritium and use the experimentally determined rate of migration and the depth to the aquifer of 13.1m, they calculate that the concentration will have decayed away to 1.1E-8 pCi/ml. If we look at the bottom sample, which is 11.3 m away from the aquifer, they calculate that the 116 pCi/ml will have decayed to 5.2E-8 pCi/ml. The conclusions is that the rate of migration determined over the 24 year irradiation history of the Booster extraction point is small enough that there is no problem with migration of tritium to the aquifer.

  16. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  17. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,L.

    2008-10-01

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies ({+-}600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their {+-}600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed.

  18. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  20. Boosters, anyone? Exploring the added value of booster sessions in a self-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Kroese, F M; Adriaanse, M A; De Ridder, D T D

    2012-10-01

    The current study explored the benefits of adding booster sessions to a validated and successful self-management intervention for type 2 diabetes patients (i.e. Beyond Good Intentions). Although the addition of booster sessions to self-management interventions is often recommended, it has not been empirically established to what extent booster sessions are in fact appreciated by participants. Participants in the current study (N = 129) followed the Beyond Good Intentions program and were offered a series of three booster sessions at 1, 3 and 5 months afterwards. Primary outcome variables included participants' attendance and evaluations of the booster phase. In addition, self-management behavior was assessed at baseline (T1), after the initial phase (T2) and after the booster phase (T3). Results showed that more than one-fourth of participants who completed the initial phase dropped out during the booster phase, and those who did complete both phases evaluated the booster phase significantly less positive as compared to the initial phase. With regard to the behavioral outcomes, we replicated previous findings showing positive effects on all measures during the initial phase. The booster phase, however, did not result in further improvements. It was concluded that the added value of booster sessions was, at best, questionable.

  1. Online Analysis of Wind and Solar Part I: Ramping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2012-01-31

    To facilitate wider penetration of renewable resources without compromising system reliability concerns arising from the lack of predictability of intermittent renewable resources, a tool for use by California Independent System Operator (CAISO) power grid operators was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with CAISO with funding from California Energy Commission. This tool predicts and displays additional capacity and ramping requirements caused by uncertainties in forecasts of loads and renewable generation. The tool is currently operational in the CAISO operations center. This is one of two final reports on the project.

  2. Shuttle Upgrade Using 5-Segment Booster (FSB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauvageau, Donald R.; Huppi, Hal D.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In support of NASA's continuing effort to improve the over-all safety and reliability of the Shuttle system- a 5-segment booster (FSB) has been identified as an approach to satisfy that overall objective. To assess the feasibility of a 5-segment booster approach, NASA issued a feasibility study contract to evaluate the potential of a 5-segment booster to improve the overall capability of the Shuttle system, especially evaluating the potential to increase the system reliability and safety. In order to effectively evaluate the feasibility of the 5-segment concept, a four-member contractor team was established under the direction of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC provided the overall program oversight and integration as well as program contractual management. The contractor team consisted of Thiokol, Boeing North American Huntington Beach (BNA), Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS) and United Space Alliance (USA) and their subcontractor bd Systems (Control Dynamics Division, Huntsville, AL). United Space Alliance included the former members of United Space Booster Incorporated (USBI) who managed the booster element portion of the current Shuttle solid rocket boosters. Thiokol was responsible for the overall integration and coordination of the contractor team across all of the booster elements. They were also responsible for all of the motor modification evaluations. Boeing North American (BNA) was responsible for all systems integration analyses, generation of loads and environments. and performance and abort mode capabilities. Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS) was responsible for evaluating the impacts of any changes to the booster on the external tank (ET), and evaluating any design changes on the external tank necessary to accommodate the FSB. USA. including the former USBI contingent. was responsible for evaluating any modifications to facilities at the launch site as well as any booster component design modifications.

  3. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  4. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  5. RESONANT EXTRACTION PARAMETERS FOR THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.; GLENN,J.W.; MAPES,M.; MARNERIS,I.; TSOUPAS,N.; SNYDSTRUP,L.; VAN ASSELT,W.

    2001-06-18

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster is the injector for the AGS. It is being modified to send resonant extracted heavy ions to a new beam line, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The design of the resonant extraction system for BAF was described in [1]. This note will give a more detailed description of the system and describe the predicted resonant beam time structure. We will describe tune space manipulations necessary to extract the resonant beam at the maximum Booster rigidity, schemes for performing resonant extraction, and describe the modifications required to perform bunched beam extraction to the BAF facility.

  6. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2015-02-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced. This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can no longer be leaked.

  7. Mars pathfinder Rover egress deployable ramp assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian R.; Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Program is a NASA Discovery Mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to launch and place a small planetary Rover for exploration on the Martian surface. To enable safe and successful egress of the Rover vehicle from the spacecraft, a pair of flight-qualified, deployable ramp assemblies have been developed. This paper focuses on the unique, lightweight deployable ramp assemblies. A brief mission overview and key design requirements are discussed. Design and development activities leading to qualification and flight systems are presented.

  8. Functions of third extracellular loop and helix 8 of Family B GPCRs complexed with RAMPs and characteristics of their receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Hay, Debbie L; Nagata, Sayaka; Murakami, Manabu; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2013-08-01

    At least one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1, RAMP2 and RAMP3) can interact with 10 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; nine Family B GPCRs and a Family C GPCR). All three RAMPs interact with the calcitonin (CT) receptor (CTR), the CTR-like receptor (CLR), the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) 1 (VPAC1) and the VPAC2 receptor, which are all Family B GPCRs. Three RAMPs enable CTR to function as three heterodimeric receptors for amylin, which is a feeding suppression peptide. These RAMPs also transport the CLR to the cell surface, where they function as a CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor (CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer) and two adrenomedullin (AM) receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3 heterodimers). CGRP and AM are potent hypotensive peptides that exert powerful protective effects against multi-organ damage. We recently reported that the third extracellular loop (ECL3) of CLR governs the activation of AM, but not CGRP, signaling in the three CLR/RAMP heterodimers. Furthermore, we showed that in the presence of RAMP2, the eighth helix (helix 8) in the proximal portion of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of the CLR, which is thought to be present in all family B GPCRs, participates in receptor signaling. In addition, we demonstrated that overexpression of GPCR kinase (GRK) 2, GRK3 and GRK4 enhances the AM-induced internalization of the CLR/RAMP2 heterodimer. In this review, we describe these studies and consider their implications for other Family B GPCRs that can interact with RAMPs.

  9. Theoretical Analysis and Bench Tests of a Control-Surface Booster Employing a Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Kleckner, Harold F.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA is conducting a general investigation of servo-mechanisms for use in powering aircraft control surfaces. This paper presents a theoretical analysis and the results of bench tests of a control-booster system which employs a variable displacement hydraulic pump. The booster is intended for use in a flight investigation to determine the effects of various booster parameters on the handling qualities of airplanes. Such a flight investigation would aid in formulating specific requirements concerning the design of control boosters in general. Results of the theoretical analysis and the bench tests indicate that the subject booster is representative of types which show promise of satisfactory performance. The bench tests showed that the following desirable features were inherent in this booster system: (1) No lost motion or play in any part of the system; (2) no detectable lag between motion of the contra1 stick and control surface; and (3) Good agreement between control displacements and stick-force variations with no hysteresis in the stick-force characteristics. The final design configuration of this booster system showed no tendency to oscillate, overshoot, or have other undesirable transient characteristics common to boosters.

  10. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  11. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  12. NASA's Space Launch System Booster Passes Major Milestone on Journey to Mars (QM-2)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-28

    A booster for the most powerful rocket in the world, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), was fired up Tuesday, June 28 at 11:05 a.m. EDT for a second qualification ground test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Promontory, Utah. This was the last full-scale test for the booster before SLS is ready in 2018 for the first uncrewed test flight with NASA’s Orion spacecraft, marking a key milestone on the agency’s Journey to Mars. The booster was tested at a cold motor conditioning target of 40 degrees Fahrenheit –the colder end of its accepted propellant temperature range. When ignited, temperatures inside the booster reached nearly 6,000 degrees. The two-minute, full-duration ground qualification test provided NASA with critical data on 82 qualification objectives that will support certification of the booster for flight. Engineers now will evaluate test data captured by more than 530 instrumentation channels on the booster.

  13. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  14. New beam instrumentation in the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster was designed to accelerate beams from 2{times}10{sup 10} polarized protons to 1.5{times}10{sup 13} protons and heavy ions through Au{sup +33}. The range of beam parameters and the high vacuum, and radiation environment presented challenges for the beam instrumentation. Some interesting beam monitors in the Booster and transport lines, will be described. Where available, results will be presented. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Booster 6-GeV study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Pellico, William A.; Lackey, James; Padilla, Rene; Norem, J.; /Argonne

    2004-12-01

    Since a wider aperture has been obtained along the Booster beam line, this opens the opportunity for Booster running a higher intensity beam than ever before. Sooner or later, the available RF accelerating voltage will become a new limit for the beam intensity. Either by increasing the RFSUM or by reducing the accelerating rate can achieve the similar goal. The motivation for the 6-GeV study is to gain the relative accelerating voltage via a slower acceleration.

  16. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  17. X-36 on Ramp Viewed from Above

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-16

    This look-down view of the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on the ramp at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, clearly shows the unusual wing and canard design of the remotely-piloted aircraft.

  18. VISUAL ACCESSIBILITY OF RAMPS AND STEPS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Yu, Deyue; Kallie, Christopher S.; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Gage, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The visual accessibility of a space refers to the effectiveness with which vision can be used to travel safely through the space. For people with low vision, the detection of steps and ramps is an important component of visual accessibility. We used ramps and steps as visual targets to examine the interacting effects of lighting, object geometry, contrast, viewing distance and spatial resolution. Wooden staging was used to construct a sidewalk with transitions to ramps or steps. 48 normally sighted subjects viewed the sidewalk monocularly through acuity-reducing goggles, and made recognition judgments about the presence of the ramps or steps. The effects of variation in lighting were milder than expected. Performance declined for the largest viewing distance, but exhibited a surprising reversal for nearer viewing. Of relevance to pedestrian safety, the step up was more visible than the step down. We developed a probabilistic cue model to explain the pattern of target confusions. Cues determined by discontinuities in the edge contours of the sidewalk at the transition to the targets were vulnerable to changes in viewing conditions. Cues associated with the height in the picture plane of the targets were more robust. PMID:20884503

  19. Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining stone inlay to provide traction surface. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  20. An application for tunes and coupling evaluation from turn-by-turn data at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.; Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A console application using the phasing of Turn-by-Turn signals from the different BPMs has been tested at the Fermilab Booster. This technique allows the on-line detection of the beam tunes during the fast Booster ramp in conditions where other algorithms were unsuccessful. The application has been recently expanded to include the computation of the linear coupling coefficients. Algorithm and measurement results are presented. Although improved by the phased sum technique the automatic identification of the tunes is not always successful. This makes the use of the on-line application difficult. Ideas for further improvements are under investigation. Measurements have indicated that the effect of the skew quadrupoles is by a factor 3 weaker than expected from the nominal optics. A calibration of the skew quadrupole circuits using the TBT data is planned.

  1. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  2. Plasma current ramp-up by lower hybrid wave using innovative antennas on TST-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Moeller, Charles; Roidl, Benedikt; Shinya, Takahiro; Tsujii, Naoto; Yajima, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hibiki; Kitayama, Akichika; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sato, Akito; Sonehara, Masateru; Takahashi, Wataru; Tajiri, Yoshiyuki; Takei, Yuki; Togashi, Hiro; Toida, Kazuya; Yoshida, Yusuke

    2016-10-01

    Non-inductive plasma current (Ip) ramp-up by RF power in the lower hybrid frequency range is being studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak (R = 0.36 m, a = 0.23 m, Bt = 0.3 T, Ip = 0.1 MA). Up to 400 kW of RF power is available at a frequency of 200 MHz. An innovative antenna called the capacitively-coupled combline (CCC) antenna was developed to excite a sharp, highly directional traveling wave with the electric field polarized in the toroidal direction. It is an array of resonant circuit elements made of capacitance and inductance, coupled to neighboring elements by mutual capacitance. Two CCC antennas are installed in TST-2, a 13-element outboard-launch antenna and a 6-element top-launch antenna. The latter was installed in March 2016 to improve accessibility to the core and to achieve single-pass damping. The suspected wave power loss in the scrape-off layer plasma should also be avoided. Ip ramp-up to 25 kA has been achieved so far. An upgrade of the Bt power supply is planned to take advantage of the observed improvement of Ip ramp-up with Bt. Higher Bt for longer pulses should improve the Ip ramp-up efficiency by improving wave accessibility and by reducing prompt orbit losses of energetic electrons.

  3. Tune Determination of Strongly Coupled Betatron Oscillations in a Fast-Ramping Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W; Triplett, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Tune identification -- i.e. attribution of the spectral peak to a particular normal de of oscillations -- can present a significant difficulty in the presence of strong transverse coupling when the normal mode with a lower damping rate dominates spectra of Turn-by-Turn oscillations in both planes. The introduced earlier phased sum algorithm helped to recover the weaker normal mode signal from the noise, but by itself proved to be insufficient for automatic peak identification in the case of close phase advance distribution in both planes. To resolve this difficulty we modified the algorithm by taking and analyzing Turn-by-Turn data for two different ramps with the beam oscillation excited in each plane in turn. Comparison of relative amplitudes of Fourier components allows for correct automatic tune identification. The proposed algorithm was implemented in the Fermilab Booster B38 console application and successfully used for tune, coupling and chromaticity measurements.

  4. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  5. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  6. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  7. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  8. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  9. M2-F2 on ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-24

    The M2-F2 Lifting Body is seen here on the ramp at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and Langley research centers -- the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation. The "M" refers to "manned" and "F" refers to "flight" version. "HL" comes from "horizontal landing" and 10 is for the tenth lifting body model to be investigated by Langley. The first flight of the M2-F2 -- which looked much like the "F1" -- was on July 12, 1966. Milt Thompson was the pilot. By then, the same B-52 used to air launch the famed X-15 rocket research aircraft was modified to also carry the lifting bodies. Thompson was dropped from the B-52's wing pylon mount at an altitude of 45,000 feet on that maiden glide flight. The M2-F2 weighed 4,620 pounds, was 22 feet long, and had a width of about 10 feet. On May 10, 1967, during the sixteenth glide flight leading up to powered flight, a landing accident severely damaged the vehicle and seriously injured the NASA pilot, Bruce Peterson. NASA pilots and researchers realized the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, even though it had a stability augmentation control system. When the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Dryden and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin -- centered between the tip fins -- to improve control characteristics. The M2-F2/F3 was the first of the heavy-weight, entry-configuration lifting bodies. Its successful development as a research test vehicle answered many of the generic questions about these vehicles. NASA donated the M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institute in December 1973. It is currently hanging in the Air and Space Museum along with the X-15 aircraft number 1, which was its hangar partner at Dryden from 1965 to 1969.

  10. Space Transportation System solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, A. J., Jr.; Mccool, A. A.; Potter, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster, Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system was designed in accordance with the following requirements: self-contained power supply, failsafe operation, 20 flight uses after exposure to seawater landings, optimized cost, and component interchangeability. Trade studies were performed which led to the selection of a recirculating hydraulic system powered by Auxiliary Power Units (APU) which drive the hydraulic actuators and gimbal the solid rocket motor nozzle. Other approaches for the system design were studied in arriving at the recirculating hydraulic system powered by an APU. These systems must withstand the imposed environment and be usable for a minimum of 20 Space Transportation System flights with a minimum of refurbishment. The TVC system completed the required qualification and verification tests and is certified for the intended application. Substantiation data include analytical and test data.

  11. Digital intelligent booster for DCC miniature train networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursu, M. P.; Condruz, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Modern miniature trains are now driven by means of the DCC (Digital Command and Control) system, which allows the human operator or a personal computer to launch commands to each individual train or even to control different features of the same train. The digital command station encodes these commands and sends them to the trains by means of electrical pulses via the rails of the railway network. Due to the development of the miniature railway network, it may happen that the power requirement of the increasing number of digital locomotives, carriages and accessories exceeds the nominal output power of the digital command station. This digital intelligent booster relieves the digital command station from powering the entire railway network all by itself, and it automatically handles the multiple powered sections of the network. This electronic device is also able to detect and process short-circuits and overload conditions, without the intervention of the digital command station.

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceaea) using RAPD, ISSR and RAMP markers.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Zafirah; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohammed Razip; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Hamdan, Mohammad Razak

    2016-10-01

    Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared to analyse the genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans eight populations in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The PCR techniques were random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acids (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). Leaf genomic DNA was PCR amplified using 17 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 136 RAMP primers . However, only 10 RAPD primers, 5 ISSR primers and 37 RAMP primers produced reproducible bands. The results were evaluated for polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP). The RAMP marker was the most useful marker compared to RAPD and ISSR markers because it showed the highest average value of PIC (0.25), MI (11.36) and RP (2.86). The genetic diversity showed a high percentage of polymorphism at the species level compared to the population level. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic diversity was higher within populations, as compared to among populations of C. nutans. From the results, the RAMP technique was recommended for the analysis of genetic diversity of C. nutans.

  13. The conceptual design of a new transfer line from booster to recycler for the Fermilab Proton plan phase 2 campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Upon the termination of the Fermilab Collider program, the current Recycler anti-proton storage ring (RR) will be converted to a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron. This is scheduled to increase the beam power for the 120 GeV Neutrino program to upwards of 700KW. A transport line that can provide direct injection from the Booster to the Recycler while preserving direct injection from the Booster into the Main Injector and the 8 GeV Booster Neutrino program will be discussed, and its concept design will be presented.

  14. Integrable RCS as a proposed replacement for Fermilab Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Valishev, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that potentially enables a greater betatron tune spread and damps collective instabilities. An integrable rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) would be an effective replacement for the Fermilab Booster, as part of a plan to reach multi-MW beam power at 120 GeV for the Fermilab high-energy neutrino program. We provide an example integrable lattice with features of a modern RCS - dispersion-free drifts, low momentum compaction factor, superperiodicity, chromaticity correction, bounded beta functions, and separate-function magnets.

  15. Solid Rocket Motor/Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This image illustrates the solid rocket motor (SRM)/solid rocket booster (SRB) configuration. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  16. Ramp Compression of Diamond to Over 1000 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, Jon; Bradley, David; Celliers, Peter; Collins, Gilbert; Hicks, Damien; Braun, David; Prisbrey, Shon; Smith, Ray; Boehly, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Isentropic compression of materials to multi-megabar pressures has long been a grand challenge for high-density and planetary science. Recently, ramp-wave experiments have demonstrated quasi-isentropic compression using lasers, pulsed-power, and impactors with peak pressures up to 240 GPa[1,2]. Using a tailored-radiation drive at the Omega laser we have ramp-compressed and measured the stress-strain relation in diamond to over 1000 GPa, more than 4 times the maximum previously attained. We find an elastic-plastic transition at 60-70 GPa in good agreement with the elastic limit from shock experiments. We will discuss the potential of this technique for exploring ultra-high pressure phase transitions including the predicted BC8 phase in carbon. [1] J-P Davis, J. App. Phys. 99, 103512 (2006). [2] R.F. Smith et al., Accepted for Publication, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2007). This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore Nationa Laboratory under Contract No.W-7405-Eng-48.

  17. XF-92A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph of the XF-92A was taken at the South Base of Edwards Air Force Base. The photograph shows the pitot-static probe, used to measure airspeed, Mach number, and altitude, mounted on a noseboom protruding from the aircraft's nose engine inlet. Also attached to the pitot-static-probe portion of the noseboom are flow direction vanes for sensing the aircraft's angles of attack and sideslip. The Convair XF-92A aircraft was powered by a Allison J33-A turbojet engine with an afterburner, and was unique in having America's first delta wing. The delta wing's large area, thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made this design a promising combination for a supersonic airplane. The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation (Convair) XF-92A Dart was America's first delta wing aircraft. It was built as a test bed for a proposed interceptor that never materialized. The XF-92A was then continued to test the delta-wing concept. The delta wing's large area (425 square feet), thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made a great combination for a supersonic aircraft. The aircraft was powered by an Allison J33-A-29 turbojet engine with an afterburner. Convair and the U.S. Air Force flew the XF-92A from 1948 to 1953. After the Air Force's plans for an interceptor failed to materialize, the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, which had supplied engineering, instrumentation, and operational assistance to the Air Force during its flights, took over the flight test program in 1953. A. Scott Crossfield flew all 25 NACA flights of the NACA's XF-92A program over a six-month test period. The original XF-92A ship had a severe pitch-up problem but was tested with different wing-fence combinations to gather data on their contribution to solving that problem. The pilot also reported that the aircraft was sluggish and underpowered. Besides validating the thin delta wing principle, the XF-92A

  18. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; Braun, Dave G.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Patterson, J. Reed; Celliers, Peter M.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Collins, Gilbert W.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both the time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.

  19. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; ...

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both themore » time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.« less

  20. Forward modeling of shock-ramped tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin L.; Carpenter, John H.; Seagle, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic materials experiments on the Z-machine are beginning to reach a regime where traditional analysis techniques break down. Time dependent phenomena such as strength and phase transition kinetics often make the data obtained in these experiments difficult to interpret. We present an inverse analysis methodology to infer the equation of state (EOS) from velocimetry data in these types of experiments, building on recent advances in the propagation of uncertain EOS information through a hydrocode simulation. An example is given for a shock-ramp experiment in which tantalum was shock compressed to 40 GPa followed by a ramp to 80 GPa. The results are found to be consistent with isothermal compression and Hugoniot data in this regime.

  1. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize capacity of highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff

    ramp. When poff >p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  2. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs.

  3. Soviets ready new boosters at Tyuratam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The capabilities and design characteristics of two new launch vehicles and Shuttle-type vehicles believed to be under preparation at the Soviet Tyuratam launch site are described. The boosters, photographed on launch pads, are Saturn 5 and 1B class vehicles. Indications have been detected that a heavy Shuttle vehicle equipped to use strap-on boosters and slush H2 fuel is being readied for launch. A mini-Shuttle is also being tested, and has two flights behind it that culminated in water landings. NASA-Langley wind tunnel tests of the small spaceplane configuration suggested that it reenters the atmosphere in its own bow shock, thus exposing it to temperatures much lower than vehicles with wings which extend beyond the shock wave. The small spaceplane may have a sublimating plastic coating to shed reentry heat. The boosters have 30,000 and 330,000 lb payload-to-orbit capabilities.

  4. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  5. SLS Booster Engine Service Platforms Delivery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-31

    A flatbed truck carrying one of two new service platforms for NASA's Space Launch System booster engines makes its way along the NASA Causeway to the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platforms were transported from fabricator Met-Con Inc. in Cocoa, Florida. They will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building, where they will be stored and used for processing and checkout of the engines for the rocket's twin five-segment solid rocket boosters for Exploration Mission-1. EM-1 will launch an uncrewed Orion spacecraft to a stable orbit beyond the Moon and bring it back to Earth for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.

  6. SLS Booster Engine Service Platforms Delivery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-31

    New service platforms for NASA's Space Launch System booster engines, secured on two flatbed trucks, are on their way to the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. They are being transported from fabricator Met-Con Inc. in Cocoa, Florida. The platforms will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building, where they will be stored and used for processing and checkout of the engines for the rocket's twin five-segment solid rocket boosters for Exploration Mission-1. EM-1 will launch an uncrewed Orion spacecraft to a stable orbit beyond the Moon and bring it back to Earth for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, Vincent; Dunn, Michael; Fink, Lawrence; Phillips, Dwight; Wetzel, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The use of hydrogen RP-1, propane, and methane as fuels for booster engines of launch vehicles is discussed. An automated procedure for integrated launch vehicle, engine sizing, and design optimization was used to define two stage and single stage concepts for minimum dry weight. The two stage vehicles were unmanned and used a flyback booster and partially reusable orbiter. The single stage designs were fully reusable, manned flyback vehicles. Comparisons of these vehicle designs, showing the effects of using different fuels, as well as sensitivity and trending data, are presented. In addition, the automated design technique utilized for the study is described.

  8. Improvement of Digital Filter for the FNAL Booster Transverse Dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkin, Timofey; Eddy, N.; Lebedev, V.

    2013-09-26

    Fermilab Booster has two transverse dampers which independently suppress beam instabilities in the horizontal and vertical planes. A suppression of the common mode signal is achieved by digital notch filter which is based on subtracting beam positions for two consecutive turns. Such system operates well if the orbit position changes sufficiently slow. Unfortunately it is not the case for FNAL Booster where the entire accelerating cycle consists of about 20000 turns, and successful transition crossing requires the orbit drifts up to about 10 μm/turn, resulting in excessive power, power amplifier saturation and loss of stability. To suppress this effect we suggest an improvement of the digital filter which can take into account fast orbit changes by using bunch positions of a few previous turns. To take into account the orbit change up toN-th order polynomial in time the system requires (N + 3) turns of “prehistory”. In the case of sufficiently small gain the damping rate and the optimal digital filter coefficients are obtained analytically. Numerical simulations verify analytical theory for the small gain and predict a system performance with gain increase.

  9. 9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3 INTERIOR, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. 8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 CHLORINATOR INTERIOR, FACING NORTH - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 3, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. 10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. 3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1 INTERIOR, FACING EAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  16. 11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2 INTERIOR, FACING WEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING SOUTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 2, FACING NORTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST Nevada ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 1, FACING NORTHEAST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. 12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF BOOSTER STATION 4 INTERIOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Nevada Test Site, Frenchman Flat Test Facility, Well Five Booster Stations, Intersection of 5-03 Road & Short Pole Line Road, Area 5, Frenchman Flat, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying highcapacity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying high-capacity electrically driven water pumps for fire fighting service - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Booster Station, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. A TEG Efficiency Booster with Buck-Boost Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Junjun; Xing, Yan

    2013-07-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) efficiency booster with buck-boost conversion and power management is proposed as a TEG battery power conditioner suitable for a wide TEG output voltage range. An inverse-coupled inductor is employed in the buck-boost converter, which is used to achieve smooth current with low ripple on both the TEG and battery sides. Furthermore, benefiting from the magnetic flux counteraction of the two windings on the coupled inductor, the core size and power losses of the filter inductor are reduced, which can achieve both high efficiency and high power density. A power management strategy is proposed for this power conditioning system, which involves maximum power point tracking (MPPT), battery voltage control, and battery current control. A control method is employed to ensure smooth switching among different working modes. A modified MPPT control algorithm with improved dynamic and steady-state characteristics is presented and applied to the TEG battery power conditioning system to maximize energy harvesting. A 500-W prototype has been built, and experimental tests carried out on it. The power efficiency of the prototype at full load is higher than 96%, and peak efficiency of 99% is attained.

  4. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Corbus, D.

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  5. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  6. Implications of a 20-Hz Booster cycle-rate for Slip-stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-06-10

    We examine the potential impacts to slip-stacking from a change of the Booster cycle-rate from 15- to 20-Hz. We find that changing the Booster cycle-rate to 20-Hz would greatly increase the slip-stacking bucket area, while potentially requiring greater usage of the Recycler momentum aperture and additional power dissipation in the RF cavities. In particular, the losses from RF interference can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on Booster beam longitudinal parameters). We discuss the aspect ratio and beam emittance requirements for efficient slip-stacking in both cycle-rate cases. Using a different injection scheme can eliminate the need for greater momentum aperture in the Recycler.

  7. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and close-out procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Explosive Testing of Class 1.3 Rocket Booster Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    solids HTPB /Al/AP propellant similar to what could be used in space launch boosters. The program tested propellant charges as large as 22 inches in...Since solid propellants used in large space boosters have an explosive nature, studying explosive characteristics of the ever more popular HTPB type of...hazards alone. Emerging space boosters and upper stages use HTPB propellants . In the future all solid propellant space boosters may use HTPB

  9. Wheelchair ramp navigation in snow and ice-grit conditions.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; O'Neill, Patricia A; Desrosiers, Marcel M; Robertson, D Gordon

    2010-10-01

    To explore manual wheelchair propulsion strategies for ramp ascent and descent in snow and snow-ice-grit conditions. Cross-sectional study. Climatic Engineering and Testing Chamber (Ottawa, Canada). Manual wheelchair users (N=11) who typically self-propel their wheelchair in winter. Ramp ascent and descent at 3 grades (1:10, 1:12, 1:16) and 2 winter conditions (packed snow, packed snow with a freezing rain cover, and traction grit). Type of ascent and descent strategy, success rate, number and severity of obstructions, average speed, and perceived ramp navigation rating. A questionnaire regarding the subject's past experiences with wheelchair propulsion in winter. Snow accumulation on ramps at 1:10 grade will render the ramp inaccessible for many wheelchair users who do not have external assistance. For snow conditions, the transition area from the level group to the first 2m of ramp incline were the most difficult to traverse for both ascent and descent. All subjects were able to ascend and descend the ramp for the ice-grit condition. Two-railing propulsion is a preferred strategy for ice-grit ramp navigation because of enhanced trajectory control and reducing the potential for wheel-slip problems. Backwards ramp ascent was a successful strategy for ascent in soft-snow conditions. The 1:16 grade is preferred for winter ramp navigation. Backwards ramp ascent for snow conditions should be considered for people with sufficient shoulder and trunk range of motion. Two handrails are recommended for exterior ramps for both propulsion and wheelchair extraction from ruts and other snow-related obstacles. For ice ramp navigation, the amount of grit required and the effective time (ie, time to when grit becomes embedded in snow-ice, becoming much less effective) should be addressed in further research. Front wheels typically available with manual wheelchairs are not appropriate for soft-snow conditions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  10. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  11. 47 CFR 24.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 24.9... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 24.9 Operation of certificated signal boosters. Individuals and non-individuals may operate certificated Consumer Signal Boosters on frequencies regulated...

  12. 47 CFR 24.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 24.9... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 24.9 Operation of certificated signal boosters. Individuals and non-individuals may operate certificated Consumer Signal Boosters on frequencies regulated...

  13. 47 CFR 22.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 22.9... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Scope and Authority § 22.9 Operation of certificated signal boosters. Individuals and non-individuals may operate certificated Consumer Signal Boosters on frequencies regulated under...

  14. 47 CFR 22.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 22.9... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Scope and Authority § 22.9 Operation of certificated signal boosters. Individuals and non-individuals may operate certificated Consumer Signal Boosters on frequencies regulated under...

  15. What A Booster Club Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidinger, George

    This speech was presented at the 1976 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation national convention by the principal of an Iowa high school. It discusses the development and effectiveness of the Jefferson High School Booster Club which was developed by an interested parent and has been quite successful. The club has assisted…

  16. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  17. 47 CFR 20.21 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marketing materials, (2) In any print or on-line owner's manual and installation instructions, (3) On the... with the licensee providing service to the subscriber; (3) The subscriber only operates the Consumer...) Uses an Industrial Signal Booster which complies with paragraph (f) of this section. (d) Operation on a...

  18. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  19. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  20. What A Booster Club Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidinger, George

    This speech was presented at the 1976 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation national convention by the principal of an Iowa high school. It discusses the development and effectiveness of the Jefferson High School Booster Club which was developed by an interested parent and has been quite successful. The club has assisted…

  1. 78 FR 29062 - Signal Booster Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... evaluation for mobile devices. The document amended a number of FCC rules concerning signal boosters for... radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. * * * * * (c) Mobile devices that operate in the Commercial Mobile Radio Services pursuant to part 20 of this chapter; the Cellular Radiotelephone Service pursuant...

  2. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  3. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  4. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  5. Energy-efficient operation of a booster RF system for Taiwan light source operated in top-up mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Shu; Wang, Chaoen; Chang, Lung-Hai; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Yu, Tsung-Chi; Lin, Ming-Chyuan; Chen, Ling-Jhen; Yang, Tz-Te; Chang, Mei-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Han; Tsai, Ming-Hsun; Lo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Zong-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Contemporary light sources operate in a top-up mode to maintain their photon intensity quasi-constant so as to improve significantly the thermal stability of the photon beam and to maximize ultimately the average photon flux at a designed maximum operational beam current. Operating in a top-up mode requires frequent beam injection from the synchrotron booster to the storage ring of the light source, but the injection intervals occupy only a tiny portion of the operational time of the integrated machine. To maintain a high operational reliability, the booster RF system practically operates necessarily under injection conditions around the clock and consumes full electric power whether during top-up injection or not. How to decrease the power consumption of the booster RF system during its stand-by time but not to sacrifice the reliability and availability of the RF system is obviously of fundamental interest for routine operation of the light source in a top-up mode. Here, an energy-efficient operation of a booster RF system adaptive to top-up operation of a light source is proposed that has been developed, realized and integrated into the booster RF system of the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), and routinely operated since the end of year 2008. The klystron cathode current and RF gap voltage of the booster's accelerating RF cavity are both periodically modulated to adapt the injection rhythm during top-up operation, which results in decreased consumption of electric power of the booster RF system by more than 78%. The impact on the reliability and availability of the booster RF system has been carefully monitored during the past five operational years, delivering more than 5000 h scheduled user beam time per year. The booster RF system retains its excellent reliability and availability as previously. Neither a decrease of the service time nor an induced reliability issue from the klystron or any high-power high-voltage component of the transmitter has been experienced

  6. CMC intake ramp for hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kochendoerfer, R.; Krenkel, W.

    1995-12-01

    An alternative technology to produce CMC structural components with lower costs and shorter manufacturing times has been developed at the DLR. The process is based on liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) into porous carbon/carbon resulting in a C/C-SiC material whereby the load carrying fibres are internally protected against oxidation by SiC. The material`s adequate strength levels and the high reproducibility of the state-of-the-art process now allows the realization of CMC components. Representing a very complex structure of high integrity, an intake ramp for a hypersonic propulsion system has been designed, manufactured and tested, which is described in this paper.

  7. Expendable second stage reusable space shuttle booster. Volume 2: Technical summary. Book 3: Booster vehicle modifications and ground systems definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A definition of the expendable second stage and space shuttle booster separation system is presented. Modifications required on the reusable booster for expendable second stage/payload flight and the ground systems needed to operate the expendable second stage in conjuction with the space shuttle booster are described. The safety, reliability, and quality assurance program is explained. Launch complex operations and services are analyzed.

  8. Hydro lazy tongs energy booster

    SciTech Connect

    Lamonica, M.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus is described for converting hydraulic power to rotational power. The apparatus comprises: a support base; a source of hydraulic fluid; a pair of piston and cylinder assemblies in communication with the source of hydraulic fluid and mounted to the support base such that the pistons thereof are generally parallel with one another but extending substantially opposite directions; means for alternating directly hydraulic fluid to each of the piston and cylinder assemblies; lazy tong assemblies comprising a first lazy tong assembly, a last lazy tong assembly and an intermediate lazy tong assembly. Each lazy tong assembly comprises at least one block slidably mounted in proximity to the support base and at least one pair of lazy tongs with each lazy tong having a pair of opposed ends.

  9. Quantum Ramp Secret Sharing Scheme and Quantum Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heling; Wang, Huifeng; Wang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of quantum secret sharing, quantum ramp secret sharing schemes were proposed (Ogawa et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032318 [2005]), which had a trade-off between security and coding efficiency. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an intermediate set, which cannot fully reconstruct the secret. This paper revisits the size of a share in the quantum ramp secret scheme based on a relation between the quantum operations and the coherent information. We also propose an optimal quantum ramp secret sharing scheme.

  10. Cabling design of booster and storage ring construction progress of TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y.-S.; Liu, K.-B.; Liu, C.-Y.; Wang, b.-S.

    2017-06-01

    The 2012 Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) cable construction project started after 10 months to complete the cable laying and installation of power supply. The circumference of the booster ring (BR) is 496.8 m, whereas that of the storage ring (SR) is 518.4 m. Beam current is set to 500 mA at 3.3 GeV. The paper on grounding systems discusses the design of the ground wire (< 0.2 Ω) with low impedance, power supply of the accelerator and cabling tray. The flow and size of the ground current are carefully evaluated to avoid grounded current from flowing everywhere, which causes interference problems. In the design of the TPS, special shielding will be established to isolate the effects of electromagnetic interference on the magnet and ground current. Booster ring dipoles are connected by a series of 54-magnet bending dipole; the cable size of its stranded wire measures 250 mm2, with a total length of 5000 m. Booster ring and storage ring quadrupoles have 150 magnets; the cable size of their stranded wire is 250 mm2, with a total length of 17000 m. Storage ring dipole consists of 48 magnets; the cable size of its stranded wire is 325 mm2, with a total length of 6000 m. This study discusses the power supply cabling design of the storage ring and booster ring construction progress of TPS. The sections of this paper are divided into discussions of the construction of the control and instrument area, cabling layout of booster ring and storage ring, as well as the installation and commission machine. This study also discusses the use of a high-impedance meter to determine the effect of cabling insulation and TPS power supply machine on energy transfer to ensure the use of safe and correct magnet.

  11. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  12. Chaotic Pattern Dynamics in Spatially Ramped Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, R. J.; Ashbaker, E.; Olsen, T.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2003-11-01

    In previous experiments(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997)., Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry has demonstrated a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics. A spatial ramp exists in the Reynolds number. For low reduced Reynolds numbesr \\varepsilon, supercritical vortex flow occurs between regions of subcritical structureless flow with soft boundaries that allow for pattern dynamics. At \\varepsilon ≈ 0.5, the pattern exhibits phase slips that occur irregularly in time. At \\varepsilon ≈ 1.0 the entire system is supercritical, and the pattern is stabilized against phase slips. At \\varepsilon > 15, shear flow creates a spatial ramp in turbulence. Remarkably, the phase slip instability reoccurs. Vortex pairs are created chaotically, possibly due to the spatial variation of the turbulence. The variance and Fourier spectra of time series of light scattered off Kalliroscope tracer were measured. These indicate that a region of turbulence exists, within which phase slips occur, bounded by regions of laminar flow which may provide soft boundaries that allow for the phase dynamics. Despite the presence of turbulence, the dynamics might be describable by a phase equation.

  13. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  14. Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals.

    PubMed

    Smith, R F; Eggert, J H; Jeanloz, R; Duffy, T S; Braun, D G; Patterson, J R; Rudd, R E; Biener, J; Lazicki, A E; Hamza, A V; Wang, J; Braun, T; Benedict, L X; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W

    2014-07-17

    The recent discovery of more than a thousand planets outside our Solar System, together with the significant push to achieve inertially confined fusion in the laboratory, has prompted a renewed interest in how dense matter behaves at millions to billions of atmospheres of pressure. The theoretical description of such electron-degenerate matter has matured since the early quantum statistical model of Thomas and Fermi, and now suggests that new complexities can emerge at pressures where core electrons (not only valence electrons) influence the structure and bonding of matter. Recent developments in shock-free dynamic (ramp) compression now allow laboratory access to this dense matter regime. Here we describe ramp-compression measurements for diamond, achieving 3.7-fold compression at a peak pressure of 5 terapascals (equivalent to 50 million atmospheres). These equation-of-state data can now be compared to first-principles density functional calculations and theories long used to describe matter present in the interiors of giant planets, in stars, and in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. Our data also provide new constraints on mass-radius relationships for carbon-rich planets.

  15. Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Jeanloz, R.; Duffy, T. S.; Braun, D. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rudd, R. E.; Biener, J.; Lazicki, A. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Wang, J.; Braun, T.; Benedict, L. X.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of more than a thousand planets outside our Solar System, together with the significant push to achieve inertially confined fusion in the laboratory, has prompted a renewed interest in how dense matter behaves at millions to billions of atmospheres of pressure. The theoretical description of such electron-degenerate matter has matured since the early quantum statistical model of Thomas and Fermi, and now suggests that new complexities can emerge at pressures where core electrons (not only valence electrons) influence the structure and bonding of matter. Recent developments in shock-free dynamic (ramp) compression now allow laboratory access to this dense matter regime. Here we describe ramp-compression measurements for diamond, achieving 3.7-fold compression at a peak pressure of 5 terapascals (equivalent to 50 million atmospheres). These equation-of-state data can now be compared to first-principles density functional calculations and theories long used to describe matter present in the interiors of giant planets, in stars, and in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. Our data also provide new constraints on mass-radius relationships for carbon-rich planets.

  16. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  17. Ramp-rate limitation experiments in support of the TPX magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S.; Schultz, J.H.; Takayasu, Makoto; Michael, P.C.; Shen, S.; Vysotsky, V.; Warnes, W.

    1995-12-31

    Fast magnetic field change is required for full-size tokamak reactors. The poloidal field magnets are usually ramped to full field at 1.2 T/s, and see pulsed fields of up to 20 T/s during plasma initiation. A new facility has been constructed at M.I.T. that simulates the expected operating conditions of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) magnets. New features in this facility include (1) a superconducting pulse coil that can superimpose high ramp-down rates, up to 25 T/s, (2 T in 80 msec) on a background field up to 5 T, (2) new power supplies that can supply high rates of dI/dt and dB/dt to the sample under test and the pulse coil, and (3) a forced-flow supercritical helium system that can simulate cooling conditions within the winding pack. The first sample tested in the facility is a 27-strand sub-cable, using 3.1:1 copper, noncopper ratio Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor, typical of the strands to be used in ten of the poloidal field system magnets. This paper presents the first experimental results on the ramp rate limitation of the sub-size cable sample of TPX PF coil conductor. The transient stability at high ramp rate fields will be discussed.

  18. Booster dose vaccination for preventing hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Hooshmand, Elham

    2016-06-07

    Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) wane over time following hepatitis B immunisation; hence, it is unclear whether people vaccinated in three-dose or four-dose schedules of the hepatitis B vaccine are still immune when the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) level in their body is undetectable, or lower than the level usually considered protective. This question may potentially be answered indirectly by measuring the anamnestic immune response to a booster dose of vaccine. The term 'booster' (or revaccination) refers to an additional dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) given some time post-primary vaccination to induce immune memory and improve protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To assess the benefits and harms of booster dose hepatitis B vaccination, more than five years after the primary vaccination, for preventing HBV infection in healthy individuals previously vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine, and with hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels below 10 mIU/mL. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, conference databases, and reference lists of articles to January 2016. We also contacted authors of articles. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials (May 2016). Randomised clinical trials addressing anamnestic immune response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine, more than five years after the primary vaccination, in apparently healthy participants, vaccinated in a three-dose or four-dose schedule of the hepatitis B vaccine during the primary vaccination, without receiving an additional dose or immunoglobulin. Both review authors decided if the identified studies met the inclusion criteria or not. Primary outcomes included the proportion of participants

  19. Cretaceous tide-dominated carbonate ramp: Comparison of reservoir hetergeneity in tide-versus wave-dominated carbonate ramp systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1995-08-01

    Cretaceous (upper Albian) carbonate ramp strata, Pecos River Canyon, Texas, provide a uniquely continuous exposure of a tide-dominated ramp reservoir analog. The continuous 100-km shelf-to-basin outcrop begins in inner ramp mud-rich facies that record both high-frequency (20-100 ky) and intermediate frequency (>200 ky) cyclicity. The ramp-crest is up to 40 km across depositional dip. Intermediate-scale cycles in the ramp crest include basal oyster and toucasid wackestones, chondrodontid-rudist packstones, rudist-skeletal grainstones, and caprinid biostromes. Ramp-crest grainstones are 4-23 m in thickness and extend more than 20 km in a shelf to basin direction. Rudist biostromes are 3-7 m in thickness and are up to several kilometers in dip continuity except in deeper outer ramp settings where 100-200 m wide mounds are more common. The ramp crest is dominated by grain-rich facies with moderate to high permeability. Toucasid wackestones and oyster marls are 1-5 m in thickness and extend tens of kilometers in a dip direction, representing potential fluid flow barriers. Wave-dominated ramp systems of the Permian of West Texas provide a contrast to the Cretaceous tide-dominated setting. Low-permeability high-frequency cycle base mudstones and high-permeability cycle-top grainstones are preserved in both inner ramp and ramp crest settings. Fluid-flow modeling of these Permian wave-dominated reservoir strata illustrates that the intercalation of thin high- and low-permeability layers result in crossflow trapping and thief zones controlling the position and amount of remaining oil saturation. The depositional homogeneity of the Cretaceous tide-dominated ramp indicates that diagenetic heterogeneities and gravitational effects are potentially dominant controls on reservoir performance for these strata.

  20. An analysis of booster tone noise using a time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukie, Nathan A.

    This thesis details a computational investigation of tone noise generated from a booster(low-pressure compressor) in a fan test rig. The computational study consisted of sets of time-linearized Navier-Stokes simulations in the booster region to investigate the blade-wake interactions that act as the primary noise-generating mechanism for the booster blade-passing frequency and harmonics. An acoustic test database existed with data at several operating points for the fan test rig that was used to compare against the predicted noise data from the computational study. It is shown that the computational methodology is able to capture trends in sound power for the 1st and 2nd booster tones along the operating line for the rig. It is also shown that the computational study underpredicts one of the tones at low power and is not able to capture a peak in the data at the Cutback condition. Further investigation of this type is warranted to quantify the source of discrepancies between the computational and experimental data as the reflected transmisison of sound off the fan through the bypass duct was not accounted for in this study.

  1. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the Fly Back Engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  2. Space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The system is described which is used to separate the solid rocket boosters from the space shuttle after they have expended most of their propellant and their thrust is near burnout. The dynamics of the separation are simulated in a computer program so that the separation system can be analyzed. The assumptions and ground rules used in analyzing this system are explained and the method of analysis is delineated. The capability of the separation system is presented together with data which may be used to aid in the design of the external tank and solid rocket booster interface. The results of a parameter study to determine the sensitivity of the separation to the initial state of the space shuttle are also presented.

  3. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  4. Development of Cogging at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C.; Pellico, W.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A.

    2015-01-30

    The development of magnetic cogging is part of the Fermilab Booster upgrade within the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The Booster is going to send 2.25E17 protons/hour which is almost double the present flux, 1.4E17 protons/hour to the Main Injector (MI) and Recycler (RR). The extraction kicker gap has to synchronize to the MI and RR injection bucket in order to avoid a beam loss at the rising edge of the extraction and injection kickers. Magnetic cogging is able to control the revolution frequency and the position of the gap using the magnetic field from dipole correctors while radial position feedback keeps the beam at the central orbit. The new cogging is expected to reduce beam loss due to the orbit changes and reduce beam energy loss when the gap is created. The progress of the magnetic cogging system development is going to be discussed in this paper.

  5. Booster Test for Space Launch System Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-26

    The test area where the second and final qualification motor (QM-2) test for the Space Launch System’s booster is seen Sunday, June 26, 2016, at Orbital ATK Propulsion Systems test facilities in Promontory, Utah. The test is scheduled for Tuesday, June 28 at 10:05 a.m. EDT (8:05 a.m. MDT). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Digital LLRF controller for NICA booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkin, G. A.; Batrakov, A. M.; Ilyin, I. V.; Vasilyev, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The digital LLRF controller based on embedded microcontroller for the booster of the Dubna superconducting accelerator complex NICA is presented. It allows setting the frequency in accordance with the magnetic field value in the 0.5-5 MHz range with an inaccuracy ± 110 Hz. A novel method of frequency calculation based on the derivative is proposed. The specialized tester module allows tuning up and checking the RF system during comissioning and operation.

  7. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  8. Booster 6-GeV study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Pellico, William A.; Lackey, James; Padilla, Rene; Norem, James; /Argonne

    2005-05-01

    A wider aperture, which has been obtained along the Booster beam line recently, brings the opportunity to run beams with the intensity higher than ever before. Sooner or later, the available RF accelerating voltage will become a new limit for the beam intensity. Extra accelerating voltages can be achieved either by increasing the RFSUM or by reducing the accelerating rate via a slower acceleration, and this motivates the 6-GeV study.

  9. Comparing hydrogen and hydrocarbon booster fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1988-01-01

    The present evaluation of the consequences of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the basis of launch vehicle booster rocket-stage performance notes that hydrocarbon fuels lead to lower vehicle dry mass, for low-velocity requirements, while hydrogen fuel furnishes lower dry mass. Vehicles employing both types of fuel attempt to take advantage of the low intercept and slope of hydrocarbon fuel at low velocity, and subsequently, of the slope of the hydrogen curves at higher velocities.

  10. Booster Test for Space Launch System Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-26

    The test area where the second and final qualification motor (QM-2) test for the Space Launch System’s booster is seen through the window of a camera bunker, Sunday, June 26, 2016, at Orbital ATK Propulsion Systems test facilities in Promontory, Utah. The test is scheduled for Tuesday, June 28 at 10:05 a.m. EDT (8:05 a.m. MDT). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Booster Test for Space Launch System Rocket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-26

    The quench system arm and nozzle are seen at the test area where the second and final qualification motor (QM-2) test for the Space Launch System’s booster will take place, Sunday, June 26, 2016, at Orbital ATK Propulsion Systems test facilities in Promontory, Utah. The test is scheduled for Tuesday, June 28 at 10:05 a.m. EDT (8:05 a.m. MDT). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Results from the AGS Booster transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Brennan, M.; Meth, M.; Roser, T.

    1993-06-01

    To reach the design intensity of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse in the AGS Booster, transverse coupled bunch instabilities with an estimated growth rate of 1500s{sup {minus}1} have to be dampened. A prototype transverse damper has been tested successfully using a one turn digital delay and closed orbit suppression implemented in a programmable gate array. An updated damper, which includes an algorithm to optimize damping for a changing betatron rune, will also be presented.

  13. Results from the AGS Booster transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Brennan, M.; Meth, M.; Roser, T.

    1993-01-01

    To reach the design intensity of 1.5 [times] 10[sup 13] protons per pulse in the AGS Booster, transverse coupled bunch instabilities with an estimated growth rate of 1500s[sup [minus]1] have to be dampened. A prototype transverse damper has been tested successfully using a one turn digital delay and closed orbit suppression implemented in a programmable gate array. An updated damper, which includes an algorithm to optimize damping for a changing betatron rune, will also be presented.

  14. Solid rocket booster water impact test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.

    1982-01-01

    Water impact drop tests were performed on the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). Peak water impact pressures and pressure/time traces were measured for various impact velocities using a two-dimensional, full-scale SRB aft skirt internal ring model. Passive burst disc-type pressure transducers were calibrated for use on flight SRB's. The effects on impact pressure of small ring configuration changes and application of thermal protection system cork layers were found to be negligible.

  15. Engine protection system for recoverable rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jr., Jerry A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rocket engine protection system for a recoverable rocket booster which is arranged to land in a salt water body in substantially a nose down attitude. The system includes an inflatable bag which is stowed on a portion of a flat annular rim of the aft skirt of the booster. The bag is hinged at opposing sides and is provided with springs that urge the bag open. The bag is latched in a stowed position during launch and prior to landing for recovery is unlatched to permit the bag to be urged open and into sealing engagement with the rim. A source of pressurized gas further inflates the bag and urges it into sealing engagement with the rim of the skirt where it is locked into position. The gas provides a positive pressure upon the interior of the bag to preclude entry of salt water into the skirt and into contact with the engine. A flotation arrangement may assist in precluding the skirt of the booster from becoming submerged.

  16. Current ramp-up by lower hybrid waves in the PLT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Jobes, F.C.; Bernabei, S.; Chu, T.K.; Hooke, W.M.; Meservey, E.B.; Motley, R.W.; Stevens, J.E.; von Goeler, S.

    1985-03-01

    Recent lower hybrid current drive experiments have clearly demonstrated that the current in a tokamak discharge can be maintained by rf drive alone. We have extended the operating regime of such plasma to include ramping-up of the current. We find that at densities of approx. 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ approximately 25% of the launched rf power is converted to magnetic field energy.

  17. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  2. 14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE UPPER AND LOWER MINE ROADS. TRUCKS USED THIS RAMP AND THE ROADS TO HAUL SLAG TO THE MINE DUMP. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. Martian Terrain, Unfurled Rover Ramps & Deflated Airbags

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) took this image of surrounding terrain in the mid-morning on Mars (2:30 PM Pacific Daylight Time) earlier today. Part of the small rover, Sojourner, is visible on the left side of the picture. The tan cylinder to the right of the rover is one of two rolled-up ramps by which the rover will descend to the ground. The white, billowy material in the center of the picture is part of the airbag system. Many rocks of different shapes and sizes are visible between the lander and the horizon. Two hills are visible on the horizon. The notch on the left side of the leftmost conical hill is an artifact of the processing of this picture. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00613

  4. Fast current ramp experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Morris, A.W.; Stauffer, F.J.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    Electron heat transport on TFTR and other tokamaks is several orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical calculations would predict. Despite considerable effort, there is still no clear theoretical understanding of this anomalous transport. The electron temperature profile T/sub e/(r), shape has shown a marked consistency on many machines, including TFTR, for a wide range of plasma parameters and heating profiles. This could be an important clue as to the process responsible for this enhanced thermal transport. In this paper 'profile consistency' in TFTR is described and an experiment which uses a fast current ramp to transiently decouple the current density profile J(r), and the T/sub e/(r) profiles is discussed. From this experiment the influence of J(r) on electron temperature profile consistency can be determined.

  5. Terasaki spiral ramps in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-31

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  6. Terasaki Spiral Ramps in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-01

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  7. Multiturn injection of EBIS ions in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.J.

    2010-09-01

    Ions from EBIS are injected into Booster after acceleration by an RFQ and a Linac. The velocity of the ions at Booster injection is c{beta} where c is the velocity of light and (1) {beta} = 0.0655. The kinetic energy is (2) W = mc{sup 2}({gamma}-1) where m is the ion mass and (3) {gamma} = (1-{beta}{sup 2}){sup -1/2}. Putting in numbers one gets a kinetic energy of approximately 2 MeV per nucleon for each ion. The revolution period at injection is 10.276 {micro}s. The ions in the EBIS trap are delivered in a beam pulse that ranges from 10 to 40 {micro}s in length. This amounts to 1 to 4 turns around the machine. The transverse emittance (un-normalized) of EBIS beams just prior to injection into Booster is 11{pi} mm milliradians in both planes. This is an order of magnitude larger than the nominal 1{pi} mm milliradians for Tandem beams. Injection proceeds by means of an electrostatic inflector in the C3 straight section and four programmable injection dipoles in the C1, C3, C7, and D1 straights. These devices have been in use for many years for the injection of ions from Tandem as described in [1] and [2]. The inflector brings the incoming beam to the edge of the Booster acceptance and the dipoles produce a closed orbit bump that initially places the closed orbit near the septum at the in ector exit. During injection the orbit bump must be collapsed at a rate that keeps the injected beam from hitting the septum while continuing to allow beam to be injected into the machine acceptance. The process is discussed in [2] and [3]. There it is assumed that the injected beam moves with the closed orbit as the bump collapses. In the present report this is shown to be a valid approximation if the bump collapses sufficiently slowly. It is also shown that by judiciously choosing the horizontal tune and the initial distance of the closed orbit from the septum one can inject up to 4 turns of EBIS beams without loss on the septum. The reason for wanting to inject over a period of

  8. Application of independent component analysis to Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.B.; Lee, S.Y.; Prebys, E.; Tomlin, R.; /Indiana U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Autocorrelation is applied to analyze sets of finite-sampling data such as the turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data in an accelerator. This method of data analysis, called the independent component analysis (ICA), is shown to be a powerful beam diagnosis tool for being able to decompose sampled signals into its underlying source signals. They find that the ICA has an advantage over the principle component analysis (PCA) used in the model-independent analysis (MIA) in isolating independent modes. The tolerance of the ICA method to noise in the BPM system is systematically studied. The ICA is applied to analyze the complicated beam motion in a rapid-cycling booster synchrotron at the Fermilab. Difficulties and limitations of the ICA method are also discussed.

  9. A Lattice for a Hybrid Fast-Ramping Muon Accelerator to 750 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.A.; Berg, J.

    2011-09-06

    We describe a lattice for accelerating muons from 375 GeV to 750 GeV. The lattice is a fast-ramping synchrotron with a mixture of fixed-field superconducting dipoles and warm dipoles, so as to have a high average bending field while still being able to rapidly change the average bending field as the beam momentum increases. For a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider, muons must be rapidly accelerated to 750 GeV. To accomplish this efficiently, we wish to make as many passes through the RF cavities as possible, while keeping the average RF gradients sufficiently high to avoid excess muon decays. A synchrotron where the magnets are very rapidly ramped has been envisioned as one option to accomplish this. The entire acceleration cycle takes place in less than 1 ms, presenting a technological challenge for the magnets. Clearly superconducting magnets cannot be ramped on this time scale, so instead room-temperature magnets will be ramped. To keep losses low, dipoles can use grain-oriented silicon steel, but quadrupoles will probably need to use more conventional steel, giving a lower maximum field for these high ramping rates. If we want to have a large average RF gradient and simultaneously make a large number of passes through the RF cavities, the average bending field must be high. To achieve such a large bending field while rapidly ramping magnets, it has been proposed to use a hybrid lattice consisting of interleaved superconducting dipoles and bipolar ramped dipoles. Due to the large single-bunch current and the relatively small apertures we desire (both because we would like to use high-frequency RF, and because power requirements and heating will be more reasonable for smaller aperture ramped magnets), collective effects are expected to be very significant. To reduce their effects, we propose to have strong synchrotron oscillations (a synchrotron tune of over 1). To have such a high synchrotron tune, a large number of superperiods are needed. Putting together

  10. Design of 3 GeV booster ring lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Etisken, O. Ciftci, A. K.

    2016-03-25

    The aim of this study is to design of a 3 GeV booster ring for the 3 GeV storage ring. Electrons are needed to be accelerated to 3.0 GeV from 0.15 GeV energy. In this frame, we studied on two options for booster ring; a compact booster and the booster that shares the same tunnel with the storage ring. The lattice type has been chosen FODO for both options, lattice parameters are calculated, sextupole magnets are used to decrease dynamic aperture problem and dynamic aperture calculations are also made with considering of the necessary conditions. After designing and calculating of the parameters, these designs have been compared with each other. In addition to this comparison, these booster design parameters have been compared with some world centers design parameters and the reliability of the booster design is seen. Beam optics, OPA and Elegant simulation programs have been used in the study calculations.

  11. Vacuum chamber eddy current self-correction for the AGS Booster Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The large sextupole and other multipoles induced by eddy currents in the vacuum chamber (VC) designed for the AGS Booster dipoles have been cancelled by simple coils attached to the VC surface. A two turns per pole back leg winding provides the mmf required to power the correction coil by transformer action, automatically correcting even for the variable {dot B} magnet excitation. Much larger VC positional errors of translation and rotation are acceptable because the coils follow the VC contour: the aberrations and their corrections locally have the same misplaced coordinate system. The self-correction concept could be applied to quadrupoles. However, Booster quadrupole measurements show that induced higher harmonics from VC and other eddy current sources are very small. Thus, with self-correction of the dipole VC eddy current fields, {dot B} effects on the proton rapid cycling Booster optics are reduced to tracking of the fundamental dipole and quadrupole fields. This can be automatically controlled using field monitoring transducers located in a dipole and quadrupole operated in series with the Booster magnets. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, Frustum and Nose Cap mated assembly undergoing final preparations in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. In this view the access panel on the Forward Skirt is removed and you can see a small portion of the interior of the Forward Skirt. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Space Shuttle Five-Segment Booster (Short Course)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stanley R.; Rudolphi, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is considering upgrading the Space Shuttle by adding a fifth segment (FSB) to the current four-segment solid rocket booster. Course materials cover design and engineering issues related to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) raised by the addition of a fifth segment to the rocket booster. Topics cover include: four segment vs. five segment booster, abort modes, FSB grain design, erosive burning, enhanced propellant burn rate, FSB erosive burning model development and hardware configuration.

  14. STS-26 solid rocket booster post flight structural assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herda, David A.; Finnegan, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    A post flight assessment of the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Boosters was conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida after the launch of STS-26. The two boosters were inspected for structural damage and the results of this inspection are presented. Overall, the boosters were in good condition. However, there was some minor damage attributed to splash down. Some of this damage is a recurring problem. Explanations of these problems are provided.

  15. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and assembly procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. A microfluidic separation platform using an array of slanted ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbud, Sumedh; Bernate, Jorge; Drazer, German

    2013-03-01

    The separation of the different components of a sample is a crucial step in many micro- and nano-fluidic applications, including the detection of infections, the capture of circulating tumor cells, the isolation of proteins, RNA and DNA, to mention but a few. Vector chromatography, in which different species migrate in different directions in a planar microfluidic device thus achieving spatial as well as temporal resolution, offers the promise of high selectivity along with high throughput. In this work, we present a microfluidic vector chromatography platform consisting of slanted ramps in a microfluidic channel for the separation of suspended particles. We construct these ramps using inclined UV lithography, such that the inclined portion of the ramps is upstream. We show that particles of different size displace laterally to a different extent when driven by a flow field over a slanted ramp. The flow close to the ramp reorients along the ramp, causing the size-dependent deflection of the particles. The cumulative effect of an array of these ramps would cause particles of different size to migrate in different directions, thus allowing their passive and continuous separation.

  17. Diphtheria boosters for adults: balancing risks.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Claire; White, Joanne; Power, Deirdre; Crowcroft, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    Combined tetanus-diphtheria vaccines are now the only means of protecting adults from tetanus or diphtheria. When advising on the benefits and risk of vaccinating for one disease, clinicians now have to consider the other vaccine component, and questions have arisen about where the balance of risk lies for different patients. Five doses of diphtheria-toxoid containing vaccine are probably sufficient protection for individuals who remain in low-incidence countries such as those in most of Western Europe. Adults who remain in the UK are extremely unlikely to be exposed to diphtheria and this needs to be taken into account when assessing the balance of risk where individuals have received fewer than five doses of diphtheria toxoid but five or more doses of tetanus toxoid. In contrast to diphtheria, if someone has received fewer than five doses of tetanus toxoid but is up to date for diphtheria toxoid, the balance of lifelong risk is probably in favour of giving tetanus toxoid irrespective of the individual's diphtheria status. For travellers to diphtheria endemic countries boosters are recommended if more than 10 years has elapsed since the last dose. For individuals who have already received five or more doses of tetanus vaccine in the past, receiving further boosters of tetanus in combination with diphtheria toxoid is unlikely to cause any significant reactions. The only absolute contraindication to such boosters is a previously documented anaphylactic reaction to either diphtheria or tetanus toxoid. Individuals who have a history of such a reaction should be well advised regarding probable risk of infection, symptoms of the disease and the need to seek early treatment.

  18. Launch site integration of Liquid Rocket Boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Leland P.; Dickinson, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The impacts of introducing Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRB) into the STS/KSC launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Pre-launch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated.

  19. Transition crossing simulation at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The demand in high intensity and low emittance of the beam extracted from the Booster requires a better control over the momentum spread growth and bunch length shortening at transition crossing, in order to prevent beam loss and coupled bunch instability. Since the transition crossing involves both longitudinal and transverse dynamics, the recently modified 3-D STRUCT code provides an opportunity to numerically investigate the different transition crossing schemes in the machine environment, and apply the results of simulation to minimize the beam loss and emittance growth operationally.

  20. Fermilab booster modeling and space charge study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2003-06-04

    The Fermilab Booster is a bottleneck limiting the proton beam intensity in the accelerator complex. A study group has been formed in order to have a better understanding of this old machine and seek possible improvements. The work includes lattice modeling, numerical simulations, bench measurements and beam studies. Based on newly obtained information, it has been found that the machine acceptance is severely compromised by the orbit bump and dogleg magnets. This, accompanied by emittance dilution from space charge at injection, is a major cause of the large beam loss at the early stage of the cycle. Measures to tackle this problem are being pursued.

  1. Pegasus air-launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Mosier, Marty R.

    The launching of small satellites with the mother- aircraft-launched Pegasus booster yields substantial cost improvements over ground launching and enhances operational flexibility, since it allows launches to be conducted into any orbital inclination. The Pegasus launch vehicle is a three-stage solid-rocket-propelled system with delta-winged first stage. The major components of airborne support equipment, located on the mother aircraft, encompass a launch panel operator console, an electronic pallet, and a pylon adapter. Alternatives to the currently employed B-52 launch platform aircraft have been identified for future use. Attention is given to the dynamic, thermal, and acoustic environments experienced by the payload.

  2. Hybrid boosters for future launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargies, E.; Lo, R. E.

    1987-10-01

    Hybrid rocket propulsion systems furnish the advantages of much higher safety levels, due both to shut-down capability in case of ignition failure to one unit and the potential choice of nontoxic propellant combinations, such as LOX/polyethylene; they nevertheless yield performance levels comparable or superior to those of solid rocket boosters. Attention is presently given to the results of DFVLR analytical model studies of hybrid propulsion systems, with attention to solid fuel grain geometrical design and propellant grain surface ablation rate. The safety of hybrid rockets recommends them for use by manned spacecraft.

  3. Harmonic analysis of the AGS Booster imperfection

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, Y.; Gardner, C.

    1993-12-31

    The harmonic content of magnetic field imperfections in the AGS Booster has been determined through careful measurements of the required field corrections of transverse resonances. An analysis of the required correction yielded amplitude and phase information which points to possible sources of imperfections. Dipole and quadrupole imperfections, which are proportional to the field of bending magnets (B), are mainly driven by any misalignment of the magnets. Quadrupole and sextupole imperfections, which are proportional to dB/dt, are driven by imperfections of the eddy-current correction system. The observations also suggest the presence of a remnant field.

  4. Delta Mariner arrival with EFT-1 Booster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-03

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The United Launch Alliance barge Delta Mariner enters Port Canaveral in Florida. The barge is carrying two of the booster stages for the Delta IV Heavy rocket slated for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1, or EFT-1. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep-space return velocities. The first unpiloted test flight of Orion is scheduled to launch in September 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket and in 2017 on NASA’s Space Launch System

  5. Solid rocket booster thermal protection system materials development. [space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    A complete run log of all tests conducted in the NASA-MSFC hot gas test facility during the development of materials for the space shuttle solid rocket booster thermal protection system are presented. Lists of technical reports and drawings generated under the contract are included.

  6. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  7. 2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. 5 (left buildings) and Ramp No. 6 (right buildings). View is to west from roof of Corridor A. Note that a pedestrian sidewalk separates buildings instead of a street for automobiles. In left foreground is the north end of Building No. 9962-B; followed by the north B-sides of Buildings Nos. 9963, 9964, 9965, 9966, 9967 and 9968 on Ramp No. 5. Large white building in far distance is a barracks on the other side of Wilson Avenue. - Madigan Hospital, Medical Detachment Barracks, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  8. Commissioning and Early Operation for the NSLS-II Booster RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, C.; Cupolo, J.; Davila, P.; Gao, F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; McDonald, K.; Oliva, J.; Papu, J.; Ramirez, G.; Rose, J.; Sikora, R.; Sorrentino, C.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a third generation 3GeV, 500mA synchrotron light source. We discuss the booster synchrotron RF system responsible for providing power to accelerate an electron beam from 200MeV to 3GeV. The RF system design and construction are complete and is currently in the operational phase of the NSLS-II project. Preliminary operational data is also discussed.

  9. Improving short-term forecasting during ramp events by means of Regime-Switching Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, C.; Costa, A.; Cuerva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Since nowadays wind energy can't be neither scheduled nor large-scale storaged, wind power forecasting has been useful to minimize the impact of wind fluctuations. In particular, short-term forecasting (characterised by prediction horizons from minutes to a few days) is currently required by energy producers (in a daily electricity market context) and the TSO's (in order to keep the stability/balance of an electrical system). Within the short-term background, time-series based models (i.e., statistical models) have shown a better performance than NWP models for horizons up to few hours. These models try to learn and replicate the dynamic shown by the time series of a certain variable. When considering the power output of wind farms, ramp events are usually observed, being characterized by a large positive gradient in the time series (ramp-up) or negative (ramp-down) during relatively short time periods (few hours). Ramp events may be motivated by many different causes, involving generally several spatial scales, since the large scale (fronts, low pressure systems) up to the local scale (wind turbine shut-down due to high wind speed, yaw misalignment due to fast changes of wind direction). Hence, the output power may show unexpected dynamics during ramp events depending on the underlying processes; consequently, traditional statistical models considering only one dynamic for the hole power time series may be inappropriate. This work proposes a Regime Switching (RS) model based on Artificial Neural Nets (ANN). The RS-ANN model gathers as many ANN's as different dynamics considered (called regimes); a certain ANN is selected so as to predict the output power, depending on the current regime. The current regime is on-line updated based on a gradient criteria, regarding the past two values of the output power. 3 Regimes are established, concerning ramp events: ramp-up, ramp-down and no-ramp regime. In order to assess the skillness of the proposed RS-ANN model, a single

  10. Forward ramp and Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A lander petal and the forward ramp are featured in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. There are several prominent rocks, including Wedge at left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin in the background; and Flat Top and Little Flat Top at center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  12. Ramp loading in Russian doll poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailani, Gaffar; Cowin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aporoelastic model for porous materials with a nested pore space structure is developed to represent the interstitial fluid flow in bone tissue. The nested porosity model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity (PV) and the lacunar-canalicular porosity (PLC) in bone tissue in a ramp loading in the case where the fluid and solid constituents are assumed to be compressible. The compressibility assumption is appropriate for hard tissues while the incompressibility assumption is appropriate for soft tissues. The influence of blood pressure in the PV is included in the analysis. A formula for the fluid that moves between the two porosities is developed. The analysis showed the coupling of the two porosities and their influence on each other and concluded that the PV pore pressure has an influence less than 3% on the PLC pore pressure while the absence of the PV pore pressure will affect the fluid exchange between the PV and PLC by less than 6% (the blood pressure range is 40-60 mmHg). Also the analysis has shown that the draining time of the PLC is inversely proportional to its permeability. The significance of the result is basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells.

  13. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  14. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  15. Tuner of a Second Harmonic Cavity of the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Terechkine, I.; Duel, K.; Madrak, R.; Makarov, A.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Tan, C.-Y.

    2015-05-17

    Introducing a second harmonic cavity in the accelerating system of the Fermilab Booster promises significant reduc-tion of the particle beam loss during the injection, transi-tion, and extraction stages. To follow the changing energy of the beam during acceleration cycles, the cavity is equipped with a tuner that employs perpendicularly biased AL800 garnet material as the frequency tuning media. The required tuning range of the cavity is from 75.73 MHz at injection to 105.64 MHz at extraction. This large range ne-cessitates the use of a relatively low bias magnetic field at injection, which could lead to high RF loss power density in the garnet, or a strong bias magnetic field at extraction, which could result in high power consumption in the tuner’s bias magnet. The required 15 Hz repetition rate of the device and high sensitivity of the local RF power loss to the level of the magnetic field added to the challenges of the bias system design. In this report, the main features of a proposed prototype of the second harmonic cavity tuner are presented.

  16. Compensation of dogleg effect in Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaobiao Huang; Sho Ohnuma

    2003-10-06

    The edge focusing of dogleg magnets in Fermilab Booster has been causing severe distortion to the horizontal linear optics. The doglegs are vertical rectangular bends, therefore the vertical edge focusing is canceled by body focusing and the overall effect is focusing in the horizontal plane. The maximum horizontal beta function is changed from 33.7m to 46.9m and maximum dispersion from 3.19m to 6.14m. Beam size increases accordingly. This is believed to be one of the major reasons of beam loss. In this technote we demonstrate that this effect can be effectively corrected with Booster's quadrupole correctors in short straight sections (QS). There are 24 QS correctors which can alter horizontal linear optics with negligible perturbation to the vertical plane. The currents of correctors are determined by harmonic compensation, i.e., cancellation of dogleg's harmonics that are responsible for the distortion with that of QS correctors. By considering a few leading harmonics, the ideal lattice can be partly restored. For the current dogleg layout, maximum {beta}{sub x} is reduced to 40.6m and maximum D{sub x} is reduced to 4.19m. This scheme can be useful after the dogleg in section No.3 is repositioned. In this case it can bring {beta}{sub x} from 40.9m down to 37.7m, D{sub x} from 4.57m to 4.01m.

  17. Response of different Earth System Models to ramp-up/ramp-down greenhouse gases concentration trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2013-04-01

    It has been relatively well established that, in the past, large abrupt and irreversible changes in the climate have consistently occurred when the climate system crossed certain thresholds. Given the massive amount of greenhouse gases released by human activities, which will further increase in the coming decades, it is crucial to evaluate the reversibility and inertia of the climate system in response to such an anthropogenic perturbation. Indeed, a few model projections have shown that the human contribution to greenhouse gases emission is likely to force the climate system towards potentially risky thresholds, which could dramatically alter the Earth's climate. In order to evaluate the robustness of such a scenario, we compare model results from 4 different state-of-the-art European EMSs (EC-EARTH, HadGEM2, IPSL-CM5-LR, MPI-ESM) in response to the same increase and decrease of anthropogenic forcing. More specifically, 95 years of ramp-up simulations based on the CMIP5 RCP8.5 scenario (where the radiative forcing value is gradually increased up to 8.5 W/m2) are followed by 95 years of ramp-down simulations (where the radiative value is reduced at the same rate down to its initial value). The response and the inertia of the climate system are investigated and the possibility of abrupt and/or (ir)reversible climatic changes are analysed in the different models. In particular, the behaviour of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under the ramp-up/ramp-down is addressed and its relation to the evolution of other physical parameters is pointed out. Indeed, the stability of the AMOC, which is believed to lay in a monostable or bistable regime depending on the mean climate state, is controlled by different feedback mechanisms. A classical diagnostic for determining the transition between the single and multiple equilibria regime of the AMOC is the sign of the meridional freshwater transport at 30°S in the Atlantic. We therefore outline the response

  18. North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and pavilion in CO-172-BR-17. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken to east of CO-172-BR-8 and looking southwesterly. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. WALK UP RAMP - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - MISC.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-32149 (3 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, walk up the ramp at Pad 19 during the Gemini-9A prelaunch countdown. Photo credit: NASA

  1. 3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading to main floor. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp descending from viaduct to Cameron Street at left. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ALISO STREET (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT OF U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on the right. Utility building, intrusion, on the far right. - Curtis Wharf, Cement & Plaster Warehouse, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  12. East view; Mechanical Building south elevation, covered ramp, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East view; Mechanical Building - south elevation, covered ramp, and Street Car Waiting House, left to right - North Philadelphia Station, Mechanical Building, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  14. 33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP POSITION. CONTROL BOX IN FOREGROUND. USN PHOTO, JANUARY 20, 1942. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheetpile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheet-pile dolphin on right and southernmost dolphins in background. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. STS-27 Atlantis, OV-104, solid rocket booster (SRB) inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Engineers, kneeling inside a hollow solid rocket booster (SRB), closely inspect the SRB segments and seams in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) rotation and processing facility. The SRB will be used on STS-27 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The booster segments were transported via rail car from Morton Thiokol's Utah manufacturing plant. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-88PC-492.

  2. Results from commissioning the AGS Booster orbit system

    SciTech Connect

    Bleser, E.

    1993-06-01

    This note reports results from the commissioning of three systems in the AGS Booster. The beam position monitor system, which works to a relative accuracy of 0.36 millimeters; the uncorrected Booster orbit, which has quite large excursions; and the passive eddy current correction system, which eliminates all but a few percent of the eddy current dipole effect.

  3. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... one or more specific channels. A signal booster is deemed to be a Class A signal booster if none of..., tunnels, shielded outdoor areas and other locations where these signals would otherwise be too weak for... components. (b) Authority to operate. PLMRS licensees for stations operating on assigned channels higher than...

  4. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... one or more specific channels. A signal booster is deemed to be a Class A signal booster if none of..., tunnels, shielded outdoor areas and other locations where these signals would otherwise be too weak for... components. (b) Authority to operate. PLMRS licensees for stations operating on assigned channels higher than...

  5. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of signal boosters. 101.151 Section 101.151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.151 Use of signal boosters. Private operational-fixed licensees...

  6. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of signal boosters. 101.151 Section 101.151 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.151 Use of signal boosters. Private operational-fixed licensees...

  7. Study of solid rocket motor for a space shuttle booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster was directed toward definition of a parallel-burn shuttle booster using two 156-in.-dia solid rocket motors. The study effort was organized into the following major task areas: system studies, preliminary design, program planning, and program costing.

  8. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  9. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  10. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  11. Thiokol Corporation's Castor 120 solid propulsion booster program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilden, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Castor 120 program aimed at developing a solid propulsion booster for expandable launch vehicles is discussed. The booster is based on a light weight epoxy case, HTPB propellant, and flexible bearing nozzle. The Castor 120 will be capable of satisfying multiple launch vehicle functions for use as a strap-on, a first- or a second stage.

  12. General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting atop the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Credit BG. Northwest facade of Building 4504 (Deluge Water Booster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Northwest facade of Building 4504 (Deluge Water Booster Station) is in view at left, with 500,000 gallon water tank (Building 4503) at right. Fenced electrical substation in view between the above structures is Building 4510. Building 4505 is in background - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Booster Station, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) replacing Solid Rocket Boosters on the Space Shuttle program. The major findings are given. The most significant conclusion is that LRBs offer significantly safety and performance advantages over the SRBs currently used by the STS without major impact to the ongoing program.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Atlas V First Stage Booster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-07

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, stands in front of the United Launch Alliance Atlas V first stage booster while taking questions from the media, Wednesday, Sept. 7, 2011, at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The booster will help send NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover to Mars later this year. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  17. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  18. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOEpatents

    Farber, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  19. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"—the time derivative of the driving field phase—matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  20. PDR with a foot-mounted IMU and ramp detection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person's body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person's foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps.

  1. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"-the time derivative of the driving field phase-matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  2. Booster recovery following premature space shuttle stage separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Abort criteria necessary to satisfy space shuttle program requirements to include intact vehicle abort capability are discussed. Intact abort implies the ability of the booster and orbiter to separate and both continue flight to a safe landing, with a full payload aboard the orbiter. Obviously, the requirement to separate early along the ascent trajectory presupposes critical operational problems that are probably booster problems and may preclude booster recovery. On the other hand, some critical problems while mated can become manageable when separated and should result in full booster recovery. All critical orbiter problems fall into this category; since stage separation without orbiter thrust is a capability of some separation system concepts, booster stage recovery following separation is a requirement.

  3. A Method for Sizing Booster Charges in Pyrotechnic Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Since no generally accepted guidelines exist on sizing booster charges to assure functional margins in pyrotechnically actuated devices, a study was conducted to provide an approach to meet this need. An existing pyrovalve was modified from a single cartridge input to a dual-cartridge input with a booster charge. The objectives of this effort were to demonstrate an energy-based functional margin approach for sizing booster charges, and to determine booster charge energy delivery characteristics in this valve. Functional margin was demonstrated by determining the energy required to actuate the valve through weight drop tests for comparison to the energy delivered by the cartridge and booster charge in firings in the modified valve. The results of this study indicated that this energy-based approach fully met the study objectives, showing its usefulness for this and possibly other pyrotechnic devices.

  4. Superconducting racetrack booster for the ion complex of MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Filatov, Yu; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kovalenko, A.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-02-01

    The current design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) project at Jefferson lab features a single 8 GeV/c figure-8 booster based on super-ferric magnets. Reducing the circumference of the booster by switching to a racetrack design may improve its performance by limiting the space charge effect and lower its cost. We consider problems of preserving proton and deuteron polarizations in a superconducting racetrack booster. We show that using magnets based on hollow high-current NbTi composite superconducting cable similar to those designed at JINR for the Nuclotron guarantees preservation of the ion polarization in a racetrack booster up to 8 GeV/c. The booster operation cycle would be a few seconds that would improve the operating efficiency of the MEIC ion complex.

  5. Pediatric injury prevention: methods of booster seat education.

    PubMed

    Philbrook, Julie K; Kiragu, Andrew W; Geppert, Joni S; Graham, Patricia R; Richardson, Laura M; Kriel, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Sixty elementary schools in Minneapolis were asked to participate in a study to evaluate the most effective education method to increase booster seat knowledge and use in kindergarten-age children. School personnel selected one of the following interventions: (1) written information, (2) parent education class and a free booster seat, or (3) student education and a free booster seat. Twenty schools participated, with 132 parents completing the telephone interview 3 to 6 months post-survey. Providing instructions to parent groups and teaching children in the classroom, along with providing an incentive booster seat, was shown to increase booster seat use. Providing information only was found to be ineffective. Pediatric and school nurses should focus their injury prevention efforts beyond written materials. Results indicate that presentations for children and their parents, along with incentives, can result in changes in behavior.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-25

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervalswhere the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-21

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervals-where the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  8. Performance of a circular body earth-to-orbit winged transport with various strap-on boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Naftel, J. Chris; Widman, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Various types of twin strap-on boosters were evaluated by applying them to a core vehicle. The core vehicle has a clipped delta wing and a simple circular body, and is equipped with five Space Shuttle main engines. The only propellants in the core vehicle are liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The strap-on boosters investigated include the current Shuttle solid rocket motors with steel cases and advanced solids with graphite composite filament-wound cases. Also, two types of liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon boosters were investigated - one pair without crossfeed to the core vehicle and one with. The payloads obtained were tabulated for various assumptions, such as power levels on the core vehicle engines, number of engines, and maximum allowable flight dynamic pressures. The payload for the core vehicle with two filament-wound Shuttle solid rocket strap-on boosters was 83,000 lb and the payload for two liquid strap-ons with crossfeed was 84,000 lb. The core vehicle with Shuttle solid rocket strap-on boosters is regarded as a near term technology system.

  9. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  10. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  11. Calibration of propulsion simulation nozzles for space shuttle booster and orbiter models for the abort/separation staging experimental program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the power-on aerodynamic flight characteristics of the booster and orbiter vehicles during the abort separation maneuver is reported. An essential contribution to such a test program is the gas dynamic simulation of the size and shape of the plumes emitting from the full-scale orbiter and booster main propulsion systems. The two major effects of the plume which must be simulated are: the interaction of the plume with the external flow field, and the direct impingement of the plumes on surfaces which are enveloped by the plume. To accomplish the objective of correct plume simulation, the similarity parameters developed by Herron and the requirement to match momentum flux per unit area between the model and the full-scale systems, were applied to the orbiter and booster propulsion systems.

  12. Wind-Ramp-Forecast Sensitivity to Closure Parameters in a Boundary-Layer Parametrization Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David E.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gallus, William A.

    2017-09-01

    Wind ramps are relatively large changes in wind speed over a period of a few hours and present a challenge for electric utilities to balance power generation and load. Failures of boundary-layer parametrization schemes to represent physical processes limit the ability of numerical models to forecast wind ramps, especially in a stable boundary layer. Herein, the eight "closure parameters" of a widely used boundary-layer parameterization scheme are subject to sensitivity tests for a set of wind-ramp cases. A marked sensitivity of forecast wind speed to closure-parameter values is observed primarily for three parameters that influence in the closure equations the depth of turbulent mixing, dissipation, and the transfer of kinetic energy from the mean to the turbulent flow. Reducing the value of these parameters independently by 25% or by 50% reduces the overall average in forecast wind-speed errors by at least 24% for the first two parameters and increases average forecast error by at least 63% for the third parameter. Doubling any of these three parameters increases average forecast error by at least 67%. Such forecast sensitivity to closure parameter values provides motivation to explore alternative values in the context of a stable boundary layer.

  13. The Dynamic Behaviors of Single Crystal RDX Under Ramp Wave Loading to 15GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiji; Cai, Jintao; Zhao, Jianheng; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Gang; Tan, Fuli; Sun, Chengwei

    Based on high pulsed power generator CQ-4, the single crystal RDX explosive was researched along different crystal orientations under ramp wave loadings up to 15 GPa. The typical three-wave structures were obtained by means of laser interferometry PDV, which show the elastic-plastic transition and α to γ phase transition. The ramp elastic limit (REL) and yield strength of RDX along 210 and 100 crystal orientations were respectively calculated and the resuts show obvious effects of crystal orientaions for RDX. The ramp elastic limit σIEL of RDX along 210 orientation is 0.688-0.758GPa, and the σIEL of RDX along 100 is 1.039 -1.110 GPa. The α to γ phase transformation characteristics were also analyzed based on the experimental data. The initial phase transition pressure for the two crystal orientation of RDX are about 3.5 to 4 GPa, which agree well with the data of about 4-5GPa given by MD simulation. The data directly validate the results given by Raman Spectrum under shock compression and static high pressure, which couldn't be observed by wave profiles. The experimental data can be used to verify and validate the new models of RDX under dynamic loading. Supported by NSFC of China under Contract No.11327803 and 11176002

  14. Cost-effectiveness of pertussis booster vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, Mark H; De Cao, Elisabetta; Postma, Maarten J

    2012-11-26

    The aim of the current study is to estimate the epidemiological and economical consequences of several extended pertussis booster vaccination strategies and to explore the impact of parameters surrounded by large uncertainty on the cost-effectiveness. We developed an age structured transmission dynamic model to evaluate the impact of programs targeting (i) adolescents or adults using a single booster dose, (ii) a combination of adolescent and adult vaccination, and (iii) an every 10 years booster dose. The base case analysis, that is a single adolescent booster administered at the age of 12 years, resulted in a reduction of pertussis infections. However, due to an increase in the number of symptomatic infections in adults, the benefits in terms of QALYs gained and costs saved in children were partly offset. Despite these negative indirect effects in the adult population, administering an additional booster dose could still be considered cost effective with an ICER of €4200 per QALY gained. Combining an adolescent booster dose at the age of 10 (most cost-effective age for a single adolescent booster dose) with an adult (18-30 years) booster dose always resulted in favorable ICERs (<€10,000/QALY). Finally the every 10 year booster dose resulted in an ICER of €16,900 per QALY. The impact of different assumptions regarding the disease epidemiology, disease-related parameters, and vaccination program-related issues was limited. To conclude, we show that extended pertussis booster vaccination strategies are likely to be considered as cost-effective. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and predictors of booster seat use in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Richard P; Dobbs, Bonnie M; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Don

    2016-08-15

    To determine the prevalence of booster seat misuse in a Canadian province and identify determinants of non-use. A cross-sectional study using parking lot interviews and in-vehicle restraint inspections by trained staff was conducted at 67 randomly selected childcare centres across Alberta. Only booster-eligible children were included in this analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Overall, 23% of children were not in a booster seat, and in 31.8% of cases there was evidence of at least one misuse. Non-use increased significantly by age, from 22.2% for children 2 years of age to 47.8% for children 7 years of age (p = 0.02). Children who were at significantly increased risk of booster seat non-use were those in vehicles with drivers who could not recall the booster seat to seatbelt transition point (OR: 4.54; 95% CI: 2.05-10.06) or drivers who were under the age of 30 (OR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.45-8.62). A front row seating position was also associated with significantly higher risk of nonuse (OR: 18.00; 95% CI: 2.78-116.56). Children in vehicles with grandparent drivers exhibited significantly decreased risk of booster seat non-use (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.85). Messaging should continue to stress that the front seat is not a safe place for any child under the age of 9 as well as remind drivers of the booster seat to seatbelt transition point, with additional emphasis placed on appealing to parents under the age of 30. Future research should focus on the most effective means of communicating booster seat information to this group. Enacting mandatory booster seat legislation would be an important step to increase both awareness and proper use of booster seats in Alberta.

  16. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  17. Influence of priming exercise on muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Bouckaert, Jacques; Barstow, Thomas J; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the mechanisms underpinning the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during incremental exercise by assessing the changes in the profile following prior high-intensity exercise. Ten physically active students performed two incremental ramp (25 W min(-1)) exercises (AL and LL, respectively) preceded on one occasion by incremental arm (10 W min(-1)) and on another occasion by incremental leg exercise (25 W min(-1)), which served as the reference test (RT). Deoxy[Hb + Mb] was measured by means of near-infrared spectroscopy and surface EMG was recorded at the Vastus Lateralis throughout the exercises. Deoxy[Hb + Mb], integrated EMG and Median Power Frequency (MdPF) were expressed as a function of work rate (W) and compared between the exercises. During RT and AL deoxy[Hb + Mb] followed a sigmoid increase as a function of work rate. However, during LL deoxy[Hb + Mb] increased immediately from the onset of the ramp exercise and thus no longer followed a sigmoid pattern. This different pattern in deoxy[Hb + Mb] was accompanied by a steeper slope of the iEMG/W-relationship below the GET (LL: 0.89 ± 0.11% W(-1); RT: 0.74 ± 0.08% W(-1); AL: 0.72 ± 0.10% W(-1)) and a more pronounced decrease in MdPF in LL (17.2 ± 4.5%) compared to RT (5.0 ± 2.1%) and AL (3.9 ± 3.2%). It was observed that the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] was disturbed when the ramp exercise was preceded by priming leg exercise. Since the differences in deoxy[Hb + Mb] were accompanied by differences in EMG it can be suggested that muscle fibre recruitment is an important underlying mechanism for the pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp exercise.

  18. TDRS-M Atlas V Booster and Centaur Stages Arrival, Offload, and Transport (Booster) to ASOC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-26

    The United Launch Alliance (ULA) Mariner arrives at Port Canaveral in Florida carrying an Atlas V rocket booster and centaur upper stage bounded for Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The centaur upper stage is transported from the company's Mariner ship to the Delta Operations Center. The booster stage is transported to the Atlas Spaceflight Operations Center. The rocket is scheduled to launch the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, TDRS-M. It will be the latest spacecraft destined for the agency's constellation of communications satellites that allows nearly continuous contact with orbiting spacecraft ranging from the International Space Station and Hubble Space Telescope to the array of scientific observatories. Liftoff atop the ULA Atlas V rocket is scheduled to take place from Cape Canaveral's Space Launch Complex 41 on Aug. 3, 2017 at 9:02 a.m. EDT.

  19. R & D on Beam Injection and Bunching Schemes in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fermilab is committed to upgrade its accelerator complex to support HEP experiments at the intensity frontier. The ongoing Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) enables us to reach 700 kW beam power on the NuMI neutrino targets. By the end of the next decade, the current 400 MeV normal conducting LINAC will be replaced by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC (PIP-II) with an increased beam power >50% of the PIP design goal. Both in PIP and PIP-II era, the existing Booster is going to play a very significant role, at least for next two decades. In the meanwhile, we have recently developed an innovative beam injection and bunching scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme" that continues to use the existing 400 MeV LINAC and implemented into operation. This scheme has the potential to increase the Booster beam intensity by >40% from the PIP design goal. Some benefits from the scheme have already been seen. In this paper, I will describe the basic principle of the scheme, results from recent beam experiments, our experience with the new scheme in operation, current status, issues and future plans. This scheme fits well with the current and future intensity upgrade programs at Fermilab.

  20. Peroneus Longus activity according to various angles of a ramp during cross-ramp walking and one-legged standing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Seung-Min; Jung, Jae-Min

    2017-06-03

    Ankle sprain are one of the most common injuries in sports and public health in general. Cross-slope may creat a risk for ankle sprain and are commonly found in both urban and rural environment. The purpose of study was to clarify the environmental risk factor that can be easily occurred ankle sprain during walking (stance phase) and one leg standing at various ramp environment. Participants was measured muscle activation on peroneus longus during both conditions (walk across the ramp and one leg stand in the transverse direction) of seven different angle (0∘, 2∘, 5∘, 10∘, 15∘, 20∘, 25∘). The measured data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA to investigate the effect of muscle activation on the each condition. Ankle sprain can be easily occurred when cross walk and one-leg stand on a ramp from higher than 10∘, and highest risk was angle of 25∘ or more. As a people with peroneus longus weakness walks a ramp, the ramp angle has a cross relationship with the sprain on the ankle. If people with peroneus longus weakness walk on the more than 10∘ of ramp angle, they will need a lot of attention for prevent ankle sprain.

  1. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS Booster injector will perform a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B /preceq/ 10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displaced coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction. 6 figs.

  2. Status of the AGC Booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    To meet the needs of new experiments in high energy and nuclear physics, a rapid-cycling Booster for the AGS has been under construction at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues that need special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. And finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Delta II SIRTF Booster Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-05

    One of nine solid rocket boosters is lifted on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for mating with the Delta II rocket in the background. The second stage will later be hoisted atop the first stage. The Delta rocket is the launch vehicle for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground. Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF is scheduled for launch April 15 at 4:34:07 a.m. EDT.

  4. Shuttle rocket booster computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Park, O. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Additional results and a revised and improved computer program listing from the shuttle rocket booster computational fluid dynamics formulations are presented. Numerical calculations for the flame zone of solid propellants are carried out using the Galerkin finite elements, with perturbations expanded to the zeroth, first, and second orders. The results indicate that amplification of oscillatory motions does indeed prevail in high frequency regions. For the second order system, the trend is similar to the first order system for low frequencies, but instabilities may appear at frequencies lower than those of the first order system. The most significant effect of the second order system is that the admittance is extremely oscillatory between moderately high frequency ranges.

  5. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  6. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  7. Delta Mariner arrival with EFT-1 Booster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-03

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – The United Launch Alliance barge Delta Mariner approaches the mouth of Port Canaveral in Florida. The barge is carrying two of the booster stages for the Delta IV Heavy rocket slated for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1, or EFT-1. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep-space return velocities. The first unpiloted test flight of Orion is scheduled to launch in September 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket and in 2017 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/orion. Photo credit: NASA/Frankie Martin

  8. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-09-26

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made.

  9. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Booster Vaccination: The Role of Reduced Antigen Content Vaccines as a Preschool Booster

    PubMed Central

    Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  11. Pain Assessment and Management After a Knowledge Translation Booster Intervention.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Barwick, Melanie; Pinard, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Inadequate pain treatment leaves hospitalized children vulnerable to immediate and long-term sequelae. A multidimensional knowledge translation intervention (ie, the Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality [EPIQ]) improved pain assessment, management, and intensity outcomes in 16 units at 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals. The sustained effectiveness of EPIQ over time is unknown, however. The goals of this study were to determine the following: (1) sustainability of the impact of EPIQ on pain assessment, management, and intensity outcomes 12, 24, and 36 months after EPIQ; (2) effectiveness of a pain practice change booster (Booster) intervention to sustain EPIQ outcomes over time; and (3) influence of context on sustainability. A prospective, repeated measures, cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken in the 16 EPIQ units, 12 months after EPIQ completion, to determine the effectiveness of a practice change booster (Booster) to sustain EPIQ outcomes. Generalized estimating equation models examined outcomes controlling for child and unit contextual factors. Outcomes achieved during EPIQ were sustained in the use of any pain assessment measure (P = .01) and a validated pain assessment measure in the EPIQ units (P = .02) up to 36 months after EPIQ. Statistically significant improvements in pain management practices persisted in EPIQ units; results varied across time. There were no significant differences in outcomes after implementation of the Booster between the Booster and Nonbooster groups. Improved pain assessment and management practices were sustained after EPIQ; however, the Booster did not seem to provide additional impact. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a No-Insulation (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox high temperature superconductor pancake coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Song, H.; Yuan, W.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is to study ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) pancake coil wound with (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox (REBCO) conductors. For insulated (INS) HTS coils, a magnetization loss occurs on superconducting layers during a ramping operation. For the NI HTS coil, additional loss is generated by the "bypassing" current on the turn-to-turn metallic contacts, which is called "turn-to-turn loss" in this study. Therefore, the NI coil's ramping loss is much different from that of the INS coil, but few studies have been reported on this aspect. To analyze the ramping losses of NI coils, a numerical method is developed by coupling an equivalent circuit network model and a H-formulation finite element method model. The former model is to calculate NI coil's current distribution and turn-to-turn loss, and the latter model is to calculate the magnetization loss. A test NI pancake coil is wound with REBCO tapes and the reliability of this model is validated by experiments. Then the characteristics of the NI coil's ramping losses are studied using this coupling model. Results show that the turn-to-turn loss is much higher than the magnetization loss. The NI coil's total ramping loss is much higher than that of its insulated counterpart, which has to be considered carefully in the design and operation of NI applications. This paper also discusses the possibility to reduce NI coil's ramping loss by decreasing the ramping rate of power supply or increasing the coil's turn-to-turn resistivity.

  13. Booster Seat Effectiveness Among Older Children: Evidence From Washington State.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark; Carlson, Lindsay L; Rees, Daniel I

    2017-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children as old as 12 years use a booster seat when riding in motor vehicles, yet little is known about booster seat effectiveness when used by older children. This study estimated the association between booster use and injuries among children aged 8-12 years who were involved in motor vehicle crashes. Researchers analyzed data on all motor vehicle crashes involving children aged 8-12 years reported to the Washington State Department of Transportation from 2002 to 2015. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Children who were in a booster seat were compared with children restrained by a seat belt alone. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. In unadjusted models, booster use was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of experiencing any injury versus riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.709, 95% CI=0.675, 0.745). In models adjusted for potential confounders, booster use was associated with a 19% reduction in the odds of any injury relative to riding in a seat belt alone (OR=0.814, 95% CI=0.749, 0.884). The risk of experiencing an incapacitating/fatal injury was not associated with booster use. Children aged 8-12 years involved in a motor vehicle crash are less likely to be injured if in a booster than if restrained by a seat belt alone. Because only 10% of U.S. children aged 8-12 years use booster seats, policies encouraging their use could lead to fewer injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, Frustum and Nose Cap mated assembly undergoing final preparations in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The prominent feature in this view is the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting which mates up with the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting of the External Tank (ET) at the ends of the SRB Beam that runs through the ET's Inter Tank Assembly. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as they are being prepared for attachment to the SRB Frustum. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes that are deployed prior to the main chutes as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt sitting on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center while being prepared for mating with the Frustum-Nose Cap Assembly and the Forward Rocket Motor Segment. The prominent feature in this view is the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting which mates up with the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting of the External Tank (ET) at the ends of the SRB Beam that runs through the ET's Inter Tank Assembly. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt sitting on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center while being prepared for mating with the Frustum-Nose Cap Assembly and the Forward Rocket Motor Segment. The prominent feature in this view is the electrical, data, telemetry and safety systems terminal which connects to the Aft Skirt Assembly systems via the Systems Tunnel that runs the length of the Rocket Motor. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. The StarBooster System: A Cargo Aircraft for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Dula, Arthur M.; McLaughlin, Don; Frassanito, John; Andrews, Jason (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Starcraft Boosters has developed a different approach for lowering the cost of access to space. We propose developing a new aircraft that will house an existing expendable rocket stage. This vehicle, termed StarBooster, will be the first stage of a family of launch vehicles. By combining these elements, we believe we can reduce the cost and risk of fielding a new partially reusable launch system. This report summarizes the work performed on the StarBooster concept since the company's inception in 1996. Detailed analyses are on-going and future reports will focus on the maturation of the vehicle and system design.

  19. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  20. Qualitative investigation of booster recovery in open sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Limited tests were conducted using 1/27 scale model of a Titan 3C booster plus 1/32.9 and 1/15.6 scale models of a solid rocket booster case to establish some of the characteristics that will effect recovery operations in open seas. This preliminary effort was designed to provide additional background information for conceptual development of a waterborne recovery system for space shuttle boosters, pending initiation of comprehensive studies. The models were not instrumented; therefore, all data are qualitative (approximations) and are based on observations plus photographic coverage.

  1. 39. VIEW OF CHRYSLER WORKERS LOADING A SATURN IB BOOSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CHRYSLER WORKERS LOADING A SATURN IB BOOSTER INTO THE EAST POSITION ON THE STATIC TEST TOWER. AS THE MAIN CONTRACTOR OF THE SATURN IB BOOSTER, CHRYSLER TOOK OVER OPERATIONS OF THE EAST POSITION OF THE STATIC TEST TOWER IN 1963. THAT SAME YEAR, THE WEST POSITION OF THE TEST TOWER WAS MODIFIED (AS SEEN IN THE PHOTO) FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TESTS OF THE SATURN V BOOSTER'S ENGINE, THE F-1. MARCH 1963, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.

    2004-03-22

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

  3. Temperature-Ramped 129Xe Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode 129Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) “hot”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) “warm”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) “cool”—where hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10–3 min–1 vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10–3 min–1) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading—corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 105 and ∼2.32 × 108 at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP 129Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle “dead” time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of 129Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation—making this approach beneficial for improving the overall 129Xe production rate in clinical settings. PMID:25008290

  4. Temperature-ramped (129)Xe spin-exchange optical pumping.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-08-19

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode (129)Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) "hot"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) "warm"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) "cool"-where hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10(-3) min(-1) vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10(-3) min(-1)) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading-corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 10(5) and ∼2.32 × 10(8) at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP (129)Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle "dead" time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of (129)Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation-making this approach beneficial for improving the overall (129)Xe production rate in clinical settings.

  5. Guidelines for the Calculation of the Accumulator Magnet Bus Ramps for Fermilab Experiment E835

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; Stancari, Giulio; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    1999-04-15

    This report lists the steps that are required to calculate deceleration ramps for all relevant Accumulator devices. The ramps used for the 1996-97 fixed target run (experiment E835) are saved in files associated with ACNET console application PA1627 (PAUX RAMP DEVELOP). These ramps cannot be re-used because the Accumulator {gamma}{sub t} upgrade has significantly changed the lattice since the last time the ramps were used. Consequently, new deceleration ramps must be calculated and commissioned before the next fixed target run. The deceleration ramp for a particular device is a table that gives the sequence of set values sent to the device as the ramp is executed. The 1997 ramps consist of ramp tables for 100 devices. Appendix 1 gives a list of the devices ramped. Most of these devices will still require ramps for the next fixed target run. Future decelerations will also require ramps for the quadrupole magnet shunts that were installed as part of the {gamma}{sub t} upgrade. Additionally, ramps must be constructed for the two skew-sextupole magnets that will be installed during the summer of 1999.

  6. Impaired aerobic function in patients with cystic fibrosis during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Saynor, Zoe Louise; Barker, Alan Robert; Oades, Patrick John; Williams, Craig Anthony

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to document the matching of muscle O2 delivery to O2 use in young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) from muscle deoxygenation (HHb) dynamics during ramp exercise. Ten patients with stable, mild-to-moderate CF (12.7 ± 2.8 yr) and 10 healthy controls (CON, 12.8 ± 2.8 yr) completed a combined ramp and supramaximal cycling test to determine maximal O2 uptake (V˙O2max). Changes in gas exchange and ventilation, HR, and m. vastus lateralis HHb (near-infrared spectroscopy) were assessed. Δ[HHb]-work rate and Δ[HHb]-V˙O2 profiles were normalized and fit using a sigmoid function. Aerobic function was impaired in CF, indicated by very likely reduced fat-free mass-normalized V˙O2max (mean difference, ±90% confidence interval: -7.9 mL·kg·min, ±6.1), very likely lower V˙O2 gain (-1.44 mL·min·W, ±1.12), and a likely slower V˙O2 mean response time (11 s, ±13). An unclear effect was found upon the absolute and relative work rate (-14 W, ±44, and -0.7% peak power output, ±12.0, respectively) and the absolute and percentage (-0.10 L·min, ±0.43, and 3.3% V˙O2max, ±6.0) V˙O2 corresponding to 50% Δ[HHb] amplitude, respectively, between groups. However, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was very likely lower in CF (-1%, ±1) and demonstrated moderate-to-very large relations with parameters of aerobic function. Young patients with mild-to-moderate CF present with impaired aerobic function during ramp incremental cycling exercise. Because the rate of fractional O2 extraction during ramp cycling exercise was not altered by CF, yet SpO2 was lower, the present findings support the notion of centrally mediated oxygen delivery to principally limit the aerobic function of pediatric patients with CF during ramp incremental cycling exercise.

  7. YF-12A #935 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A front, overhead view of the number two YF-12A (60-6935) on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden), Edwards, California. Notice how the chines end abruptly, just aft of the nose radome. The aircraft was originally designed as an interceptor. The large radome housed a radar for the Hughes ASG-18 missile fire control system. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the

  8. YF-12A #935 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A front, overhead view of the number two YF-12A (60-6935) on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden), Edwards, California. Notice how the chines end abruptly, just aft of the nose radome. The aircraft was originally designed as an interceptor. The large radome housed a radar for the Hughes ASG-18 missile fire control system. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the

  9. X-36 on Ramp Viewed from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This look-down view of the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, clearly shows the unusual wing and canard design of the remotely-piloted aircraft. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet

  10. XS-1 on ramp with B-29 mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    XS-1 on the ramp with the B-29 mothership in 1949. This is the second XS-1 built; it later was converted into the X-1E. Unlike the XS-1-1, which was flown by the Air Force, the XS-1-2 was flown mostly by Bell and NACA pilots. It gathered much more research data than the more famous XS-1-1, known as 'Glamorous Glennis.' The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the NACA. The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Army Air Field, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after the B-29 air-launched it from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 feet. The 6,000-pound thrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed the aircraft up to a speed of 700 miles per hour in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed, 957 miles per hour. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 feet. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 30 feet, 11 inches long; 10 feet, 10 inches high; and had a wingspan of 29 feet. It weighed 6,784 pounds and carried 6,250 pounds of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat.

  11. Ramp compression of magnesium oxide to 234 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, R. F.; Coppari, F.; ...

    2014-05-07

    Single-crystal magnesium oxide (MgO) samples were ramp compressed to above 200 GPa pressure at the Omega laser facility. Multi-stepped MgO targets were prepared using lithography and wet etching techniques. Free surface velocities of ramp-compressed MgO were measured with a VISAR. The sound velocity and stress-density response were determined using an iterative Lagrangian analysis. The measured equation of state is consistent with expectations from previous shock and static data as well as with a recent X-ray diffraction measurement under ramp loading. The peak elastic stresses observed in our samples had amplitudes of 3-5.5 GPa, decreasing with propagation distance.

  12. Shock formation and the ideal shape of ramp compression waves

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Kraus, R G; Loomis, E; Hicks, D G; McNaney, J M; Johnson, R P

    2008-05-29

    We derive expressions for shock formation based on the local curvature of the flow characteristics during dynamic compression. Given a specific ramp adiabat, calculated for instance from the equation of state for a substance, the ideal nonlinear shape for an applied ramp loading history can be determined. We discuss the region affected by lateral release, which can be presented in compact form for the ideal loading history. Example calculations are given for representative metals and plastic ablators. Continuum dynamics (hydrocode) simulations were in good agreement with the algebraic forms. Example applications are presented for several classes of laser-loading experiment, identifying conditions where shocks are desired but not formed, and where long duration ramps are desired.

  13. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  14. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  15. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  16. Propulsion system advances that enable a reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX/kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  17. Propulsion System Advances that Enable a Reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Edward L.; Rothschild, William J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX / kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  18. THE LINAC LASER NOTCHER FOR THE FERMILAB BOOSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David E,; Duel, Kevin; Gardner, Matthew; Johnson, Todd; Slimmer, David; Patil, Screenvias; Tafoya, Jason

    2016-09-27

    In synchrotron machines, the beam extraction is accomplished by a combination of septa and kicker magnets which deflect the beam from an accelerator into another. Ideally the kicker field must rise/fall in between the beam bunches. However, in reality, an intentional beam-free time region (aka "notch") is created on the beam pulse to assure that the beam can be extracted with minimal losses. In the case of the Fermilab Booster, the notch is created in the ring near injection energy by the use of fast kickers which deposit the beam in a shielded collimation region within the accelerator tunnel. With increasing beam power it is desirable to create this notch at the lowest possible energy to minimize activation. The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) initiated an R&D project to build a laser system to create the notch within a linac beam pulse at 750 keV. This talk will describe the concept for the laser notcher and discuss our current status, commissioning results, and future plans.

  19. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as it is being prepared to be mated with the Nose Cap and Forward Skirt. The Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. The three main parachutes are deployed to reduce speed as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as it is being prepared to be mated with the Nose Cap and Forward Skirt. The Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. The three main parachutes are deployed to reduce speed as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Tracking booster and multiple mirror concentrator floating collector

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.

    1981-10-27

    A water-borne tracking solar energy collecting and converting system employing booster and multiple mirror concentrator collectors for concentrating sunlight on either photovoltaic cells and/or flat plate collectors.

  2. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 4: Program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    All subprograms or routines associated with the solid rocket booster performance evaluation model are indexed in this computer listing. An alphanumeric list of each routine in the index is provided in a table of contents.

  3. Object-oriented programming techniques for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.F.

    1991-12-31

    The applications software developed for the control system of the AGS Booster Project was written in the object-oriented language, C++. A the start of the Booster Project, the programming staff of the AGS Controls Section comprised some dozen programmer/analysts, all highly fluent in C but novices in C++. During the coarse of this project, nearly the entire staff converted to using C++ for a large fraction of their assignments. Over 100 C++ software modules are now available for Booster and general AGS use, of which a large fraction are broadly applicable tools. The transition from C to C++ from a managerial perspective is discussed and an overview is provided of the ways in which object classes have been applied in Booster software development.

  4. Object-oriented programming techniques for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The applications software developed for the control system of the AGS Booster Project was written in the object-oriented language, C++. A the start of the Booster Project, the programming staff of the AGS Controls Section comprised some dozen programmer/analysts, all highly fluent in C but novices in C++. During the coarse of this project, nearly the entire staff converted to using C++ for a large fraction of their assignments. Over 100 C++ software modules are now available for Booster and general AGS use, of which a large fraction are broadly applicable tools. The transition from C to C++ from a managerial perspective is discussed and an overview is provided of the ways in which object classes have been applied in Booster software development.

  5. High explosives reaction model and its application to booster performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Initiation of insensitive high explosives requires a boosting system using more sensitive and usually more energetic explosives. However, problems arise if the booster material is too energetic. The initiability of some insensitive but less energetic high explosives can be enhanced by lowering the density and decreasing the grain size or by adding a sensitive component; thus these explosives can be used as booster materials. This paper presents a unified initiation and detonation reaction model and then the simulation of the development of the detonation wave in a PBX-9502 main charge using three booster explosives: low-density superfine TATB, low-density ultrafine TATB, and X-0407. The last two are found to be acceptable for booster application. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  6. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  7. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  8. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  9. Hepatitis A and B booster recommendations: implications for travelers.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Connor, Bradley A; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis A and B are serious vaccine-preventable diseases with a predominantly overlapping epidemiological distribution. Travelers, a term encompassing a range of individuals, are at risk of contracting these diseases if they are unvaccinated. Although the benefits of the primary vaccination course of hepatitis A and B vaccines are clear, the administration of hepatitis A and B boosters varies worldwide. Recommendations on the need for booster vaccinations have recently been published, and the implications of these recommendations for travelers are discussed in this review. Until a greater understanding is reached on the immunogenicity of hepatitis A and B vaccines in certain special groups (e.g., immunocompromised persons), there will be a need to monitor antibody levels to assess whether booster vaccinations are required. However, for the majority of immunocompetent travelers, the full primary vaccination course will provide protection from both hepatitis A and B infection in the long term, without the need for boosters.

  10. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 21. VIEW OF CLARK OXYGEN BOOSTER COMPRESSOR IN THE HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF CLARK OXYGEN BOOSTER COMPRESSOR IN THE HIGH PURITY OXYGEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter monitors Booster System Console in MCC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-12

    S66-51794 (12 Sept. 1966) --- Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter monitors the Booster Systems Console in the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Mission Control Center during launch of the Gemini-11 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Mark G.

    1989-08-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary design for an unmanned, reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster (LRB) as an evolutionary follow-on to the Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). Previous Shuttle liquid-propellant booster concepts are reviewed in order to gain insight into these designs. The operating costs, environmental impacts, and abort options of the SRB are discussed. The LRB flight profile and advantages of LRB use are discussed. The preliminary design for the LRB is outlined in detail using calculations and drawings. This design maximizes the use of existing hardware and proven technology to minimize cost and development time. The LRB design is presented as a more capable, more environmentally acceptable, and safer Shuttle booster.

  14. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Joins Propulsion Park Display

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A crane lifts a space shuttle solid rocket booster into its final position in the “propulsion park” outside Building 4205, the Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at the Marshall Cente...

  15. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  16. For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster

    MedlinePlus

    ... html For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster Diminished response seen in premature infants who ... 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Underscoring the link between brain development and touch, new research suggests premature babies ...

  17. PDR with a Foot-Mounted IMU and Ramp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Antonio R.; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C.; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person’s body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person’s foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps. PMID:22163701

  18. Comparison of the ramp versus standard exercise protocols.

    PubMed

    Myers, J; Buchanan, N; Walsh, D; Kraemer, M; McAuley, P; Hamilton-Wessler, M; Froelicher, V F

    1991-05-01

    To compare the hemodynamic and gas exchange responses of ramp treadmill and cycle ergometer tests with standard exercise protocols used clinically, 10 patients with chronic heart failure, 10 with coronary artery disease who were asymptomatic during exercise, 11 with coronary artery disease who were limited by angina during exercise and 10 age-matched normal subjects performed maximal exercise using six different exercise protocols. Gas exchange data were collected continuously during each of the following protocols, performed on separate days in randomized order: Bruce, Balke and an individualized ramp treadmill; 25 W/stage, 50 W/stage and an individualized ramp cycle ergometer test. Maximal oxygen uptake was 16% greater on the treadmill protocols combined (21.4 +/- 8 ml/kg per min) versus the cycle ergometer protocols combined (18.1 +/- 7 ml/kg per min) (p less than 0.01), although no differences were observed in maximal heart rate (131 +/- 24 versus 126 +/- 24 beats/min for the treadmill and cycle ergometer protocols, respectively). No major differences were observed in maximal heart rate or maximal oxygen uptake among the various treadmill protocols or among the various cycle ergometer protocols. The ratio of oxygen uptake to work rate, expressed as a slope, was highest for the ramp tests (slope +/- SEE ml/kg per min = 0.80 +/- 2.5 and 0.78 +/- 1.7 for ramp treadmill and ramp cycle ergometer, respectively). The slopes were poorest for the tests with the largest increments in work (0.62 +/- 4.0 and 0.59 +/- 2.8 for the Bruce treadmill and 50 W/stage cycle ergometer, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The effect of a booster intervention to promote hearing protection behavior in operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Oisaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Fiola, Lauren A; Kazanis, Anamaria S

    2013-02-01

    Booster interventions may be useful in promoting workers' hearing protection device (HPD) use. Previous research on the effectiveness and the optimal timeframe for boosters is limited and inconsistent. In this randomized controlled trial, 403 workers were assigned to receive an individually tailored booster, a control booster, or no booster. The booster intervention groups were further divided by timeframe. Frequency of HPD use was measured 12 months post-intervention. The booster intervention groups significantly accounted for the variance in HPD use in Year 2. Workers in middle-term booster (67-94 days) group reported a significantly greater increase in HPD use in Year 2 than those in other timeframes, when potential covariates were controlled for. Booster intervention letters mailed between 67 and 94 days post-initial intervention may promote HPD use among participants. Future research should explore additional factors associated with optimal booster design, including more innovative mobile and internet-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. YALINA-booster subcritical assembly pulsed-neutron experiments : data processing and spatial corrections.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-11

    The YALINA-Booster experiments and analyses are part of the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory of USA and the Joint Institute for Power & Nuclear Research - SOSNY of Belarus for studying the physics of accelerator driven systems for nuclear energy applications using low enriched uranium. The YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly is utilized for studying the kinetics of accelerator driven systems with its highly intensive D-T or D-D pulsed neutron source. In particular, the pulsed neutron methods are used to determine the reactivity of the subcritical system. This report examines the pulsed-neutron experiments performed in the YALINA-Booster facility with different configurations for the subcritical assembly. The 1141 configuration with 90% U-235 fuel and the 1185 configuration with 36% or 21% U-235 fuel are examined. The Sjoestrand area-ratio method is utilized to determine the reactivities of the different configurations. The linear regression method is applied to obtain the prompt neutron decay constants from the pulsed-neutron experimental data. The reactivity values obtained from the experimental data are shown to be dependent on the detector locations inside the subcritical assembly and the types of detector used for the measurements. In this report, Bell's spatial correction factors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo model to remove the detector dependences. The large differences between the reactivity values given by the detectors in the fast neutron zone of the YALINA-Booster are reduced after applying the spatial corrections. In addition, the estimated reactivity values after the spatial corrections are much less spatially dependent.