Science.gov

Sample records for booster ramping power

  1. Detecting and characterising ramp events in wind power time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Cristóbal; Cuerva, Álvaro; Costa, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In order to implement accurate models for wind power ramp forecasting, ramps need to be previously characterised. This issue has been typically addressed by performing binary ramp/non-ramp classifications based on ad-hoc assessed thresholds. However, recent works question this approach. This paper presents the ramp function, an innovative wavelet- based tool which detects and characterises ramp events in wind power time series. The underlying idea is to assess a continuous index related to the ramp intensity at each time step, which is obtained by considering large power output gradients evaluated under different time scales (up to typical ramp durations). The ramp function overcomes some of the drawbacks shown by the aforementioned binary classification and permits forecasters to easily reveal specific features of the ramp behaviour observed at a wind farm. As an example, the daily profile of the ramp-up and ramp-down intensities are obtained for the case of a wind farm located in Spain.

  2. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  3. Status of the SNS Power Ramp Up

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. Since formal operations began in 2006, the beam power has been steadily increasing toward the design goal of 1.4 MW. In September 2009 the power surpassed 1 MW for the first time, and operation at the 1 MW level is now routine. The status of the beam power ramp-up program and present operational limitations will be described.

  4. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  5. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2016-05-05

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  6. CFD Assessment of Forward Booster Separation Motor Ignition Overpressure on ET XT 718 Ice/Frost Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejnil, Edward; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics assessment of the forward booster separation motor ignition over-pressure was performed on the space shuttle external tank X(sub T) 718 ice/frost ramp using the flow solver OVERFLOW. The main objective of this study was the investigation of the over-pressure during solid rocket booster separation and its affect on the local pressure and air-load environments. Delta pressure and plume impingement were investigated as a possible contributing factor to the cause of the debris loss on shuttle missions STS-125 and STS-127. A simplified computational model of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle was developed consisting of just the external tank and the solid rocket boosters with separation motor nozzles and plumes. The simplified model was validated by comparison to full fidelity computational model of the Space Shuttle without the separation motors. Quasi steady-state plume solutions were used to calibrate the thrust of the separation motors. Time-accurate simulations of the firing of the booster-separation motors were performed. Parametric studies of the time-step size and the number of sub-iterations were used to find the best converged solution. The computed solutions were compared to previous OVERFLOW steady-state runs of the separation motors with reaction control system jets and to ground test data. The results indicated that delta pressure from the overpressure was small and within design limits, and thus was unlikely to have contributed to the foam losses.

  7. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  8. Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Frame, Kyle L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are underway with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant grain, asbestos-free case insulation, a redesigned nozzle, streamlined manufacturing

  9. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-07-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system.

  10. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-12-31

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  11. Control system for NSLS booster power supply upgrade II

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-07-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second by means of the installation of new dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole power supplies. Here the authors outline the design of the power supply control system.

  12. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J. ); Murray, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.

  13. Return time statistic of wind power ramp events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.

    2015-04-01

    Detection and forecasting of wind power ramp events is a critical issue for the management of power generated by wind turbine and a cluster of wind turbines. The wind power ramp events occur suddenly with larges changes (increases or decreases) of wind power output. In this work, the statistic and the dynamic of wind power ramp events are examined. For that, we analyze several datasets of wind power output with different sampling rate and duration. The data considered are delivered by five wind farms and two single turbines, located at different geographic locations. From these datasets, the return time series τr of wind power ramp events, i.e., the time between two successive ramps above a given threshold Δ p. The return time statistic is investigated plotting the complementary cumulative distribution C(τ_r) in log-log representation. Using a robust method developed by Clauset et al., combining maximum-likelihood fitting methods with goodness-of-fit tests based on the Kolmogorov Smirnov statistic, we show a scaling behavior of the return time statistic, of the form: C(τ_r)˜ kτ_r-α where k is a positive constant and the exponent α called the tail exponent of the distribution. In this study, the value of α ranges from 1.68 to 2.20. This result is a potential information for the estimation risk of wind power generation based on the return time series. Clauset A, Shalizi CR, Newman MEJ. Power-Law distributions in empirical data. SIAM Review 2009;51(4):661-703.

  14. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO's substation.

  15. Preliminary study of AC power feeders for AGS booster

    SciTech Connect

    Meth, M.

    1992-07-17

    It has been proposed that the AGS Heavy Ion/Proton Booster be excited directly from the electric power distribution system without intervening an energy storage buffer such as an MG set or a magnetic energy buffer. The average power requirement of the AGS Booster is less than many single-loads presently housed on the lab site. However, the power swing will be the largest single pulsating load on the lab site. The large power swings will impact on the power grid producing utility-line disturbances such as voltage fluctuations and harmonic generation. Thus, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the quality of the electric power system resulting from the interconnection, such that the utility system is not degraded either on the lab site or at LILCO`s substation.

  16. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable...

  17. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable...

  18. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable...

  19. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., low power, and booster stations. 74.780 Section 74.780 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations. The following rules are applicable...

  20. Status of the SNS Ring Power Ramp UP

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A; Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Allen, Christopher K; Cousineau, Sarah M; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Galambos, John D; Holmes, Jeffrey A; Jeon, Dong-O; Pelaia II, Tom; Shishlo, Andrei P; Zhang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Beam was first circulated in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring in January 2006. Since that time we have been working to raise the beam power to the design value of 1.4 MW. In general the power ramp up has been proceeding very well, but several issues have been uncovered. Examples include poor transmission of the waste beams in the injection dump beam line, and cross-plane coupling in the ring to target beam transport line. In this paper we will discuss these issues and present an overall status of the ring and the transport beam lines.

  1. Feedback simulation of ramped power transients using transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic simulation of reactor transients is important in determining the feedback and temperature responses of various subassembly components. One method of determining component feedbacks (or associated temperature increments) is by using the feedback reactivity transfer functions of the system. For any variation of power with time the component feedback reactivity responses are then obtained by the convolutions of the feedback reactivity transfer functions and the fractional change in system power. (The nodal feedback reactivity transfer functions for the system were obtained, using the EROS computer code, from nodal feedback responses for a step change in power.) This paper discusses the application of these transfer functions in calculating nodal feedback reactivities in the experimental breeder reactor-II (EBR-II) reactor assuming a fractional power shape that can be defined by a series of ramp inputs. For a comparison, these transfer-function calculated nodal reactivities are compared with nodal reactivities calculated using the EROS kinetics code assuming an input reactivity which gives the described ramp power shape.

  2. Pressurized heavy water reactor fuel behaviour in power ramp conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uţă, O.; Pârvan, M.; Ohâi, D.

    2009-03-01

    In order to check and improve the quality of the Romanian CANDU fuel, an assembly of six CANDU fuel rods has been subjected to a power ramping test in the 14 MW TRIGA reactor at INR. After testing, the fuel rods have been examined in the hot cells using post-irradiation examination (PIE) techniques such as: visual inspection and photography, eddy current testing, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas release and analysis, metallography, ceramography, burn-up determination by mass spectrometry, mechanical testing. This paper describes the PIE results from one out of the six fuel rods. The PIE results concerning the integrity, dimensional changes, oxidation, hydriding and mechanical properties of the sheath, the fission-products activity distribution in the fuel column, the pressure, volume and composition of the fission gas, the burn-up, the isotopic composition and structural changes of the fuel enabled the characterization of the behaviour of the Romanian CANDU fuel in power ramping conditions performed in the TRIGA materials testing reactor.

  3. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-06

    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  4. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  5. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  6. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  7. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-05

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to enhance the state of the art in SPRE detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  8. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  9. Probabilistic Swinging Door Algorithm as Applied to Photovoltaic Power Ramping Event Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, Anthony; Zhang, Jie; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Cui, Mingjian

    2015-10-02

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation experiences power ramping events due to cloud interference. Depending on the extent of PV aggregation and local grid features, such power variability can be constructive or destructive to measures of uncertainty regarding renewable power generation; however, it directly influences contingency planning, production costs, and the overall reliable operation of power systems. For enhanced power system flexibility, and to help mitigate the negative impacts of power ramping, it is desirable to analyze events in a probabilistic fashion so degrees of beliefs concerning system states and forecastability are better captured and uncertainty is explicitly quantified. A probabilistic swinging door algorithm is developed and presented in this paper. It is then applied to a solar data set of PV power generation. The probabilistic swinging door algorithm builds on results from the original swinging door algorithm, first used for data compression in trend logging, and it is described by two uncertain parameters: (i) e, the threshold sensitivity to a given ramp, and (ii) s, the residual of the piecewise linear ramps. These two parameters determine the distribution of ramps and capture the uncertainty in PV power generation.

  10. Gas turbine power plant with supersonic shock compression ramps

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2008-10-14

    A gas turbine engine. The engine is based on the use of a gas turbine driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. The supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdynamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by use of a lean pre-mix system, a pre-swirl compressor, and a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor to the combustion gas outlet. Use of a stationary low NOx combustor provides excellent emissions results.

  11. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... that need to be resolved to complete the low power television station digital transition....

  12. Preferential Magnetospheric Power Excitation by Rising Frequency Ramps from 1986 Siple Station Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Spasojevic, M.; Harid, V.; Golkowski, M.; Carpenter, D. L.; Inan, U.

    2013-12-01

    Controlled experiments using ground-based ELF/VLF transmitters are invaluable in studying nonlinear wave growth and triggered emissions resulting from gyroresonant interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons in the magnetosphere. Typical studies have focused on the narrowband and discrete features present in the received signal and triggered emissions, but have not considered the potential total power excited during the interaction in the magnetosphere. Here, we develop a metric for estimating the total magnetospheric power excited in the propagation ducts and apply this metric to data transmitted from Siple Station, Antarctica. The transmitted STACO format in 1986 includes a series of ascending and descending ramp and staircase elements, allowing for a quantitative comparison of total power excited by frequency ramps of different orientations. We find that rising frequency ramps result in preferentially higher power excitation and that higher noise measurements in the duct correspond to significantly higher measures of power excitation by the transmitted signal. These results provide insight into the structure of the background cold plasma and the distribution of the hot plasma and the conditions favorable for nonlinear wave amplification and triggering. Portion of the STACO transmissions format on 8/18/1986 at 12:21:00 UT, illustrating the differences in magnetospheric amplification and generation for ascending and descending ramp segments.

  13. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal...

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  15. SNS Ring Operational Experience and Power Ramp Up Status

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The SNS Ring has now been operating for about 3.5 years, and our march continues to increase the beam power to the full design value of 1.4 MW. The Ring is a loss-limited machine, and in general the radioactivation levels are good, but there are some unanticipated hot spots that we are working to improve. High intensity collective effects such as space-charge and beam instability have had minimal impact on beam operations to date. The cross plane coupling issue in the ring to target beam transport line has been solved. We will also discuss the status of equipment upgrades in the high-energy beam transport beam line, the injection-dump beam transport line, the ring, and the ring-to-target beam transport line.

  16. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  17. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  18. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  19. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  20. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  1. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  2. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  3. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  4. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. 73.3572 Section 73.3572..., low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster applications. (a) Applications for TV stations are... Allotments. (2) In the case of Class A TV stations authorized under subpart J of this part and low power...

  5. System overview for the multi-element corrector magnets and controls for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, C.; Ball, M.; Franck, A.R.; Harding, D.J.; Kasley, P.A.; Krafczyk, G.E.; Kucera, M.J.; Lackey, J.; McArthur, D.; Misek, J.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To better control the beam position, tune, and chromaticity in the Fermilab Booster synchrotron, a new package of six corrector elements has been designed, incorporating both normal and skew orientations of dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. The devices are under construction and will be installed in 48 locations in the Booster accelerator. Each of these 288 corrector magnets will be individually powered. Each of the magnets will be individually controlled using operator programmed current ramps designed specifically for each type of Booster acceleration cycle. This paper provides an overview of the corrector magnet installation in the accelerator enclosure, power and sensor interconnections, specifications for the switch-mode power supplies, rack and equipment layouts, controls and interlock electronics, and the features of the operator interface for programming the current ramps and adjusting the timing of the system triggers.

  6. Dynamic Behaviors of Materials under Ramp Wave Loading on Compact Pulsed Power Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianheng; Luo, Binqiang; Wang, Guiji; Chong, Tao; Tan, Fuli; Liu, Cangli; Sun, Chengwei

    The technique using intense current to produce magnetic pressure provides a unique way to compress matter near isentrope to high density without obvious temperature increment, which is characterized as ramp wave loading, and firstly developed by Sandia in 1998. Firstly recent advances on compact pulsed power generators developed in our laboratory, such as CQ-4, CQ-3-MMAF and CQ-7 devices, are simply introduced here, which devoted to ramp wave loading from 50GPa to 200 GPa, and to ultrahigh-velocity flyer launching up to 30 km/s. And then, we show our progress in data processing methods and experiments of isentropic compression conducted on these devices mentioned above. The suitability of Gruneisen EOS and Vinet EOS are validated by isentropic experiments of tantalum, and the parameters of SCG constitutive equation of aluminum and copper are modified to give better prediction under isentropic compression. Phase transition of bismuth and tin are investigated under different initial temperatures, parameters of Helmholtz free energy and characteristic relaxation time in kinetic phase transition equation are calibrated. Supported by NNSF of China under Contract No.11327803 and 11176002

  7. Scheduling and Pricing for Expected Ramp Capability in Real-Time Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik; O'Malley, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Higher variable renewable generation penetrations are occurring throughout the world on different power systems. These resources increase the variability and uncertainty on the system which must be accommodated by an increase in the flexibility of the system resources in order to maintain reliability. Many scheduling strategies have been discussed and introduced to ensure that this flexibility is available at multiple timescales. To meet variability, that is, the expected changes in system conditions, two recent strategies have been introduced: time-coupled multi-period market clearing models and the incorporation of ramp capability constraints. To appropriately evaluate these methods, it is important to assess both efficiency and reliability. But it is also important to assess the incentive structure to ensure that resources asked to perform in different ways have the proper incentives to follow these directions, which is a step often ignored in simulation studies. We find that there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. We also find that look-ahead horizon length in multi-period market models can impact incentives. This paper proposes scheduling and pricing methods that ensure expected ramps are met reliably, efficiently, and with associated prices based on true marginal costs that incentivize resources to do as directed by the market. Case studies show improvements of the new method.

  8. Enhanced IGCC regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for improving power ramp rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  9. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; ...

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was comparedmore » through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.« less

  10. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was compared through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.

  11. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  12. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ˜ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  13. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32 μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ~ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  14. 47 CFR 20.21 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CMRS spectrum bands. (8) Wideband Consumer Signal Boosters. A Wideband Consumer Signal Booster will... uplink mid-band frequency of the supported spectrum bands in MHz. (ii) Mobile booster maximum noise power... prohibited. Spectrum block filtering may be used provided the uplink filter attenuation is not less than...

  15. A steep ramp test is valid for estimating maximal power and oxygen uptake during a standard ramp test in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, R; Bussmann, J B J; Lesaffre, E; Stam, H J; Praet, S F E

    2015-10-01

    A short maximal steep ramp test (SRT, 25 W/10 s) has been proposed to guide exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes, but requires validation. This study aims to (a) determine the relationship between Wmax and V˙O2peak reached during SRT and the standard ramp test (RT); (b) obtain test-retest reliability; and (c) document electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities during SRT. Type 2 diabetes patients (35 men, 26 women) performed a cycle ergometer-based RT (women 1.2; men 1.8 W/6 s) and SRT on separate days. A random subgroup (n = 42) repeated the SRT. ECG, heart rate, and V˙O2 were monitored. Wmax during RT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 106 ± 33 W (women). Wmax during SRT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 188 ± 55 W (women). The relationship between RT and SRT was described by men RT V˙O2peak (mL/min) = 152 + 7.67 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.859); women RT V ˙ O 2 p e a k (mL/min) = 603 + 4.75 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.771); intraclass correlation coefficients between first (SRT1) and second SRT Wmax (SRT2) were men 0.951 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.899-0.977] and women 0.908 (95% CI 0.727-0.971). No adverse events were noted during any of the exercise tests. This validation study indicates that the SRT is a low-risk, accurate, and reliable test to estimate maximal aerobic capacity during the RT to design exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes patients.

  16. Advanced regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for IGCC targeted towards improving power ramp-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  17. Ram booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter Ray (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is a space launch system and method to propel a payload bearing craft into earth orbit. The invention has two, or preferably, three stages. The upper stage has rocket engines capable of carrying a payload to orbit and provides the capability of releasably attaching to the lower, or preferably, middle stage. Similar to the lower stage, the middle stage is a reusable booster stage that employs all air breathing engines, is recoverable, and can be turned-around in a short time between missions.

  18. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitters. Section 73.658—Affiliation agreements and network program practices; territorial exclusivity in non-network program arrangements. Part 73, Subpart G—Emergency Broadcast System (for low power TV.... Section 73.1692—Construction near or installations on an AM broadcast tower. Section 73.1940—Broadcasts...

  19. Capture, acceleration and bunching rf systems for the MEIC booster and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC), proposed by Jefferson Lab, consists of a series of accelerators. The electron collider ring accepts electrons from CEBAF at energies from 3 to 12 GeV. Protons and ions are delivered to a booster and captured in a long bunch before being ramped and transferred to the ion collider ring. The ion collider ring accelerates a small number of long ion bunches to colliding energy before they are re-bunched into a high frequency train of very short bunches for colliding. Two sets of low frequency RF systems are needed for the long ion bunch energy ramping in the booster and ion collider ring. Another two sets of high frequency RF cavities are needed for re-bunching in the ion collider ring and compensating synchrotron radiation energy loss in the electron collider ring. The requirements from energy ramping, ion beam bunching, electron beam energy compensation, collective effects, beam loading and feedback capability, RF power capability, etc. are presented. The preliminary designs of these RF systems are presented. Concepts for the baseline cavity and RF station configurations are described, as well as some options that may allow more flexible injection and acceleration schemes.

  20. Experimental evidence of oxygen thermo-migration in PWR UO2 fuels during power ramps using in-situ oxido-reduction indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Sercombe, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Noirot, J.; Roure, I.; Blay, T.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-11-01

    The present study describes the in-situ electrochemical modifications which affect irradiated PWR UO2 fuels in the course of a power ramp, by means of in-situ oxido-reduction indicators such as chromium or neo-formed chemical phases. It is shown that irradiated fuels (of nominal stoichiometry close to 2.000) under temperature gradient such as that occurring during high power transients are submitted to strong oxido-reduction perturbations, owing to radial migration of oxygen from the hot center to the cold periphery of the pellet. The oxygen redistribution, similar to that encountered in Sodium Fast Reactors fuels, induces a massive reduction/precipitation of the fission products Mo, Ru, Tc and Cr (if present) in the high temperature pellet section and the formation of highly oxidized neo-formed grey phases of U4O9 type in its cold section, of lower temperature. The parameters governing the oxidation states of UO2 fuels under power ramps are finally debated from a cross-analysis of our results and other published information. The potential chemical benefits brought by oxido-reductive additives in UO2 fuel such as chromium oxide, in connection with their oxygen buffering properties, are discussed.

  1. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  2. Crucial Booster Test Fires Up in Utah

    NASA Video Gallery

    A booster for the most powerful rocket in the world, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), successfully fired up Tuesday for its second qualification ground test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Pro...

  3. Climatological attribution of wind power ramp events in East Japan and their probabilistic forecast based on multi-model ensembles downscaled by analog ensemble using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Masamichi; Nohara, Daisuke; Kadokura, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Severe storms or other extreme weather events can interrupt the spin of wind turbines in large scale that cause unexpected "wind ramp events". In this study, we present an application of self-organizing maps (SOMs) for climatological attribution of the wind ramp events and their probabilistic prediction. The SOM is an automatic data-mining clustering technique, which allows us to summarize a high-dimensional data space in terms of a set of reference vectors. The SOM is applied to analyze and connect the relationship between atmospheric patterns over Japan and wind power generation. SOM is employed on sea level pressure derived from the JRA55 reanalysis over the target area (Tohoku region in Japan), whereby a two-dimensional lattice of weather patterns (WPs) classified during the 1977-2013 period is obtained. To compare with the atmospheric data, the long-term wind power generation is reconstructed by using a high-resolution surface observation network AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) in Japan. Our analysis extracts seven typical WPs, which are linked to frequent occurrences of wind ramp events. Probabilistic forecasts to wind power generation and ramps are conducted by using the obtained SOM. The probability are derived from the multiple SOM lattices based on the matching of output from TIGGE multi-model global forecast to the WPs on the lattices. Since this method effectively takes care of the empirical uncertainties from the historical data, wind power generation and ramp is probabilistically forecasted from the forecasts of global models. The predictability skill of the forecasts for the wind power generation and ramp events show the relatively good skill score under the downscaling technique. It is expected that the results of this study provides better guidance to the user community and contribute to future development of system operation model for the transmission grid operator.

  4. SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE STACKING IN THE NSLS-II BOOSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III, R.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.

  5. Tracking study of hadron collider boosters

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Bourianoff, G.; Huang, Y.; Mahale, N.

    1992-07-01

    A simulation code SIMPSONS (previously called 6D-TEASE T) of single- and multi-particle tracking has been developed for proton synchrotrons. The 6D phase space coordinates are calculated each time step including acceleration with an arbitrary ramping curve by integration of the rf phase. Space-charge effects are modelled by means of the Particle In Cell (PIC) method. We observed the transverse emittance growth around the injection energy of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) with and without second harmonic rf cavities which reduce peak line density. We also employed the code to see the possible transverse emittance deterioration around the transition energy in the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) and to estimate the emittance dilution due to an injection error of the MEB.

  6. 43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE RAMP WAS USED TO GUIDE RUN-OFF FROM THUNDERSTORMS AWAY FROM THE PORTAL. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  7. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  8. A column level, low power, 1 M sample/s double ramp A/D converter for monolithic active pixel sensors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, N.; Heini, S.; Hu, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) using standard low cost CMOS technologies available from industrial manufacturers have demonstrated excellent tracking performances for minimum ionizing particles. The need for highly granular, fast, thin sensors with a full digital output drives an R&D effort, aiming to design and optimize a low power high speed A/D converter integrated at the column level. Following this main issue, a double digital ramp A/D converter has been proposed for CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors in this paper. This A/D converter responds to the constraints of size, power dissipation and precision for CMOS sensors for particle detection. It also represents a first step in order to reach the high speed of conversion needed for this kind of application. The A/D converter has a resolution of 4 bits for conversion speed of 1 M sample/s with only 264 μW of static consumption in a very particular pitch of 25 μm×900 μm.

  9. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 5: Space shuttle powered explicit guidance. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    An optimum powered explicit guidance algorithm capable of handling all space shuttle exoatospheric maneuvers is presented. The theoretical and practical basis for the currently baselined space shuttle powered flight guidance equations and logic is documented. Detailed flow diagrams for implementing the steering computations for all shuttle phases, including powered return to launch site (RTLS) abort, are also presented. Derivation of the powered RTLS algorithm is provided, as well as detailed flow diagrams for implementing the option. The flow diagrams and equations are compatible with the current powered flight documentation.

  10. RAMP MANAGEMENT IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.

    1999-03-29

    In RHIC, magnets and RF cavities are controlled by Wave Form Generators (WFGs), simple real time computers which generate the set points. The WFGs are programmed to change set points from one state to another in a synchronized way. Such transition is called a ''Ramp'' and consists of a sequence of ''stepping stones'' which contain the set point of every WFG controlled device at a point in time. An appropriate interpolation defines the set points between these stepping stones. This report describes the implementation of the ramp system. The user interface, tools to create and modify ramps, interaction with modeling tools and measurements and correction programs are discussed.

  11. MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT EFFECTS IN BNL'S AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, K.A.; AHRENS, L.; GARDNER, C.; GLENN, J.W.; HARVEY, M.; MENG, W.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    Recent beam experiments at BNL's AGS Booster have enabled us to study in more detail the effects of eddy currents on the lattice structure and our control over the betatron tune. The Booster is capable of operating at ramp rates as high as 9 T/sec. At these ramp rates eddy currents in the vacuum chambers significantly alter the fields and gradients seen by the beam as it is accelerated. The Booster was designed with these effects in mind and to help control the field uniformity and linearity in the Booster Dipoles special vacuum chambers were designed with current windings to negate the affect of the induced eddy currents. In this report results from betatron tune measurements and eddy current simulations will be presented. We will then present results from modeling the accelerator using the results of the magnetic field simulations and compare these to the measurements.

  12. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  13. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  14. Perpendicular Biased Ferrite Tuned Cavities for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Awida, Mohamed; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Pellico, William; Tan, Cheng-Yang; Terechkine, Iouri; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The aging Fermilab Booster RF system needs an upgrade to support future experimental program. The important feature of the upgrade is substantial enhancement of the requirements for the accelerating cavities. The new requirements include enlargement of the cavity beam pipe aperture, increase of the cavity voltage and increase in the repetition rate. The modification of the present traditional parallel biased ferrite cavities is rather challenging. An alternative to rebuilding the present Fermilab Booster RF cavities is to design and construct new perpendicular biased RF cavities, which potentially offer a number of advantages. An evaluation and a preliminary design of the perpendicular biased ferrite tuned cavities for the Fermilab Booster upgrade is described in the paper. Also it is desirable for better Booster performance to improve the capture of beam in the Booster during injection and at the start of the ramp. One possible way to do that is to flatten the bucket by introducing second harmonic cavities into the Booster. This paper also looks into the option of using perpendicularly biased ferrite tuners for the second harmonic cavities.

  15. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Appendix C: Battery report for the liquid rocket booster TVC actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The actuators for control of engine valves and gimbals for a booster require 165 kW or more peak power at 270 volts direct current (VDC) during the 2 or 3 minutes of first stage ascent; other booster devices require much less power at 28 VDC. It is desired that a booster supply its own electrical power and satisfy redundancy requirements of the Solid Rocket Booster Shuttle, when applicable. The power of a Liquid Rocket Booster is therefore provided by two subsystems: Actuator Battery Power (270 VDC) Subsystem for the engine actuators, and Electrical Power and Distribution (28 VDC) Subsystem, to power everything else. Boosters will receive no electrical power from Orbiter, only commands and data, according to current plans. It was concluded that nine 30 volt silver-zinc batteries-in-series be used to provide the 270 volt, 37 kW average (165 kW peak).

  16. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  17. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  18. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  19. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  20. Single bunch and multi-bunch injection schemes for Iranian Light Source Facility booster synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design proposal for the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) chopper is presented and the expected performance of both single bunch and multi-bunch modes of beam injection into the booster synchrotron is described. For the multi-bunch mode, a 100 MHz sub-harmonic pre-buncher is proposed to be employed next to the electron gun particularly to reduce the particle loss during the energy ramp of the booster. The results indicated significant improvement of the injection efficiency into the booster. The total particle loss rate for the multi-bunch injection is reduced from 35% to 4%.

  1. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  2. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  3. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Costa, D C; Santi, G L de; Crescêncio, J C; Seabra, L P; Carvalho, E E V; Papa, V; Marques, F; Gallo Junior, L; Schmidt, A

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG) was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2)peak(predicted)and V˙O2peak(real)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(real)was 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin's coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer.

  4. Use of the Wasserman equation in optimization of the duration of the power ramp in a cardiopulmonary exercise test: a study of Brazilian men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, D. C.; de Santi, G. L.; Crescêncio, J. C.; Seabra, L. P.; Carvalho, E. E. V.; Papa, V.; Marques, F.; Gallo, L.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the agreement between measurements of unloaded oxygen uptake and peak oxygen uptake based on equations proposed by Wasserman and on real measurements directly obtained with the ergospirometry system. We performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), which was applied to two groups of sedentary male subjects: one apparently healthy group (HG, n=12) and the other had stable coronary artery disease (n=16). The mean age in the HG was 47±4 years and that in the coronary artery disease group (CG) was 57±8 years. Both groups performed CPET on a cycle ergometer with a ramp-type protocol at an intensity that was calculated according to the Wasserman equation. In the HG, there was no significant difference between measurements predicted by the formula and real measurements obtained in CPET in the unloaded condition. However, at peak effort, a significant difference was observed between oxygen uptake (V˙O2)peak(predicted)and V˙O2peak(real)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). In the CG, there was a significant difference of 116.26 mL/min between the predicted values by the formula and the real values obtained in the unloaded condition. A significant difference in peak effort was found, where V˙O2peak(real)was 40% lower than V˙O2peak(predicted)(nonparametric Wilcoxon test). There was no agreement between the real and predicted measurements as analyzed by Lin’s coefficient or the Bland and Altman model. The Wasserman formula does not appear to be appropriate for prediction of functional capacity of volunteers. Therefore, this formula cannot precisely predict the increase in power in incremental CPET on a cycle ergometer. PMID:26397972

  5. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  6. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  7. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  8. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  9. A simple computer-controlled analogue ramp generator for producing multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli.

    PubMed

    Matheson, T; Ditz, F

    1991-08-01

    This report describes an inexpensive ramp generator which produces multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli ("staircase-type" wave forms). The output voltage is analogue and is, therefore, free of stepping artifacts characteristic of digital function generators. When coupled with a standard power amplifier and mechanical vibrator, this system is particularly suitable for stimulation of mechanoreceptive sense organs. Connection to the serial port of an IBM personal computer, or the user port of a BBC computer allows complex ramp-and-hold sequences to be developed and repeated. The number, duration and sign of ramps, and the duration of intervening hold periods can be set using the computer. This system has been used successfully to characterise phasic and tonic neurones in the locust metathoracic femoral chordotonal organ (a leg position and movement detector).

  10. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    's mission control center. The Structures group was responsible for ensuring the structural integrity of the vehicle. Their designs included the payload shroud, payload support structure, exterior hull and engine support struts. The Gryphon's power requirements were determined by the Power/Thermal/Attitude Control Group. This group then selected suitable batteries and other components to meet these requirements. The group also designed heat shielding and cooling systems to ensure subsystem performance. In addition to these responsibilities this group designed the attitude control methods and RCS components for the vehicle. The Aircraft Integration Group was responsible for all aspects of the booster aircraft connection. This included the design of the connection structure and the drop mechanism. This group also designed the vehicle assembly facility and identified possible ground bases for the plane.

  11. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    's mission control center. The Structures group was responsible for ensuring the structural integrity of the vehicle. Their designs included the payload shroud, payload support structure, exterior hull and engine support struts. The Gryphon's power requirements were determined by the Power/Thermal/Attitude Control Group. booster aircraft connection. *This included the design of the connection structure and the drop mechanism. -This group also designed the vehicle assembly facility and identified possible ground bases for the plane.

  12. Gullfaks multiphase booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Vangen, G.; Carstensen, C.; Bakken, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    A Poseidon Multiphase Pump has been Installed and is presently running on Statoil`s Gullfaks A platform in the North Sea, giving additional pressure to one of the wells. The main objective of this work has been to qualify the Poseidon Booster Technology, technically and operationally, and to provide a reliable and industrialized tool for multiphase boosting, either sub sea or installed topside a platform. The paper gives a brief summary of the project and describes the Poseidon pump, the platform installation and outlines the experience and results from the ongoing qualification test. The Gullfaks booster, as delivered by Framo Engineering AS, has up to January 1995 accumulated 2,400 running hours. The booster is fully integrated into the production systems on the platform. The daily operations are carried out from the central control room by the ordinary platform staff. The objectives of the test program have so far been successfully fulfilled. Multiphase booster technology combined with progress in multiphase flow technology will have a significant impact on development and production of smaller oil and gas fields that today are assumed to be non-profitable.

  13. Design features of portable wheelchair ramps and their implications for curb and vehicle access.

    PubMed

    Storr, Tim; Spicer, Julie; Frost, Peggy; Attfield, Steve; Ward, Christopher D; Pinnington, Lorraine L

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated a range of portable wheelchair ramps to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of use when wheelchair users climb curbs or access vehicles. Twelve portable ramps were evaluated. Although all the ramps were designed to load powered wheelchairs into motor vehicles, they were manufactured in different designs. The ramps were based on a "singlewide" platform or "channel" design. Some ramps had fixed dimensions, whereas others could be reduced in size because they were telescopic or designed to allow folding. Overall, the ramps could be divided into four subgroups on the basis of their key features. These were horizontally and longitudinally folding ramps, telescopic ramps, and ramps with fixed dimensions. The telescopic ramps could be subdivided into "U"-shaped gutter ramps and reverse profile ramps. Product appraisals and trials involving wheelchair users and caregivers of wheelchair users were done to evaluate each of these ramp designs. Although wheelchair ramps are available in a wide range of designs and configurations, we found that no single ramp design successfully met the needs of all wheelchair users or their caregivers. The evaluation highlighted a number of specific problems and potential hazards. Some ramps were found to move during a maneuver, showed poor stability when used with some vehicles, or were too narrow to allow wheelchair castors to pass through the channel without jamming. Some features, such as handles and locking mechanisms, influenced the ease with which the caregivers could use the ramps. Wheelchair users preferred the wide platform ramps because they were able to drive up these with ease and little preparation. The caregivers preferred folding or telescopic channel ramps because these were easier to handle and store.

  14. Summary of Booster Development and Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, Elizabeth G.; Harry, Herbert H.; Hartline, Ernest L.; Hooks, Daniel E.; Johnson, Carl E.; Morris, John S.; Novak, Alan M.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Sanders, Victor E.; Scovel, Christina A.; Lorenz, Thomas; Wright, Mark; Botcher, Tod; Marx, Erin; Gibson, Kevin

    2012-06-21

    This report outlines booster development work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 2007 to present. The booster is a critical link in the initiation train of explosive assemblies, from complex devices like nuclear weapons to conventional munitions. The booster bridges the gap from a small, relatively sensitive detonator to an insensitive, but massive, main charge. The movement throughout the explosives development community is to use more and more insensitive explosive components. With that, more energy is needed out of the booster. It has to initiate reliably, promptly, powerfully and safely. This report is divided into four sections. The first provides a summary of a collaborative effort between LANL, LLNL, and AWE to identify candidate materials and uniformly develop a testing plan for new boosters. Important parameters and the tests required to measure them were defined. The nature of the collaboration and the specific goals of the participating partners has changed over time, but the booster development plan stands on its own merit as a complete description of the test protocol necessary to compare and qualify booster materials, and is discussed in its entirety in this report. The second section describes a project, which began in 2009 with the Department of Defense to develop replacement booster formulations for PBXN-7. Replacement of PBXN-7 was necessary because it contained Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which was becoming unavailable to the DoD and because it contained Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), which was sensitive and toxic. A LANL-developed explosive, Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF), was an important candidate. This project required any replacement formulation be a drop-in replacement in existing munitions. This project was timely, in that it made use of the collaborative booster development project, and had the additional constraint of matching shock sensitivity. Additionally it needed to be a safety improvement, and a performance

  15. Using the transverse digital damper as a real-time tune monitor for the Booster synchrotron at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.; /FERMILAB

    2011-08-01

    The Fermilab Booster is a fast ramping (15Hz) synchrotron which accelerates protons from 400MeV to 8GeV. During commissioning of a transverse digital damper system, it was shown that the damper could provide a measurement of the machine tune throughout the cycle by exciting just 1 of the 84 bunches with minimal impact on the machine operation. The algorithms used to make the measurement have been incorporated into the damper FPGA firmware allowing for real-time tune monitoring of all Booster cycles. A new Booster tune monitor was implemented in the digital damper which has minimal impact on the Booster operation. The tune measures the tunes in two planes over the energy ramping cycle with an accuracy of 0.01 in real time.

  16. Truck ramp construction from clean coal technology waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    The construction and performance of a truck ramp made from clean coal technology waste products are described. The specific waste product used in this project was generated at the power plant located on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus. The ramp is used by University vehicles depositing hard trash at a central disposal facility on the OSU campus. Laboratory tests which had been conducted on samples made from the power plant waste product clearly showed that, when the material is property compacted, strengths could be obtained that were much higher than those of the natural soils the clean coal waste would replace. In addition, the permeability and swelling characteristics of the waste product should make it an attractive alternative to importing select borrow materials. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a decision was made to use the power plant waste in the truck ramp rather than the soil that was called for in the original design. Prior to the start of construction, the area on which the ramp was to be located was covered with an impermeable geomembrane. Drain lines were installed on top of the geomembrane so that water that might leach through the ramp could be collected. The waste product from the power plant was placed on the geomembrane in 20 to 30 centimeter lifts by University maintenance personnel without special equipment. A drain line was installed across the toe of the ramp to intercept surface runoff, and a wearing surface of 7 to 15 centimeters of crushed limestone was placed over the compacted ash. The finished ramp structure recycled approximately 180 metric tons of the power plant byproduct. After over a year in service there is no indication of erosion or rutting in the ramp surface. Tests performed on the leachate and runoff water have shown the high pH characteristic of these materials, but concentrations of metals fall below the established limits.

  17. Fox-7 for Insensitive Boosters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    cavitation , and therefore nucleation, to occur at each frequency. As well as producing ultrasound at different frequencies, the method of delivery of...processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology to improve booster formulations, and results from these...7 booster formulations. Also included are particle processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology

  18. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Dryden Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership sits on the ramp in front of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  19. The Booster Applications Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, David P.

    2001-02-01

    In support of the human exploration program, NASA is providing $33 million to the U.S. Department of Energy to construct a radiation simulator, known as the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The BAF justification is briefly reviewed (e.g., to reduce the radiation risk uncertainties from its present factor of 4 to 15). The BAF beam specifications are provided, as are discussions of the BAF construction schedule and anticipated operating schedules (e.g., initial operation anticipated for October 1, 2002). A breakdown of the BAF construction costs is included and the operating costs are discussed (e.g., $5 to $6 million per year). The BAF laboratory layout and the various types of DOE support for the BAF are summarized, as are the peer reviews of the project. The characteristic parameters of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron are also included. .

  20. Repair and Maintenance Programs (RAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explain in a general way how the development of Komatsu RAMPs can help accomplish the worthy ideal set forth in that theme for all parties involved--the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), the equipment dealer, and the mining company. The goal of the RAMP is to utilize the resources of the OEM, the dealer, and the mining company to minimize the costs, maximize the efficiency, increase the productivity, and improve the profits of all parties. The paper describes how a RAMP works.

  1. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  2. Booster Synchrotron RF System Upgrade for SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sanghyun; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Recent progress at the SPEAR3 includes the increase in stored current from 100 mA to 200 mA and top-off injection to allow beamlines to stay open during injection. Presently the booster injects 3.0 GeV beam to SPEAR3 three times a day. The stored beam decays to about 150 mA between the injections. The growing user demands are to increase the stored current to the design value of 500 mA, and to maintain it at a constant value within a percent or so. To achieve this goal the booster must inject once every few minutes. For improved injection efficiency, all RF systems at the linac, booster and SPEAR3 need to be phase-locked. The present booster RF system is basically a copy of the SPEAR2 RF system with 358.5 MHz and 40 kW peak RF power driving a 5-cell RF cavity for 1.0 MV gap voltage. These requirements entail a booster RF system upgrade to a scaled down version of the SPEAR3 RF system of 476.3 MHz with 1.2 MW cw klystron output power capabilities. We will analyze each subsystem option for their merits within budgetary and geometric space constraints. A substantial portion of the system will come from the decommissioned PEP-II RF stations.

  3. Solid Rocket Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway of the solid rocket booster (SRB) sections with callouts. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  4. Analytical results of asymmetric exclusion processes with ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2005-07-01

    We present the analytical results in a simple traffic model describing a single-lane highway with ramps. Both on-ramps and off-ramps are considered. Complete classification of distinct phases is achieved. Exact phase diagrams are derived. In the case of a single ramp (either on-ramp or off-ramp), the bottleneck effect is absent. The traffic conditions of congestion before the ramp and free-flowing after the ramp cannot be realized. In the case of two consecutive ramps, the bottleneck emerges when the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp and the flow in between the ramps saturates.

  5. Integrated Booster-Rocket Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Dickinson, William J.; Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Report summarizes study of conceptual integrated booster propulsion module for use in launching spacecraft. Substitution of integrated propulsion modules for multiple engines of present booster rockets intended to simplify ground operations and reduce costs.

  6. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  7. Multi-Physics Analysis of the Fermilab Booster RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M.; Reid, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Lebedev, V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    After about 40 years of operation the RF accelerating cavities in Fermilab Booster need an upgrade to improve their reliability and to increase the repetition rate in order to support a future experimental program. An increase in the repetition rate from 7 to 15 Hz entails increasing the power dissipation in the RF cavities, their ferrite loaded tuners, and HOM dampers. The increased duty factor requires careful modelling for the RF heating effects in the cavity. A multi-physic analysis investigating both the RF and thermal properties of Booster cavity under various operating conditions is presented in this paper.

  8. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  9. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  10. Model for RHIC ramp controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch, J.; Mane, V.; Clifford, T.; Hartmann, H.; Kahn, T.; Oerter, B.; Peggs, S.

    1994-08-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software concepts for the implementation of the ramp controls. The hardware part of the ramp controls consists of a number of multi-purpose Wave Form Generators (WFGS) which control the settings of accelerator hardware directly or indirectly by controlling their WFG. A Real Time Data Link (RTDL) data transfer system connects the WFGs in a three layer architecture. To the usual two layers which generate an independent timing signal and dependent set points, respectively, an intermediate layer is added which produces accelerator parameters such as the magnet strength. The task of the bottom layer is therefore reduced to the function of implementing those parameters. This architecture de-couples two independent functions which axe normally folded together. The function of the hardware becomes modular and easily maintainable. The ramp control software is layered in the same way. Between the top layer (the ramp procedure application program) and the bottom layer (the hardware interface) an additional layer of ``manager`` programs allow operation of accelerator subsystems.

  11. Bell 47 #822 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Bell 47 #822 on ramp. The helicopter arrived at the NASA Flight Research Center on November 4, 1973 from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas. It operated for more than 11 years, before being sent to the Napa City Fire Department on June 21, 1985.

  12. ION BEAM POLARIZATION DYNAMICS IN THE 8 GEV BOOSTER OF THE JLEIC PROJECT AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yuhong; Filatov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    In the Jefferson Lab’s Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) project, an injector of polarized ions into the collider ring is a superconducting 8 GeV booster. Both figure-8 and racetrack booster versions were considered. Our analysis showed that the figure-8 ring configuration allows one to preserve the polarization of any ion species during beam acceleration using only small longitudinal field with an integral less than 0.5 Tm. In the racetrack booster, to pre-serve the polarization of ions with the exception of deu-terons, it suffices to use a solenoidal Siberian snake with a maximum field integral of 30 Tm. To preserve deuteron polarization, we propose to use arc magnets for the race-track booster structure with a field ramp rate of the order of 1 T/s. We calculate deuteron and proton beam polari-zations in both the figure-8 and racetrack boosters includ-ing alignment errors of their magnetic elements using the Zgoubi code.

  13. The AGS-Booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Barton, D.S.; Claus, J.; Cottingham, J.G.; Courant, E.D.; Danby, G.T.; Dell, G.F.; Forsyth, E.B.; Gupta, R.C.; Kats, J.

    1987-01-01

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice.

  14. 24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January 1981. Revised in June 1981. Reference No. BA-081 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  15. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research vehicle, is seen just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus A had a unique method of takeoff and landing. To make the aircraft as aerodynamic and lightweight as possible, designers gave it only two very small centerline wheels for landing. These wheels were very close to the fuselage, and therefore produced very little drag. However, since the fuselage sat so close to the ground, it was necessary to keep the large propeller at the rear of the aircraft locked in a horizontal position during takeoff. The aircraft was towed to about 700 feet in the air, where the engine was started and the aircraft began flying under its own power. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage

  16. 47 CFR 73.3572 - Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast, low power TV, TV translators, and TV booster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3572 Processing of TV broadcast, Class A TV broadcast... considered minor only if the change(s) will not increase the signal range of the Class A TV, low power TV...

  17. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research vehicle, is seen just after landing on Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus A had a unique method of takeoff and landing. To make the aircraft as aerodynamic and lightweight as possible, designers gave it only two very small centerline wheels for landing. These wheels were very close to the fuselage, and therefore produced very little drag. However, since the fuselage sat so close to the ground, it was necessary to keep the large propeller at the rear of the aircraft locked in a horizontal position during takeoff. The aircraft was towed to about 700 feet in the air, where the engine was started and the aircraft began flying under its own power. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage

  18. Booster aerodynamic heating: Test support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, C. D.; Reardon, J. E.; Fuller, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Several technical areas were encompassed in providing support for booster thermal environment test work. These areas included: (1) cavity flow heating, (2) rarefied flow heating, and (3) impulse operated model research and testing. Cavity flow heating problems were studied with respect to the proposed altitude control motors for the space shuttle. Available literature on this subject was reviewed and analytical predictive methods were summarized for use in planning testing work. Rarefied flow heating data was reviewed and correlated. The study showed the importance of considering rarefied flow conditions in launch thermal environment prediction. Impulse operated model research and testing was conducted to provide a basis for understanding and designing such models for booster thermal environment testing.

  19. 47 CFR 74.735 - Power limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.735 Power limitations. (a) The maximum peak effective radiated power (ERP) of an analog low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station shall not exceed: (1) 3 kW for VHF channels 2... translator, or TV booster station (average power) shall not exceed: (1) 3 kW for VHF channels 2-13; and...

  20. 47 CFR 74.735 - Power limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.735 Power limitations. (a) The maximum peak effective radiated power (ERP) of an analog low power TV, TV translator, or TV booster station shall not exceed: (1) 3 kW for VHF channels 2... translator, or TV booster station (average power) shall not exceed: (1) 3 kW for VHF channels 2-13; and...

  1. Ramp-induced transitions in traffic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2006-01-01

    We present the analytical results of ramp effects in asymmetric simple exclusion processes. Both on-ramp and off-ramp are included in between the two open boundaries. The ramps can be taken as the nontrivial boundaries to trigger the phase transitions. Exact phase diagrams are obtained analytically in the full parameter space. We find that the order of the two ramps is crucial. When the on-ramp is placed after the off-ramp along the traffic direction, there are only four distinct phases: free-free-free, free-free-jam, free-jam-jam, and jam-jam-jam. The other four phases from naive expectation cannot be realized, i.e., jam-free-free, jam-jam-free, jam-free-jam, and free-jam-free are all absent. The free flow will not follow the congestion. When the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp, we observe an interesting phase: jam-max.-free. The bottleneck emerges as the flow in between the two ramps saturates to its maximum. We further show that the roadway configuration is equivalent to a nonstandard intersection. Applications to a traffic rotary are discussed.

  2. Current ramp-up with lower hybrid current drive in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, H.; Li, J. G.; Wilson, J. R.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Gong, X. Z.; Shen, B.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    More economical fusion reactors might be enabled through the cyclic operation of lower hybrid current drive. The first stage of cyclic operation would be to ramp up the plasma current with lower hybrid waves alone in low-density plasma. Such a current ramp-up was carried out successfully on the EAST tokamak. The plasma current was ramped up with a time-averaged rate of 18 kA/s with lower hybrid (LH) power. The average conversion efficiency Pel/PLH was about 3%. Over a transient phase, faster ramp-up was obtained. These experiments feature a separate measurement of the L/R time at the time of current ramp up.

  3. Physical design study of the CEPC booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang

    2016-09-01

    A physical design study of the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams for the CEPC collider with top-up injection. The booster is mounted above the collider in the same tunnel. To save cost, the energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6 GeV, corresponding to a magnetic field of 30.7 Gs. In this paper, the booster lattice is described and optimization of the cell length is discussed. A novel scheme of bypass near the detector of the collider is designed. The extremely low magnetic field caused by low injection energy is studied, and a new ideal of wiggling bands is proposed to mitigate the low-field problem. Beam transfer and injection from the linac to the booster are considered.

  4. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Olsen, R. )

    1992-01-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  5. A differential-delay control for ramped magnet current

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Olsen, R.

    1992-11-01

    A differential-delay control system has been designed and implemented for the main dipole magnet power supply of the booster ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab. The control algorithm was implemented on a floating-point digital signal processor; in tests, the use of digital signal-processing techniques gave a factor of ten improvement in the tracking response time, together with a modest improvement in tracking accuracy.

  6. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  7. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) An authorized LPFM station...

  8. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  9. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  10. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  11. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  12. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  13. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  14. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  15. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  16. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  17. A rookie's guide to Booster operations. Booster technical note no. 231

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    1998-09-29

    The purpose of the Booster is to act as an injector for the AGS. It accelerates both protons and other ions. Proton acceleration is distinguished from the acceleration of other ions for several reasons. First, the experimental physics associated with protons, called High Energy Physics is different than that associated with other Ions, called Heavy Ion Physics. From the machine perspective, the process of injection of so called Heavy Ions (ions which are not protons), is distinctly different, from that of protons. A different preinjector, or injector for the Booster, is used for each case. For Protons, a 200 MeV Linear accelerator (The Linac) serves as a preinjector; for Heavy Ions, the Tandem Van De Graaf (The Tandem) is the preinjector. An attribute of the circulating beam which determines to a large degree what problems and what type of machine setup is involved is the beam intensity. The author's focus in this guide is on trying to convey the knowledge and experience involved in the operation of the Booster. Many of the problems encountered can be traced back to equipment failures, often power supplies. Although diagnostics are used, there can also be issues with the controls system itself. Problems with the controls system and prevent fixing or even finding a problem with a machine. The issue of improving a machines' performance can often involve trial and error and observations. The hard part is finding the relationships between things in the day to day operation of the machine. Abstractions about physics, information about controls and instrumentation, and purely empirical observations of how the machine behaves are all part of it.

  18. A Framework to Support Generator Ramping Uncertainty Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    Power system operation requires maintaining a continuous balance between system demand and generation within certain constraints. Traditionally, the balancing processes are based on deterministic models, which do not consider possible random deviations of system generation and load from their predicted values. With the increasing penetration of the renewable generation, unexpected balancing problems can happen due to the deviations. This can result in serious risks to system reliability and efficiency. When the available balancing reserve is not enough to cover the predicted net load range with uncertainty, deficiency of balancing needs occurs. In this case, it is necessary to commit or de-commit additional conventional generators to achieve the desired confidence level for the balancing needs. The framework is built for solving this problem. The ramping tool engine is used to predict additional balancing requirements caused by the variability and uncertainty of the renewable energy, under the constraints of the generation ramping capability and interchange schedule. The webbrowser- based GUI is used to visualize the data in web-environment, which provides flexibility to allow user to see the ramping outputs in any platform. The GOSS structure provides strong support to allow easy communication between ramping engine, and system inputs, as well as the GUI.

  19. Progress with the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  1. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  2. Early Beam Injection Scheme for the Fermilab Booster: A Path for Intensity Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2015-10-28

    Over the past decade, Fermilab has focused efforts on the intensity frontier physics and is committed to increase the average beam power delivered to the neutrino and muon programs substantially. Many upgrades to the existing injector accelerators, namely, the current 400 MeV LINAC and the Booster, are in progress under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) proposes to replace the existing 400 MeV LINAC by a new 800 MeV LINAC, as an injector to the Booster which will increase Booster output power by nearly a factor of two from the PIP design value by the end of its completion. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for nearly next two decades. In this context, I have developed and investigated a new beam injection scheme called "early injection scheme" (EIS) for the Booster with the goal to significantly increase the beam intensity output from the Booster thereby increasing the beam power to the HEP experiments even before PIP-II era. The scheme, if implemented, will also help improve the slip-stacking efficiency in the MI/RR. Here I present results from recent simulations, beam studies, current status and future plans for the new scheme.

  3. Solid rocket booster retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster Retrieval operations are discussed in detail. The recovery of expended boosters and associated hardware without damage attributable to retrieval procedures is the main goal. The retrieval force consists tof ship's personnel and retrieval team members, each of whom has been trained and is highly skilled in multi-faceted operations. The retrieval force is equipped with two specially-built, highly maneuverable ships outfitted with parachute reels, retrieval cranes, towing winches, large volume-low pressure air compressors, SCUBA diving gear, inflatable boats with outboard motors and diver-operated SRB dewatering devices. The two ships are deployed in sufficient time to conduct an electronic and visual search of the impact area prior to launch. Upon search completeion, each ship takes station a safe distance from the predetermined impact point initiating both visual and electronic search in the direction of flight path, ensuring SRB acquisition at splashdown. When safe, the ships enter the impact area and commence recovery of all floating flight hardware which is subsequently returned to the Disassembly Facility for refurbishment and reuse. Retrieval techniques have evolved in parallel with equipment and flight hardware configuration changes. Additional changes have been initiated to improve personnel safety.

  4. BOOSTER CHLORINATION FOR MANAGING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster chlorination is an approach to residual maintenance in which chlorine is applied at strategic locations within the distribution system. Situations in which booster chlorination may be most effective for maintaining a residual are explained informally in the context of a ...

  5. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  6. B-47A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Boeing B-47A (NACA 150) shown on the ramp near NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station at South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1953. The B-47A Stratojet's wing is mounted high on the fuselage with a sweep back of 36 degrees and a span of 116 feet, with wing vortex generators installed. A two engine pod under each wing, and an additional engine pod at each wing tip using General Electric J-47-GE-23 turbojets. The airplane is fitted with a nose boom for measuring airspeed, altitude, angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip, and an optigraph for measuring the movements of target lights on the wing and tail.

  7. GLOBAL DECOUPLING ON THE RHIC RAMP.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; FISCHER, W.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  8. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  9. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  10. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  11. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  12. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  13. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  14. Comparison of energy output during ramp and staircase shortening in frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Linari, M; Woledge, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. We compared the rates of work and heat production during ramp shortening with those during staircase shortening (sequence of step releases of the same amplitude, separated by regular time intervals). Ramp or staircase shortening was applied to isolated muscle fibres (sarcomere length, 2.2 microns; temperature, approximately 1 degree C) at the plateau of an isometric tetanus. The total amount of shortening was no greater than 6% of the fibre length. 2. During ramp shortening the power output showed a maximum at about 0.8 fibre lengths per second (Lo s-1), which corresponds to 1/3 the maximum shortening velocity (Vo). For the same average shortening velocity during staircase shortening (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) the power output was 40-60% lower. The rate of heat production for the same average shortening velocity was approximately 45% higher during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. 3. The relation between rate of total energy output and shortening velocity was well described by a second order regression line in the range of velocities used (0.1-2.3 Lo s-1). For any shortening velocity the rate of total energy output (power plus heat rate) was not statistically different for staircase (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) and ramp shortening. 4. The mechanical efficiency (the ratio of the power over the total energy rate) during ramp shortening had a maximum value of 0.36 at 1/5 Vo; during staircase shortening, for any given shortening velocity, the mechanical efficiency was reduced compared with ramp shortening: with a staircase step of about 0.5% Lo at 1/5 Vo the efficiency was approximately 0.2. 5. The results indicate that a cross-bridge is able to convert different quantities of energy into work depending on the different shortening protocol used. The fraction of energy dissipated as heat is larger during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. PMID:8544132

  15. BERLinPro Booster Cavity Design, Fabrication and Test Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, Andrew; Anders, W; Frahm, A.; Knobloch, Jens; Neumann, Axel; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D.

    2014-12-01

    The bERLinPro project, a 100 mA, 50 MeV superconducting RF (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for the purpose of studying the technical challenges and physics of operating a high current, c.w., 1.3 GHz ERL. This machine will utilize three unique SRF cryomodules for the injector, booster and linac module respectively. The booster cryomodule will contain three 2-cell SRF cavities, based on the original design by Cornell University, and will be equipped with twin 115 kW RF power couplers in order to provide the appropriate acceleration to the high current electron beam. This paper will review the status of the fabrication of the 4 booster cavities that have been built for this project by Jefferson Laboratory and look at the challenges presented by the incorporation of fundamental power couplers capable of delivering 115 kW. The test plan for the cavities and couplers will be given along with a brief overview of the cryomodule design.

  16. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  17. NSRL Extraction Bump Control in the Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,L.

    2008-10-01

    Due to inadequacies in the user interface of the booster orbit control system, a number of new tools were developed. The first priority was an accurate calculation of the winding currents given specific displacements at each extraction septa. Next, the physical limits of the power supplies ({+-}600 amps) needed to be taken into account. In light of this limit, a system is developed that indicates to the user what the allowed values of one bump parameter are once the other two have been specified. Finally, techniques are developed to account for the orbit behavior once power supplies are requested to exceed their {+-}600 amp limit. This includes a recalculation of bump parameters and a calculation of the amplitude of the residuals. Following this, possible areas for further development are outlined. These techniques were computationally developed in Mathematica and tested in the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) program before they were implemented into the control system. At the end, a description of the implementation of these techniques in a new interface is described. This includes a depiction of the appearance and functionality of the graphical user interface, a description of the input and output flow, and an outline of how each important calculation is performed.

  18. IMPROVEMENTS OF THE RHIC RAMP EFFICIENCY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; PTITSYN,V.; FISCHER,W.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; HAYES,T.; PILAT,F.; ROSER,T.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    The last nms in both gold-gold and polarized proton-proton required necessary corrections in the ramp as the intensities in the two rings were rising towards design values. Corrections were made with respect to the beam-beam effects, transverse and longitudinal instabilities, transition crossing (for the gold-gold ramps), transverse tune resonances, local and global coupliug problems, aperture restrictions, chromatic effects. Along the ramps we had to use the beam separation, ''Landau'' cavities, chromatic and tune control, orbit correction, special gamma-t quadrupole system for the transition crossing in the gold run, correction octupole circuits, beam position monitor system decoupling etc.

  19. Theoretical Analysis and Bench Tests of a Control-Surface Booster Employing a Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Kleckner, Harold F.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA is conducting a general investigation of servo-mechanisms for use in powering aircraft control surfaces. This paper presents a theoretical analysis and the results of bench tests of a control-booster system which employs a variable displacement hydraulic pump. The booster is intended for use in a flight investigation to determine the effects of various booster parameters on the handling qualities of airplanes. Such a flight investigation would aid in formulating specific requirements concerning the design of control boosters in general. Results of the theoretical analysis and the bench tests indicate that the subject booster is representative of types which show promise of satisfactory performance. The bench tests showed that the following desirable features were inherent in this booster system: (1) No lost motion or play in any part of the system; (2) no detectable lag between motion of the contra1 stick and control surface; and (3) Good agreement between control displacements and stick-force variations with no hysteresis in the stick-force characteristics. The final design configuration of this booster system showed no tendency to oscillate, overshoot, or have other undesirable transient characteristics common to boosters.

  20. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-02-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  1. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  2. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  3. New beam instrumentation in the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster was designed to accelerate beams from 2{times}10{sup 10} polarized protons to 1.5{times}10{sup 13} protons and heavy ions through Au{sup +33}. The range of beam parameters and the high vacuum, and radiation environment presented challenges for the beam instrumentation. Some interesting beam monitors in the Booster and transport lines, will be described. Where available, results will be presented. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Booster 6-GeV study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Pellico, William A.; Lackey, James; Padilla, Rene; Norem, J.; /Argonne

    2004-12-01

    Since a wider aperture has been obtained along the Booster beam line, this opens the opportunity for Booster running a higher intensity beam than ever before. Sooner or later, the available RF accelerating voltage will become a new limit for the beam intensity. Either by increasing the RFSUM or by reducing the accelerating rate can achieve the similar goal. The motivation for the 6-GeV study is to gain the relative accelerating voltage via a slower acceleration.

  5. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  6. An application for tunes and coupling evaluation from turn-by-turn data at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.; Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A console application using the phasing of Turn-by-Turn signals from the different BPMs has been tested at the Fermilab Booster. This technique allows the on-line detection of the beam tunes during the fast Booster ramp in conditions where other algorithms were unsuccessful. The application has been recently expanded to include the computation of the linear coupling coefficients. Algorithm and measurement results are presented. Although improved by the phased sum technique the automatic identification of the tunes is not always successful. This makes the use of the on-line application difficult. Ideas for further improvements are under investigation. Measurements have indicated that the effect of the skew quadrupoles is by a factor 3 weaker than expected from the nominal optics. A calibration of the skew quadrupole circuits using the TBT data is planned.

  7. Integrable RCS as a proposed replacement for Fermilab Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Valishev, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Integrable optics is an innovation in particle accelerator design that potentially enables a greater betatron tune spread and damps collective instabilities. An integrable rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) would be an effective replacement for the Fermilab Booster, as part of a plan to reach multi-MW beam power at 120 GeV for the Fermilab high-energy neutrino program. We provide an example integrable lattice with features of a modern RCS - dispersion-free drifts, low momentum compaction factor, superperiodicity, chromaticity correction, bounded beta functions, and separate-function magnets.

  8. Online Analysis of Wind and Solar Part I: Ramping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2012-01-31

    To facilitate wider penetration of renewable resources without compromising system reliability concerns arising from the lack of predictability of intermittent renewable resources, a tool for use by California Independent System Operator (CAISO) power grid operators was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with CAISO with funding from California Energy Commission. This tool predicts and displays additional capacity and ramping requirements caused by uncertainties in forecasts of loads and renewable generation. The tool is currently operational in the CAISO operations center. This is one of two final reports on the project.

  9. Solid Rocket Motor/Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This image illustrates the solid rocket motor (SRM)/solid rocket booster (SRB) configuration. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  10. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  11. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2015-02-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced. This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can no longer be leaked.

  12. Soviets ready new boosters at Tyuratam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The capabilities and design characteristics of two new launch vehicles and Shuttle-type vehicles believed to be under preparation at the Soviet Tyuratam launch site are described. The boosters, photographed on launch pads, are Saturn 5 and 1B class vehicles. Indications have been detected that a heavy Shuttle vehicle equipped to use strap-on boosters and slush H2 fuel is being readied for launch. A mini-Shuttle is also being tested, and has two flights behind it that culminated in water landings. NASA-Langley wind tunnel tests of the small spaceplane configuration suggested that it reenters the atmosphere in its own bow shock, thus exposing it to temperatures much lower than vehicles with wings which extend beyond the shock wave. The small spaceplane may have a sublimating plastic coating to shed reentry heat. The boosters have 30,000 and 330,000 lb payload-to-orbit capabilities.

  13. Mars pathfinder Rover egress deployable ramp assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian R.; Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Program is a NASA Discovery Mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to launch and place a small planetary Rover for exploration on the Martian surface. To enable safe and successful egress of the Rover vehicle from the spacecraft, a pair of flight-qualified, deployable ramp assemblies have been developed. This paper focuses on the unique, lightweight deployable ramp assemblies. A brief mission overview and key design requirements are discussed. Design and development activities leading to qualification and flight systems are presented.

  14. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, Vincent; Dunn, Michael; Fink, Lawrence; Phillips, Dwight; Wetzel, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The use of hydrogen RP-1, propane, and methane as fuels for booster engines of launch vehicles is discussed. An automated procedure for integrated launch vehicle, engine sizing, and design optimization was used to define two stage and single stage concepts for minimum dry weight. The two stage vehicles were unmanned and used a flyback booster and partially reusable orbiter. The single stage designs were fully reusable, manned flyback vehicles. Comparisons of these vehicle designs, showing the effects of using different fuels, as well as sensitivity and trending data, are presented. In addition, the automated design technique utilized for the study is described.

  15. Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying highcapacity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior of Deluge Water Booster Station displaying high-capacity electrically driven water pumps for fire fighting service - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Booster Station, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Tune Determination of Strongly Coupled Betatron Oscillations in a Fast-Ramping Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W; Triplett, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Tune identification -- i.e. attribution of the spectral peak to a particular normal de of oscillations -- can present a significant difficulty in the presence of strong transverse coupling when the normal mode with a lower damping rate dominates spectra of Turn-by-Turn oscillations in both planes. The introduced earlier phased sum algorithm helped to recover the weaker normal mode signal from the noise, but by itself proved to be insufficient for automatic peak identification in the case of close phase advance distribution in both planes. To resolve this difficulty we modified the algorithm by taking and analyzing Turn-by-Turn data for two different ramps with the beam oscillation excited in each plane in turn. Comparison of relative amplitudes of Fourier components allows for correct automatic tune identification. The proposed algorithm was implemented in the Fermilab Booster B38 console application and successfully used for tune, coupling and chromaticity measurements.

  17. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and close-out procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Implications of a 20-Hz Booster cycle-rate for Slip-stacking

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-06-10

    We examine the potential impacts to slip-stacking from a change of the Booster cycle-rate from 15- to 20-Hz. We find that changing the Booster cycle-rate to 20-Hz would greatly increase the slip-stacking bucket area, while potentially requiring greater usage of the Recycler momentum aperture and additional power dissipation in the RF cavities. In particular, the losses from RF interference can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on Booster beam longitudinal parameters). We discuss the aspect ratio and beam emittance requirements for efficient slip-stacking in both cycle-rate cases. Using a different injection scheme can eliminate the need for greater momentum aperture in the Recycler.

  19. VISUAL ACCESSIBILITY OF RAMPS AND STEPS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Yu, Deyue; Kallie, Christopher S.; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Gage, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The visual accessibility of a space refers to the effectiveness with which vision can be used to travel safely through the space. For people with low vision, the detection of steps and ramps is an important component of visual accessibility. We used ramps and steps as visual targets to examine the interacting effects of lighting, object geometry, contrast, viewing distance and spatial resolution. Wooden staging was used to construct a sidewalk with transitions to ramps or steps. 48 normally sighted subjects viewed the sidewalk monocularly through acuity-reducing goggles, and made recognition judgments about the presence of the ramps or steps. The effects of variation in lighting were milder than expected. Performance declined for the largest viewing distance, but exhibited a surprising reversal for nearer viewing. Of relevance to pedestrian safety, the step up was more visible than the step down. We developed a probabilistic cue model to explain the pattern of target confusions. Cues determined by discontinuities in the edge contours of the sidewalk at the transition to the targets were vulnerable to changes in viewing conditions. Cues associated with the height in the picture plane of the targets were more robust. PMID:20884503

  20. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  1. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  2. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  3. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  4. What A Booster Club Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidinger, George

    This speech was presented at the 1976 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation national convention by the principal of an Iowa high school. It discusses the development and effectiveness of the Jefferson High School Booster Club which was developed by an interested parent and has been quite successful. The club has assisted…

  5. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  6. A TEG Efficiency Booster with Buck-Boost Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Junjun; Xing, Yan

    2013-07-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) efficiency booster with buck-boost conversion and power management is proposed as a TEG battery power conditioner suitable for a wide TEG output voltage range. An inverse-coupled inductor is employed in the buck-boost converter, which is used to achieve smooth current with low ripple on both the TEG and battery sides. Furthermore, benefiting from the magnetic flux counteraction of the two windings on the coupled inductor, the core size and power losses of the filter inductor are reduced, which can achieve both high efficiency and high power density. A power management strategy is proposed for this power conditioning system, which involves maximum power point tracking (MPPT), battery voltage control, and battery current control. A control method is employed to ensure smooth switching among different working modes. A modified MPPT control algorithm with improved dynamic and steady-state characteristics is presented and applied to the TEG battery power conditioning system to maximize energy harvesting. A 500-W prototype has been built, and experimental tests carried out on it. The power efficiency of the prototype at full load is higher than 96%, and peak efficiency of 99% is attained.

  7. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  8. Energy-efficient operation of a booster RF system for Taiwan light source operated in top-up mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Shu; Wang, Chaoen; Chang, Lung-Hai; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Yu, Tsung-Chi; Lin, Ming-Chyuan; Chen, Ling-Jhen; Yang, Tz-Te; Chang, Mei-Hsia; Lin, Yu-Han; Tsai, Ming-Hsun; Lo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Zong-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Contemporary light sources operate in a top-up mode to maintain their photon intensity quasi-constant so as to improve significantly the thermal stability of the photon beam and to maximize ultimately the average photon flux at a designed maximum operational beam current. Operating in a top-up mode requires frequent beam injection from the synchrotron booster to the storage ring of the light source, but the injection intervals occupy only a tiny portion of the operational time of the integrated machine. To maintain a high operational reliability, the booster RF system practically operates necessarily under injection conditions around the clock and consumes full electric power whether during top-up injection or not. How to decrease the power consumption of the booster RF system during its stand-by time but not to sacrifice the reliability and availability of the RF system is obviously of fundamental interest for routine operation of the light source in a top-up mode. Here, an energy-efficient operation of a booster RF system adaptive to top-up operation of a light source is proposed that has been developed, realized and integrated into the booster RF system of the Taiwan Light Source (TLS), and routinely operated since the end of year 2008. The klystron cathode current and RF gap voltage of the booster's accelerating RF cavity are both periodically modulated to adapt the injection rhythm during top-up operation, which results in decreased consumption of electric power of the booster RF system by more than 78%. The impact on the reliability and availability of the booster RF system has been carefully monitored during the past five operational years, delivering more than 5000 h scheduled user beam time per year. The booster RF system retains its excellent reliability and availability as previously. Neither a decrease of the service time nor an induced reliability issue from the klystron or any high-power high-voltage component of the transmitter has been experienced

  9. Expendable second stage reusable space shuttle booster. Volume 2: Technical summary. Book 3: Booster vehicle modifications and ground systems definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A definition of the expendable second stage and space shuttle booster separation system is presented. Modifications required on the reusable booster for expendable second stage/payload flight and the ground systems needed to operate the expendable second stage in conjuction with the space shuttle booster are described. The safety, reliability, and quality assurance program is explained. Launch complex operations and services are analyzed.

  10. Plasma current ramp-up by lower hybrid wave using innovative antennas on TST-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Moeller, Charles; Roidl, Benedikt; Shinya, Takahiro; Tsujii, Naoto; Yajima, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hibiki; Kitayama, Akichika; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sato, Akito; Sonehara, Masateru; Takahashi, Wataru; Tajiri, Yoshiyuki; Takei, Yuki; Togashi, Hiro; Toida, Kazuya; Yoshida, Yusuke

    2016-10-01

    Non-inductive plasma current (Ip) ramp-up by RF power in the lower hybrid frequency range is being studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak (R = 0.36 m, a = 0.23 m, Bt = 0.3 T, Ip = 0.1 MA). Up to 400 kW of RF power is available at a frequency of 200 MHz. An innovative antenna called the capacitively-coupled combline (CCC) antenna was developed to excite a sharp, highly directional traveling wave with the electric field polarized in the toroidal direction. It is an array of resonant circuit elements made of capacitance and inductance, coupled to neighboring elements by mutual capacitance. Two CCC antennas are installed in TST-2, a 13-element outboard-launch antenna and a 6-element top-launch antenna. The latter was installed in March 2016 to improve accessibility to the core and to achieve single-pass damping. The suspected wave power loss in the scrape-off layer plasma should also be avoided. Ip ramp-up to 25 kA has been achieved so far. An upgrade of the Bt power supply is planned to take advantage of the observed improvement of Ip ramp-up with Bt. Higher Bt for longer pulses should improve the Ip ramp-up efficiency by improving wave accessibility and by reducing prompt orbit losses of energetic electrons.

  11. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceaea) using RAPD, ISSR and RAMP markers.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Zafirah; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohammed Razip; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Hamdan, Mohammad Razak

    2016-10-01

    Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared to analyse the genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans eight populations in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The PCR techniques were random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acids (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). Leaf genomic DNA was PCR amplified using 17 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 136 RAMP primers . However, only 10 RAPD primers, 5 ISSR primers and 37 RAMP primers produced reproducible bands. The results were evaluated for polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP). The RAMP marker was the most useful marker compared to RAPD and ISSR markers because it showed the highest average value of PIC (0.25), MI (11.36) and RP (2.86). The genetic diversity showed a high percentage of polymorphism at the species level compared to the population level. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic diversity was higher within populations, as compared to among populations of C. nutans. From the results, the RAMP technique was recommended for the analysis of genetic diversity of C. nutans.

  12. Evaluation of WRF-Predicted Near-Hub-Height Winds and Ramp Events over a Pacific Northwest Site with Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail; Fast, Jerome D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Stoelinga, Mark; Finley, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    The WRF model version 3.3 is used to simulate near hub-height winds and power ramps utilizing three commonly used planetary boundary-layer (PBL) schemes: Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), University of Washington (UW), and Yonsei University (YSU). The predicted winds have small mean biases compared with observations. Power ramps and step changes (changes within an hour) consistently show that the UW scheme performed better in predicting up ramps under stable conditions with higher prediction accuracy and capture rates. Both YSU and UW scheme show good performance predicting up- and down- ramps under unstable conditions with YSU being slightly better for ramp durations longer than an hour. MYJ is the most successful simulating down-ramps under stable conditions. The high wind speed and large shear associated with low-level jets are frequently associated with power ramps, and the biases in predicted low-level jet explain some of the shown differences in ramp predictions among different PBL schemes. Low-level jets were observed as low as ~200 m in altitude over the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES) site, located in an area of complex terrain. The shear, low-level peak wind speeds, as well as the height of maximum wind speed are not well predicted. Model simulations with 3 PBL schemes show the largest variability among them under stable conditions.

  13. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  14. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  15. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  16. XF-92A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph of the XF-92A was taken at the South Base of Edwards Air Force Base. The photograph shows the pitot-static probe, used to measure airspeed, Mach number, and altitude, mounted on a noseboom protruding from the aircraft's nose engine inlet. Also attached to the pitot-static-probe portion of the noseboom are flow direction vanes for sensing the aircraft's angles of attack and sideslip. The Convair XF-92A aircraft was powered by a Allison J33-A turbojet engine with an afterburner, and was unique in having America's first delta wing. The delta wing's large area, thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made this design a promising combination for a supersonic airplane. The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation (Convair) XF-92A Dart was America's first delta wing aircraft. It was built as a test bed for a proposed interceptor that never materialized. The XF-92A was then continued to test the delta-wing concept. The delta wing's large area (425 square feet), thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made a great combination for a supersonic aircraft. The aircraft was powered by an Allison J33-A-29 turbojet engine with an afterburner. Convair and the U.S. Air Force flew the XF-92A from 1948 to 1953. After the Air Force's plans for an interceptor failed to materialize, the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, which had supplied engineering, instrumentation, and operational assistance to the Air Force during its flights, took over the flight test program in 1953. A. Scott Crossfield flew all 25 NACA flights of the NACA's XF-92A program over a six-month test period. The original XF-92A ship had a severe pitch-up problem but was tested with different wing-fence combinations to gather data on their contribution to solving that problem. The pilot also reported that the aircraft was sluggish and underpowered. Besides validating the thin delta wing principle, the XF-92A

  17. Forward modeling of shock-ramped tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin L.; Carpenter, John H.; Seagle, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic materials experiments on the Z-machine are beginning to reach a regime where traditional analysis techniques break down. Time dependent phenomena such as strength and phase transition kinetics often make the data obtained in these experiments difficult to interpret. We present an inverse analysis methodology to infer the equation of state (EOS) from velocimetry data in these types of experiments, building on recent advances in the propagation of uncertain EOS information through a hydrocode simulation. An example is given for a shock-ramp experiment in which tantalum was shock compressed to 40 GPa followed by a ramp to 80 GPa. The results are found to be consistent with isothermal compression and Hugoniot data in this regime.

  18. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; ...

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both themore » time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.« less

  19. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; Braun, Dave G.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Patterson, J. Reed; Celliers, Peter M.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Collins, Gilbert W.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both the time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.

  20. An analysis of booster tone noise using a time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wukie, Nathan A.

    This thesis details a computational investigation of tone noise generated from a booster(low-pressure compressor) in a fan test rig. The computational study consisted of sets of time-linearized Navier-Stokes simulations in the booster region to investigate the blade-wake interactions that act as the primary noise-generating mechanism for the booster blade-passing frequency and harmonics. An acoustic test database existed with data at several operating points for the fan test rig that was used to compare against the predicted noise data from the computational study. It is shown that the computational methodology is able to capture trends in sound power for the 1st and 2nd booster tones along the operating line for the rig. It is also shown that the computational study underpredicts one of the tones at low power and is not able to capture a peak in the data at the Cutback condition. Further investigation of this type is warranted to quantify the source of discrepancies between the computational and experimental data as the reflected transmisison of sound off the fan through the bypass duct was not accounted for in this study.

  1. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize capacity of highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff

    ramp. When poff >p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  2. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs.

  3. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  4. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  5. Development of Cogging at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C.; Pellico, W.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A.

    2015-01-30

    The development of magnetic cogging is part of the Fermilab Booster upgrade within the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The Booster is going to send 2.25E17 protons/hour which is almost double the present flux, 1.4E17 protons/hour to the Main Injector (MI) and Recycler (RR). The extraction kicker gap has to synchronize to the MI and RR injection bucket in order to avoid a beam loss at the rising edge of the extraction and injection kickers. Magnetic cogging is able to control the revolution frequency and the position of the gap using the magnetic field from dipole correctors while radial position feedback keeps the beam at the central orbit. The new cogging is expected to reduce beam loss due to the orbit changes and reduce beam energy loss when the gap is created. The progress of the magnetic cogging system development is going to be discussed in this paper.

  6. Space shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The system is described which is used to separate the solid rocket boosters from the space shuttle after they have expended most of their propellant and their thrust is near burnout. The dynamics of the separation are simulated in a computer program so that the separation system can be analyzed. The assumptions and ground rules used in analyzing this system are explained and the method of analysis is delineated. The capability of the separation system is presented together with data which may be used to aid in the design of the external tank and solid rocket booster interface. The results of a parameter study to determine the sensitivity of the separation to the initial state of the space shuttle are also presented.

  7. Comparing hydrogen and hydrocarbon booster fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1988-01-01

    The present evaluation of the consequences of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the basis of launch vehicle booster rocket-stage performance notes that hydrocarbon fuels lead to lower vehicle dry mass, for low-velocity requirements, while hydrogen fuel furnishes lower dry mass. Vehicles employing both types of fuel attempt to take advantage of the low intercept and slope of hydrocarbon fuel at low velocity, and subsequently, of the slope of the hydrogen curves at higher velocities.

  8. Solid rocket booster water impact test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.

    1982-01-01

    Water impact drop tests were performed on the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). Peak water impact pressures and pressure/time traces were measured for various impact velocities using a two-dimensional, full-scale SRB aft skirt internal ring model. Passive burst disc-type pressure transducers were calibrated for use on flight SRB's. The effects on impact pressure of small ring configuration changes and application of thermal protection system cork layers were found to be negligible.

  9. Digital LLRF controller for NICA booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkin, G. A.; Batrakov, A. M.; Ilyin, I. V.; Vasilyev, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The digital LLRF controller based on embedded microcontroller for the booster of the Dubna superconducting accelerator complex NICA is presented. It allows setting the frequency in accordance with the magnetic field value in the 0.5-5 MHz range with an inaccuracy ± 110 Hz. A novel method of frequency calculation based on the derivative is proposed. The specialized tester module allows tuning up and checking the RF system during comissioning and operation.

  10. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  11. Booster 6-GeV study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Pellico, William A.; Lackey, James; Padilla, Rene; Norem, James; /Argonne

    2005-05-01

    A wider aperture, which has been obtained along the Booster beam line recently, brings the opportunity to run beams with the intensity higher than ever before. Sooner or later, the available RF accelerating voltage will become a new limit for the beam intensity. Extra accelerating voltages can be achieved either by increasing the RFSUM or by reducing the accelerating rate via a slower acceleration, and this motivates the 6-GeV study.

  12. Engine protection system for recoverable rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jr., Jerry A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rocket engine protection system for a recoverable rocket booster which is arranged to land in a salt water body in substantially a nose down attitude. The system includes an inflatable bag which is stowed on a portion of a flat annular rim of the aft skirt of the booster. The bag is hinged at opposing sides and is provided with springs that urge the bag open. The bag is latched in a stowed position during launch and prior to landing for recovery is unlatched to permit the bag to be urged open and into sealing engagement with the rim. A source of pressurized gas further inflates the bag and urges it into sealing engagement with the rim of the skirt where it is locked into position. The gas provides a positive pressure upon the interior of the bag to preclude entry of salt water into the skirt and into contact with the engine. A flotation arrangement may assist in precluding the skirt of the booster from becoming submerged.

  13. Application of independent component analysis to Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.B.; Lee, S.Y.; Prebys, E.; Tomlin, R.; /Indiana U. /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Autocorrelation is applied to analyze sets of finite-sampling data such as the turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data in an accelerator. This method of data analysis, called the independent component analysis (ICA), is shown to be a powerful beam diagnosis tool for being able to decompose sampled signals into its underlying source signals. They find that the ICA has an advantage over the principle component analysis (PCA) used in the model-independent analysis (MIA) in isolating independent modes. The tolerance of the ICA method to noise in the BPM system is systematically studied. The ICA is applied to analyze the complicated beam motion in a rapid-cycling booster synchrotron at the Fermilab. Difficulties and limitations of the ICA method are also discussed.

  14. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Corbus, D.

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  15. STS-26 solid rocket booster post flight structural assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herda, David A.; Finnegan, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    A post flight assessment of the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Boosters was conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida after the launch of STS-26. The two boosters were inspected for structural damage and the results of this inspection are presented. Overall, the boosters were in good condition. However, there was some minor damage attributed to splash down. Some of this damage is a recurring problem. Explanations of these problems are provided.

  16. Space Shuttle Five-Segment Booster (Short Course)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stanley R.; Rudolphi, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is considering upgrading the Space Shuttle by adding a fifth segment (FSB) to the current four-segment solid rocket booster. Course materials cover design and engineering issues related to the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) raised by the addition of a fifth segment to the rocket booster. Topics cover include: four segment vs. five segment booster, abort modes, FSB grain design, erosive burning, enhanced propellant burn rate, FSB erosive burning model development and hardware configuration.

  17. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, Frustum and Nose Cap mated assembly undergoing final preparations in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. In this view the access panel on the Forward Skirt is removed and you can see a small portion of the interior of the Forward Skirt. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and assembly procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Quantum Ramp Secret Sharing Scheme and Quantum Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heling; Wang, Huifeng; Wang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of quantum secret sharing, quantum ramp secret sharing schemes were proposed (Ogawa et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032318 [2005]), which had a trade-off between security and coding efficiency. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an intermediate set, which cannot fully reconstruct the secret. This paper revisits the size of a share in the quantum ramp secret scheme based on a relation between the quantum operations and the coherent information. We also propose an optimal quantum ramp secret sharing scheme.

  20. Solid rocket booster thermal protection system materials development. [space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    A complete run log of all tests conducted in the NASA-MSFC hot gas test facility during the development of materials for the space shuttle solid rocket booster thermal protection system are presented. Lists of technical reports and drawings generated under the contract are included.

  1. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  2. Chaotic Pattern Dynamics in Spatially Ramped Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, R. J.; Ashbaker, E.; Olsen, T.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2003-11-01

    In previous experiments(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997)., Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry has demonstrated a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics. A spatial ramp exists in the Reynolds number. For low reduced Reynolds numbesr \\varepsilon, supercritical vortex flow occurs between regions of subcritical structureless flow with soft boundaries that allow for pattern dynamics. At \\varepsilon ≈ 0.5, the pattern exhibits phase slips that occur irregularly in time. At \\varepsilon ≈ 1.0 the entire system is supercritical, and the pattern is stabilized against phase slips. At \\varepsilon > 15, shear flow creates a spatial ramp in turbulence. Remarkably, the phase slip instability reoccurs. Vortex pairs are created chaotically, possibly due to the spatial variation of the turbulence. The variance and Fourier spectra of time series of light scattered off Kalliroscope tracer were measured. These indicate that a region of turbulence exists, within which phase slips occur, bounded by regions of laminar flow which may provide soft boundaries that allow for the phase dynamics. Despite the presence of turbulence, the dynamics might be describable by a phase equation.

  3. Pegasus air-launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Mosier, Marty R.

    The launching of small satellites with the mother- aircraft-launched Pegasus booster yields substantial cost improvements over ground launching and enhances operational flexibility, since it allows launches to be conducted into any orbital inclination. The Pegasus launch vehicle is a three-stage solid-rocket-propelled system with delta-winged first stage. The major components of airborne support equipment, located on the mother aircraft, encompass a launch panel operator console, an electronic pallet, and a pylon adapter. Alternatives to the currently employed B-52 launch platform aircraft have been identified for future use. Attention is given to the dynamic, thermal, and acoustic environments experienced by the payload.

  4. Launch site integration of Liquid Rocket Boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Leland P.; Dickinson, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The impacts of introducing Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRB) into the STS/KSC launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Pre-launch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated.

  5. Transition crossing simulation at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The demand in high intensity and low emittance of the beam extracted from the Booster requires a better control over the momentum spread growth and bunch length shortening at transition crossing, in order to prevent beam loss and coupled bunch instability. Since the transition crossing involves both longitudinal and transverse dynamics, the recently modified 3-D STRUCT code provides an opportunity to numerically investigate the different transition crossing schemes in the machine environment, and apply the results of simulation to minimize the beam loss and emittance growth operationally.

  6. Fermilab booster modeling and space charge study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2003-06-04

    The Fermilab Booster is a bottleneck limiting the proton beam intensity in the accelerator complex. A study group has been formed in order to have a better understanding of this old machine and seek possible improvements. The work includes lattice modeling, numerical simulations, bench measurements and beam studies. Based on newly obtained information, it has been found that the machine acceptance is severely compromised by the orbit bump and dogleg magnets. This, accompanied by emittance dilution from space charge at injection, is a major cause of the large beam loss at the early stage of the cycle. Measures to tackle this problem are being pursued.

  7. Cretaceous tide-dominated carbonate ramp: Comparison of reservoir hetergeneity in tide-versus wave-dominated carbonate ramp systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1995-08-01

    Cretaceous (upper Albian) carbonate ramp strata, Pecos River Canyon, Texas, provide a uniquely continuous exposure of a tide-dominated ramp reservoir analog. The continuous 100-km shelf-to-basin outcrop begins in inner ramp mud-rich facies that record both high-frequency (20-100 ky) and intermediate frequency (>200 ky) cyclicity. The ramp-crest is up to 40 km across depositional dip. Intermediate-scale cycles in the ramp crest include basal oyster and toucasid wackestones, chondrodontid-rudist packstones, rudist-skeletal grainstones, and caprinid biostromes. Ramp-crest grainstones are 4-23 m in thickness and extend more than 20 km in a shelf to basin direction. Rudist biostromes are 3-7 m in thickness and are up to several kilometers in dip continuity except in deeper outer ramp settings where 100-200 m wide mounds are more common. The ramp crest is dominated by grain-rich facies with moderate to high permeability. Toucasid wackestones and oyster marls are 1-5 m in thickness and extend tens of kilometers in a dip direction, representing potential fluid flow barriers. Wave-dominated ramp systems of the Permian of West Texas provide a contrast to the Cretaceous tide-dominated setting. Low-permeability high-frequency cycle base mudstones and high-permeability cycle-top grainstones are preserved in both inner ramp and ramp crest settings. Fluid-flow modeling of these Permian wave-dominated reservoir strata illustrates that the intercalation of thin high- and low-permeability layers result in crossflow trapping and thief zones controlling the position and amount of remaining oil saturation. The depositional homogeneity of the Cretaceous tide-dominated ramp indicates that diagenetic heterogeneities and gravitational effects are potentially dominant controls on reservoir performance for these strata.

  8. Commissioning and Early Operation for the NSLS-II Booster RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, C.; Cupolo, J.; Davila, P.; Gao, F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; McDonald, K.; Oliva, J.; Papu, J.; Ramirez, G.; Rose, J.; Sikora, R.; Sorrentino, C.; Towne, N.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a third generation 3GeV, 500mA synchrotron light source. We discuss the booster synchrotron RF system responsible for providing power to accelerate an electron beam from 200MeV to 3GeV. The RF system design and construction are complete and is currently in the operational phase of the NSLS-II project. Preliminary operational data is also discussed.

  9. Compensation of dogleg effect in Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaobiao Huang; Sho Ohnuma

    2003-10-06

    The edge focusing of dogleg magnets in Fermilab Booster has been causing severe distortion to the horizontal linear optics. The doglegs are vertical rectangular bends, therefore the vertical edge focusing is canceled by body focusing and the overall effect is focusing in the horizontal plane. The maximum horizontal beta function is changed from 33.7m to 46.9m and maximum dispersion from 3.19m to 6.14m. Beam size increases accordingly. This is believed to be one of the major reasons of beam loss. In this technote we demonstrate that this effect can be effectively corrected with Booster's quadrupole correctors in short straight sections (QS). There are 24 QS correctors which can alter horizontal linear optics with negligible perturbation to the vertical plane. The currents of correctors are determined by harmonic compensation, i.e., cancellation of dogleg's harmonics that are responsible for the distortion with that of QS correctors. By considering a few leading harmonics, the ideal lattice can be partly restored. For the current dogleg layout, maximum {beta}{sub x} is reduced to 40.6m and maximum D{sub x} is reduced to 4.19m. This scheme can be useful after the dogleg in section No.3 is repositioned. In this case it can bring {beta}{sub x} from 40.9m down to 37.7m, D{sub x} from 4.57m to 4.01m.

  10. General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a fully assembled Solid Rocket Booster sitting atop the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  13. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  14. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... narrowband channel that the booster is designed to amplify. Class B broadband signal boosters must meet the..., tunnels, underground areas, etc., or in remote areas, i.e., areas where there is little or no risk of... equipment may cause to other systems. Normal co-channel transmissions will not be considered as...

  15. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of Liquid Rocket Boosters (LRBs) replacing Solid Rocket Boosters on the Space Shuttle program. The major findings are given. The most significant conclusion is that LRBs offer significantly safety and performance advantages over the SRBs currently used by the STS without major impact to the ongoing program.

  16. Credit BG. Northwest facade of Building 4504 (Deluge Water Booster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Northwest facade of Building 4504 (Deluge Water Booster Station) is in view at left, with 500,000 gallon water tank (Building 4503) at right. Fenced electrical substation in view between the above structures is Building 4510. Building 4505 is in background - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Deluge Water Booster Station, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-21

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervals-where the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Clock Multiplexing Circuit for the SSRL Booster Accelerator Timing System - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Million

    2015-08-25

    SPEAR3 is a 234 m circular storage ring at SLAC’s synchrotron radiation facility (SSRL) in which a 3 GeV electron beam is stored for user access. Typically the electron beam decays with a time constant of approximately 10hr due to electron lose. In order to replenish the lost electrons, a booster synchrotron is used to accelerate fresh electrons up to 3GeV for injection into SPEAR3. In order to maintain a constant electron beam current of 500mA, the injection process occurs at 5 minute intervals. At these times the booster synchrotron accelerates electrons for injection at a 10Hz rate. A 10Hz 'injection ready' clock pulse train is generated when the booster synchrotron is operating. Between injection intervalswhere the booster is not running and hence the 10 Hz ‘injection ready’ signal is not present-a 10Hz clock is derived from the power line supplied by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) to keep track of the injection timing. For this project I constructed a multiplexing circuit to 'switch' between the booster synchrotron 'injection ready' clock signal and PG&E based clock signal. The circuit uses digital IC components and is capable of making glitch-free transitions between the two clocks. This report details construction of a prototype multiplexing circuit including test results and suggests improvement opportunities for the final design.

  19. Performance of a circular body earth-to-orbit winged transport with various strap-on boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Naftel, J. Chris; Widman, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Various types of twin strap-on boosters were evaluated by applying them to a core vehicle. The core vehicle has a clipped delta wing and a simple circular body, and is equipped with five Space Shuttle main engines. The only propellants in the core vehicle are liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The strap-on boosters investigated include the current Shuttle solid rocket motors with steel cases and advanced solids with graphite composite filament-wound cases. Also, two types of liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon boosters were investigated - one pair without crossfeed to the core vehicle and one with. The payloads obtained were tabulated for various assumptions, such as power levels on the core vehicle engines, number of engines, and maximum allowable flight dynamic pressures. The payload for the core vehicle with two filament-wound Shuttle solid rocket strap-on boosters was 83,000 lb and the payload for two liquid strap-ons with crossfeed was 84,000 lb. The core vehicle with Shuttle solid rocket strap-on boosters is regarded as a near term technology system.

  20. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  1. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  2. Superconducting racetrack booster for the ion complex of MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Filatov, Yu; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kovalenko, A.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-02-01

    The current design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) project at Jefferson lab features a single 8 GeV/c figure-8 booster based on super-ferric magnets. Reducing the circumference of the booster by switching to a racetrack design may improve its performance by limiting the space charge effect and lower its cost. We consider problems of preserving proton and deuteron polarizations in a superconducting racetrack booster. We show that using magnets based on hollow high-current NbTi composite superconducting cable similar to those designed at JINR for the Nuclotron guarantees preservation of the ion polarization in a racetrack booster up to 8 GeV/c. The booster operation cycle would be a few seconds that would improve the operating efficiency of the MEIC ion complex.

  3. A Method for Sizing Booster Charges in Pyrotechnic Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Since no generally accepted guidelines exist on sizing booster charges to assure functional margins in pyrotechnically actuated devices, a study was conducted to provide an approach to meet this need. An existing pyrovalve was modified from a single cartridge input to a dual-cartridge input with a booster charge. The objectives of this effort were to demonstrate an energy-based functional margin approach for sizing booster charges, and to determine booster charge energy delivery characteristics in this valve. Functional margin was demonstrated by determining the energy required to actuate the valve through weight drop tests for comparison to the energy delivered by the cartridge and booster charge in firings in the modified valve. The results of this study indicated that this energy-based approach fully met the study objectives, showing its usefulness for this and possibly other pyrotechnic devices.

  4. 14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE UPPER AND LOWER MINE ROADS. TRUCKS USED THIS RAMP AND THE ROADS TO HAUL SLAG TO THE MINE DUMP. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  5. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps....

  6. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps....

  7. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps....

  8. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF THREE CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOADING RAMP, AND CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THREE CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOADING RAMP, AND CLASSIFIER, LOOKING EST. THE RAKE THAT WAS ORIGINALLY INSIDE THE CLASSIFIER IS AT CENTER RIGHT ON TOP OF THE LOADING RAMP. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Calibration of propulsion simulation nozzles for space shuttle booster and orbiter models for the abort/separation staging experimental program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the power-on aerodynamic flight characteristics of the booster and orbiter vehicles during the abort separation maneuver is reported. An essential contribution to such a test program is the gas dynamic simulation of the size and shape of the plumes emitting from the full-scale orbiter and booster main propulsion systems. The two major effects of the plume which must be simulated are: the interaction of the plume with the external flow field, and the direct impingement of the plumes on surfaces which are enveloped by the plume. To accomplish the objective of correct plume simulation, the similarity parameters developed by Herron and the requirement to match momentum flux per unit area between the model and the full-scale systems, were applied to the orbiter and booster propulsion systems.

  15. Fast current ramp experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Morris, A.W.; Stauffer, F.J.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    Electron heat transport on TFTR and other tokamaks is several orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical calculations would predict. Despite considerable effort, there is still no clear theoretical understanding of this anomalous transport. The electron temperature profile T/sub e/(r), shape has shown a marked consistency on many machines, including TFTR, for a wide range of plasma parameters and heating profiles. This could be an important clue as to the process responsible for this enhanced thermal transport. In this paper 'profile consistency' in TFTR is described and an experiment which uses a fast current ramp to transiently decouple the current density profile J(r), and the T/sub e/(r) profiles is discussed. From this experiment the influence of J(r) on electron temperature profile consistency can be determined.

  16. R & D on Beam Injection and Bunching Schemes in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fermilab is committed to upgrade its accelerator complex to support HEP experiments at the intensity frontier. The ongoing Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) enables us to reach 700 kW beam power on the NuMI neutrino targets. By the end of the next decade, the current 400 MeV normal conducting LINAC will be replaced by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC (PIP-II) with an increased beam power >50% of the PIP design goal. Both in PIP and PIP-II era, the existing Booster is going to play a very significant role, at least for next two decades. In the meanwhile, we have recently developed an innovative beam injection and bunching scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme" that continues to use the existing 400 MeV LINAC and implemented into operation. This scheme has the potential to increase the Booster beam intensity by >40% from the PIP design goal. Some benefits from the scheme have already been seen. In this paper, I will describe the basic principle of the scheme, results from recent beam experiments, our experience with the new scheme in operation, current status, issues and future plans. This scheme fits well with the current and future intensity upgrade programs at Fermilab.

  17. Shuttle rocket booster computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Park, O. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Additional results and a revised and improved computer program listing from the shuttle rocket booster computational fluid dynamics formulations are presented. Numerical calculations for the flame zone of solid propellants are carried out using the Galerkin finite elements, with perturbations expanded to the zeroth, first, and second orders. The results indicate that amplification of oscillatory motions does indeed prevail in high frequency regions. For the second order system, the trend is similar to the first order system for low frequencies, but instabilities may appear at frequencies lower than those of the first order system. The most significant effect of the second order system is that the admittance is extremely oscillatory between moderately high frequency ranges.

  18. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster dewatering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishel, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    After the launch of the Space Shuttle, the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are jettisoned into the ocean where they float in a spar (vertical) mode. It is cost effective to recover the SRB's. A remote controlled submersible vehicle has been developed to aid in their recovery. The vehicle is launched from a support ship, maneuvered to the SRB, then taken to depth and guided into the rocket nozzle. It then dewaters the SRB, using compressed air from the ship, and seals the nozzle. When dewatered, the SRB floats in a log (horizontal) mode and can be towed to port for reuse. The design of the remote controlled vehicle and its propulsion system is presented.

  19. Booster Vaccination: The Role of Reduced Antigen Content Vaccines as a Preschool Booster

    PubMed Central

    Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  20. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-09-26

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made.

  1. A microfluidic separation platform using an array of slanted ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbud, Sumedh; Bernate, Jorge; Drazer, German

    2013-03-01

    The separation of the different components of a sample is a crucial step in many micro- and nano-fluidic applications, including the detection of infections, the capture of circulating tumor cells, the isolation of proteins, RNA and DNA, to mention but a few. Vector chromatography, in which different species migrate in different directions in a planar microfluidic device thus achieving spatial as well as temporal resolution, offers the promise of high selectivity along with high throughput. In this work, we present a microfluidic vector chromatography platform consisting of slanted ramps in a microfluidic channel for the separation of suspended particles. We construct these ramps using inclined UV lithography, such that the inclined portion of the ramps is upstream. We show that particles of different size displace laterally to a different extent when driven by a flow field over a slanted ramp. The flow close to the ramp reorients along the ramp, causing the size-dependent deflection of the particles. The cumulative effect of an array of these ramps would cause particles of different size to migrate in different directions, thus allowing their passive and continuous separation.

  2. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt, Frustum and Nose Cap mated assembly undergoing final preparations in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The prominent feature in this view is the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting which mates up with the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting of the External Tank (ET) at the ends of the SRB Beam that runs through the ET's Inter Tank Assembly. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt sitting on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center while being prepared for mating with the Frustum-Nose Cap Assembly and the Forward Rocket Motor Segment. The prominent feature in this view is the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting which mates up with the Forward Thrust Attach Fitting of the External Tank (ET) at the ends of the SRB Beam that runs through the ET's Inter Tank Assembly. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. 39. VIEW OF CHRYSLER WORKERS LOADING A SATURN IB BOOSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CHRYSLER WORKERS LOADING A SATURN IB BOOSTER INTO THE EAST POSITION ON THE STATIC TEST TOWER. AS THE MAIN CONTRACTOR OF THE SATURN IB BOOSTER, CHRYSLER TOOK OVER OPERATIONS OF THE EAST POSITION OF THE STATIC TEST TOWER IN 1963. THAT SAME YEAR, THE WEST POSITION OF THE TEST TOWER WAS MODIFIED (AS SEEN IN THE PHOTO) FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TESTS OF THE SATURN V BOOSTER'S ENGINE, THE F-1. MARCH 1963, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as they are being prepared for attachment to the SRB Frustum. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes that are deployed prior to the main chutes as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Forward Skirt sitting on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center while being prepared for mating with the Frustum-Nose Cap Assembly and the Forward Rocket Motor Segment. The prominent feature in this view is the electrical, data, telemetry and safety systems terminal which connects to the Aft Skirt Assembly systems via the Systems Tunnel that runs the length of the Rocket Motor. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  8. The StarBooster System: A Cargo Aircraft for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Dula, Arthur M.; McLaughlin, Don; Frassanito, John; Andrews, Jason (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Starcraft Boosters has developed a different approach for lowering the cost of access to space. We propose developing a new aircraft that will house an existing expendable rocket stage. This vehicle, termed StarBooster, will be the first stage of a family of launch vehicles. By combining these elements, we believe we can reduce the cost and risk of fielding a new partially reusable launch system. This report summarizes the work performed on the StarBooster concept since the company's inception in 1996. Detailed analyses are on-going and future reports will focus on the maturation of the vehicle and system design.

  9. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  10. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  11. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  12. Forward ramp and Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A lander petal and the forward ramp are featured in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. There are several prominent rocks, including Wedge at left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin in the background; and Flat Top and Little Flat Top at center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Ramp loading in Russian doll poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailani, Gaffar; Cowin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aporoelastic model for porous materials with a nested pore space structure is developed to represent the interstitial fluid flow in bone tissue. The nested porosity model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity (PV) and the lacunar-canalicular porosity (PLC) in bone tissue in a ramp loading in the case where the fluid and solid constituents are assumed to be compressible. The compressibility assumption is appropriate for hard tissues while the incompressibility assumption is appropriate for soft tissues. The influence of blood pressure in the PV is included in the analysis. A formula for the fluid that moves between the two porosities is developed. The analysis showed the coupling of the two porosities and their influence on each other and concluded that the PV pore pressure has an influence less than 3% on the PLC pore pressure while the absence of the PV pore pressure will affect the fluid exchange between the PV and PLC by less than 6% (the blood pressure range is 40-60 mmHg). Also the analysis has shown that the draining time of the PLC is inversely proportional to its permeability. The significance of the result is basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells.

  14. Improving short-term forecasting during ramp events by means of Regime-Switching Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, C.; Costa, A.; Cuerva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Since nowadays wind energy can't be neither scheduled nor large-scale storaged, wind power forecasting has been useful to minimize the impact of wind fluctuations. In particular, short-term forecasting (characterised by prediction horizons from minutes to a few days) is currently required by energy producers (in a daily electricity market context) and the TSO's (in order to keep the stability/balance of an electrical system). Within the short-term background, time-series based models (i.e., statistical models) have shown a better performance than NWP models for horizons up to few hours. These models try to learn and replicate the dynamic shown by the time series of a certain variable. When considering the power output of wind farms, ramp events are usually observed, being characterized by a large positive gradient in the time series (ramp-up) or negative (ramp-down) during relatively short time periods (few hours). Ramp events may be motivated by many different causes, involving generally several spatial scales, since the large scale (fronts, low pressure systems) up to the local scale (wind turbine shut-down due to high wind speed, yaw misalignment due to fast changes of wind direction). Hence, the output power may show unexpected dynamics during ramp events depending on the underlying processes; consequently, traditional statistical models considering only one dynamic for the hole power time series may be inappropriate. This work proposes a Regime Switching (RS) model based on Artificial Neural Nets (ANN). The RS-ANN model gathers as many ANN's as different dynamics considered (called regimes); a certain ANN is selected so as to predict the output power, depending on the current regime. The current regime is on-line updated based on a gradient criteria, regarding the past two values of the output power. 3 Regimes are established, concerning ramp events: ramp-up, ramp-down and no-ramp regime. In order to assess the skillness of the proposed RS-ANN model, a single

  15. Propulsion System Advances that Enable a Reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Edward L.; Rothschild, William J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX / kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  16. Propulsion system advances that enable a reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX/kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  17. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  18. Hepatitis A and B booster recommendations: implications for travelers.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Connor, Bradley A; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis A and B are serious vaccine-preventable diseases with a predominantly overlapping epidemiological distribution. Travelers, a term encompassing a range of individuals, are at risk of contracting these diseases if they are unvaccinated. Although the benefits of the primary vaccination course of hepatitis A and B vaccines are clear, the administration of hepatitis A and B boosters varies worldwide. Recommendations on the need for booster vaccinations have recently been published, and the implications of these recommendations for travelers are discussed in this review. Until a greater understanding is reached on the immunogenicity of hepatitis A and B vaccines in certain special groups (e.g., immunocompromised persons), there will be a need to monitor antibody levels to assess whether booster vaccinations are required. However, for the majority of immunocompetent travelers, the full primary vaccination course will provide protection from both hepatitis A and B infection in the long term, without the need for boosters.

  19. Child booster seats and lethal seat belt injury.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Noblett, H

    2004-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy travelling in the rear seat of a sedan car was wearing a lap-shoulder seat belt and sitting on a booster seat. Following a collision the boy 'submarined' under the seat belt sustaining trauma to the anterior aspect of his neck, cardiac arrest and subsequent death from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This case demonstrates a potential problem with unsecured older-style booster seats. Movement of a seat in a collision may cause a child to slip under a seat belt and sustain significant neck injuries. Seatbelts for children must be correctly fitted, booster seats or capsules must be securely fastened and manufacturer's recommendations for size and weight limits should be followed. Unfortunately older booster seats may not have attached instructions for installation and use, may not fit later model vehicles, may not conform to current safety recommendations and may have worn webbing. For these reasons their use should be discouraged.

  20. For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster

    MedlinePlus

    ... html For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster Diminished response seen in premature infants who ... 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Underscoring the link between brain development and touch, new research suggests premature babies ...

  1. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as it is being prepared to be mated with the Nose Cap and Forward Skirt. The Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. The three main parachutes are deployed to reduce speed as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Frustum mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as it is being prepared to be mated with the Nose Cap and Forward Skirt. The Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. The Separation Motors burn for one second to ensure the SRBs drift away from the External Tank and Orbiter at separation. The three main parachutes are deployed to reduce speed as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Joins Propulsion Park Display

    NASA Video Gallery

    A crane lifts a space shuttle solid rocket booster into its final position in the “propulsion park” outside Building 4205, the Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at the Marshall Cente...

  4. Object-oriented programming techniques for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.F.

    1991-12-31

    The applications software developed for the control system of the AGS Booster Project was written in the object-oriented language, C++. A the start of the Booster Project, the programming staff of the AGS Controls Section comprised some dozen programmer/analysts, all highly fluent in C but novices in C++. During the coarse of this project, nearly the entire staff converted to using C++ for a large fraction of their assignments. Over 100 C++ software modules are now available for Booster and general AGS use, of which a large fraction are broadly applicable tools. The transition from C to C++ from a managerial perspective is discussed and an overview is provided of the ways in which object classes have been applied in Booster software development.

  5. Object-oriented programming techniques for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The applications software developed for the control system of the AGS Booster Project was written in the object-oriented language, C++. A the start of the Booster Project, the programming staff of the AGS Controls Section comprised some dozen programmer/analysts, all highly fluent in C but novices in C++. During the coarse of this project, nearly the entire staff converted to using C++ for a large fraction of their assignments. Over 100 C++ software modules are now available for Booster and general AGS use, of which a large fraction are broadly applicable tools. The transition from C to C++ from a managerial perspective is discussed and an overview is provided of the ways in which object classes have been applied in Booster software development.

  6. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  7. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  8. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  9. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  10. 47 CFR 101.151 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meet the out-of-band emission limits of § 101.111 for each narrowband channel that the booster is... be used only in confined or indoor areas such as buildings, tunnels, underground areas, etc.,...

  11. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 21. VIEW OF CLARK OXYGEN BOOSTER COMPRESSOR IN THE HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF CLARK OXYGEN BOOSTER COMPRESSOR IN THE HIGH PURITY OXYGEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Tracking booster and multiple mirror concentrator floating collector

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.

    1981-10-27

    A water-borne tracking solar energy collecting and converting system employing booster and multiple mirror concentrator collectors for concentrating sunlight on either photovoltaic cells and/or flat plate collectors.

  14. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 4: Program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    All subprograms or routines associated with the solid rocket booster performance evaluation model are indexed in this computer listing. An alphanumeric list of each routine in the index is provided in a table of contents.

  15. YALINA-booster subcritical assembly pulsed-neutron experiments : data processing and spatial corrections.

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-11

    The YALINA-Booster experiments and analyses are part of the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory of USA and the Joint Institute for Power & Nuclear Research - SOSNY of Belarus for studying the physics of accelerator driven systems for nuclear energy applications using low enriched uranium. The YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly is utilized for studying the kinetics of accelerator driven systems with its highly intensive D-T or D-D pulsed neutron source. In particular, the pulsed neutron methods are used to determine the reactivity of the subcritical system. This report examines the pulsed-neutron experiments performed in the YALINA-Booster facility with different configurations for the subcritical assembly. The 1141 configuration with 90% U-235 fuel and the 1185 configuration with 36% or 21% U-235 fuel are examined. The Sjoestrand area-ratio method is utilized to determine the reactivities of the different configurations. The linear regression method is applied to obtain the prompt neutron decay constants from the pulsed-neutron experimental data. The reactivity values obtained from the experimental data are shown to be dependent on the detector locations inside the subcritical assembly and the types of detector used for the measurements. In this report, Bell's spatial correction factors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo model to remove the detector dependences. The large differences between the reactivity values given by the detectors in the fast neutron zone of the YALINA-Booster are reduced after applying the spatial corrections. In addition, the estimated reactivity values after the spatial corrections are much less spatially dependent.

  16. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and pavilion in CO-172-BR-17. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken to east of CO-172-BR-8 and looking southwesterly. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheetpile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheet-pile dolphin on right and southernmost dolphins in background. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on the right. Utility building, intrusion, on the far right. - Curtis Wharf, Cement & Plaster Warehouse, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  3. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  4. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ALISO STREET (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT OF U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  10. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  11. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. East view; Mechanical Building south elevation, covered ramp, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East view; Mechanical Building - south elevation, covered ramp, and Street Car Waiting House, left to right - North Philadelphia Station, Mechanical Building, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp descending from viaduct to Cameron Street at left. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  14. 3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading to main floor. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP POSITION. CONTROL BOX IN FOREGROUND. USN PHOTO, JANUARY 20, 1942. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  17. THE LINAC LASER NOTCHER FOR THE FERMILAB BOOSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David E,; Duel, Kevin; Gardner, Matthew; Johnson, Todd; Slimmer, David; Patil, Screenvias; Tafoya, Jason

    2016-09-27

    In synchrotron machines, the beam extraction is accomplished by a combination of septa and kicker magnets which deflect the beam from an accelerator into another. Ideally the kicker field must rise/fall in between the beam bunches. However, in reality, an intentional beam-free time region (aka "notch") is created on the beam pulse to assure that the beam can be extracted with minimal losses. In the case of the Fermilab Booster, the notch is created in the ring near injection energy by the use of fast kickers which deposit the beam in a shielded collimation region within the accelerator tunnel. With increasing beam power it is desirable to create this notch at the lowest possible energy to minimize activation. The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) initiated an R&D project to build a laser system to create the notch within a linac beam pulse at 750 keV. This talk will describe the concept for the laser notcher and discuss our current status, commissioning results, and future plans.

  18. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOEpatents

    Farber, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  19. Counterrotatable booster compressor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moniz, Thomas Ory (Inventor); Orlando, Robert Joseph (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A counterrotatable booster compressor assembly for a gas turbine engine having a counterrotatable fan section with a first fan blade row connected to a first drive shaft and a second fan blade row axially spaced from the first fan blade row and connected to a second drive shaft, the counterrotatable booster compressor assembly including a first compressor blade row connected to the first drive shaft and a second compressor blade row interdigitated with the first compressor blade row and connected to the second drive shaft. A portion of each fan blade of the second fan blade row extends through a flowpath of the counterrotatable booster compressor so as to function as a compressor blade in the second compressor blade row. The counterrotatable booster compressor further includes a first platform member integral with each fan blade of the second fan blade row at a first location so as to form an inner flowpath for the counterrotatable booster compressor and a second platform member integral with each fan blade of the second fan blade row at a second location so as to form an outer flowpath for the counterrotatable booster compressor.

  20. PDR with a foot-mounted IMU and ramp detection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person's body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person's foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps.

  1. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"-the time derivative of the driving field phase-matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  2. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"—the time derivative of the driving field phase—matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  3. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  4. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P.; Satterthwaite, S.; Carson, C.; Schnackel, J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the final report in a study examining the impact of launch vehicles for various boost propulsion design options. These options included: differing boost phase engines using different combinations of fuels and coolants to include RP-1, methane, propane (subcooled and normal boiling point), and hydrogen; variable and high mixture ratio hydrogen engines; translating nozzles on boost phase engines; and cross feeding propellants from the booster to second stage. Vehicles examined included a fully reusable two stage cargo vehicle and a single stage to orbit vehicle. The use of subcooled propane as a fuel generated vehicles with the lowest total vehicle dry mass. Engines with hydrogen cooling generated only slight mass reductions from the reference, all-hydrogen vehicle. Cross feeding propellants generated the most significant mass reductions from the reference two stage vehicle. The use of high mixture ratio or variable mixture ratio hydrogen engines in the boost phase of flight resulted in vehicles with total dry mass 20 percent greater than the reference hydrogen vehicle. Translating nozzles for boost phase engines generated a heavier vehicle. Also examined were the design impacts on the vehicle and ground support subsystems when subcooled propane is used as a fuel. The most significant cost difference between facilities to handle normal boiling point versus subcooled propane is 5 million dollars. Vehicle cost differences were negligible. A significant technical challenge exists for properly conditioning the vehicle propellant on the ground and in flight when subcooled propane is used as fuel.

  5. Fully reusable launch vehicle with airbreathing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The performance of a two-stage, fully reusable scramjet-Shuttle launch vehicle is examined analytically. The first stage of the hybrid vehicle would be a hydrocarbon/hydrogen fueled air breathing hypersonic aircraft. The winged booster, in one configuration, would be equipped with both turbojets and scramjets, and the Orbiter would be a scaled-up version of the present STS Orbiter. The nominal mission would involve placing a 65,000 lb payload into a 92.5 x 185 km orbit. The size of the manned first stage is dictated by the ventricle gross weight, density, and contents, with the fuel carried in integrated tanks. A delta planform is presented, with an elliptical cone forebody, an elliptical cross-section afterbody, and a smooth transition surface from the end of the forebody to the straightline leading edge. Formulations are defined for the wing loading, gross density, fatness ratio, and breadpoint ratio, as well as for the propulsion, aerodynamics, and trajectories.

  6. Booster Applications Facility report, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes studies and planning performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) personnel at the request of NASA for the design, construction and operation of experimental areas and facilities for utilization of ion beams from the BNL Booster synchrotron particle accelerator. These facilities would be primarily utilized to simulate space radiation for radiobiological research, shielding studies and detector calibrations. The feasibility of such a project has been established, preliminary designs and cost estimates have been developed and a formal proposal can be submitted pending DOE concurrence. The main body of this report consists of the material presented by BNL during the meeting with a NASA appointed Panel on December 10 and 11, 1990. The individual speakers have provided brief summaries of their talks and explanations of their figures. In addition there are two appendices. One, contains detailed discussion of the shared mode of operation and the corresponding beam compatibility tables. The second appendix contains cost estimate details. An executive summary on budgets and schedules has been added, containing possible phased construction and outfitting scenarios and the corresponding expense and commitment profiles as well as new operational cost estimates. Material contained in the executive summary reflects the correction of some errors and new studies performed in response to the NASA Panel suggestions.

  7. CT Scan of NASA Booster Nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D; Perry, R; Thompson, R

    2004-07-27

    We scanned a Booster Nozzle for NASA with our 9 meV LINAC, AmSi panel scanner. Three scans were performed using different filtering schemes and different positions of the nozzle. The results of the scan presented here are taken from the scan which provided the best contrast and lowest noise of the three. Our inspection data shows a number of indications of voids in the outer coating of rubber/carbon. The voids are mostly on the side of the nozzle, but a few small voids are present at the ends of the nozzle. We saw no large voids in the adhesive layer between the Aluminum and the inner layer of carbon. This 3D inspection data did show some variation in the size of the adhesive layer, but none of the indications were larger than 3 pixels in extent (21 mils). We have developed a variety of contour estimation and extraction techniques for inspecting small spaces between layers. These tools might work directly on un-sectioned nozzles since the circular contours will fit with our tools a little better. Consequently, it would be useful to scan a full nozzle to ensure there are no untoward degradations in data quality, and to see if our tools would work to extract the adhesive layer.

  8. Multiphase booster ups production from subsea well

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Rogn South subsea well has the world`s first commercial subsea multiphase boosting system. The well produces to A/S Norske Shell`s Draugen field, in the Norwegian Sea. The Smubs (Shell multiphase underwater booster station) provides additional energy to transport a mixture of gas and liquids over long distances. This reduces the back pressure on the reservoir to potentially enhance both production and recovery. In-house Shell International Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM) has studied estimated facility costs and performance for a multiphase boosting system for a typical small (50 million bbl) field between 20--50 km from a host facility in water depths between 150--1,000 m. The studies showed that technical costs per barrel of oil produced could be cut by up to 30% compared to conventional technology. The Smubs main features are: A single retrievable cartridge that houses all active components susceptible to wear; No orientation requirements for the pump cartridge unit; No orientation requirements for the pump cartridge unit; Hydraulically set and tested seals; and Vertical installation and retrieval with a single tool, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) only for a monitoring.

  9. The Dynamic Behaviors of Single Crystal RDX Under Ramp Wave Loading to 15GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiji; Cai, Jintao; Zhao, Jianheng; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Gang; Tan, Fuli; Sun, Chengwei

    Based on high pulsed power generator CQ-4, the single crystal RDX explosive was researched along different crystal orientations under ramp wave loadings up to 15 GPa. The typical three-wave structures were obtained by means of laser interferometry PDV, which show the elastic-plastic transition and α to γ phase transition. The ramp elastic limit (REL) and yield strength of RDX along 210 and 100 crystal orientations were respectively calculated and the resuts show obvious effects of crystal orientaions for RDX. The ramp elastic limit σIEL of RDX along 210 orientation is 0.688-0.758GPa, and the σIEL of RDX along 100 is 1.039 -1.110 GPa. The α to γ phase transformation characteristics were also analyzed based on the experimental data. The initial phase transition pressure for the two crystal orientation of RDX are about 3.5 to 4 GPa, which agree well with the data of about 4-5GPa given by MD simulation. The data directly validate the results given by Raman Spectrum under shock compression and static high pressure, which couldn't be observed by wave profiles. The experimental data can be used to verify and validate the new models of RDX under dynamic loading. Supported by NSFC of China under Contract No.11327803 and 11176002

  10. Influence of priming exercise on muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jan; Bouckaert, Jacques; Barstow, Thomas J; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the mechanisms underpinning the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during incremental exercise by assessing the changes in the profile following prior high-intensity exercise. Ten physically active students performed two incremental ramp (25 W min(-1)) exercises (AL and LL, respectively) preceded on one occasion by incremental arm (10 W min(-1)) and on another occasion by incremental leg exercise (25 W min(-1)), which served as the reference test (RT). Deoxy[Hb + Mb] was measured by means of near-infrared spectroscopy and surface EMG was recorded at the Vastus Lateralis throughout the exercises. Deoxy[Hb + Mb], integrated EMG and Median Power Frequency (MdPF) were expressed as a function of work rate (W) and compared between the exercises. During RT and AL deoxy[Hb + Mb] followed a sigmoid increase as a function of work rate. However, during LL deoxy[Hb + Mb] increased immediately from the onset of the ramp exercise and thus no longer followed a sigmoid pattern. This different pattern in deoxy[Hb + Mb] was accompanied by a steeper slope of the iEMG/W-relationship below the GET (LL: 0.89 ± 0.11% W(-1); RT: 0.74 ± 0.08% W(-1); AL: 0.72 ± 0.10% W(-1)) and a more pronounced decrease in MdPF in LL (17.2 ± 4.5%) compared to RT (5.0 ± 2.1%) and AL (3.9 ± 3.2%). It was observed that the sigmoid pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] was disturbed when the ramp exercise was preceded by priming leg exercise. Since the differences in deoxy[Hb + Mb] were accompanied by differences in EMG it can be suggested that muscle fibre recruitment is an important underlying mechanism for the pattern of deoxy[Hb + Mb] during ramp exercise.

  11. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  12. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  13. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket engines' characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, perfortnance,design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  14. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety, performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key Criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket-engines characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, performance, design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  15. A 50 Hz dipole magnet for the TRIUMF KAON Factory booster ring

    SciTech Connect

    Otter, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The 3 GeV Booster synchrotron for TRIUMF's KAON Factory will need 24 dipole magnets each 3.0 m long operating with a resonant power system designed to give a 50 Hz ac field superimposed onto a dc field. The maximum and minimum field levels are 1.118 and 0.295 T respectively. In this paper the magnet design is presented and compared with measured results from a prototype which was constructed to evaluate fabrication procedures and to verify the ac loss calculations. The experiences gained from this fabrication are described.

  16. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  17. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 1: Summary. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. E.; Lemon, R. S.; Jaggers, R. F.; Wilson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamics and control, stability, and guidance analyses are summarized for the asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design studies, performed in conjunction with space shuttle planning. The mathematical models developed for use in rigid body and flexible body versions of the NASA JSC space shuttle functional simulator are briefly discussed, along with information on the following: (1) space shuttle stability analysis using equations of motion for both pitch and lateral axes; (2) the computer program used to obtain stability margin; and (3) the guidance equations developed for the space shuttle powered flight phases.

  18. Recession Curve Generation for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Howard S.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Davis, Darrell W.; Davis, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ablatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) coatings are used on the Space Shuttle Vehicle Solid Rocket Boosters in order to protect the aluminum structure from experiencing excessive temperatures. The methodology used to characterize the recession of such materials is outlined. Details of the tests, including the facility, test articles and test article processing are also presented. The recession rates are collapsed into an empirical power-law relation. A design curve is defined using a 95-percentile student-t distribution. based on the nominal results. Actual test results are presented for the current acreage TPS material used.

  19. Ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a No-Insulation (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox high temperature superconductor pancake coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Song, H.; Yuan, W.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is to study ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) pancake coil wound with (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox (REBCO) conductors. For insulated (INS) HTS coils, a magnetization loss occurs on superconducting layers during a ramping operation. For the NI HTS coil, additional loss is generated by the "bypassing" current on the turn-to-turn metallic contacts, which is called "turn-to-turn loss" in this study. Therefore, the NI coil's ramping loss is much different from that of the INS coil, but few studies have been reported on this aspect. To analyze the ramping losses of NI coils, a numerical method is developed by coupling an equivalent circuit network model and a H-formulation finite element method model. The former model is to calculate NI coil's current distribution and turn-to-turn loss, and the latter model is to calculate the magnetization loss. A test NI pancake coil is wound with REBCO tapes and the reliability of this model is validated by experiments. Then the characteristics of the NI coil's ramping losses are studied using this coupling model. Results show that the turn-to-turn loss is much higher than the magnetization loss. The NI coil's total ramping loss is much higher than that of its insulated counterpart, which has to be considered carefully in the design and operation of NI applications. This paper also discusses the possibility to reduce NI coil's ramping loss by decreasing the ramping rate of power supply or increasing the coil's turn-to-turn resistivity.

  20. First results of proton injection commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Luccio, A.; Skelly, J.; Soukas, A.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    Beam performance for the injection phase of proton beam commissioning of the AGS Booster synchrotron will be presented. The beam from the 200 MeV Linac is transported through a new beam line into the Booster. This Linac-to Booster (LTB) beam line includes a 126{degree} bend and brings the injected beam onto the Booster injection orbit through the backleg of a main ring dipole magnet. Transfer of beam from the Linac to the Booster, spiralling beam and closing the orbit in the Booster ring are discussed. Injection and transport through one sector of the ring has been accomplished. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.

    2004-03-22

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

  2. Long-term/strategic scenario for reusable booster stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Martin; Manfletti, Chiara; Burkhardt, Holger

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the final design status of a partially reusable space transportation system which has been under study for five years within the German future launcher technology research program ASTRA. It consists of dual booster stages, which are attached to an advanced expendable core. The design of the reference liquid fly-back boosters (LFBB) is focused on LOX/LH2 propellant and a future advanced gas-generator cycle rocket motor. The preliminary design study was performed in close cooperation between DLR and the German space industry. The paper's first part describes recent progress in the design of this reusable booster stage. The second part of the paper assesses a long-term, strategic scenario of the reusable stage's operation. The general idea is the gradual evolution of the above mentioned basic fly-back booster vehicle into three space transportation systems performing different tasks: Reusable First Stage for a small launcher application, successive development to a fully reusable TSTO, and booster for a super-heavy-lift rocket to support an ambitious space flight program like manned Mars missions. The assessment addresses questions of technical sanity, preliminary sizing and performance issues and, where applicable, examines alternative options.

  3. Temperature-Ramped 129Xe Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode 129Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) “hot”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) “warm”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) “cool”—where hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10–3 min–1 vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10–3 min–1) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading—corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 105 and ∼2.32 × 108 at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP 129Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle “dead” time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of 129Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation—making this approach beneficial for improving the overall 129Xe production rate in clinical settings. PMID:25008290

  4. Temperature-ramped (129)Xe spin-exchange optical pumping.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-08-19

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode (129)Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) "hot"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) "warm"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) "cool"-where hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10(-3) min(-1) vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10(-3) min(-1)) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading-corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 10(5) and ∼2.32 × 10(8) at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP (129)Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle "dead" time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of (129)Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation-making this approach beneficial for improving the overall (129)Xe production rate in clinical settings.

  5. YF-12A #935 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A front, overhead view of the number two YF-12A (60-6935) on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden), Edwards, California. Notice how the chines end abruptly, just aft of the nose radome. The aircraft was originally designed as an interceptor. The large radome housed a radar for the Hughes ASG-18 missile fire control system. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the

  6. Development of a CW Superconducting RF Booster Cryomodule for Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry L; Bogle, Andrew; Deimling, Brian; Hollister, Jerry; II, Randall Jecks; Kolka, Ahren; Romel, Chandra

    2009-04-13

    Future light sources based on seeded free electron lasers (FEL) have the potential to increase the soft xray flux by several orders of magnitude with short bunch lengths to probe electron structure and dynamics. A low emittance, high rep-rate radio frequency (RF) photocathode electron gun will generate the electron beam that will require very stringent beam control and manipulation through the superconducting linear accelerator to maintain the high brightness required for an x-ray FEL. The initial or booster cavities of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linear accelerator will require stringent control of transverse kicks and higher order modes (HOM) during the beam manipulation and conditioning that is needed for emittance exchange and bunch compression. This SBIR proposal will develop, fabricate and test a continuous-wave SRF booster cryomodule specifically for this application. Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project by completing the preliminary SRF cavity and cryomodule design and its integration into an R&D test stand for beam studies at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The five-cell bulk niobium cavities operate at 750 MHz, and generate 10 MV each with strong HOM damping and special care to eliminate transverse kicks due to couplers. Due to continuous-wave operation at fairly modest beam currents and accelerating gradients the complexity of the two cavity cryomodule is greatly reduced compared to an ILC type system. Phase II will finalize the design, and fabricate and test the booster cryomodule. The cryomodule consists of two five-cell cavities that will accelerate megahertz bunch trains with nano-coulomb charge. The accelerating gradient is a very modest 10 MV/m with peak surface fields of 20 MV/m and 42.6 mT. The cryogenic system operates at 2 K with a design dynamic load of 20 W and total required cryogenic capacity of 45 W. The average beam current of up to 1 mA corresponds to a beam power of 10 kW per 5- cell

  7. Guidelines for the Calculation of the Accumulator Magnet Bus Ramps for Fermilab Experiment E835

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; Stancari, Giulio; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    1999-04-15

    This report lists the steps that are required to calculate deceleration ramps for all relevant Accumulator devices. The ramps used for the 1996-97 fixed target run (experiment E835) are saved in files associated with ACNET console application PA1627 (PAUX RAMP DEVELOP). These ramps cannot be re-used because the Accumulator {gamma}{sub t} upgrade has significantly changed the lattice since the last time the ramps were used. Consequently, new deceleration ramps must be calculated and commissioned before the next fixed target run. The deceleration ramp for a particular device is a table that gives the sequence of set values sent to the device as the ramp is executed. The 1997 ramps consist of ramp tables for 100 devices. Appendix 1 gives a list of the devices ramped. Most of these devices will still require ramps for the next fixed target run. Future decelerations will also require ramps for the quadrupole magnet shunts that were installed as part of the {gamma}{sub t} upgrade. Additionally, ramps must be constructed for the two skew-sextupole magnets that will be installed during the summer of 1999.

  8. Shock formation and the ideal shape of ramp compression waves

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C; Kraus, R G; Loomis, E; Hicks, D G; McNaney, J M; Johnson, R P

    2008-05-29

    We derive expressions for shock formation based on the local curvature of the flow characteristics during dynamic compression. Given a specific ramp adiabat, calculated for instance from the equation of state for a substance, the ideal nonlinear shape for an applied ramp loading history can be determined. We discuss the region affected by lateral release, which can be presented in compact form for the ideal loading history. Example calculations are given for representative metals and plastic ablators. Continuum dynamics (hydrocode) simulations were in good agreement with the algebraic forms. Example applications are presented for several classes of laser-loading experiment, identifying conditions where shocks are desired but not formed, and where long duration ramps are desired.

  9. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  10. Ramp compression of magnesium oxide to 234 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, R. F.; Coppari, F.; ...

    2014-05-07

    Single-crystal magnesium oxide (MgO) samples were ramp compressed to above 200 GPa pressure at the Omega laser facility. Multi-stepped MgO targets were prepared using lithography and wet etching techniques. Free surface velocities of ramp-compressed MgO were measured with a VISAR. The sound velocity and stress-density response were determined using an iterative Lagrangian analysis. The measured equation of state is consistent with expectations from previous shock and static data as well as with a recent X-ray diffraction measurement under ramp loading. The peak elastic stresses observed in our samples had amplitudes of 3-5.5 GPa, decreasing with propagation distance.

  11. XS-1 on ramp with B-29 mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    XS-1 on the ramp with the B-29 mothership in 1949. This is the second XS-1 built; it later was converted into the X-1E. Unlike the XS-1-1, which was flown by the Air Force, the XS-1-2 was flown mostly by Bell and NACA pilots. It gathered much more research data than the more famous XS-1-1, known as 'Glamorous Glennis.' The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the NACA. The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Army Air Field, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after the B-29 air-launched it from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 feet. The 6,000-pound thrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed the aircraft up to a speed of 700 miles per hour in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed, 957 miles per hour. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 feet. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 30 feet, 11 inches long; 10 feet, 10 inches high; and had a wingspan of 29 feet. It weighed 6,784 pounds and carried 6,250 pounds of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat.

  12. New pulsed orbit bump magnets for the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.R.; Carson, J.A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Makarov, A.; Prebys, E.J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The beam from the Fermilab Linac is injected onto a bump in the closed orbit of the Booster Synchrotron where a carbon foil strips the electrons from the Linac's negative ion hydrogen beam. Although the Booster itself runs at 15 Hz, heat dissipation in the orbit bump magnets has been one limitation to the fraction of the cycles that can be used for beam. New 0.28 T pulsed dipole magnets have been constructed that will fit into the same space as the old ones, run at the full repetition rate of the Booster, and provide a larger bump to allow a cleaner injection orbit. The new magnets use a ferrite in the yoke rather than laminated steel.

  13. PDR with a Foot-Mounted IMU and Ramp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Antonio R.; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C.; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person’s body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person’s foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps. PMID:22163701

  14. Pegasus Rocket Booster Being Prepared for X-43A/Hyper-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Technicians prepare a Pegasus rocket booster for flight tests with the X-43A 'Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle,' or 'Hyper-X.' The X-43A, which will be attached to the Pegasus booster and drop launched from NASA's B-52 mothership, was developed to research dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet

  15. Pegasus Rocket Booster Being Prepared for X-43A/Hyper-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A close-up view of the front end of a Pegasus rocket booster being prepared by technicians at the Dryden Flight Research Center for flight tests with the X-43A 'Hypersonic Experimental Vehicle,' or 'Hyper-X.' The X-43A, which will be attached to the Pegasus booster and drop launched from NASA's B-52 mothership, was developed to research dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are

  16. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  17. Ramp-edge structured tunneling devices using ferromagnet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kwon, Chuhee; Jia, Quanxi

    2002-09-03

    The fabrication of ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet magnetic tunneling junction devices using a ramp-edge geometry based on, e.g., (La.sub.0.7 Sr.sub.0.3) MnO.sub.3, ferromagnetic electrodes and a SrTiO.sub.3 insulator is disclosed. The maximum junction magnetoresistance (JMR) as large as 23% was observed below 300 Oe at low temperatures (T<100 K). These ramp-edge junctions exhibited JMR of 6% at 200 K with a field less than 100 Oe.

  18. Lower hybrid assisted plasma current ramp-up in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, A.; Dokuka, V.; Hoang, G. T.; Imbeaux, F.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lister, J. B.; Lukash, V. E.

    2009-06-01

    Lower hybrid (LH) assisted plasma current ramp-up in ITER is demonstrated using a free-boundary full tokamak discharge simulator which combines the DINA-CH and CRONOS codes. LH applied from the initial phase of the plasma current ramp-up increases the safety margins in operating the superconducting poloidal field coils both by reducing resistive ohmic flux consumption and by providing non-inductively driven plasma current. Loss of vertical control associated with high plasma internal inductance is avoided by tailoring the plasma current density profiles. Effects of early LH application on the plasma shape evolution are identified by the free-boundary plasma simulation.

  19. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  20. Space shuttle solid rocket booster recovery system definition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The performance requirements, preliminary designs, and development program plans for an airborne recovery system for the space shuttle solid rocket booster are discussed. The analyses performed during the study phase of the program are presented. The basic considerations which established the system configuration are defined. A Monte Carlo statistical technique using random sampling of the probability distribution for the critical water impact parameters was used to determine the failure probability of each solid rocket booster component as functions of impact velocity and component strength capability.

  1. Optics Corrections with LOCO in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; Prost, Lionel; Seiya, Kiyomi; Triplett, A. Kent

    2016-06-01

    The optics of the Fermilab Booster has been corrected with LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits). However, the first corrections did not show any improvement in capture efficiency at injection. A detailed analysis of the results showed that the problem lay in the MADX optics file. Both the quadrupole and chromatic strengths were originally set as constants independent of beam energy. However, careful comparison between the measured and calculated tunes and chromatcity show that these strengths are energy dependent. After the MADX model was modified with these new energy dependent strengths, the LOCO corrected lattice has been applied to Booster. The effect of the corrected lattice will be discussed here.

  2. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  3. Initiation Capacity of a Specially Shaped Booster Pellet and Numerical Simulation of Its Initiation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Shuang; Hu, Shuang-Qi; Cao, Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Ren

    2014-01-01

    The insensitive main charge explosive is creating new requirements for the booster pellet of detonation trains. The traditional cylindrical booster pellet has insufficient energy output to reliably initiate the insensitive main charge explosive. In this research, a concave spherical booster pellet was designed. The initiation capacity of the concave spherical booster pellet was studied using varied composition and axial steel dent methods. The initiation process of the concave spherical booster pellet was also simulated by ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The results showed that using a concave spherical booster allows a 42% reduction in the amount of explosive needed to match the initiation capacity of a conventional cylindrical booster of the same dimensions. With the other parameters kept constant, the initiation capacity of the concave spherical booster pellet increases with decreased cone angle and concave radius. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  5. 76 FR 26983 - Improving Wireless Coverage Through the Use of Signal Boosters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... wireless networks from harm. The development and deployment of well-designed signal boosters holds great... rules will facilitate the development and deployment of robust signal boosters which will not...

  6. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA operated two SR-71s, an SR-71A and an SR- 71B pilot trainer aircraft, both based at Dryden, at that particular point in time. The SR-71 was designed and built by the Lockheed Skunk Works, now the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. Studies have shown that less than 20 percent of the total thrust used to fly at Mach 3 is produced by the basic engine itself. The balance of the total thrust is produced by the unique design of the engine inlet and 'moveable spike' system at the front of the engine nacelles, and by the ejector nozzles at the exhaust which burn air compressed in the engine bypass system. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a high speed civil transport. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to

  7. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  8. Three SR-71s on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The original trio of SR-71 'Blackbirds' loaned to NASA by the U.S. Air Force for high-speed, high-altitude research line the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The three former reconnaissance aircraft, two SR-71 'A' models and one 'B' model, can fly more than 2200 mph and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. One of the 'A' models was later returned the Air Force for active duty. It subsequently returned to Dryden. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system

  9. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This look-down, front view of NASA's SR-71A aircraft shows the Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  10. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This look-down view of NASA's SR-71A aircraft shows the Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, with Rogers Dry Lake in the background. NASA operated two SR-71s, an SR-71A and an SR- 71B pilot trainer aircraft at that point in time, both based at Dryden. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the

  11. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex. Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10–100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence

  12. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL).We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex.Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10-100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence interval between 1

  13. View of the booster recover ship UTC Freedom approaching its berth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    View of the booster recover ship UTC Freedom approaching its berth at the booster disassembly facility on Cape Canaveral after towing in one of the two STS-3 solid rocket boosters (SRB). The ship is framed by a life preserver on the dock.

  14. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  15. XCALIBUR: a Vertical Takeoff TSTO RLV Concept with a HEDM Upperstage and a Scram-Rocket Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new 3rd generation, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle (RLV) has been designed. The Xcalibur concept represents a novel approach due to its integration method for the upperstage element of the system. The vertical-takeoff booster, which is powered by rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines, carries the upperstage internally in the aft section of the airframe to a Mach 15 staging condition. The upperstage is released from the booster and carries the 6,820 kg of payload to low earth orbit (LEO) using its high energy density matter (HEDM) propulsion system. The booster element is capable of returning to the original launch site in a ramjet-cruise propulsion mode. Both the booster and the upperstage utilize advanced technologies including: graphite-epoxy tanks, metal-matrix composites, UHTC TPS materials, electro- mechanical actuators (EMAs), and lightweight subsystems (avionics, power distribution, etc.). The booster system is enabled main propulsion system which utilizes four RBCC engines. These engines operate in four distinct modes: air- augmented rocket (AAR), ramjet, scram-rocket, and all-rocket. The booster operates in AAR mode from takeoff to Mach 3, with ramjet mode operation from Mach 3 to Mach 6. The rocket re-ignition for scram-rocket mode occurs at Mach 6, with all-rocket mode from Mach 14 to the staging condition. The extended utilization of the scram-rocket mode greatly improves vehicle performance by providing superior vehicle acceleration when compared to the scramjet mode performance over the same flight region. Results indicate that the specific impulse penalty due to the scram-rocket mode operation is outweighed by the reduced flight time, smaller vehicle size due to increased mixture ratio, and lower allowable maximum dynamic pressure. A complete vehicle system life-cycle analysis was performed in an automated, multi-disciplinary design environment. Automated disciplinary performance analysis tools include: trajectory (POST

  16. Records Surveys and Schedules: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Derek

    Prepared for Unesco's Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP), this study is intended to introduce workers in archival services to the life cycle concept of records, and to the advantages of establishing a legally authorized and comprehensive program for the orderly disposal of modern institutional records. It is noted that, although the…

  17. Student Surveyors Test Skills on Mississippi Boat Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Glen Lamb

    1978-01-01

    Students enrolled in the construction surveying class at Southern Illinois University's School of Technical Careers gained practical experience and helped the community by giving engineering assistance to the checking of existing design features and to surveying and laying out a project to construct a boat ramp on the Mississippi River. An…

  18. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animal may be injured shall be repaired. (b) Floors of livestock pens, ramps, and driveways shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide good footing for livestock. Slip resistant or waffled floor... the opinion of the inspector, to protect them from the adverse climatic conditions of the locale...

  19. 18. View of W elevation of ramp looking NE showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of W elevation of ramp looking NE showing entrances and openings to storage spaces below. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  20. The Archival Appraisal of Photographs: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, William H.

    Prepared for Unesco's Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP), this study is designed to provide archivists, manuscript and museum curators, and other interested information professionals in both industrialized and developing countries with an understanding of the archival character of photographs, and a set of guidelines for the…

  1. 5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING IN RELATION TO U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Unsteady transitions of separation patterns in single expansion ramp nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Xu, J.; Yu, K.; Mo, J.

    2015-11-01

    The single expansion ramp nozzle is one of the optimal configurations for a planar rocket-based combined cycle engine because of its good integration and self-adaptability at off-design operation. The single expansion ramp nozzle is seriously overexpanded when the vehicle is at low speed, resulting in complex flow separation phenomena. Several separation patterns have been found in the single expansion ramp nozzle. Numerical simulations have shown that the transition between these separation patterns occurs in the nozzle startup and shutdown processes. However, only a few relevant experimental studies have been reported. This study reproduces the nozzle startup and shutdown processes using wind tunnel experiments. Two restricted shock separation patterns are observed in the experiment, namely, a separation bubble either forms on the ramp or the flap. The detailed flow fields in the transition processes are captured using a high-speed camera. The shock wave structures in the two separation patterns, influences of the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) on the separation patterns and changes of the shock waves in the transition processes are discussed in detail. Shock wave instabilities accompany the separation transition, which usually takes less than 5 ms. The nozzle pressure ratios corresponding to the separation pattern transition are different in the startup and shutdown processes, which leads to a hysteresis effect.

  3. Archives and Records Management for Decision Makers: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazikana, Peter C.

    Intended to highlight those aspects of the archival field that government officials should be aware of, this report on the Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) outlines the major principles of records management and archives administration, identifies the information needs of the decision makers, and assesses the ways in which records…

  4. Ramp Technology and Intelligent Processing in Small Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentz, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    To address the issues of excessive inventories and increasing procurement lead times, the Navy is actively pursuing flexible computer integrated manufacturing (FCIM) technologies, integrated by communication networks to respond rapidly to its requirements for parts. The Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program, initiated in 1986, is an integral part of this effort. The RAMP program's goal is to reduce the current average production lead times experienced by the Navy's inventory control points by a factor of 90 percent. The manufacturing engineering component of the RAMP architecture utilizes an intelligent processing technology built around a knowledge-based shell provided by ICAD, Inc. Rules and data bases in the software simulate an expert manufacturing planner's knowledge of shop processes and equipment. This expert system can use Product Data Exchange using STEP (PDES) data to determine what features the required part has, what material is required to manufacture it, what machines and tools are needed, and how the part should be held (fixtured) for machining, among other factors. The program's rule base then indicates, for example, how to make each feature, in what order to make it, and to which machines on the shop floor the part should be routed for processing. This information becomes part of the shop work order. The process planning function under RAMP greatly reduces the time and effort required to complete a process plan. Since the PDES file that drives the intelligent processing is 100 percent complete and accurate to start with, the potential for costly errors is greatly diminished.

  5. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Soukhanovskii, V

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  6. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP TO THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA FROM THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. Experiencing Production Ramp-Up Education for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassetto, S.; Fiegenwald, V.; Cholez, C.; Mangione, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a game of industrialisation, based on a paper airplane, that mimics real world production ramp-up and blends classical engineering courses together. It is based on a low cost product so that it can be mass produced. The game targets graduate students and practitioners in engineering fields. For students, it offers an experiment…

  9. PV Ramping in a Distributed Generation Environment: A Study Using Solar Measurements; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-06-01

    Variability in Photovoltaic (PV) generation resulting from variability in the solar radiation over the PV arrays is a topic of continuing concern for those involved with integrating renewables onto existing electrical grids. The island of Lanai, Hawaii is an extreme example of the challenges that integrators will face due to the fact that it is a small standalone grid. One way to study this problem is to take high-resolution solar measurements in multiple locations and model simultaneous PV production for various sizes at those locations. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected high-resolution solar data at four locations on the island where proposed PV plants will be deployed in the near future. This data set provides unique insight into how the solar radiation may vary between points that are proximal in distance, but diverse in weather, due to the formation of orographic clouds in the center of the island. Using information about each proposed PV plant size, power output was created at high resolution. The team analyzed this output to understand power production ramps at individual locations and the effects of aggregating the production from all four locations. Hawaii is a unique environment, with extremely variable events occurring on a daily basis. This study provided an excellent opportunity for understanding potential worst-case scenarios for PV ramping. This paper provides an introduction to the datasets that NREL collected over a year and a comprehensive analysis of PV variability in a distributed generation scenario.

  10. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A user's manual was prepared for the computer program of a solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model. The following information was included: (1) structure of the program, (2) input information required, (3) examples of input cards and output printout, (4) program characteristics, and (5) program listing.

  11. Injection of large transverse emittance EBIS beams in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.

    2011-10-10

    During the commissioning of EBIS beams in Booster in November 2010 and in April, May and June 2011, it was found that the transverse emittances of the EBIS beams just upstream of Booster were much larger than expected. Beam emittances of 11{pi} mm milliradians had been expected, but numbers 3 to 4 times larger were measured. Here and throughout this note the beam emittance, {pi}{epsilon}{sub 0}, is taken to be the area of the smallest ellipse that contains 95% of the beam. We call this smallest ellipse the beam ellipse. If the beam distribution is gaussian, the rms emittance of the distribution is very nearly one sixth the area of the beam ellipse. The normalized rms emittance is the rms emittance times the relativistic factor {beta}{gamma} = 0.06564. This amounts to 0.12{pi} mm milliradians for the 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse. In [1] we modeled the injection and turn-by-turn evolution of an 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse in the horizontal plane in Booster. It was shown that with the present injection system, up to 4 turns of this beam could be injected and stored in Booster without loss. In the present note we extend this analysis to the injection of larger emittance beams. We consider only the emittance in the horizontal plane. Emittance in the vertical plane and the effects of dispersion are treated in [2].

  12. Closeup view of the External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters at the Launch Pad at Kennedy Space Center. Note the Hydrogen Vent Arm extending out from the Fixed Service Structure at attached to the Intertank segment of the External Tank. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Modeling Longitudinal Dynamics in the Fermilab Booster Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; Bhat, Chandra; Lebedev, Valeri

    2016-06-01

    The PIP-II project will replace the existing 400 MeV linac with a new, CW-capable, 800 MeV superconducting one. With respect to current operations, a 50% increase in beam intensity in the rapid cycling Booster synchrotron is expected. Booster batches are combined in the Recycler ring; this process limits the allowed longitudinal emittance of the extracted Booster beam. To suppress eddy currents, the Booster has no beam pipe; magnets are evacuated, exposing the beam to core laminations and this has a substantial impact on the longitudinal impedance. Noticeable longitudinal emittance growth is already observed at transition crossing. Operation at higher intensity will likely necessitate mitigation measures. We describe systematic efforts to construct a predictive model for current operating conditions. A longitudinal only code including a laminated wall impedance model, space charge effects, and feedback loops is developed. Parameter validation is performed using detailed measurements of relevant beam, rf and control parameters. An attempt is made to benchmark the code at operationally favorable machine settings.

  14. 47 CFR 27.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 27.9 Section 27.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.9 Operation of certificated...

  15. 47 CFR 27.9 - Operation of certificated signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of certificated signal boosters. 27.9 Section 27.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.9 Operation of certificated...

  16. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This users manual for the solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-II) contains descriptions of the model, the program options, the required program inputs, the program output format and the program error messages. SRB-II is written in FORTRAN and is operational on both the IBM 370/155 and the MSFC UNIVAC 1108 computers.

  17. OPTIMAL SCHEDULING OF BOOSTER DISINFECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Booster disinfection is the addition of disinfectant at locations distributed throughout a water distribution system. Such a strategy can reduce the mass of disinfectant required to maintain a detectable residual at points of consumption in the distribution system, which may lea...

  18. Simulation of the capture process in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, S.; Ankenbrandt, C.

    1987-09-01

    A progress report on efforts to understand and improve adiabatic capture in the Fermilab Booster by experiment and simulation is presented. In particular, a new RF voltage program for capture which ameliorates transverse space-charge effects is described and simulated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Year 5 Booster Units. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    The eight units of work in this document are designed to complement existing literacy booster units. Each unit is based on teaching objectives from the National Literacy Strategy Framework. They have been produced with the help of Year 5 teachers and have been trialled with pupils in a range of schools. The units support teachers' work with Year 5…

  20. Structural Dynamics of Filament-Wound Booster Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Report summarizes program of measurements and calculations of vibrations in filament-wound composite models of Space Shuttle solid-rocket boosters. Vibrational behavior predicted by finite-element computer model of structural dynamics correlates well with data from tests on full- and quarter-scale models. Computer model developed with NASTRAN general-purpose structural-analysis computer code.

  1. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following advisory (1) In on-line point-of-sale marketing materials, (2) In any print or on-line owner's... operate this device. You MUST register Class B signal boosters (as defined in 47 CFR 90.219) online at...

  2. 47 CFR 90.219 - Use of signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following advisory (1) In on-line point-of-sale marketing materials, (2) In any print or on-line owner's... operate this device. You MUST register Class B signal boosters (as defined in 47 CFR 90.219) online at...

  3. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  4. Solid rocket booster thrust vector control subsystem description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmon, J., Jr. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Major Solid Rocket Booster-Thrust Vector Control (SRB-TVC) subsystem components and subcomponents used in the Space Transportation System (STS) are identified. Simplified schematics, detailed schematics, figures, photographs, and data are included to acquaint the reader with the operation, performance, and physical layout as well as the materials and instrumentation used.

  5. Orbit decay analysis of STS upper stage boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    An orbit decay analysis of the space transportation system upper stage boosters is presented. An overview of the computer trajectory programs, DSTROB, algorithm is presented. Atmospheric drag and perturbation models are described. The development of launch windows, such that the transfer orbit will decay within two years, is discussed. A study of the lifetimes of geosynchronous transfer orbits is presented.

  6. Liquid flyback booster pre-phase: A study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W.; Ankney, W.; Bell, J.; Berning, M.; Bryant, L.; Bufkin, A.; Cain, L.; Caram, J.; Cockrell, B.; Curry, D.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a flyback booster has been around since early in the shuttle program. The original two-stage shuttle concepts used a manned flyback booster. These boosters were eliminated from the program for funding and size reasons. The current shuttle uses two Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's), which are recovered and refurbished after each flight; this is one of the major cost factors of the program. Replacement options have been studied over the past ten years. The conclusion reached by the most recent study is that the liquid flyback booster (LFBB) is the only competitive option from a life-cycle cost perspective. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and practicality of LFBB's. The study provides an expansion of the recommendations made during the aforementioned study. The primary benefits are the potential for enhanced reusability and a reduction of recurring costs. The potential savings in vehicle turnaround could offset the up-front costs. Development of LFBB's requires a commitment to the shuttle program for 20 to 30 years. LFBB's also offer enhanced safety and abort capabilities. Currently, any failure of an RSRM can be considered catastrophic, since there are no intact abort capabilities during the burn of the RSRM's. The performance goal of the LFBB's was to lift a fully loaded orbiter under optimal conditions, so as not to be the limiting factor of the performance capability of the shuttle. In addition, a final benefit is the availability of growth paths for applications other than shuttle.

  7. Anger and Violence Prevention: Enhancing Treatment Effects through Booster Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Alysha; McWhirter, Paula T.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of booster sessions on the maintenance of intervention gains following an anger management prevention program: "Student Created Aggression Replacement Education Program" ("SCARE"). Participants who had completed the "SCARE" program a year earlier were randomly…

  8. Facility No. S362, view across the ramp U.S. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. S362, view across the ramp - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Ramps - World War II Type, Southwest and west shore of Ford Island, near Wasp Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Mechanical Solitaire Thrombectomy with Low-Dose Booster Tirofiban Injection

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Duck-Ho; Jeong, Hae Woong; Ha, Sam Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire stent has been associated with a high recanalization rate and favorable clinical outcome in intra-arterial thrombolysis. To achieve a higher recanalization rate for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy, we used an intra-arterial low-dose booster tirofiban injection into the occluded segment after stent deployment. We report the safety and recanalization rates for mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with a low-dose booster tirofiban injection. Materials and Methods Between February and March 2013, 13 consecutive patients underwent mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with low-dose booster tirofiban injection. The occlusion sites included the proximal middle cerebral artery (5 patients), the internal carotid artery (5 patients), the top of the basilar artery (2 patients) and the distal middle cerebral artery (M2 segment, 1 patient). Six patients underwent bridge treatment, including intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Tirofiban of 250 µg was used in all patients except one (500 µg). All occluded vessels were recanalized after 3 attempts at stent retrieval (1 time, n=9; 2 times, n=2; 3 times, n=2). Results Successful recanalization was achieved in all patients (TICI 3, n=8; TICI 2b, n=5). Procedural complications developed in 3 patients (subarachnoid hemorrhage, n=2; hemorrhagic transformation, n=1). Mortality occurred in one patient with a basilar artery occlusion due to reperfusion brain swelling after mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy with low-dose booster tirofiban injection. Favorable clinical outcome (mRS≤2) was observed in 8 patients (61.5%). Conclusion Our modified mechanical Solitaire thrombectomy method using a low-dose booster tirofiban injection might enhance the recanalization rate with no additive hemorrhagic complications. PMID:27621948

  10. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  11. Numerical study of micro-ramp vortex generator for supersonic ramp flow control at Mach 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Chen, L.; Li, Q.; Liu, C.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit large eddy simulation, implemented using a fifth-order, bandwidth-optimized weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme, was used to study the flow past a compression ramp at Mach 2.5 and {Re}_{θ } = 5760 with and without a micro-ramp vortex generator (MVG) upstream. The MVG serves as a passive flow control device. The results suggested that MVGs may distinctly reduce the separation zone at the ramp corner and lower the boundary layer shape factor. New findings regarding the MVG-ramp interacting flow included the surface pressure distribution, three-dimensional structures of the re-compression shock waves, surface separation topology, and a new secondary vortex system. The formation of the momentum deficit was studied in depth. A new mechanism was observed wherein a series of vortex rings originated from the MVG-generated high shear at the boundary of the momentum deficit zone. Vortex rings strongly interact with the shock-separated flow and play an important role in the separation zone reduction.

  12. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  13. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  15. Computational and Experimental Unsteady Pressures for Alternate SLS Booster Nose Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braukmann, Gregory J.; Streett, Craig L.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Glass, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) predictions of the unsteady transonic flow about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration were made with the Fully UNstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) flow solver. The computational predictions were validated against results from a 2.5% model tested in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Unitary Plan Facility. The peak C(sub p,rms) value was under-predicted for the baseline, Mach 0.9 case, but the general trends of high C(sub p,rms) levels behind the forward attach hardware, reducing as one moves away both streamwise and circumferentially, were captured. Frequency of the peak power in power spectral density estimates was consistently under-predicted. Five alternate booster nose shapes were assessed, and several were shown to reduce the surface pressure fluctuations, both as predicted by the computations and verified by the wind tunnel results.

  16. X-1E Loaded in B-29 Mothership on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E airplane being loaded under the mothership, Boeing B-29. The X planes had originally been lowered into a loading pit and the launch aircraft towed over the pit, where the rocket plane was hoisted by belly straps into the bomb bay. By the early 1950s a hydraulic lift had been installed on the ramp at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station to elevate the launch aircraft and then lower it over the rocket plane for mating. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force

  17. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise, the nation's prototype space shuttle orbiter, before departing NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, at 11:00 a.m., 16 May 1983, on the first leg of its trek to the Paris Air Show at Le Bourget Airport, Paris, France. Seen here atop the huge 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), the first stop for the Enterprise was Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Piloting the 747 on the Europe trip were Joe Algranti, Johnson Space Center Chief Pilot, Astronaut Dick Scobee, and NASA Dryden Chief Pilot Tom McMurtry. Flight engineers for that portion of the flight were Dryden's Ray Young and Johnson Space Center's Skip Guidry. The Enterprise, named after the spacecraft of Star Trek fame, was originally carried and launched by the 747 during the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Dryden Flight Research Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be

  18. 47 CFR 20.21 - Signal boosters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... other frequency bands for wireless transmissions between donor and server subsystems for their internal... operating at maximum gain and maximum rated output power, with two continuous wave (CW) input signals spaced... donor and server subsystems for its internal operations must employ interference avoidance methods...

  19. Influence of booster size on the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive in underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtang; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Wang, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the booster size on the total energy of DNAN-based insensitive melt-cast explosive RBUL-1, six groups of underwater explosion experiments with varied booster sizes were carried out to measure the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive. Experimental results show that the booster size especially the booster diameter has a great influence on the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive. An expression was proposed and calibrated to illustrate the relationship between the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive and the booster size. Besides, the booster size used in the underwater explosion experiments was optimized to achieve higher total energy results. The present investigation has practical significance for the design of the booster sequence and warhead.

  20. Ares I First Stage Booster Deceleration System: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Ron; Hengel, John E.; Wolf, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Congressional NASA Authorization Act enacted a new space exploration program, the "Vision for Space Exploratien". The Constellation Program was formed to oversee the implementation of this new mission. With an intent not simply to support the International Space Station, but to build a permanent outpost on the Moon and then travel on to explore ever more distant terrains, the Constellation Program is supervising the development of a brand new fleet of launch vehicles, the Ares. The Ares lineup will include two new launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. A crew exploration vehicle, Orion, will be launched on the Ares I. It will be capable of docking with the Space Station, the lunar lander, Altair, and the Earth Departure Stage of Ares V. The Ares V will be capable of lifting both large-scale hardware and the Altair into space. The Ares First Stage Team is tasked with developing the propulsion system necessary to liftoff from the Earth and loft the entire Ares vehicle stack toward low Earth orbit. The Ares I First Stage booster is a 12-foot diameter, five-segment, reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle's four segment reusable solid rocket booster (SRB). It is separated from the Upper Stage through the use of a Deceleration Subsystem (DSS). Booster Tumble Motors are used to induce the pitch tumble following separation from the Upper Stage. The spent Ares I booster must be recoverable using a parachute deceleration system similar to that of the Shuttle SRB heritage system. Since Ares I is much heavier and reenters the Earth's atmosphere from a higher altitude at a much higher velocity than the SRB, all of the parachutes must be redesigned to reliably meet the operational requisites of the new launch vehicles. This paper presents an overview of this new booster deceleration system. It includes comprehensive detail of the parachute deceleration system, its design and deployment sequences

  1. Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options

  2. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive studies during current ramp-up in Tore-Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimini, F. G.; Basiuk, V.; Bourdelle, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Hoang, G. T.; Lennholm, M.; Sabot, R.; Ségui, J. L.; Thomas, P. R.

    2005-06-01

    In a recent series of experiments, electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been successfully used, at a level of 0.75 MW, for current profile tailoring during the current ramp-up in Tore-Supra. The electron cyclotron resonance heating power deposition was varied from on-axis to off-axis and the direction of the driven current from co to counter. In these conditions, the current profile is significantly modified with respect to those typically obtained in pure ohmic scenarios. Central reversed magnetic shear conditions have been achieved with on-axis counter-ECCD, accompanied by high electron temperature gradients, exhibiting internal transport barrier features. This improved electron transport is maintained for some time on the current flat-top when combining ECCD with ion cyclotron resonance heating in a (H)D minority scheme. Integrated interpretative analysis with the CRONOS code confirms that deeply reversed magnetic shear is indeed attained by on-axis counter-ECCD in low density conditions and in combination with a relatively fast controlled current ramp. The high electron temperature gradient is found to be located inside the negative magnetic shear region.

  3. Computation of turbulent, separated, unswept compression ramp interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, T. A.; Dolling, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Examination of the literature shows that the comparison between experiment and computation for highly separated unswept compression ramp flows is generally poor, irrespective of the turbulence model used. In general, the upstream influence is not correct, the wall pressure rise through separation is too steep, and the pressures under the separated shear layer are too high. In the current study, the objective is to determine if these discrepancies might be attributed more to other factors such as flowfield unsteadiness or three-dimensionality, rather than to inadequate turbulence modeling. To examine this possibility, multichannel wall pressure fluctuations were measured under the unsteady separation shock wave in a 28-deg unswept compression ramp flow at Mach 5. The results show that the large scale, low frequency separation shock unsteadiness controls the distribution of time-averaged surface properties and that neglect of the unsteadiness is probably the primary cause of the discrepancy between experiment and computation.

  4. Measuring Redshifts of Emission-line Galaxies Using Ramp Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ryan William; Bohman, John; McNeff, Mathew; Holden, Marcus; Moody, Joseph; Joner, Michael D.; Barnes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Photometric redshifts are routinely obtained for galaxies without emission using broadband photometry. It is possible in theory to derive reasonably accurate (< 200 km/sec) photometric redshift values for emission-line objects using "ramp" filters with a linearly increasing/decreasing transmission through the bandpass. To test this idea we have obtained a set of filters tuned for isolating H-alpha at a redshift range of 0-10,000 km/sec. These filters consist of two that vary close to linearly in transmission, have opposite slope, and cover the wavelength range from 655nm - 685nm, plus a Stromgren y and 697nm filter to measure the continuum. Redshifts are derived from the ratio of the ramp filters indices after the continuum has been subtracted out. We are finishing the process of obtaining photometric data on a set of about 100 galaxies with known redshift to calibrate the technique and will report on our results.

  5. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket nestled under the wi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket are nestled under the wing of NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft during pre-flight systems testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va. After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  6. Radar echo processing with partitioned de-ramp

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2013-03-19

    The spurious-free dynamic range of a wideband radar system is increased by apportioning de-ramp processing across analog and digital processing domains. A chirp rate offset is applied between the received waveform and the reference waveform that is used for downconversion to the intermediate frequency (IF) range. The chirp rate offset results in a residual chirp in the IF signal prior to digitization. After digitization, the residual IF chirp is removed with digital signal processing.

  7. A VERY FAST RAMPING MUON SYNCHROTRON FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUMMERS,D.J.BERG,J.S.PALMER,R.B.GARREN,A.A.

    2003-05-12

    A 4600 Hz fast ramping synchrotron is studied as an economical way of accelerating muons from 4 to 20 GeV/c for a neutrino factory. Eddy current losses are minimized by the low machine duty cycle plus thin grain oriented silicon steel laminations and thin copper wires. Combined function magnets with high gradients alternating within single magnets form the lattice. Muon survival is 83%.

  8. Ramp-rate sensitivity of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Devred, A.; Ogitsu, T.

    1994-07-01

    One of the major achievements of the magnet R&D program for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the fabrication and test of a series of 20 5-cm aperture, 15-m long dipole magnet prototypes. The ramp rate sensitivity of these magnets appears to fall in at least two categories that can be correlated to the manufacturer and production batch of the strands used for the inner-coil cables. The first category, referred to as type-A, is characterized by a strong quench current degradation at high ramp rates, usually accompanied by large distortions of the multipole fields and large energy losses. The second category, referred to as type-B, is characterized by a sudden drop of quench current at low ramp rates, followed by a much milder degradation at larger rates. The multipole fields of the type-B magnets show little ramp-rate sensitivity, and the energy losses are smaller than for the type-A magnets. The behavior of the Type-A magnets can be explained in terms of inter-strand eddy currents arising from low and non-uniform resistances at the crossovers between the strands of the two-layer Rutherford-type cable. Anomalies in the transport-current repartition among the cable strands are suggested as a possible cause for the type-B behavior. The origins of these anomalies have not yet been clearly identified. The SSC project was canceled by decision of the United States Congress on October 21, 1994.

  9. Investigation of ramp injectors for supersonic mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimovitch, Y.; Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of wall mounted swept ramp injectors fitted with injector nozzles of different shape has been conducted in a constant area duct to explore mixing enhancement techniques for scramjet combustors. Six different injector nozzle inserts, all having equal exit and throat areas, were tested to explore the interaction between the preconditioned fuel jet and the vortical flowfield produced by the ramp: circular nozzle (baseline), nozzle with three downstream facing steps, nozzle with four vortex generators, elliptical nozzle, tapered-slot nozzle, and trapezoidal nozzle. The main flow was air at Mach 2, and the fuel was simulated by air injected at Mach 1.63 or by helium injected at Mach 1.7. Pressure and temperature surveys, combined with Mie and Rayleigh scattering visualization, were used to investigate the flow field. The experiments were compared with three dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The results indicate that the mixing process is dominated by the streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp, the injectors' inner geometry having a minor effect. It was also found that the injectant/air mixing in the far-field is nearly independent of the injector geometry, molecular weight of the injectant, and the initial convective Mach number.

  10. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  11. Middle Ordovician carbonate ramp deposits of central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Demicco, R.V.

    1986-05-01

    Middle Ordovician carbonates exposed in Maryland and Pennsylvania can be divided into six facies, each a few tens to hundreds of meters thick: (1) cyclic, meter-scale, alternating thin-bedded to massive limestones and mud-cracked, stromatolitic laminites; (2) thick-bedded to massive skeletal wackestones containing diverse fauna; (3) cross-stratified skeletal-oncoid grainstones; (4) graded, thin-bedded limestones with diverse fauna and internal planar lamination or hummocky cross-stratification; (5) nodular, thin-bedded limestones; and (6) shaly, thin-bedded to laminated limestones containing rare breccia beds. These facies are interpreted as deposits of: (1) tidal flats; (2) open, bioturbated muddy shelf; (3) lime-sand shoals; (4) below normal wave-base shelf; (5) deep ramp; and (6) basin. Palinspastic reconstructions of facies distribution in Maryland and Pennsylvania suggest that these facies developed during flooding of a carbonate ramp that deepened northeastward into a foreland basin. This northern depocenter of the Middle Ordovician Appalachian foreland basin is notably different that its southern counterpart in Virginia and Tennessee. Large skeletal bioherms did not develop on the northern carbonate ramp, where only one onlap package exists. Thus, although the record of the foundering of the passive Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate shelf is grossly similar in the southern and central Appalachians, there are several significant differences. The overlying Martinsburg Formation contains deep-water facies and taconic-style thrust sheets in the central Appalachians, which suggests that the two depocenters may have had different tectonic settings.

  12. Fermilab Booster Transition Crossing Simulations and Beam Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.; Tan, C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at 15 Hz. In the PIP (Proton Improvement Plan) era, it is required that Booster deliver 4.2 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse to extraction. One of the obstacles for providing quality beam to the users is the longitudinal quadrupole oscillation that the beam suffers from right after transition. Although this oscillation is well taken care of with quadrupole dampers, it is important to understand the source of these oscillations in light of the PIP II requirements that require 6.5 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse at extraction. This paper explores the results from machine studies, computer simulations and solutions to prevent the quadrupole oscillations after transition.

  13. Liquid Rocket Booster Study. Volume 2, Book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The recommended Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) concept is shown which uses a common main engine with the Advanced Launch System (ALS) which burns LO2 and LH2. The central rationale is based on the belief that the U.S. can only afford one big new rocket engine development in the 1990's. A LO2/LH2 engine in the half million pound thrust class could satisfy STS LRB, ALS, and Shuttle C (instead of SSMEs). Development costs and higher production rates can be shared by NASA and USAF. If the ALS program does not occur, the LO2/RP-1 propellants would produce slight lower costs for and STS LRB. When the planned Booster Engine portion of the Civil Space Transportation Initiatives has provided data on large pressure fed LO2/RP-1 engines, then the choice should be reevaluated.

  14. Ignition Transients of Large Segmented Solid Rocket Boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, L. H.; Kuo, K. K.

    1976-01-01

    A model is described which provides a means for analyzing the complexities of ignition transients and pressure peaks of large, high performance, segmented solid rocket boosters. The method accounts for: (1) temporal and spatial development of the flow field set up by the head end igniter discharge, (2) ignition and flame spreading coupled to chamber flow, (3) the steep velocity, pressure, and temperature gradients that occur during the early phases of ignition, and (4) the interactions that produce ignition spikes (i.e., compression of chamber gases during pressurization, erosive burning, and mass added effect of igniter discharge). The technique differs from earlier models in that the flow interactions between the slots and main chamber are accounted for, and the original computer program for monolithic motors is improved. The procedures were used to predict the ignition transients of the current design for the space shuttle booster.

  15. Space charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Bourianoff, G.; Mahale, N.K.; Mehta, N.; Pilat, F.; Talman, R.; York, R.C.

    1991-05-01

    By means of multi-particle tracking, we explore space charge effects in the Low Energy Booster (LEB) which has a strong requirement for small transverse emittance. Macro-particles are tracked in a self-consistent manner in six dimensional phase space with transverse space charge kicks so that the emittance evolution as well as the particle distribution are simulated as a function of time. Among recent improvements of the code, the longitudinal motion, i.e. synchrotron oscillations as well as acceleration, makes it possible to simulate the capture process of linac microbunches. The code was calibrated by comparing with the experimental results at the Fermilab Booster. Preliminary results of the LEB show slow emittance growth due to the space charge. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Design Optimization of Gas Generator Hybrid Propulsion Boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, Vincent; Phillips, Dwight; Fink, Larry

    1990-01-01

    A methodology used in support of a study for NASA/MSFC to optimize the design of gas generator hybrid propulsion booster for uprating the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is presented. The objective was to compare alternative configurations for this booster approach, optimizing each candidate concept on different bases, in order to develop data for a trade table on which a final decision was based. The methodology is capable of processing a large number of independent and dependent variables, adjusting the overall subsystems characteristics to arrive at a best compromise integrated design to meet various specific optimization criteria subject to selected constraints. For each system considered, a detailed weight statement was generated along with preliminary cost and reliability estimates.

  17. Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

  18. A tool for model based diagnostics of the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1993-12-31

    A model-based algorithmic tool was developed to search for lattice errors by a systematic analysis of orbit data in the AGS Booster synchrotron. The algorithm employs transfer matrices calculated with MAD between points in the ring. Iterative model fitting of the data allows one to find and eventually correct magnet displacements and angles or field errors. The tool, implemented on a HP-Apollo workstation system, has proved very general and of immediate physical interpretation.

  19. Compensation for booster leakage field in the Duke storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Hao, Hao; Mikhailov, Stepan F.; Popov, Victor; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying. K.

    2017-01-01

    The High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) at Duke University is an accelerator-driven Compton gamma-ray source, providing high flux gamma-ray beam from 1 MeV to 100 MeV for photo-nuclear physics research. The HIGS facility operates three accelerators, a linac pre-injector (0.16 GeV), a booster injector (0.16—1.2 GeV), and an electron storage ring (0.24—1.2 GeV). Because of the proximity of the booster injector to the storage ring, the magnetic field of the booster dipoles close to the ring can significantly alter the closed orbit in the storage ring being operated in the low energy region. This type of orbit distortion can be a problem for certain precision experiments which demand a high degree of energy consistency of the gamma-ray beam. This energy consistency can be achieved by maintaining consistent aiming of the gamma-ray beam, and therefore a steady electron beam orbit and angle at the Compton collision point. To overcome the booster leakage field problem, we have developed an orbit compensation scheme. This scheme is developed using two fast orbit correctors and implemented as a feedforward which is operated transparently together with the slow orbit feedback system. In this paper, we will describe the development of this leakage field compensation scheme, and report the measurement results, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175180, 11475167) and US DOE (DE-FG02-97ER41033)

  20. Thermal design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. R.; Vaniman, J. L.; Patterson, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal protection systems (TPS) to meet the quick turnaround and low cost required for reuse of the solid rocket booster (SRB) hardware. The TPS development considered the ease of application, changing ascent/reentry environments, and the problem of cleaning the residual insulation upon recovery. A sprayable ablator TPS material was developed. The challenges involved in design and development of this thermal system are discussed.

  1. D-558-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    This 1949 NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit photograph shows the Douglas D-558-2 #1 at the South Base, Edwards Air Force Base. The aircraft was turned over to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on 31 August 1951 after completing the Douglas contractor test flights. At this time, the aircraft was only fitted with a jet engine. Although given the call sign 'NACA 143,' it was only flown once by the NACA (on 17 September 1956) after being converted to all-rocket power. The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that

  2. Booster seats for child passengers: lessons for increasing their use

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Bennett, E; Crispin, B; Kruger, K; Ebel, B; Sarewitz, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To explore parental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to use of booster seats in cars for 4–8 year old children. Methods—Three focus groups conducted by a professional marketing firm. Results—Many parents were confused about the appropriate weight and age of children who should be in booster seats; most parents incorrectly identified the age at which it was safe to use a lap-shoulder belt. Legislation was viewed as a positive factor in encouraging use. Cost of seats was frequently cited as a barrier to ownership, as were child resistance, peer pressure from older children, the need to accommodate other children in the vehicle, and the belief that a lap belt was adequate. Messages from health care providers, emergency medical services, or law enforcement personnel were believed to be most effective. Conclusion—Campaigns to promote booster seat use should address issues of knowledge about appropriate age and size of the child, cost, inadequacy of lap belts, and resistance to use by the child. PMID:11565986

  3. Development of ramp-flat structures during Aegean extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Jean-Pierre; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    Low-angle extensional shear is frequently observed in the Aegean metamorphic rocks. This deformation is commonly interpreted as being related to detachment at crustal scale, yet it often corresponds to ramp-flat extensional systems that, at many places, control the deposition of Neogene sedimentary basins. From a mechanical point of view, the development of a ramp-flat structure requires the presence of weak layers that can be activated as décollement between stronger rocks units. In the Aegean, the décollement generally develops within the upper brittle crust (i.e. with temperatures lower than about 400°C) that consists in recently exhumed metamorphic rocks. The process by which, these layers become weak enough to form efficient décollements in extension is somewhat intriguing and not well understood. In this contribution we examine the particular case of ramp-flat structures of the Southern Rhodope Core Complex that controlled the deposition of late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments in continental and marine basins. Field evidence is used to argue that the décollement corresponds to marble layers that separate orthogneisses at 2-3 km depth within an upper brittle crust whose thickness is around 5 km. Field observation and stable isotope measurements suggest that the ramp-flat structure observed on the island of Thassos occurred in a marble unit rich in fluids at a temperature of around 200°C. Using laboratory experiments, we explore the geometry of extensional structures (fault systems, rollovers, piggy-back basins…) that can develop at crustal-scale as a function of: i) décollement depth and dip, ii) number of décollements, and iii) strength contrast, between the décollement and overlying strong units. The results are compared with the situation observed in the Southern Rhodope Core Complex. We are convinced that the principles of ramp-flat extension discussed here have a strong potential of application in many other orogenic domains affected by large

  4. Multiple cell booster battery switch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia, S.

    1986-04-08

    A switch assembly is described for a multiple power cell battery unit, which have positive and negative terminals on each cell. The assembly consists of (a) a base connected to the battery unit and including a terminal connector for each battery terminal which is physically and electrically connected therewith, (b) a top plate which is relatively movable with respect to the base and on which a plurality of conducting bus members which have contact elements are mounted, (c) the terminal connectors having electrical contacts for engaging the contact element of the conducting bus member, (d) each contact element member being positioned with respect to and adapted to engage with the electrical contacts of one of the terminal connectors when the top plate is in one position, and to be disengaged therefrom when the top plate is in a second position, (e) each conducting bus member being electrically interconnected with at least one other conducting bus member so that when their respective contact elements are in engagement with the electrical contact members of the terminal connector with which it is associated, the two battery cell terminals are electrically interconnected with each other.

  5. 47 CFR 74.735 - Power limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limitations. 74.735 Section 74.735..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.735 Power limitations. (a) The maximum peak effective radiated power (ERP) of...

  6. Ramping and Uncertainty Prediction Tool - Analysis and Visualization of Wind Generation Impact on Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Makarov, PNNL Yuri; Subbarao, PNNL Kris; PNNL,

    2014-03-03

    RUT software is designed for use by the Balancing Authorities to predict and display additional requirements caused by the variability and uncertainty in load and generation. The prediction is made for the next operating hours as well as for the next day. The tool predicts possible deficiencies in generation capability and ramping capability. This deficiency of balancing resources can cause serious risks to power system stability and also impact real-time market energy prices. The tool dynamically and adaptively correlates changing system conditions with the additional balancing needs triggered by the interplay between forecasted and actual load and output of variable resources. The assessment is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm incorporating multiple sources of uncertainty including wind, solar and load forecast errors. The tool evaluates required generation for a worst case scenario, with a user-specified confidence level.

  7. Lessons for increasing awareness and use of booster seats in a Latino community

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Fitzgerald, K; Ebel, B

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Two focus groups were conducted with Spanish speaking parents. Information was obtained through a written survey and moderated discussions. Results: Parents were widely misinformed about recommended guidelines for booster seat use, and the majority of participants did not own a booster seat. Parents identified a lack of information, the cost of booster seats, resistance to use by the child or the father, limited space in the vehicle, and unavailability of shoulder belts as barriers to booster seat use. Participants felt that learning more about the new Washington state booster seat law and its consequences would increase booster seat use. Public health messages felt to be effective were those in Spanish, delivered by credible spokespeople such as physicians and teachers, and utilizing the Spanish media. Conclusions: Campaigns to promote booster seats in the Latino community should be culturally specific, and clear guidelines for booster seat use should be given in Spanish. Legislation may be an important incentive for using booster seats, though reducing their cost and providing strategies to address child resistance and physical constraints of some vehicles are also important. PMID:12966019

  8. Longitudinal emittance measurements in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC gold run

    SciTech Connect

    Zeno, K.

    2014-08-18

    This note describes longitudinal emittance measurements that were made in the Booster and AGS during the 2014 RHIC Gold run. It also contains an overview of the longitudinal aspects of their setup during this run. Each bunch intended for RHIC is composed of beam from 4 Booster cycles, and there are two of them per AGS cycle. For each of the 8 Booster cycles required to produce the 2 bunches in the AGS, a beam pulse from EVIS is injected into the Booster and captured in four h=4 buckets. Then those bunches are accelerated to a porch where they are merged into 2 bunches and then into 1 bunch.

  9. Recognition of Ramps and Steps by People with Low Vision

    PubMed Central

    Bochsler, Tiana M.; Legge, Gordon E.; Gage, Rachel; Kallie, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Detection and recognition of ramps and steps are important for the safe mobility of people with low vision. Our primary goal was to assess the impact of viewing conditions and environmental factors on the recognition of these targets by people with low vision. A secondary goal was to determine if results from our previous studies of normally sighted subjects, wearing acuity-reducing goggles, would generalize to low vision. Methods. Sixteen subjects with heterogeneous forms of low vision participated—acuities from approximately 20/200 to 20/2000. They viewed a sidewalk interrupted by one of five targets: a single step up or down, a ramp up or down, or a flat continuation of the sidewalk. Subjects reported which of the five targets was shown, and percent correct was computed. The effects of viewing distance, target–background contrast, lighting arrangement, and subject locomotion were investigated. Performance was compared with a group of normally sighted subjects who viewed the targets through acuity-reducing goggles. Results. Recognition performance was significantly better at shorter distances and after locomotion (compared with purely stationary viewing). The effects of lighting arrangement and target–background contrast were weaker than hypothesized. Visibility of the targets varied, with the step up being more visible than the step down. Conclusions. The empirical results provide insight into factors affecting the visibility of ramps and steps for people with low vision. The effects of distance, target type, and locomotion were qualitatively similar for low vision and normal vision with artificial acuity reduction. However, the effects of lighting arrangement and background contrast were only significant for subjects with normal vision. PMID:23221068

  10. Perseus B Parked on Ramp - View from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  11. On the Effect of Ramp Rate in Damage Accumulation of the CPV Die-Attach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N. S.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    It is commonly understood that thermal cycling at high temperature ramp rates may activate unrepresentative failure mechanisms. Increasing the temperature ramp rate of thermal cycling, however, could dramatically reduce the test time required to achieve an equivalent amount of thermal fatigue damage, thereby reducing overall test time. Therefore, the effect of temperature ramp rate on physical damage in the CPV die-attach is investigated. Finite Element Model (FEM) simulations of thermal fatigue and thermal cycling experiments are made to determine if the amount of damage calculated results in a corresponding amount of physical damage measured to the die-attach for a variety of fast temperature ramp rates. Preliminary experimental results are in good agreement with simulations and reinforce the potential of increasing temperature ramp rates. Characterization of the microstructure and resulting fatigue crack in the die-attach suggest a similar failure mechanism across all ramp rates tested.

  12. When driving on the left side is safe: Safety of the diverging diamond interchange ramp terminals.

    PubMed

    Claros, Boris; Edara, Praveen; Sun, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    How safe are the ramp terminals of a diverging diamond interchange (DDI)? This paper answered this question using data from DDI sites in Missouri. First, crash prediction models for ramp terminals for different crash severities were developed. These models were then utilized in the Empirical Bayes (EB) evaluation of DDI ramp terminals. Due to inconsistencies in crash reporting for freeways in Missouri, individual crash reports were reviewed to properly identify ramp terminal crashes. A total of 13,000 crash reports were reviewed for model development and EB evaluation. The study found that the DDI ramp terminals were safer than the conventional diamond signalized terminals. The DDI ramp terminals experienced 55% fewer fatal and injury crashes, 31.4% fewer property damage only crashes, and 37.5% fewer total crashes.

  13. Experiencing production ramp-up education for engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassetto, S.; Fiegenwald, V.; Cholez, C.; Mangione, F.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a game of industrialisation, based on a paper airplane, that mimics real world production ramp-up and blends classical engineering courses together. It is based on a low cost product so that it can be mass produced. The game targets graduate students and practitioners in engineering fields. For students, it offers an experiment in which methods learned in separate courses can be applied. For practitioners, it affords an opportunity to engage in reflexive practices related to industrialisation. Both students and practitioners are able to experience integrated management, required by industrialisation, in a controlled environment: the laboratory.

  14. X-1E Loaded in B-29 Mothership on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E airplane being loaded under the mothership, Boeing B-29. The X-planes had originally been lowered into a loading pit and the launch aircraft towed over the pit, where the rocket plane was hoisted by belly straps into the bomb bay. By the early 1950s a hydraulic lift had been installed on the ramp at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station to elevate the launch aircraft and then lower it over the rocket plane for mating.

  15. Getting to the On-ramp of the Information Superhighway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    manager may elect to automatically forward all incoming e- mail from selected senders to his deputy. It is not necessary to have an AMH installed if users...establish a process to quickly identify the important and rou- tine messages. Most e- mail systems have an inbox which sorts unread e- mail and...messages FYI: for all �unofficial� For Your In- 27 Getting to the On-Ramp formation, or optional messages E- mail should also be � sender friendly.� Some

  16. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  17. A Management Case Study: The Implementation of the Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    manufacturing needs based on the dollars available to support this new technology. In December 1987, the staif at NAVSUP awarded the current RAMP contract to...describes the implementation of the Navy’s Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program. The RAMP program was implemented in 1989 by the Naval...time and cost for manufactured spare parts. This management case study concentrates on the examination of how new technology is implemented into current

  18. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Lightweight Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Dean; Runkle, Roy E.

    1995-01-01

    The cancellation of the Advanced Solid Rocket Booster Project and the earth-to-orbit payload requirements for the Space Station dictated that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) look at performance enhancements from all Space Transportation System (STS) elements (Orbiter Project, Space Shuttle Main Engine Project, External Tank Project, Solid Rocket Motor Project, & Solid Rocket Booster Project). The manifest for launching of Space Station components indicated that an additional 12-13000 pound lift capability was required on 10 missions and 15-20,000 pound additional lift capability is required on two missions. Trade studies conducted by all STS elements indicate that by deleting the parachute Recovery System (and associated hardware) from the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBS) and going to a lightweight External Tank (ET) the 20,000 pound additional lift capability can be realized for the two missions. The deletion of the parachute Recovery System means the loss of four SRBs and this option is two expensive (loss of reusable hardware) to be used on the other 10 Space Station missions. Accordingly, each STS element looked at potential methods of weight savings, increased performance, etc. As the SRB and ET projects are non-propulsive (i.e. does not have launch thrust elements) their only contribution to overall payload enhancement can be achieved by the saving of weight while maintaining adequate safety factors and margins. The enhancement factor for the SRB project is 1:10. That is for each 10 pounds saved on the two SRBS; approximately 1 additional pound of payload in the orbiter bay can be placed into orbit. The SRB project decided early that the SRB recovery system was a prime candidate for weight reduction as it was designed in the early 1970s and weight optimization had never been a primary criteria.

  19. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Kawata, S.; Takahashi, K.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.; Li, Y. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  20. Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Quinlin, William T.; Thorpe, Raymond; Lightfoot, James M.

    2006-03-21

    A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

  1. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. H.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model, capable of defining the influence of the plume flowfield structure on the magnitude and distribution of thermal radiation leaving the plume, was prepared and documented. Radiant heating rates may be calculated for a single SRB plume or for the dual SRB plumes astride the space shuttle. The plumes may be gimbaled in the yaw and pitch planes. Space shuttle surface geometries are simulated with combinations of quadric surfaces. The effect of surface shading is included. The computer program also has the capability to calculate view factors between the SRB plumes and space shuttle surfaces as well as surface-to-surface view factors.

  2. Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Flight System Integration at Its Best

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, T. David; Kanner, Howard S.; Freeland, Donna M.; Olson, Derek T.

    2011-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) element integrates all the subsystems needed for ascent flight, entry, and recovery of the combined Booster and Motor system. These include the structures, avionics, thrust vector control, pyrotechnic, range safety, deceleration, thermal protection, and retrieval systems. This represents the only human-rated, recoverable and refurbishable solid rocket ever developed and flown. Challenges included subsystem integration, thermal environments and severe loads (including water impact), sometimes resulting in hardware attrition. Several of the subsystems evolved during the program through design changes. These included the thermal protection system, range safety system, parachute/recovery system, and others. Because the system was recovered, the SRB was ideal for data and imagery acquisition, which proved essential for understanding loads, environments and system response. The three main parachutes that lower the SRBs to the ocean are the largest parachutes ever designed, and the SRBs are the largest structures ever to be lowered by parachutes. SRB recovery from the ocean was a unique process and represented a significant operational challenge; requiring personnel, facilities, transportation, and ground support equipment. The SRB element achieved reliability via extensive system testing and checkout, redundancy management, and a thorough postflight assessment process. However, the in-flight data and postflight assessment process revealed the hardware was affected much more strongly than originally anticipated. Assembly and integration of the booster subsystems required acceptance testing of reused hardware components for each build. Extensive testing was done to assure hardware functionality at each level of stage integration. Because the booster element is recoverable, subsystems were available for inspection and testing postflight, unique to the Shuttle launch vehicle. Problems were noted and corrective actions were implemented as needed

  3. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 5, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the appendices of the five volume series.

  4. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  5. On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

  6. Liquid Rocket Booster Integration Study. Volume 2: Study synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is the study summary of the five volume series.

  7. Magnetic ramp scale at supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks: Full particle electromagnetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Huang, Can; Yang, Huigen; Hu, Hongqiao; Han, Desheng; Liu, Ying

    2013-09-15

    Supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks are known to exhibit foot, ramp, and overshoot structures. The shock ramp structure is in a smaller scale in contrast to other microstructures (foot and overshoot) within the shock front. One-dimensional full particle simulations of strictly perpendicular shocks over wide ranges of ion beta β{sub i}, Alfvén Mach number M{sub A}, and ion-to-electron mass ratio m{sub i}/m{sub e} are presented to investigate the impact of plasma parameters on the shock ramp scale. Main results are (1) the ramp scale can be as small as several electron inertial length. (2) The simulations suggest that in a regime below the critical ion beta value, the shock front undergoes a periodic self-reformation and the shock ramp scale is time-varying. At higher ion beta values, the shock front self-reformation is smeared. At still higher ion beta value, the motion of reflected ions is quite diffuse so that they can lead to a quasi-steady shock ramp. Throughout the above three conditions, the shock ramp thickness increases with β{sub i}. (3) The increase (decrease) in Mach number and the decrease (increase) in the beta value have almost equivalent impact on the state (i.e., stationary or nonstationary) of the shock ramp. Both of front and ramp thicknesses are increased with M{sub A}.

  8. Perseus B Parked on Ramp - View from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  9. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements

  10. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and

  11. Pure rotation of a prism on a ramp

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study a prism with a cross section in polygon rolling on a ramp inclined at a small angle. The prism under gravity rolls purely around each individual edge, intermittently interrupted by a sequence of face collisions between the side face of the prism and the ramp. By limiting the prism in a planar motion, we propose a mathematical model to deal with the events of the impacts. With a pair of laser-Doppler vibrometers, experiments are also conducted to measure the motions of various prisms made of different materials and with different edge number. Not only are good agreements achieved between our numerical and experimental results, but also an intriguing physical phenomenon is discovered: the purely rolling motion is nearly independent of the prism's materials, yet it is closely related to the prism's geometry. Imagine that an ideal circular section can be approximately equivalent to a polygon with a large enough edge number N, the finding presented in this paper may help discover the physical mechanism of rolling friction. PMID:25197242

  12. Ramp exercise protocols for clinical and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Myers, J; Bellin, D

    2000-07-01

    Historically, the protocol used for exercise testing has been based on tradition, convenience or both. In the 1990s, a considerable amount of research has focused on the effect of the exercise protocol on test performance, including exercise tolerance, diagnostic accuracy, gas exchange patterns and the accuracy with which oxygen uptake (VO2) is predicted from the work rate. Studies have suggested that protocols which contain large and/or unequal increments in work cause a disruption in the normal linear relation between VO2 and work rate, leading to an overprediction of metabolic equivalents. Other studies have demonstrated that such protocols can mask the salutary effects of an intervention, and some have suggested that the protocol design can influence the diagnostic performance of the test. Guidelines published by major organisations have therefore suggested that the protocol be individualised based on the patient being tested and the purpose of the test. The ramp approach to exercise testing has recently been advocated because it facilitates recommendations made in these guidelines. This article reviews these issues and discusses the evolution of ramp testing which has occurred in the 1990s.

  13. Effect of walking speed on lower extremity joint loading in graded ramp walking.

    PubMed

    Schwameder, Hermann; Lindenhofer, Elke; Müller, Erich

    2005-07-01

    Lower extremity joint loading during walking is strongly affected by the steepness of the slope and might cause pain and injuries in lower extremity joint structures. One feasible measure to reduce joint loading is the reduction of walking speed. Positive effects have been shown for level walking, but not for graded walking or hiking conditions. The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of walking speed (separated into the two components, step length and cadence) on the joint power of the hip, knee and ankle and to determine the knee joint forces in uphill and downhill walking. Ten participants walked up and down a ramp with step lengths of 0.46, 0.575 and 0.69 m and cadences of 80, 100 and 120 steps per minute. The ramp was equipped with a force platform and the locomotion was filmed with a 60 Hz video camera. Loading of the lower extremity joints was determined using inverse dynamics. A two-dimensional knee model was used to calculate forces in the knee structures during the stance phase. Walking speed affected lower extremity joint loading substantially and significantly. Change of step length caused much greater loading changes for all joints compared with change of cadence; the effects were more distinct in downhill than in uphill walking. The results indicate that lower extremity joint loading can be effectively controlled by varying step length and cadence during graded uphill and downhill walking. Hikers can avoid or reduce pain and injuries by reducing walking speed, particularly in downhill walking.

  14. Multiphysics modelling of the separation of suspended particles via frequency ramping of ultrasonic standing waves.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Francisco J; Eberhardt, Sebastian; Möller, Dirk; Dual, Jurg; Knoerzer, Kai

    2013-03-01

    A model was developed to determine the local changes of concentration of particles and the formations of bands induced by a standing acoustic wave field subjected to a sawtooth frequency ramping pattern. The mass transport equation was modified to incorporate the effect of acoustic forces on the concentration of particles. This was achieved by balancing the forces acting on particles. The frequency ramping was implemented as a parametric sweep for the time harmonic frequency response in time steps of 0.1s. The physics phenomena of piezoelectricity, acoustic fields and diffusion of particles were coupled and solved in COMSOL Multiphysics™ (COMSOL AB, Stockholm, Sweden) following a three step approach. The first step solves the governing partial differential equations describing the acoustic field by assuming that the pressure field achieves a pseudo steady state. In the second step, the acoustic radiation force is calculated from the pressure field. The final step allows calculating the locally changing concentration of particles as a function of time by solving the modified equation of particle transport. The diffusivity was calculated as function of concentration following the Garg and Ruthven equation which describes the steep increase of diffusivity when the concentration approaches saturation. However, it was found that this steep increase creates numerical instabilities at high voltages (in the piezoelectricity equations) and high initial particle concentration. The model was simplified to a pseudo one-dimensional case due to computation power limitations. The predicted particle distribution calculated with the model is in good agreement with the experimental data as it follows accurately the movement of the bands in the centre of the chamber.

  15. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 1: Engineering description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-II) is made up of analytical and functional simulation techniques linked together so that a single pass through the model will predict the performance of the propulsion elements of a space shuttle solid rocket booster. The available options allow the user to predict static test performance, predict nominal and off nominal flight performance, and reconstruct actual flight and static test performance. Options selected by the user are dependent on the data available. These can include data derived from theoretical analysis, small scale motor test data, large motor test data and motor configuration data. The user has several options for output format that include print, cards, tape and plots. Output includes all major performance parameters (Isp, thrust, flowrate, mass accounting and operating pressures) as a function of time as well as calculated single point performance data. The engineering description of SRB-II discusses the engineering and programming fundamentals used, the function of each module, and the limitations of each module.

  16. Solid rocket booster internal flow analysis by highly accurate adaptive computational methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.; Bass, J. M.; Cullen, C.; Vadaketh, S.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an adaptive finite element flow solver for simulating internal flows in the solid rocket booster. Described here is a unique flow simulator code for analyzing highly complex flow phenomena in the solid rocket booster. New methodologies and features incorporated into this analysis tool are described.

  17. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Application Processing—ITFS 74.911 Application requirements of Part 73 applicable to ITFS 74.910 Applications... stations 74.535 LPTV/TV Translators 74.736 IFTS 74.936 FM Translators/Boosters 74.1236 Boosters, Signal UHF... property (All Services) 74.23 ITFS— Application processing 74.911 Application requirements from part 73...

  18. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... available on the Internet. 74.1290 Section 74.1290 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... translator and booster station information available on the Internet. The Media Bureau's Audio Division provides information on the Internet regarding FM translator and booster stations, rules, and policies...

  19. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... available on the Internet. 74.1290 Section 74.1290 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... translator and booster station information available on the Internet. The Media Bureau's Audio Division provides information on the Internet regarding FM translator and booster stations, rules, and policies...

  20. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing...

  1. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM translator and booster station information... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1290...

  2. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing...

  3. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM translator and booster station information... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1290...

  4. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  5. Expendable second stage reusable space shuttle booster. Volume 12: Design data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The general and design criteria for the expendable second stage of the reusable space shuttle booster are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) trajectory development, (2) aerodynamic heating on basic payloads, (3) vehicle configurations, trajectory, and heat regimes, (4) orbit maneuvering system, (5) structural analysis, and (6) booster loads and structural sizing.

  6. Expendable second stage reusable space shuttle booster. Volume 4: Detail mass properties data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Mass properties data are presented to describe the characteristics of an expendable second stage with a reusable space shuttle booster. The final mass characteristics of the vehicle configurations for three specified payloads are presented in terms of weight, center of gravity, and mass moments of inertia. Three basic subjects are the integrated vehicle system, the expendable second stage, and the booster modifications.

  7. Expendable second stage reusable space shuttle booster. Volume 8: Preliminary CEI specification, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Contract end item specifications required to define hardware end items for the expendable second stage on a reusable shuttle booster system are provided. The specifications are as follows: (1) expendable second stage, (2) space shuttle booster, and (3) space shuttle ground support system.

  8. Feasibility demonstration of booster cross-over system for 3 1/2 inch SRB/MLP frangible nut system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Recent testing of the SRB/MLP Frangible Nut System (SOS Part Number 114850-9/Boosters P/N 114848-3) at NASA indicated a need to reduce the function time between boosters (2) within a single frangible nut. These boosters are initiated separately by electrical impulse(s). Coupling the output of each detonator with an explosive cross-over would reduce the function time between boosters (independent of electrical impulse) while providing additional redundancy to the system. The objectives of this program were to: provide an explosive cross-over between boosters, reduce function time between boosters to less than one (1) millisecond within a given nut, reduce cost of boosters, be compatible with the existing frangible nut system, and meet requirements of USBI Spec's (nut 10SPC-0030, booster 10SPC-0031).

  9. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  10. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  11. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  12. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  13. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  14. Aerodynamic characterisation and trajectory simulations for the Ariane-5 booster recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiboom, F. P.

    One of the most critical aspects of the early phases of the development of the Ariane-5 booster recovery system was the determination of the behavior of the booster during its atmospheric reentry, since this behavior determines the start conditions for the parachute system elements. A combination of wind-tunnel tests (subsonic and supersonic) and analytical methods was applied to define the aerodynamic characteristics of the booster. This aerodynamic characterization in combination with information of the ascent trajectory, atmospheric properties and booster mass and inertia were used as input for the 6-DOF trajectory simulations of the vehicle. Uncertainties in aerodynamic properties and deviations in atmospheric and booster properties were incorporated to define the range of initial conditions for the parachute system, utilizing stochastic (Monte-Carlo) methods.

  15. Reattachment heating upstream of short compression ramps in hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estruch-Samper, David

    2016-05-01

    Hypersonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with separation induce unsteady thermal loads of particularly high intensity in flow reattachment regions. Building on earlier semi-empirical correlations, the maximum heat transfer rates upstream of short compression ramp obstacles of angles 15° ⩽ θ ⩽ 135° are here discretised based on time-dependent experimental measurements to develop insight into their transient nature (Me = 8.2-12.3, Re_h= 0.17× 105-0.47× 105). Interactions with an incoming laminar boundary layer experience transition at separation, with heat transfer oscillating between laminar and turbulent levels exceeding slightly those in fully turbulent interactions. Peak heat transfer rates are strongly influenced by the stagnation of the flow upon reattachment close ahead of obstacles and increase with ramp angle all the way up to θ =135°, whereby rates well over two orders of magnitude above the undisturbed laminar levels are intermittently measured (q'_max>10^2q_{u,L}). Bearing in mind the varying degrees of strength in the competing effect between the inviscid and viscous terms—namely the square of the hypersonic similarity parameter (Mθ )^2 for strong interactions and the viscous interaction parameter bar{χ } (primarily a function of Re and M)—the two physical factors that appear to most globally encompass the effects of peak heating for blunt ramps (θ ⩾ 45°) are deflection angle and stagnation heat transfer, so that this may be fundamentally expressed as q'_max∝ {q_{o,2D}} θ ^2 with further parameters in turn influencing the interaction to a lesser extent. The dominant effect of deflection angle is restricted to short obstacle heights, where the rapid expansion at the top edge of the obstacle influences the relaxation region just downstream of reattachment and leads to an upstream displacement of the separation front. The extreme heating rates result from the strengthening of the reattaching shear layer with the increase in

  16. Application of multi-objective nonlinear optimization technique for coordinated ramp-metering

    SciTech Connect

    Haj Salem, Habib; Farhi, Nadir; Lebacque, Jean Patrick E-mail: nadir.frahi@ifsttar.fr

    2015-03-10

    This paper aims at developing a multi-objective nonlinear optimization algorithm applied to coordinated motorway ramp metering. The multi-objective function includes two components: traffic and safety. Off-line simulation studies were performed on A4 France Motorway including 4 on-ramps.

  17. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  18. Facility No. S362, view up the ramp. Note the mooring ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. S362, view up the ramp. Note the mooring cleat on the top edge of the curb at the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Ramps - World War II Type, Southwest and west shore of Ford Island, near Wasp Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  20. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25 Section 1918.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car...