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Sample records for border control measure

  1. Assessment of Border Control Measures and Community Containment Measures Used in Japan during the Early Stages of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Hiroko; Tsunoda, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Yae; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    Background In the early stages of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, border control measures were taken by quarantine stations to block the entry of infected individuals into Japan and community containment measures were implemented to prevent the spreading. The objectives of this study were to describe these measures and the characteristics of infected individuals, and to assess the measures' effectiveness. Methodology/Principal Findings Border control and community containment measures implemented from April to June (Period I: April 28–May 21, Period II: May 22–June 18) 2009 were described. Number of individuals identified and disease characteristics were analyzed. For entry screening, a health declaration form and an infrared thermoscanner were used to detect symptomatic passengers. Passengers indicated for the rapid influenza test underwent the test followed by RT-PCR. Patients positive for H1N1 were isolated, and close contacts were quarantined. Entry cards were handed out to all asymptomatic passengers informing them about how to contact a health center in case they developed symptoms. Nine individuals were identified by entry screening and 1 during quarantine to have Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Health monitoring by health centers was performed in period I for passengers arriving from affected countries and in period II for those who had come into contact with the individuals identified by entry screening. Health monitoring identified 3 infected individuals among 129,546 in Period I and 5 among 746 in Period II. Enhanced surveillance, which included mandatory reporting of details of the infected individuals, identified 812 individuals, 141 (18%) of whom had a history of international travel. Twenty-four of these 141 passengers picked up by enhanced surveillance had been developing symptoms on entry and were missed at screening. Conclusion/Significance Symptomatic passengers were detected by the various entry screening measures put in place. Enhanced surveillance provided

  2. Control of Japanese honeysuckle in wildlife borders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warbach, O.

    1953-01-01

    1. Japanese honeysuckle, an exotic that can be either a pest or an asset in different localities, makes maintenance of wildlife plantings in the Southeast a difficult problem. 2. A herbicide applied during the winter and strong enough to kill dormant woody plants will stop the spread of honeysuckle from a woods edge for at least two years. 3. A low-percentage 2,4-D water spray applied to honeysuckle growing in bicolor lespedeza borders at a time when honeysuckle is starting growth and bicolor is still dormant will selectively destroy the vine without injuring the border. 4. Studies on control of honeysuckle in multiflora rose, shrub borders, and contour hedges by herbicides are planned for the future.

  3. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across the Alaska-Yukon border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaff, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Mekis, E.

    2015-12-01

    This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (National Weather Service (NWS) 8 in. gauge and Nipher gauge) and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 136 % in January and 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall) than for cold month (mainly snowfall) between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the USA-Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross-border, climate and hydrology investigations.

  4. Gaps in Border Controls Are Related to Quarantine Alien Insect Invasions in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Steven James; Bacher, Sven; Aebi, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Alien insects are increasingly being dispersed around the world through international trade, causing a multitude of negative environmental impacts and billions of dollars in economic losses annually. Border controls form the last line of defense against invasions, whereby inspectors aim to intercept and stop consignments that are contaminated with harmful alien insects. In Europe, member states depend on one another to prevent insect introductions by operating a first point of entry rule – controlling goods only when they initially enter the continent. However, ensuring consistency between border control points is difficult because there exists no optimal inspection strategy. For the first time, we developed a method to quantify the volume of agricultural trade that should be inspected for quarantine insects at border control points in Europe, based on global agricultural trade of over 100 million distinct origin-commodity-species-destination pathways. This metric was then used to evaluate the performance of existing border controls, as measured by border interception results in Europe between 2003 and 2007. Alarmingly, we found significant gaps between the trade pathways that should be inspected and actual number of interceptions. Moreover, many of the most likely introduction pathways yielded none or very few insect interceptions, because regular interceptions are only made on only a narrow range of pathways. European countries with gaps in border controls have been invaded by higher numbers of quarantine alien insect species, indicating the importance of proper inspections to prevent insect invasions. Equipped with an optimal inspection strategy based on the underlying risks of trade, authorities globally will be able to implement more effective and consistent border controls. PMID:23112835

  5. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  6. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  7. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  8. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  9. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  10. A historical overview of the United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Kenney, Rita V; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; de Cosío, Federico G; Ramos, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Betsy; Beckles, Gloria L; Valdez, Rodolfo; Thompson-Reid, Patricia E

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is a serious public health problem in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, reflecting and by some measures surpassing the extent of national diabetes burden of each country. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a two-phase prevalence study on type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, was conceived and developed by culturally diverse groups of people representing more than 100 government agencies and nongovernmental organizations; health care providers; and residents of 10 U.S. and Mexican border states, using a participatory approach, to address this disproportionate incidence of diabetes. This report describes the project's history, conceptualization, participatory approach, implementation, accomplishments, and challenges, and recommends a series of steps for carrying out other binational participatory projects based on lessons learned.

  11. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  12. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  13. Border Lookout: Enhancing Tuberculosis Control on the United States–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    DeSisto, Carla; Broussard, Kelly; Escobedo, Miguel; Borntrager, Denise; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Waterman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the use of federal public health intervention tools known as the Do Not Board and Border Lookout (BL) for detecting and referring infectious or potentially infectious land border travelers with tuberculosis (TB) back to treatment. We used data about the issuance of BL from April 2007 to September 2013 to examine demographics and TB laboratory results for persons on the list (N = 66) and time on the list before being located and achieving noninfectious status. The majority of case-patients were Hispanic and male, with a median age of 39 years. Most were citizens of the United States or Mexico, and 30.3% were undocumented migrants. One-fifth had multidrug-resistant TB. Nearly two-thirds of case-patients were located and treated as a result of being placed on the list. However, 25.8% of case-patients, primarily undocumented migrants, remain lost to follow-up and remain on the list. For this highly mobile patient population, the use of this novel federal travel intervention tool facilitated the detection and treatment of infectious TB cases that were lost to follow-up. PMID:26304917

  14. The Hippo pathway controls border cell migration through distinct mechanisms in outer border cells and polar cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Huai; Yeh, Tsung-Han; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2014-11-01

    The Hippo pathway is a key signaling cascade in controlling organ size. The core components of this pathway are two kinases, Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), and a transcriptional coactivator, Yorkie (Yki). Yes-associated protein (YAP, a Yki homolog in mammals) promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration in vitro. Here, we use border cells in the Drosophila ovary as a model to study Hippo pathway functions in cell migration in vivo. During oogenesis, polar cells secrete Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling of neighboring cells and specifies them into outer border cells. The outer border cells form a cluster with polar cells and undergo migration. We find that hpo and wts are required for migration of the border cell cluster. In outer border cells, overexpression of hpo disrupts polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and attenuates migration. In polar cells, knockdown of hpo and wts or overexpression of yki impairs border cell induction and disrupts migration. These manipulations in polar cells reduce JAK/STAT activity in outer border cells. Expression of upd-lacZ is increased and decreased in yki and hpo mutant polar cells, respectively. Furthermore, forced expression of upd in polar cells rescues defects of border cell induction and migration caused by wts knockdown. These results suggest that Yki negatively regulates border cell induction by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling. Together, our data elucidate two distinct mechanisms of the Hippo pathway in controlling border cell migration: (1) in outer border cells, it regulates polarized distribution of the actin cytoskeleton; (2) in polar cells, it regulates upd expression to control border cell induction and migration.

  15. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.

    1996-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  16. A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Sabine; Randall, Rebecca A; Hill, Caroline S

    2013-11-01

    During ectodermal patterning the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm are specified in adjacent domains at the neural plate border. BMP signalling is required for specification of both tissues, but how it is spatially and temporally regulated to achieve this is not understood. Here, using a transgenic zebrafish BMP reporter line in conjunction with double-fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we show that, at the beginning of neurulation, the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of BMP activity evolves into two distinct domains at the neural plate border: one coinciding with the neural crest and the other abutting the epidermis. In between is a region devoid of BMP activity, which is specified as the preplacodal ectoderm. We identify the ligands required for these domains of BMP activity. We show that the BMP-interacting protein Crossveinless 2 is expressed in the BMP activity domains and is under the control of BMP signalling. We establish that Crossveinless 2 functions at this time in a positive-feedback loop to locally enhance BMP activity, and show that it is required for neural crest fate. We further demonstrate that the Distal-less transcription factors Dlx3b and Dlx4b, which are expressed in the preplacodal ectoderm, are required for the expression of a cell-autonomous BMP inhibitor, Bambi-b, which can explain the specific absence of BMP activity in the preplacodal ectoderm. Taken together, our data define a BMP regulatory network that controls cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.

  17. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures Among the Jarai Male Youth Along the Cambodia-Vietnam Border.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam-Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices.

  18. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  19. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures Among the Jarai Male Youth Along the Cambodia-Vietnam Border.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam-Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  20. Cosmic-Ray-Induced Ship-Effect Neutron Measurements and Implications for Cargo Scanning at Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Seifert, Allen; Siciliano, Edward R.; Weier, Dennis R.; Windsor, Lindsay K.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Borgardt, James D.; Buckley, Elise D.; Flumerfelt, Eric L.; Oliveri, Anna F.; Salvitti, Matthew

    2008-03-11

    Neutron measurements are used as part of the interdiction process for illicit nuclear materials at border crossings. Even though the natural neutron background is small, its variation can impact the sensitivity of detection systems. The natural background of neutrons that is observed in monitoring instruments arises almost entirely from cosmic ray induced cascades in the atmosphere and the surrounding environment. One significant source of variation in the observed neutron background is produced by the “ship effect” in large quantities of cargo that transit past detection instruments. This paper reports on results from measurements with typical monitoring equipment of ship effect neutrons in various materials. One new result is the “neutron shadow shielding” effect seen with some low neutron density materials.

  1. Border control for stowaway alien species should be prioritised based on variations in establishment debt.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Katelyn T; Robertson, Mark P; Rouget, Mathieu; Wilson, John R U

    2016-09-15

    Border control is one of the major approaches used by countries to limit the number of organisms introduced as stowaways. However, it is not feasible to inspect all passengers, cargo and vehicles entering a country, and so efforts need to be prioritised. Here we use South Africa as a case study to assess, based on tourism and trade data and climate matching techniques, the number of stowaway species that might be introduced ('colonisation pressure') and the likelihood that once introduced, these organisms will establish ('likelihood of establishment'). These results were used to explore how the number of species that are likely to establish ('establishment debt') varies across donor regions and seasons. A simple theoretical model was then used to compare four strategies for prioritising border control inspections: no prioritisation; based on colonisation pressure; based on likelihood of establishment; and based on both colonisation pressure and likelihood of establishment. Establishment debt was greatest in southern hemisphere spring and autumn when South Africa is climatically similar to northern hemisphere countries with which there are strong, consistent trade and tourism links (i.e. colonisation pressure varied little seasonally, but likelihood of establishment did vary across the seasons). Prioritising inspections based on both colonisation pressure and the likelihood of establishment was clearly the most effective strategy, with this strategy detecting at least 6% more potential invaders than the other strategies. While there are many practical limitations to the implementation of such prioritised inspection strategies, the results highlight the importance of national and regional studies of establishment debt. PMID:27240206

  2. Border control for stowaway alien species should be prioritised based on variations in establishment debt.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Katelyn T; Robertson, Mark P; Rouget, Mathieu; Wilson, John R U

    2016-09-15

    Border control is one of the major approaches used by countries to limit the number of organisms introduced as stowaways. However, it is not feasible to inspect all passengers, cargo and vehicles entering a country, and so efforts need to be prioritised. Here we use South Africa as a case study to assess, based on tourism and trade data and climate matching techniques, the number of stowaway species that might be introduced ('colonisation pressure') and the likelihood that once introduced, these organisms will establish ('likelihood of establishment'). These results were used to explore how the number of species that are likely to establish ('establishment debt') varies across donor regions and seasons. A simple theoretical model was then used to compare four strategies for prioritising border control inspections: no prioritisation; based on colonisation pressure; based on likelihood of establishment; and based on both colonisation pressure and likelihood of establishment. Establishment debt was greatest in southern hemisphere spring and autumn when South Africa is climatically similar to northern hemisphere countries with which there are strong, consistent trade and tourism links (i.e. colonisation pressure varied little seasonally, but likelihood of establishment did vary across the seasons). Prioritising inspections based on both colonisation pressure and the likelihood of establishment was clearly the most effective strategy, with this strategy detecting at least 6% more potential invaders than the other strategies. While there are many practical limitations to the implementation of such prioritised inspection strategies, the results highlight the importance of national and regional studies of establishment debt.

  3. Risk Factors for Border Malaria in a Malaria Elimination Setting: A Retrospective Case-Control Study in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Wang, Jia-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for border malaria in a malaria elimination setting of Yunnan Province, China. The study comprised 214 cases and 428 controls. The controls were individually matched to the cases on the basis of residence, age, and gender. In addition, statistical associations are based on matched analyses. The frequencies of imported, male, adult, and vivax malaria cases were respectively 201 (93.9%), 194 (90.7%), 210 (98.1%), and 176 (82.2%). Overnight stay in Myanmar within the prior month was independently associated with malaria infection (odds ratio [OR] 159.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 75.1–338.9). In particular, stays in lowland and foothill (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.5–11.8) or mid-hill (OR 42.8, 95% CI 5.1–319.8) areas, or near streamlets (OR 15.3, 95% CI 4.3–55.2) or paddy field or pools (OR10.1, 95% CI 4.4–55.8) were found to be independently associated with malaria. Neither forest exposure nor use of vector control measures was associated with malaria. In conclusion, travel to lowland and foothill or mid-hill hyperendemic areas, especially along the waterside in Myanmar, was found to be the highest risk factor for malaria. In considering the limitations of the study, further investigations are needed to identify the major determinants of malaria risk and develop new strategies for malaria elimination on China-Myanmar border. PMID:25601994

  4. The Transcription Factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 Controls Border-Like Cell Release.

    PubMed

    Karve, Rucha; Suárez-Román, Frank; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S

    2016-07-01

    The root cap covers the tip of the root and functions to protect the root from environmental stress. Cells in the last layer of the root cap are known as border cells, or border-like cells (BLCs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These cells separate from the rest of the root cap and are released from its edge as a layer of living cells. BLC release is developmentally regulated, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that the transcription factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 (NLP7) is required for the proper release of BLCs in Arabidopsis. Mutations in NLP7 lead to BLCs that are released as single cells instead of an entire layer. NLP7 is highly expressed in BLCs and is activated by exposure to low pH, a condition that causes BLCs to be released as single cells. Mutations in NLP7 lead to decreased levels of cellulose and pectin. Cell wall-loosening enzymes such as CELLULASE5 (CEL5) and a pectin lyase-like gene, as well as the root cap regulators SOMBRERO and BEARSKIN1/2, are activated in nlp7-1 seedlings. Double mutant analysis revealed that the nlp7-1 phenotype depends on the expression level of CEL5 Mutations in NLP7 lead to an increase in susceptibility to a root-infecting fungal pathogen. Together, these data suggest that NLP7 controls the release of BLCs by acting through the cell wall-loosening enzyme CEL5.

  5. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  6. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester.

    PubMed

    Zelinka, Samuel L; Bourne, Keith J; Hermanson, John C; Glass, Samuel V; Costa, Adriana; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2015-10-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force-displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a mesomechanical testing system. The system consists of a quartz microprobe attached to a microforce sensor that is positioned and advanced with a micromanipulator mounted on an inverted microscope. Membrane displacement is measured from digital image analysis. Unaspirated pits from earlywood of never-dried wood of Larix and Pinus and aspirated pits from earlywood of dried wood of Larix were tested to generate force-displacement curves up to the point of membrane failure. Two failure modes were observed: rupture or tearing of the pit membrane by the microprobe tip, and the stretching of the pit membrane until the torus was forced out of the pit chamber through the pit aperture without rupture, a condition we refer to as torus prolapse.

  7. [Health control at International Borders: the role of foreign health during the containment phases of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009].

    PubMed

    Dávila Cornejo, Miguel; Aramburu Celigueta, Carmen; Morte Esteban, Susana; Vera Gil, Inmaculada; Iglesias García, Maria José; González Gutiérrez-Solana, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    As a public health strategy in responding to epidemics, sanitary checks at borders to delay the entry of the pandemic virus into Spain are part of the containment phases activities. Their implementation is the responsibility of the Foreign Health Department and requires a coordinated action with other agencies involved in the response. This paper describes the actions undertaken at international airports during these phases and evaluates its efficacy in the execution of their objective. We establish a hypothesis to explain how the measures undertaken by Foreign Health and the collaboration with the National Surveillance System may have contributed to delay the spread of the virus into our country. We want to emphasize the need for consolidating the border control surveillance system and improving collaboration, as well as the importance of designing a clear communication strategy for the population in these settings. Together these measures, along with others, will prevent situations of uncertainty.

  8. The Transcription Factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 Controls Border-Like Cell Release1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Rucha

    2016-01-01

    The root cap covers the tip of the root and functions to protect the root from environmental stress. Cells in the last layer of the root cap are known as border cells, or border-like cells (BLCs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These cells separate from the rest of the root cap and are released from its edge as a layer of living cells. BLC release is developmentally regulated, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that the transcription factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 (NLP7) is required for the proper release of BLCs in Arabidopsis. Mutations in NLP7 lead to BLCs that are released as single cells instead of an entire layer. NLP7 is highly expressed in BLCs and is activated by exposure to low pH, a condition that causes BLCs to be released as single cells. Mutations in NLP7 lead to decreased levels of cellulose and pectin. Cell wall-loosening enzymes such as CELLULASE5 (CEL5) and a pectin lyase-like gene, as well as the root cap regulators SOMBRERO and BEARSKIN1/2, are activated in nlp7-1 seedlings. Double mutant analysis revealed that the nlp7-1 phenotype depends on the expression level of CEL5. Mutations in NLP7 lead to an increase in susceptibility to a root-infecting fungal pathogen. Together, these data suggest that NLP7 controls the release of BLCs by acting through the cell wall-loosening enzyme CEL5. PMID:27221617

  9. 75 FR 19420 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0144; Wildlife Without Borders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Without Borders--Amphibians in Decline Grant Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531-43) authorizes the establishment of the Wildlife Without Borders-Amphibians in Decline grant program to fund projects that conserve the world's rapidly declining amphibian species....

  10. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  11. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  12. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  13. Internal Structure Analysis of a Tobacco Control Network on the U.S.-México Border.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Cabriales, José Alonso; Taylor, Thom; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon; Kelly, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco control (TC) networks (in which multiple agencies collaborate) are essential components within comprehensive TC efforts. The aim of this study was to assess the internal coalition outcomes hierarchy model (via the Internal Coalition Effectiveness [ICE] scale) in the present sample. Participants (members of a TC Network on the U.S.-México border; independent Waves 1 [N = 30] and 2 [N = 33; at a 1-year subsequent assessment]) completed a background questionnaire and an adapted version of the ICE scale. Mean values for ICE subscales suggested a strong enthusiasm of Network members and recognition of the importance of a cohesive social vision, employment of efficient practices, a need for improved and maintained knowledge/training, and stable social relationships among members. However, no significant differences were observed between data waves in the ICE subscales, multivariate analysis of variance: λ = .97, F(4, 43) = 0.31, p > .86. Considering a multifaceted assessment may enhance the understanding of the dynamics and strengths of the Network. Finally, including an assessment of the leadership's perspective regarding internal coalition outcome hierarchy model constructs to compare them with members' perspective is warranted.

  14. Quantifying cross-border movements and migrations for guiding the strategic planning of malaria control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying human and malaria parasite movements is important for control planning across all transmission intensities. Imported infections can reintroduce infections into areas previously free of infection, maintain ‘hotspots’ of transmission and import drug resistant strains, challenging national control programmes at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Recent analyses based on mobile phone usage data have provided valuable insights into population and likely parasite movements within countries, but these data are restricted to sub-national analyses, leaving important cross-border movements neglected. Methods National census data were used to analyse and model cross-border migration and movement, using East Africa as an example. ‘Hotspots’ of origin-specific immigrants from neighbouring countries were identified for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Populations of origin-specific migrants were compared to distance from origin country borders and population size at destination, and regression models were developed to quantify and compare differences in migration patterns. Migration data were then combined with existing spatially-referenced malaria data to compare the relative propensity for cross-border malaria movement in the region. Results The spatial patterns and processes for immigration were different between each origin and destination country pair. Hotspots of immigration, for example, were concentrated close to origin country borders for most immigrants to Tanzania, but for Kenya, a similar pattern was only seen for Tanzanian and Ugandan immigrants. Regression model fits also differed between specific migrant groups, with some migration patterns more dependent on population size at destination and distance travelled than others. With these differences between immigration patterns and processes, and heterogeneous transmission risk in East Africa and the surrounding region, propensities to import malaria infections also likely show

  15. Measuring and Modeling Stream Temperature in a Forested Ozark Border Stream: An Energy Balance Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. Studies are needed to characterize canopy energy attenuation and thus buffering of stream temperature. This is particularly the case in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature in karst terrain is not well understood. Data were collected from two intensively instrumented study sites along two stream reaches of opposing orientation in a semi-karst watershed on the border of southern Missouri’s Ozark region, USA, during the 2010 water year. Data supplied the necessary information to calculate an energy budget for each stream reach. From October 2009- July 2010, total precipitation was 110 cm as measured from a nearby reference flux tower (US DOE). Average estimated stream discharge was 0.20 m3/s in the E-W oriented reach and 0.27 m3/s in the N-S oriented reach. Average air temperature was 9.3 °C along the E-W reach and 10.0 °C along the N-S reach, while measured average incident shortwave radiation was 45.2 W/m2 along the E-W reach and 48.5 W/m2 along the N-S reach. Temporal and spatial variation in the site’s multilayered forest canopy was quantified via ceptometer and hemispherical photography. Average measured leaf area index (LAI) in April-May 2010 (ceptometer) was 1.89 within the riparian zone (n=77) and 1.48 within the canopy gap created by the stream (n=14), while average LAI from June-July was 4.04 within the riparian zone and 2.80 within the gap. Stream water latent and sensible heat exchange with the overlying air was modeled based on hourly averages of microclimate measurements taken along each reach. Average latent heat flux from the stream was -16.7 W/m2 within the E-W reach and -17.6 W/m2 within the N-S reach (negative values indicate energy loss). Average sensible heat flux from the stream was -1.34 W/m2 within the E-W reach and -2.27 W/m2 within the N-S reach

  16. Tijuana alcohol control policies: a response to cross-border high-risk drinking by young Americans.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo; Cano, Saúl; Lauer, Elizabeth; Jiménez, Avelino; Voas, Robert B; Lange, James E

    2004-06-01

    Several thousand young Americans visit the bars in Tijuana, Mexico, each weekend night, raising concerns on both sides of the border. Measures implemented in San Diego, California, and Tijuana have successfully reduced the number of American visitors to Mexican bars. Although San Diego policies have been well-documented, this is the first article on investigation of measures enacted south of the border. Information on Tijuana alcohol policies was obtained from a survey of 29-36 bars from 1997 to 1999. The Tijuana police provided data on Americans arrested in Tijuana from 1998 to 1999. Our study found alcohol regulations are poorly enforced in Tijuana, suggesting that regulatory agencies are captured by bar owners. However, such a capture may be weakening. The importance of identifying and supporting Mexican interest groups, as opposed to the bar owners, as a mechanism to impede the capture of Tijuana's regulatory agencies is discussed. The number of Americans involved in alcohol-related crimes in Tijuana sharply decreased over time. However, such a success is largely related to the success of the San Diego efforts in reducing the number of American visitors to Tijuana. Also, by demonstrating the racial/ethnic heterogeneity of American visitors to Tijuana bars, our study points out the need for prevention policies designed north of the border to take such heterogeneity into account.

  17. Tectonically controlled facies changes in the Jurassic of the northern border of the central High Atlas east of midelt (Morocco)

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptmann, M.K.; Heinetz, W.

    1988-08-01

    Jurassic carbonate sedimentation and facies changes at the northern border of the Central High Atlas mountain range east of Midelt are mainly controlled by synsedimentary tectonics which took place during the development of the Central High Atlas rift. There is no evidence of the influence of global eustatic sea level changes. During early Liassic time the carbonate facies documents an extended platform with numerous isolated mud mounds surrounded by biodetritic limestone fans. From middle Liassic to early Dogger (Aalenian) time, different kinds of mass-flow deposits coincide with the maximum extension of the Central High Atlas trough. Large-scale slide blocks, conglomerates, mud-flow and debris-flow sediments, etc, show the existence of a platform-basin border formed by a preexisting fault system acting as downthrusts during Jurassic time. A sudden diminution of the subsidence at the Aalenian-Bajocian border is indicated by nearshore carbonates (tidal flats, tidal channels). Already at middle Bajocian time red beds were deposited. From the Oligocene onward during a compressive phase most likely due to the Rif orogenesis, these faults were reactivated. As a result, the east-northeast-striking faults which oriented at right angles toward the direction of compression were transformed to inverse faults and the north-northeast-striking faults became sinistral strike-slip faults. At the fault junction, areas of higher compression were created, inducing a cleavage of the Mesozoic sediments. Whereas upfolds predominantly occur over preexisting fault zones, wide flat downfolds developed above the basement blocks.

  18. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2011-12-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the ac counting values.

  19. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Harvel, Charles; Clark, John

    2012-09-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the accounting values.

  20. Providing training and technical assistance to customs officers and border guards: An effective mechanism to improve export controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gritton, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, an increasing international concern requiring attention is illegal trafficking in nuclear and nuclear-related dual-use commodities. For the past few years, the US government, including the Department of Energy (DOE), has assisted the former Soviet Union in establishing and enhancing national export control systems. Although US assistance has been targeted to help control approved transfers, part of the focus has shifted to prevent the illegal exit of special nuclear material, dual-use items, and other nuclear-related materials. As part of a State Department initiative, a Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund (NDF) was established to address various nonproliferation concerns. One project, funded by NDF, US Customs Service (Customs), and the DOE, focuses on assisting transit countries to prevent illegal trafficking. DOE is providing technical expertise to seven countries in the Baltics and Central Europe to help identify materials, equipment, and technology that might transit their borders. Although there are many mechanisms to prevent illegal trafficking, this paper will discuss the importance of providing international customs officials and border guards with training and technical assistance on nuclear materials and nuclear-related dual-use items. More specifically, detail of the DOE training plan will be discussed.

  1. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  2. Pollution control enhanced spruce growth in the "Black Triangle" near the Czech-Polish border.

    PubMed

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Trnka, Miroslav; Štěpánek, Petr; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, Jakub; Büntgen, Ulf; Rybníček, Michal

    2015-12-15

    Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in certain areas of Central Europe have experienced substantial dieback since the 1970s. Understanding the reasons for this decline and reexamining the response of forests to acid deposition reduction remains challenging because of a lack of long and well-replicated tree-ring width chronologies. Here, spruce from a subalpine area heavily affected by acid deposition (from both sulfur and nitrogen compounds) is evaluated. Tree-ring width measurements from 98 trees between 1000 and 1350m above sea level (a.s.l.) reflected significant May-July temperature signals. Since the 1970s, acid deposition has reduced the growth-climate relationship. Efficient pollution control together with a warmer but not drier climate most likely caused the increased growth of spruce stands in this region, the so-called "Black Triangle," in the 1990s. PMID:26327638

  3. Pollution control enhanced spruce growth in the "Black Triangle" near the Czech-Polish border.

    PubMed

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Trnka, Miroslav; Štěpánek, Petr; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, Jakub; Büntgen, Ulf; Rybníček, Michal

    2015-12-15

    Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in certain areas of Central Europe have experienced substantial dieback since the 1970s. Understanding the reasons for this decline and reexamining the response of forests to acid deposition reduction remains challenging because of a lack of long and well-replicated tree-ring width chronologies. Here, spruce from a subalpine area heavily affected by acid deposition (from both sulfur and nitrogen compounds) is evaluated. Tree-ring width measurements from 98 trees between 1000 and 1350m above sea level (a.s.l.) reflected significant May-July temperature signals. Since the 1970s, acid deposition has reduced the growth-climate relationship. Efficient pollution control together with a warmer but not drier climate most likely caused the increased growth of spruce stands in this region, the so-called "Black Triangle," in the 1990s.

  4. The Hox gene Dfd controls organogenesis by shaping territorial border through regulation of basal DE-Cadherin distribution.

    PubMed

    Anais Tiberghien, Marie; Lebreton, Gaelle; Cribbs, David; Benassayag, Corinne; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-09-15

    Hox genes are highly conserved selector genes controlling tissue identity and organogenesis. Recent work indicates that Hox genes also controls cell segregation and segmental boundary in various species, however the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in this function are poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd) is required for specification and organogenesis of the adult Maxillary (Mx) palp. Here, we demonstrate that differential Dfd expression control Mx morphogenesis through the formation of a physical boundary separating the Mx field and the Peripodial Epithelium (PE). We show that this boundary relies on DE-cadherin (DE-cad) basal accumulation in Mx cells controlled by differential Dfd expression. Indeed, Dfd controls boundary formation through cell autonomous basal redistribution of DE-cad which leads to subsequent fold at the Dfd expression border. Finally, the loss of Mx DE-cad basal accumulation and hence of Mx-PE folding is sufficient to prevent Mx organogenesis thus revealing the crucial role of boundaries in organ differentiation. Altogether, these results reveal that Hox coordination of tissue morphogenesis relies on boundary fold formation through the modulation of DE-cad positioning. PMID:26206615

  5. Walking on the Borders: A Measure of Epistemic Cognition in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggioni, Liliana; VanSledright, Bruce; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors build on literature related to the development of epistemic cognition, research on historical thinking, and studies of individuals' epistemic beliefs. They designed this study to explore, develop, and test a measure of epistemic cognition in history. They administered the Beliefs about Learning and Teaching History Questionnaire to…

  6. The link between border crossing and obesity.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marisa A; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Madanat, Hala; Garcini, Luz

    2015-04-01

    Research examining border crossing and health has focused on substance abuse, healthcare utilization and air pollution. Living in border communities allows for frequent crossing and exposure to different sociocultural and structural environments. Given high rates of obesity among Latinos and the large percentage living in border communities, it is important to consider the relationship between border crossing and obesity. This study explored the relationship between frequency of border crossing, obesigenic behaviors, measured obesity, and chronic disease. Multistage sampling methods were used to recruit 397 Latino adults living in border communities in South San Diego County. Selected participants completed a face-to-face interview and height and weight measurements. More frequent border crossing was associated with more fast food consumption and a greater reported diagnosis of high cholesterol. Understanding the extent to which border crossing is associated with obesigenic behaviors and chronic disease is important for developing relevant interventions along the border.

  7. The link between border crossing and obesity.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marisa A; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Madanat, Hala; Garcini, Luz

    2015-04-01

    Research examining border crossing and health has focused on substance abuse, healthcare utilization and air pollution. Living in border communities allows for frequent crossing and exposure to different sociocultural and structural environments. Given high rates of obesity among Latinos and the large percentage living in border communities, it is important to consider the relationship between border crossing and obesity. This study explored the relationship between frequency of border crossing, obesigenic behaviors, measured obesity, and chronic disease. Multistage sampling methods were used to recruit 397 Latino adults living in border communities in South San Diego County. Selected participants completed a face-to-face interview and height and weight measurements. More frequent border crossing was associated with more fast food consumption and a greater reported diagnosis of high cholesterol. Understanding the extent to which border crossing is associated with obesigenic behaviors and chronic disease is important for developing relevant interventions along the border. PMID:24442511

  8. Border Battle.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2015-11-01

    The Texas Medical Association, the Texas Alliance for Patient Access, and other organizations ask for reversal of a court ruling that allows a Texas negligence case to proceed in New Mexico. The case is sounding alarms all over Texas' medical community, conjuring fears that if the Supreme Court upholds the application of New Mexico law, it could have a significant impact on Texas doctors who operate near the state's vast borders and treat out-of-state patients.

  9. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region - borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-04-01

    We present a regional 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region located in the North German Basin. A comprehensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a regional scale is conducted to derive both the model parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity and new heat-flow values. The latter one are used to setup the numerical lower boundary condition. Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (59 values from 24 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results (calibration and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5°C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 mW/m² higher than low values reported in some previous studies for this region. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 33 and 40 mW/m² (q1-q3; mean of 37 ± 7 mW/m²). Pronounced lateral temperature variations are caused mainly by complex geological structures, including a large amount of salt structures and marked lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments. The associated variations in rock thermal conductivity generate significant variations in model heat flow and large variations in temperature gradients. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs (e.g. Rhaetian and Middle Buntsandstein) are mainly found with temperatures within the range of 40-80°C, which is suitable for low enthalpy heating purposes in most of the area. Higher temperatures of up to 120-160°C, of interest for the production of electricity, are observed only in the very south-eastern part of the study area (Glückstadt-Graben area). In combination with the structural geological model and information on reservoir hydraulic properties, the presented temperature model will

  10. Automatic Choice of Control Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, Gayle; Hardoon, David R.; Kaski, Samuel

    In experimental design, a standard approach for distinguishing experimentally induced effects from unwanted effects is to design control measurements that differ only in terms of the former. However, in some cases, it may be problematic to design and measure controls specifically for an experiment. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of learning to choose suitable controls from a database of potential controls, which differ in their degree of relevance to the experiment. This approach is especially relevant in the field of bioinformatics where experimental studies are predominantly small-scale, while vast amounts of biological measurements are becoming increasingly available. We focus on finding controls for differential gene expression studies (case vs control) of various cancers. In this situation, the ideal control would be a healthy sample from the same tissue (the same mixture of cells as the tumor tissue), under the same conditions except for cancer-specific effects, which is almost impossible to obtain in practice. We formulate the problem of learning to choose the control in a Gaussian process classification framework, as a novel paired multitask learning problem. The similarities between the underlying set of classifiers are learned from the set of control tissue gene expression profiles.

  11. Multi-temporal InSAR measurement of interseimic motion on the eastern Tibet border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M. P.; Lasserre, C.; He, P.; de Sigoyer, J.

    2014-12-01

    We use here SAR interferometry using archived Envisat data to map the interseismic deformation of eastern Tibet. The area under study starts just South of the Haiyuan fault, crosses the eastern termination of the Kunlun fault and the bend on the XianShuiHe fault to the South. It includes the Longriba fault system, an active structure located 150 km west of the Longmen Shan front (Xu et al., 2008, Ren et al., 2013). GPS data suggest that it may accommodate a large part of the present-day relative movement (6-8 mm/yr) between the Aba block and the south China block (Thatcher, 2007, Shen et al 2005). The Longriba and the Longmen Shan faults might be linked at depth by a decollement zone or by ductile shear in the crust (Shu et al., 2008). We process three adjacent Envisat 1000 km long swaths crossing this mountainous and vegetated terrain using a small baseline strategy. The interferograms show numerous phase perturbations that mask the interseismic motion due to : (1) coherence loss, (2) stratified atmospheric delays, (3) DEM error contribution, (4) the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. We will show how we tackle these limitations and display the effect of successive corrections. Focus will first be brought to the corrections applied before filtering and unwrapping, that increase phase spatial continuity. We estimate empirically stratified atmospheric delay polynomial relationship, depending on azimuth and elevation, on wrapped interferograms. We then estimate the local DEM error for each pixel. Multi-looking and filtering are based on various measures of pixel reliability in order to increase the signal to noise ratio of filtered interferograms. Finally, unwrapping is obtained by a region growing algorithm, from the most reliable areas to the least, avoiding to cross layover areas. Time series of phase delay maps in the Longriba area are dominated by a side lobe of the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake. After its extraction and correction, principal component analysis clearly

  12. Cross-border collaboration for neglected tropical disease efforts-Lessons learned from onchocerciasis control and elimination in the Mano River Union (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Kenneth; Sodahlon, Yao; Bush, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. While in many cases the disease is found in isolated foci that fall entirely within national boundaries, the geographic scope of many affected areas crosses country borders. National river blindness programs are the responsibility of each nation's Ministry of Health, so in cross-border situations there is a need for effective country-country collaboration. Cross-border collaboration for onchocerciasis control efforts in the countries of the Mano River Basin illustrates the positive impact of a creative model, and offers lessons for expanded application for onchocerciasis elimination as well as other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and elimination programs.

  13. Cross-border collaboration for neglected tropical disease efforts-Lessons learned from onchocerciasis control and elimination in the Mano River Union (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Kenneth; Sodahlon, Yao; Bush, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. While in many cases the disease is found in isolated foci that fall entirely within national boundaries, the geographic scope of many affected areas crosses country borders. National river blindness programs are the responsibility of each nation's Ministry of Health, so in cross-border situations there is a need for effective country-country collaboration. Cross-border collaboration for onchocerciasis control efforts in the countries of the Mano River Basin illustrates the positive impact of a creative model, and offers lessons for expanded application for onchocerciasis elimination as well as other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and elimination programs. PMID:27549911

  14. New electronic measurement, control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    The electronic control device serves to measure the capacitance of the loss factor tg delta and the leakage current of tantalum and electrolytic capacitors. During the measurement of the leakage current, the capacitor can be polarized from an internal source with constant voltage regulated continuously from 0 to 100 V, or with a voltage of up to 500 V from an external source. The instrument has a system signalizing the loading state of the capacitor and a system for unloading it. The meter has two readout fields with LED display indicators: 3 and 5-digit for measuring the capacitance and the leakage current; 3-digit for measurement of tg delta and polarization intensity. The choice of the range for capacitance measurement can be done manually or from outside. The capacitance measurement is performed by the four-point technique in a serial replacement system. The meter with the corresponding interface block can operate in measurement systems according to IEC/ISP II standard.

  15. Iraq Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In an area north of the city of Al-Basrah, Iraq, which borders Iran, a former wetland has been drained and walled off. Now littered with minefields and gun emplacments, it is a staging area for military exercises. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 24, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using near-infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. Transmission Risk from Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the China–Myanmar Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Duoquan; Li, Shengguo; Cheng, Zhibin; Cotter, Chris; Hwang, Jimee; Li, Xishang; Yin, Shouqin; Wang, Jiazhi; Bai, Liang; Zheng, Zhi; Wang, Sibao

    2015-01-01

    Malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported Plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the China–Myanmar border. Malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response. PMID:26401843

  17. Cross-border malaria: a major obstacle for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Clements, Archie C A

    2015-06-01

    Movement of malaria across international borders poses a major obstacle to achieving malaria elimination in the 34 countries that have committed to this goal. In border areas, malaria prevalence is often higher than in other areas due to lower access to health services, treatment-seeking behaviour of marginalized populations that typically inhabit border areas, difficulties in deploying prevention programmes to hard-to-reach communities, often in difficult terrain, and constant movement of people across porous national boundaries. Malaria elimination in border areas will be challenging and key to addressing the challenges is strengthening of surveillance activities for rapid identification of any importation or reintroduction of malaria. This could involve taking advantage of technological advances, such as spatial decision support systems, which can be deployed to assist programme managers to carry out preventive and reactive measures, and mobile phone technology, which can be used to capture the movement of people in the border areas and likely sources of malaria importation. Additionally, joint collaboration in the prevention and control of cross-border malaria by neighbouring countries, and reinforcement of early diagnosis and prompt treatment are ways forward in addressing the problem of cross-border malaria.

  18. Identification of Novel Regulators of the JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway that Control Border Cell Migration in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Saadin, Afsoon; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed “border cells” in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg. Multiple components of the STAT signaling pathway are required during border cell specification and migration; however, the functions and identities of other potential regulators of the pathway during these processes are not yet known. To find new components of the pathway that govern cell invasiveness, we knocked down 48 predicted STAT modulators using RNAi expression in follicle cells, and assayed defective cell movement. We have shown that seven of these regulators are involved in either border cell specification or migration. Examination of the epistatic relationship between candidate genes and Stat92E reveals that the products of two genes, Protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (Ptp61F) and brahma (brm), interact with Stat92E during both border cell specification and migration. PMID:27175018

  19. Identification of Novel Regulators of the JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway that Control Border Cell Migration in the Drosophila Ovary.

    PubMed

    Saadin, Afsoon; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed "border cells" in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg. Multiple components of the STAT signaling pathway are required during border cell specification and migration; however, the functions and identities of other potential regulators of the pathway during these processes are not yet known. To find new components of the pathway that govern cell invasiveness, we knocked down 48 predicted STAT modulators using RNAi expression in follicle cells, and assayed defective cell movement. We have shown that seven of these regulators are involved in either border cell specification or migration. Examination of the epistatic relationship between candidate genes and Stat92E reveals that the products of two genes, Protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (Ptp61F) and brahma (brm), interact with Stat92E during both border cell specification and migration.

  20. Identification of Novel Regulators of the JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway that Control Border Cell Migration in the Drosophila Ovary.

    PubMed

    Saadin, Afsoon; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed "border cells" in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg. Multiple components of the STAT signaling pathway are required during border cell specification and migration; however, the functions and identities of other potential regulators of the pathway during these processes are not yet known. To find new components of the pathway that govern cell invasiveness, we knocked down 48 predicted STAT modulators using RNAi expression in follicle cells, and assayed defective cell movement. We have shown that seven of these regulators are involved in either border cell specification or migration. Examination of the epistatic relationship between candidate genes and Stat92E reveals that the products of two genes, Protein tyrosine phosphatase 61F (Ptp61F) and brahma (brm), interact with Stat92E during both border cell specification and migration. PMID:27175018

  1. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  2. Quantitative measurements of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Noel, M W

    1984-11-01

    The use of quantitative measurements for improving inventory management efficiency in hospital pharmacy is reviewed. Proper management of the pharmacy inventory affects the financial operation of the entire hospital. Problems associated with maintaining inadequate or excessive inventory investment are discussed, and the use of inventory valuation and turnover rate for assessing inventory control efficiency is described. Frequency of order placement has an important effect on inventory turnover, carrying costs, and ordering costs. Use of the ABC system of inventory classification for identifying products constituting the majority of inventory dollar investment is outlined, and the economic order value concept is explained. With increasing regulations aimed at controlling hospital costs, pharmacy managers must seek every possible means to improve efficiency. Reducing the amount of money obligated to inventory can substantially improve the financial position of the hospital without requiring a reduction in personnel or quality of service.

  3. Transportation control measure information documents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The document, sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is intended to provide information on Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) to transportation planning and air quality planning management and staff at all government levels. The document provides descriptions and examples of the TCMs listed in Section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act. Each TCM is described in terms of its objectives, variation in the ways it may be applied, expected transportation and emissions impacts, and other important implementation and policy considerations that State, regional, and local decision-making agencies will face.

  4. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... received, produced, transferred between internal control areas, on inventory, or shipped, discarded, or..., transferred between internal control areas, or on inventory that have been determined by other means to...) Calibrating measurement systems, performing bulk mass and volume measurements, conducting nondestructive...

  5. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  6. A model for international border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  7. Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-06-07

    System for managing commercial trans-border shipments via the Internet. This application assists geographically distributed commercial and governmental users with the transshipment of goods across the U.S. - Mexico border.

  8. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... measurement quality and to estimate measurement uncertainty values, the licensee shall: (1) Assign... determine significant contributors to the measurement uncertainties associated with inventory differences... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section...

  9. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... measurement quality and to estimate measurement uncertainty values, the licensee shall: (1) Assign... determine significant contributors to the measurement uncertainties associated with inventory differences... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section...

  10. Surveillance and Control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian Border Region: Differences in Egg Densities between Intervention and Non-intervention Areas

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Tobias T.; Flacio, Eleonora; Feijoó Fariña, Begoña; Engeler, Lukas; Tonolla, Mauro; Regis, Lêda N.; de Melo Santos, Maria A. V.; Müller, Pie

    2016-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus was spotted for the first time in 2003. Since then the local authorities have implemented a control programme based on larval source reduction. Despite these efforts, mosquito densities have increased over the last decade, casting doubts on the effectiveness of such larval control programmes. Methodology/Principal Findings The Italian communities just across the Swiss-Italian border lack a control programme. This motivated us to compare the intervention and the non-intervention areas side by side in an attempt to find evidence for, or against, the effectiveness of larval A. albopictus control. Using ovitraps and a randomised sampling scheme, we examined the seasonal and spatial abundance of A. albopictus in sylvatic and urban environments across the Swiss-Italian border in 2012 and 2013. In the urban environments of the non-intervention area, egg densities were 2.26 times higher as compared to the intervention area. In the sylvatic environments, as compared to the urban environments, egg densities were 36% in the intervention area and 18% in the non-intervention area. Conclusions/Significance Though alternative explanations are also valid, the results support the hypothesis that the Ticino intervention programme does have an impact. At the same time the data also suggest that current larval interventions fall short in gaining full control over the mosquito, calling for the evaluation of additional, or alternative, approaches. Ideally, these should also consider inclusion of the

  11. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  12. Status of imported malaria in a control zone of the United Arab Emirates bordering an area of unstable malaria.

    PubMed

    Dar, F K; Bayoumi, R; al Karmi, T; Shalabi, A; Beidas, F; Hussein, M M

    1993-01-01

    A concerted malaria eradication programme in the United Arab Emirates has reduced local transmission to only a very few small foci in the country. The Al Ain district is now a consolidation zone. However, transmission across the undemarcated border with Oman continues. Malaria imported by the large immigrant work force from major disease endemic areas remains a large burden. An added threat is the appearance of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum principally from Sudan and Pakistan but increasingly amongst Omani cases seen in the hospitals and clinics in Al Ain. The implications of re-introduction of malaria and the establishment of chloroquine resistance, particularly for non-immune residents and visitors, are emphasized. PMID:8296356

  13. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  14. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and home improvement stores. continue Controlling pollens and molds Another reason to avoid humidifiers is that high levels of humidity promote mold growth. If you must use a humidifier, change ...

  15. Uptake of barbituric acid derivatives in small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from retinyl palmitate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Horie, T

    2000-08-01

    Brush border membrane was prepared from the small intestinal (jejunum) cells along the crypt-villus axis. The fluorescence spectra of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid and the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in the brush border membrane vesicle suspension. The hydrophobicity of brush border membrane was found to be in the order villus tip >mid villus >lower villus. The fluidity of brush border membrane was in the order villus tip border membrane vesicles was well correlated with their partition coefficients (isopentyl acetate/water). No significant difference was observed between the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles from the villus tip and lower villus. When retinyl palmitate was administered to rats, the fluidity of brush border membrane was found to be higher in the retinyl palmitate-treated rats than in the control rats. However, no significant difference in the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles was observed between the retinyl palmitate-administered rats and the control rats. Thus, the retinyl palmitate treatment seems unlikely to affect the passively transported ligands like barbituric acid derivatives in brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:10989945

  16. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods.

  17. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  18. FIXED-SITE AIR AND BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS OF VOCS IN A NON-OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED POPULATION ALONG THE ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the NHEXAS-Border Study are to obtain environmental exposure and biomarker data for a representative population residing along the Arizona-Mexico border, and compare the distributions to similar distributions previously obtained for the state of Arizona (NHEXAS-Ari...

  19. Lack of patient risk counselling and a broader provider training affect malaria control in remote Somalia Kenya border: Qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Grigoryan, Zoya; Naderi, Ramesh; Allan, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of providing health education solely via mass media and the providers' targeted training in malaria control needs further exploration. During pre-epidemic season, we conducted a qualitative study of 40 providers and community leaders using focus groups, comprehensive semi-structured interviews and consultation observations. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed for major themes. Community leaders believe that they can acquire malaria from contaminated water, animal products, air or garbage. Consequently, they under-utilise bed nets and other protective measures due to perceived continued exposure to other potential malaria sources. Practitioners do not provide individualised health counselling and risk assessment to patients during sick visits, leading to a range of misconceptions about malaria based on limited knowledge from rumours and mass media, and a strong belief in the curative power of traditional medicine. Providers overdiagnose malaria clinically and underutilise available tests due to time constraints, and the lack of training and resources to correctly diagnose other illnesses. Subsequently, misdiagnoses lead them to question the efficacy of recommended treatments. Promoting counselling during clinical encounters to address patient misconception and change risky behaviour is warranted. Wider-ranging ongoing training could enable providers to properly diagnose and manage differential diagnoses to manage malaria better.

  20. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS.

  2. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  3. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  4. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  5. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  6. [Comparing quality measurements Part 2: control charts].

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Hauss, Armin

    2013-04-01

    Comparative quality measurements and evaluations in nursing play significant roles. Quality measures are affected by systematic and random error. Statistical Process Control (SPC) offers a method to take random variation adequately into account. In this article, control charts are introduced. Those are graphical displays to show quality measures over time. Attribute variables can be displayed by p-, u- and c-control charts. Special cause variations within the processes can be detected by rules. If signs for special cause variations are absent, the process in considered being in statistical control showing common cause variation. A deviation of one data point greater than three standard deviations from the arithmetic mean is considered the strongest signal for non random variation within the process. Within quality improvement contexts control charts outperform traditional comparisons of means and spreads. PMID:23535476

  7. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  8. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  9. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  10. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  11. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  12. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control.

  13. Cross-border collaboration in the field of highly contagious livestock diseases: a general framework for policy support.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-08-01

    This paper analyses the potential gains and the main challenges for increased cross-border collaboration in the control of highly contagious livestock diseases in regions with cross-border reliance on production and consumption of livestock commodities. The aim of this intensification of cross-border collaboration is to retain the economic advantages of cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities while maintaining a low risk of highly contagious livestock diseases. From these two foci, possibilities for future policy making with respect to highly contagious livestock diseases are discussed: peacetime cross-border cooperation to improve the cost-effectiveness of routine veterinary measures and crisis time cross-border harmonization of current disease control strategies. A general disease management framework was used to describe the way in which these two fields are related to and affect the epidemiological system and, consequently, how they impact the stakeholders. In addition to this framework, the importance of a good understanding of influencing factors, that is, the production structure of livestock, was stressed because these factors are important determinants of the frequency and magnitude of highly contagious livestock diseases and their economic impact. The use of the suggested integrated approach was illustrated for the extended cross-border region of the Netherlands and Germany, that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. For this region, current difficulties in cross-border trade in livestock and livestock commodities and possibilities for future cross-border collaboration were examined. The concepts and ideas presented in this paper should foster future development of cross-border collaboration in animal health control. PMID:23066698

  14. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  15. Bordering on environmental disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2000-01-01

    Millions of people live on the U.S.-Mexico border, drawn by employment opportunities from industry and agriculture, and booming growth is expected to continue in the coming decades. But the influx of people has long outstripped the capacity of border towns and cities to provide for their citizens, and a large percentage of the population lives in sprawling, underserviced shantytowns. Although investment in environmental infrastructure on both sides has led to improvements, shortages among necessities such as drinking water, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal are at crisis levels. In addition, a host of diseases including gastrointestinal infections, asthma, tuberculosis, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis A, neural tube defects, and lead poisoning have been linked to environmental conditions on the border. Ongoing binational studies are attempting to define the breadth of the public and environmental health crisis and find ways to help make the border a healthier place. PMID:10903625

  16. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike?

    PubMed

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité

    2010-09-01

    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  18. Association between border cell responses and localized root infection by pathogenic Aphanomyces euteiches

    PubMed Central

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Gangneux, Christophe; Lanoue, Arnaud; Giron, David; Laval, Karine; Hawes, Martha; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches causes up to 80 % crop loss in pea (Pisum sativum). Aphanomyces euteiches invades the root system leading to a complete arrest of root growth and ultimately to plant death. To date, disease control measures are limited to crop rotation and no resistant pea lines are available. The present study aims to get a deeper understanding of the early oomycete–plant interaction at the tissue and cellular levels. Methods Here, the process of root infection by A. euteiches on pea is investigated using flow cytometry and microscopic techniques. Dynamic changes in secondary metabolism are analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Key Results Root infection is initiated in the elongation zone but not in the root cap and border cells. Border-cell production is significantly enhanced in response to root inoculation with changes in their size and morphology. The stimulatory effect of A. euteiches on border-cell production is dependent on the number of oospores inoculated. Interestingly, border cells respond to pathogen challenge by increasing the synthesis of the phytoalexin pisatin. Conclusions Distinctive responses to A. euteiches inoculation occur at the root tissue level. The findings suggest that root border cells in pea are involved in local defence of the root tip against A. euteiches. Root border cells constitute a convenient quantitative model to measure the molecular and cellular basis of plant–microbe interactions. PMID:21807690

  19. Optimal control of a quantum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2014-11-01

    Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution toward a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of noncontrollable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a nonunitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a phase qubit measurement pulse. We show how this technique can lead to a large measurement contrast close to 99 % . We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 -ns pulses with 98.2 % contrast.

  20. Devices for flow measurement and control -- 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Blechinger, C.J. ); Sherif, S.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference focuses on a small aspect of technological progress, specifically on the devices for flow measurement and control. Papers have been contributed from industry, academia, and government, providing a very broad view of the state of the art and needs for improvement of research. The number of international contributions at this symposium is particularly gratifying to the organizers. There are authors from Great Britain, France, Norway, Germany, and Korea as well as from the US. This implies that flow measurement and control is a topic of significant interest to the international community. It is the editors hope that this symposium volume will serve as a reference for future exchange of ideas and as a catalyst for furthering the state of the art of flow measurement and control. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Measuring strategic control in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma

    2011-12-01

    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning.

  2. Open borders for system-on-a-chip buses: A wire format for connecting large physics controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, M.; Bär, R.; Beck, D.; Terpstra, W.; Davies, J.; Grout, V.; Lewis, J.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.

    2012-08-01

    System-on-a-chip (SoC) bus systems are typically confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. The idea behind the EtherBone (EB) protocol is to extend the reach of the SoC bus to remote field-programmable gate arrays or processors. The EtherBone core implementation connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. EB was developed in the scope of the WhiteRabbit Timing Project at CERN and GSI/FAIR. WhiteRabbit will make use of EB as a means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware.

  3. Adaptive measurement control for calorimetric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-10-01

    The performance of a calorimeter is usually evaluated by constructing a Shewhart control chart of its measurement errors for a collection of reference standards. However, Shewhart control charts were developed in a manufacturing setting where observations occur in batches. Additionally, the Shewhart control chart expects the variance of the charted variable to be known or at least well estimated from previous experimentation. For calorimetric assay, observations are collected singly in a time sequence with a (possibly) changing mean, and extensive experimentation to calculate the variance of the measurement errors is seldom feasible. These facts pose problems in constructing a control chart. In this paper, the authors propose using the mean squared successive difference to estimate the variance of measurement errors based solely on prior observations. This procedure reduces or eliminates estimation bias due to a changing mean. However, the use of this estimator requires an adjustment to the definition of the alarm and warning limits for the Shewhart control chart. The authors propose adjusted limits based on an approximate Student`s t-distribution for the measurement errors and discuss the limitations of this approximation. Suggestions for the practical implementation of this method are provided also.

  4. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation.

  5. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  6. EUREGIO MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland--a Dutch-German cross-border network for the prevention and control of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, A W; Daniels-Haardt, I; Köck, R; Verhoeven, F; Mellmann, A; Harmsen, D; van Gemert-Pijnen, J E; Becker, K; Hendrix, M G R

    2008-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Community-acquired (CA)-MRSA are a growing concern worldwide. In the last 10 years, an increase in the MRSA rate from 2% to approximately 23% has been observed in Germany, while a rate under 5% has been recorded for many years in the Netherlands and Scandinavia. In the Netherlands in particular, MRSA rates have become very low in stationary care due to a consistent 'search and destroy' policy. The main focus in Germany lies on hospital-acquired MRSA, whereas the Netherlands focus on the control of the importation of MRSA cases from abroad and on CA-MRSA. As MRSA in hospitals and in the community can be a problem in cross-border health care, the European Union-funded EUREGIO MRSA-net project was established in the bordering regions Twente/Achterhoek, the Netherlands and Münsterland, Germany. The main aim of the project is the creation of a network of the major health care providers in the EUREGIO and the surveillance and prevention of MRSA infections. A spa-typing network was established in order to understand the regional and cross-border dissemination of epidemic and potentially highly virulent MRSA genotypes. As the reduction of differences in health care quality is an important prerequisite for cross-border health care, a transborder quality group comprising hospitals, general practitioners, public health authorities, laboratories, and insurerance companies has been established since 2005 equalising the quality criteria for the control of MRSA on both sides of the border. PMID:18761882

  7. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  8. Border control! Capillary pressure / saturation relationships in a diphasic flow in a random medium: Influence of the boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Moura, Marcel; Jankov, Mihailo; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2013-04-01

    Solving problems involving biphasic flows in porous media, at a scale larger than the pore one, normally requires the use of relationships between pressure and saturation. These allow the closure of generalized Darcy flow models for two phases, commonly used in hydrology or large scale problems of diphasic flow in porous media. There are mathematical models which approximate experimental records with curve-fitting equations. The two most common models are the Brooks-Corey and van Genüchten ones, they are used to complete a system of generalized Darcy equations. The purpose of the current study is the influence of the boundary conditions on the relationship between pressure and saturation. We perform numerical simulations of drainage experiments. Water is the wetting fluid and air is the non wetting fluid. The results highlight the fact that a filter which allows only water to flow at the exit face of the system modifies both the shape of the curve and the value of the residual saturation. The pressure of the models that are commonly used does not match with the pressure of real flows since there is no filter to cross, to flow from an elementary volume to another. Experiments performed in transparent Hele-Shaw cells exhibit the same features, showing the influence of the semi permeable boundary conditions on the pressure-saturation measures obtained. This effect corresponding to the formation of localized plugging clusters at the boundaries, is obtained in slow flow conditions, and is independent of any dynamic fingering, also known to affect such relations (1,2,3). Modeling flows in open media thus would require to use the central part of the curves pressure saturation where the effect of the boundaries is the least important, or to modify properly these relationships to extract the behavior unaffected by boundaries. References: (1) Two-phase flow: structure, upscaling, and consequences for macroscopic transport properties Renaud Toussaint ; Knut Jørgen M

  9. Automated paste weight measurement and control

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, P.

    1986-08-01

    New research on paste weight control is discussed. The pasting research data was collected by both the traditional method of manually collecting samples and by continuous sensor measurement and automatic data collection. The equipment used for automatic data collection is described. The paste weight gauge measures the active material. The data are collected and stored in the operator station and printed at the printer. The digital displays show the past weight on each side of the panel. This configuration allows the pasting process to be studied in depth and at a level of detail not possible before.

  10. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  11. Driven to drink: Sin taxes near a border.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Larsen, Erling Røed; Sommervoll, Dag Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper investigates household purchasing behavior in response to differing alcohol and tobacco taxes near an international border. Our study suggests that large tax differentials near borders induce economically important tax avoidance behavior, which may limit a government's ability to raise revenue and potentially undermine important health and social policy goals. We match novel supermarket scanner and consumer expenditure data to measure the size and scope of the effect for households and stores. We find that stores near/far from the international border have statistically significantly lower/higher sales of beer and tobacco than comparable stores far/near the border. Moreover, we find that households near the border report higher consumption of these same goods. This is consistent with households facing lower prices. Finally, we find measures of externalities associated with these goods are higher near the border.

  12. Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Rick; Daniel, Alice; Batts, Frank E., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System (MCDAS) is an application program that integrates the functions of two stand-alone programs: one for acquisition of data, the other for controls. MCDAS facilitates and improves testing of complex engineering systems by helping to perform calibration and setup of test systems and acquisition, dissemination, and processing of data. Features of MCDAS include an intuitive, user-friendly graphical user interface, a capability for acquiring data at rates greater than previously possible, cooperation between the data-acquisition software subsystem and alarm-checking and analytical components of the control software subsystem, and a capability for dissemination of data through fiber optics and virtual and wide-area networks, including networks that contain hand-held display units. The integration of the data acquisition and control software offers a safety advantage by making alarm information available to the control software in a more timely manner. By enabling the use of hand-held devices, MCDAS reduces the time spent by technicians asking for screen updates to determine effects of setup actions. Previously recorded data can be processed without interruption to current acquisition of data. Analysts can continue to view test parameters while test-data files are being generated.

  13. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  14. "Over the River": Border Childhoods and Border Crossings at Niagara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helleiner, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with Canadian borderlanders, this article examines childhood experiences with the Canada--US border in the mid-1980s to early 1990s. The retrospective accounts of childhood border experiences demonstrate how childhood was produced and experienced in border crossings and how the production of childhood intersected with a…

  15. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Arel Weisberg

    2007-04-26

    ERCo has developed a laser-based technology for rapid compositional measurements of batch, real-time sorting of cullet, and in-situ measurements of molten glass. This technology, termed LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) can determine whether or not the batch was formulated accurately in order to control glass quality. It can also be used to determine if individual batch ingredients are within specifications. In the case of cullet feedstocks, the sensor can serve as part of a system to sort cullet by color and ensure that it is free of contaminants. In-situ compositional measurements of molten glass are achieved through immersing a LIBS probe directly into the melt in a glass furnace. This technology has been successfully demonstrated in ERCo’s LIBS laboratory for batch analysis, cullet sorting, and glass melt measurements. A commercial batch analyzer has been operating in a PPG fiberglass plant since August 2004. LIBS utilizes a highly concentrated laser pulse to rapidly vaporize and ionize nanograms of the material being studied. As this vapor cools, it radiates light at specific wavelengths corresponding to the elemental constituents (e.g. silicon, aluminum, iron) of the material. The strengths of the emissions correlate to the concentrations of each of the elemental constituents. By collecting the radiated light with a spectrometer capable of resolving and measuring these wavelengths, the elemental composition of the sample is found.

  16. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  17. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed Central

    Linnell, John D. C.; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Kusak, Josip; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Bischof, Richard; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures. PMID:27331878

  18. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    PubMed

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures. PMID:27331878

  19. Astronomers without borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2011-06-01

    ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

  20. Coherence in Rydberg Atoms: Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutteruf, Mary

    We demonstrate a variety of techniques for measuring and controlling dephasing and decoherence in alkali metal Rydberg atom systems. Specifically, we investigate the coherence of the spin-orbit interaction in individual atoms and of dipole-dipole resonant energy exchange between pairs of atoms. Rydberg atoms are a good model system for exploring decoherence because they are sensitive to noise in their environments. The phase coherence of wave packets encoded on the fine-structure Rydberg states of lithium atoms is measured using a population echo and preserved using pulsed and continuous dynamic decoupling techniques. Pulsed electric fields toggle the spin-orbit coupling, repeatedly flipping the state vector, and preventing the slow acquisition of phase noise in a bang-bang scheme. Continuous dynamic decoupling is implemented by driving population between the relevant electronic states with a resonant rf field. The energy spacing between the levels is locked to the rf frequency as long as the Rabi rate is much greater than the dephasing rate. We demonstrate a technique which reduces the average relative velocity between interacting potassium Rydberg atoms, extending the atom transit time and allowing us to control when all resonant energy exchange interactions in the ensemble begin and end. Velocity reduction is achieved without the use of a chopper wheel by exciting a small cylinder of atoms and allowing them to thermally expand prior to tuning them into resonance. Resonant energy transfer is explored further in a nearly frozen rubidium Rydberg gas. We observe enhancement in the transition signal when the probability amplitudes acquired on opposite sides of the resonance interfere constructively compared to the population transferred when remaining on either side of the resonance. This enhancement reflects the coherence of the energy exchange interaction and decays over 10 us microseconds. The observed coherence time is much longer than previously measured

  1. Comparative evaluation of reproducibility of peripheral tissues produced by different border molding materials in edentulous patients: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aman Kumar; Goyal, Itanshu; Sehgal, Monilka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of different materials and techniques in current use on peripheral shaping of complete denture impression. Methods: The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the maxillary border morphology produced using tissue conditioner as control and low fusing impression compound, Polyether, Pattern resin and periphery wax as border molding materials. The study was carried out on 15 denture wearer patients with well formed, rounded edentulous maxillary arch with adequate width and height. On each patient, border moldings were done, with tissue conditioner which was loaded on the borders of previous maxillary denture of the patient (control group), low fusing impression compound (Group 1), polyether (Group 2), Pattern resin (Group 3) and Peripheral wax (Group 4), respectively on special tray made for the patient. Sulcus width height and area was then measured for each group using stereomicroscope. Results and Conclusions: Based on the study it is concluded that the polyether was the best material for border molding which will give most accurate borders to a denture. PMID:26929495

  2. Simulation of Cross-border Impacts Resulting from Classical Swine Fever Epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-02-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and

  3. Simulation of Cross-border Impacts Resulting from Classical Swine Fever Epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-02-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and

  4. Formation and separation of root border cells.

    PubMed

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  6. Novel EUV mask black border and its impact on wafer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Yutaka; Fukugami, Norihito; Komizo, Toru; Watanabe, Genta; Ito, Shin; Yoshida, Itaru; Maruyama, Shingo; Kotani, Jun; Konishi, Toshio; Haraguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography is the most promising technology for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 10nm node and beyond. The EUV mask is a key element in the lithographic scanner optical path. The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (REMA) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the EUV light reflection from the image border overlaps edges of neighboring dies, affecting CD and contrast in this area. To reduce this effect an etched multilayer type black border was developed, and it was demonstrated that CD impact at the edge of a die is strongly reduced with this type of the black border (BB). However, wafer printing result still showed some CD change influenced by the black border reflection. It was proven that the CD shift was caused by DUV Out of Band (OOB) light which is emitted from EUV light source. New types of a multilayer etched BB were evaluated and showed a good potential for DUV light suppression. In this study, a novel black border called Hybrid Black Border has been developed which allows to eliminate EUV and DUV OOB light reflection. Direct measurements of OOB light from HBB and Normal BB are performed on NXE:3300B ASML EUV scanner; it is shown that HBB OOB reflection is 3x lower than that of Normal BB. Finally, we state that HBB is a promising technology allowing for CD control at die edges.

  7. Quality control algorithms for rainfall measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Claudia; Einfalt, Thomas; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs

    2005-09-01

    One of the basic requirements for a scientific use of rain data from raingauges, ground and space radars is data quality control. Rain data could be used more intensively in many fields of activity (meteorology, hydrology, etc.), if the achievable data quality could be improved. This depends on the available data quality delivered by the measuring devices and the data quality enhancement procedures. To get an overview of the existing algorithms a literature review and literature pool have been produced. The diverse algorithms have been evaluated to meet VOLTAIRE objectives and sorted in different groups. To test the chosen algorithms an algorithm pool has been established, where the software is collected. A large part of this work presented here is implemented in the scope of the EU-project VOLTAIRE ( Validati on of mu ltisensors precipit ation fields and numerical modeling in Mediter ran ean test sites).

  8. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  9. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Christopher E; Plush, Charles J; Orr, David B; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  10. TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS CROSS-BORDER AIR POLLUTION AND APPLICATION TO A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental com...

  11. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  12. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed. PMID:19708411

  13. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and shipper-receiver differences, so that if SEID exceeds the limits established in paragraph (c)(4... control system, including control charts and formal statistical procedures, designed to monitor...

  14. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  15. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  16. Mentors without Borders.

    PubMed

    Muenke, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    Mentors without Borders is a proposed international mentoring network that allows trainee geneticists to identify mentors from a list of volunteers who are not at one's own institution. It is an experiment, a matchmaker between a junior and a senior professional. These mentors do not replace the mentors at the home institution but allow the mentee, if desired, to identify mentors outside of their own institution. We envision that different ways of communicating and/or different mentor-mentee relationships may prove beneficial to the trainee and the mentor. PMID:27652276

  17. Collaborating Across Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  18. Control Measures for Human Respiratory Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lesley; Waterer, Grant

    2016-08-01

    New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics. This article reviews the lessons learnt from past experience and current knowledge on the range of measures required to limit the impact of emerging respiratory infections from public health responses down to individual patient management. Key areas of interest are surveillance programs, political limitations on our ability to respond quickly enough to emerging threats, media management, public information dissemination, infection control, prophylaxis, and individual patient management. Respiratory physicians have a crucial role to play in many of these areas and need to be aware of how to respond as new viral pathogens emerge. PMID:27486741

  19. Laser safety: Risks, hazards, and control measures

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Penny J.

    2011-01-01

    Now that laser technology has emerged from hospital operating rooms, and has become available to office practices, clinics, and private enterprises, the burden of responsibility for safety has shifted from hospital staff to the individual user, often without benefit of appropriate or adequate resources. What remains, regardless of the practice site, application, or system in use, is the constant goal of establishing and maintaining a laser safe environment for the patient, the staff, and the user, at all times. This should be the goal of all who are involved with the sale, purchase, application, and management of all medical laser systems–under all circumstances. Laser safety is EVERYONE'S concern! A laser is as safe or as hazardous as the user–and that user's knowledge and skill, defines how well laser safety is managed. Of all hazards, complacency is the most dangerous, and it is imperative to develop a risk management perspective on laser safety. Proper safety management requires a fourfold approach including: knowledge of standards, identification of hazards and risks, implementation of appropriate control measures, and consistent program audit to demonstrate quality assurance. PMID:24155518

  20. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants. PMID:27239901

  1. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants.

  2. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  6. Design and realization of controllable measuring force profilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen; Wang, Shuzhen; Chang, Suping

    2010-08-01

    In this paper the mechanical model of measuring rod of traditional stylus profilometer is established and the analysis results show that the measuring force is changed with rotation angle of the measuring rod. The impact on profile measurement of unsteady measuring force and the necessity of measuring surface of different materials with different constant measuring force are also discussed. The mechanical relations between the measuring rod and the surface are simplified by the structural change of measuring rod and a gravity center adjustment device. A voice coil motor (VCM) is added into the measuring system to control the measuring force. By adjusting the current in the coil of the VCM in real time, the measuring force can be controlled. With the controllable force, different workpieces can be measured by using different constant measuring force and the measurement results of different workpieces are given.

  7. Crossing borders for science.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Yang, Joshua SungWoo; Iwasaki, Wataru; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Jean, Angela; Michaut, Magali

    2014-03-01

    Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries.

  8. Measurement and control in quantum information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2005-03-01

    Quantum information science has a broad interface with control theory. In the region of overlap between these two thriving fields, one finds compelling problems ranging from robust and time-optimal control of quantum dynamics to the analysis and design of concatenated coding schemes. In this talk I will begin with a brief overview of recent work on applications of control theory in quantum information science, and then provide a more detailed review of my own group's research on quantum feedback control, quantum state preparation and quantum metrology.

  9. Life on the Hardened Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Granville

    2012-01-01

    The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the "hardening" of…

  10. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  11. A Microcomputer-Controlled Measurement of Acceleration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, A. Jared; Stoner, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Describes apparatus and method used to allow rapid and repeated measurement of acceleration of a ball rolling down an inclined plane. Acceleration measurements can be performed in an hour with the apparatus interfaced to a Commodore PET microcomputer. A copy of the BASIC program is available from the authors. (Author/JN)

  12. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls.

  13. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls. PMID:9581431

  14. Reevaluation of brush border motility: calcium induces core filament solation and microvillar vesiculation

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, DR; Prum, BE

    1982-01-01

    The report that microvillar cores of isolated, demembranated brush borders retract into the terminal web in the presence of Ca(++) and ATP has been widely cited as an example of Ca(++)-regulated nonmuscle cell motility. Because of recent findings that microvillar core actin filaments are cross-linked by villin which, in the presence of micromolar Ca(++), fragments actin filaments, we used the techniques of video enhanced differential interference contrast, immunofluorescence, and phase contrast microscopy and thin-section electron microscopy (EM) to reexamine the question of contraction of isolated intestinal cell brush borders. Analysis of video enhanced light microscopic images of Triton- demembranated brush borders treated with a buffered Ca(++) solution shows the cores disintegrating with the terminal web remaining intact; membranated brush borders show the microvilli to vesiculate with Ca(++). Using Ca(++)/EGTA buffers, it is found that micromolar free Ca(++) causes core filament dissolution in membranated or demembranated brush borders, Ca(++) causes microvillar core solation followed by complete vesiculation of the microvillar membrane. The lengths of microvilli cores and rootlets were measured in thin sections of membranated and demembranated controls, in Ca(++)-, Ca(++) + ATP-, and in ATP-treated brush borders. Results of these measurements show that Ca(++) alone causes the complete solation of the microvillar cores, yet the rootlets in the terminal web region remain of normal length. These results show that microvilli do not retract into the terminal web in response to Ca(++) and ATP but rather that the microvillar cores disintegrate. NBD-phallicidin localization of actin and fluorescent antibodies to myosin reveal a circumferential band of actin and myosin in mildly permeabilized cells in the region of the junctional complex. The presence of these contractile proteins in this region, where other studies have shown a circumferential band of thin filaments

  15. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) promises a new way for glass manufacturers to significantly increase productivity. By measuring the chemical makeup in raw materials and recycled glass cullet, LIBS can quickly detect contaminants and batch non...

  16. Quality control of rainfall measurements in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Claudia; Einfalt, Thomas; Michaelides, Silas Chr.

    The basic condition for using precipitation data from raingauges and radars is data quality control. This aspect is important for comparing and using rainfall data, for example in models. In the scope of the EU-project VOLTAIRE (Validation of multisensors precipitation fields and numerical modelling in Mediterranean test sites) rain data from Cyprus have been analysed. Different quality control methods have been applied to the rainfall data of 158 raingauges and the data of 11 events (in 2002 and 2003) of the C-Band radar in Kykkos. The first results of the use of ground clutter algorithms for radar data in Cyprus are presented in the paper.

  17. 33 CFR 101.410 - Control and Compliance Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Control Measures for Security § 101.410 Control and Compliance Measures. (a) The COTP may exercise authority pursuant to 33 CFR parts 6, 160 and 165, as appropriate, to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control and Compliance...

  18. 33 CFR 101.410 - Control and Compliance Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Control Measures for Security § 101.410 Control and Compliance Measures. (a) The COTP may exercise authority pursuant to 33 CFR parts 6, 160 and 165, as appropriate, to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control and Compliance...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removed control measures. 52.1890 Section 52.1890 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... measures. On the dates listed below, Ohio requested that the indicated control measures be removed from...

  20. Measurement and control of color image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Eric; Johnson, Kate; Wolin, David

    1998-12-01

    Color hardcopy output is subject to many of the same image quality concerns as monochrome hardcopy output. Line and dot quality, uniformity, halftone quality, the presence of bands, spots or deletions are just a few by both color and monochrome output. Although measurement of color requires the use of specialized instrumentation, the techniques used to assess color-dependent image quality attributes on color hardcopy output are based on many of the same techniques as those used in monochrome image quality quantification. In this paper we will be presenting several different aspects of color quality assessment in both R and D and production environments. As well as present several examples of color quality measurements that are similar to those currently being used at Hewlett-Packard to characterize color devices and to verify system performance. We will then discuss some important considerations for choosing appropriate color quality measurement equipment for use in either R and D or production environments. Finally, we will discuss the critical relationship between objective measurements and human perception.

  1. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  2. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites. PMID:22574732

  3. TOWARDS MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE BASED ON SEMIOTIC CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    C. JOSLYN

    2000-08-01

    We address the question of how to identify and measure the degree of intelligence in systems. We define the presence of intelligence as equivalent to the presence of a control relation. We contrast the distinct atomic semioic definitions of models and controls, and discuss hierarchical and anticipatory control. We conclude with a suggestion about moving towards quantitative measures of the degree of such control in systems.

  4. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  5. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  6. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  7. Geochemical Controls on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Rosemary; Prasad, Manika; Keating, Kristina

    2003-11-11

    OAK-B135 Our research objectives are to determine, through an extensive set of laboratory experiments, the effect of the specific mineralogic form of iron and the effect of the distribution of iron on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation mechanisms. In the first nine months of this project, we have refined the experimental procedures to be used in the acquisition of the laboratory NMR data; have ordered, and conducted preliminary measurements on, the sand samples to be used in the experimental work; and have revised and completed the theoretical model to use in this project. Over the next year, our focus will be on completing the first phase of the experimental work where the form and distribution of the iron in the sands in varied.

  8. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    PubMed Central

    Mwesawina, Maurice; Baluku, Yosia; Kanyanda, Setiala S. E.; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-border cholera outbreaks are a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa contributing to the high annual reported cholera cases and deaths. These outbreaks affect all categories of people and are challenging to prevent and control. This article describes lessons learnt during the cross-border cholera outbreak control in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions using the case of Uganda-DRC and Malawi-Mozambique borders and makes recommendations for future outbreak prevention and control. Materials and Methods We reviewed weekly surveillance data, outbreak response reports and documented experiences on the management of the most recent cross-border cholera outbreaks in Eastern and Southern Africa sub-regions, namely in Uganda and Malawi respectively. Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi-Mozambique borders were selected because the countries sharing these borders reported high cholera disease burden to WHO. Results A total of 603 cross-border cholera cases with 5 deaths were recorded in Malawi and Uganda in 2015. Uganda recorded 118 cases with 2 deaths and CFR of 1.7%. The under-fives and school going children were the most affected age groups contributing 24.2% and 36.4% of all patients seen along Malawi-Mozambique and Uganda-DRC borders, respectively. These outbreaks lasted for over 3 months and spread to new areas leading to 60 cases with 3 deaths, CRF of 5%, and 102 cases 0 deaths in Malawi and Uganda, respectively. Factors contributing to these outbreaks were: poor sanitation and hygiene, use of contaminated water, floods and rampant cross-border movements. The outbreak control efforts mainly involved unilateral measures implemented by only one of the affected countries. Conclusions Cross-border cholera outbreaks contribute to the high annual reported cholera burden in Sub-Saharan Africa yet they remain silent, marginalized and poorly identified by cholera actors (governments and international agencies). The under-fives and the

  9. Influenza A (H1N1-2009) pandemic in Singapore--public health control measures implemented and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Tay, Joanne; Ng, Yeuk Fan; Cutter, Jeffery L; James, Lyn

    2010-04-01

    We describe the public health control measures implemented in Singapore to limit the spread of influenza A (H1N1-2009) and mitigate its social effects. We also discuss the key learning points from this experience. Singapore's public health control measures were broadly divided into 2 phases: containment and mitigation. Containment strategies included the triage of febrile patients at frontline healthcare settings, admission and isolation of confirmed cases, mandatory Quarantine Orders (QO) for close contacts, and temperature screening at border entry points. After sustained community transmission became established, containment shifted to mitigation. Hospitals only admitted H1N1-2009 cases based on clinical indications, not for isolation. Mild cases were managed in the community. Contact tracing and QOs tapered off, and border temperature screening ended. The 5 key lessons learnt were: (1) Be prepared, but retain flexibility in implementing control measures; (2) Surveillance, good scientific information and operational research can increase a system's ability to manage risk during a public health crisis; (3) Integrated systems-level responses are essential for a coherent public health response; (4) Effective handling of manpower surges requires creative strategies; and (5) Communication must be strategic, timely, concise and clear. Singapore's effective response to the H1N1-2009 pandemic, founded on experience in managing the 2003 SARS epidemic, was a whole-of-government approach towards pandemic preparedness planning. Documenting the measures taken and lessons learnt provides a learning opportunity for both doctors and policy makers, and can help fortify Singapore's ability to respond to future major disease outbreaks.

  10. Crossing borders: HIV / AIDS and migrant communities.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The annual National Council for International Health Private Volunteer Organization (PVO)/AIDS workshop took place June 30, 1994, in Arlington, Virginia. About 90 representatives of PVOs, domestic and international nongovernmental organizations (NGO), universities, and research organizations were in attendance. Speakers presented both domestic and international perspectives upon the relationship between migration trends and HIV transmission. The keynote address spelled out the UN High Commission on Refugees' policy on HIV/AIDS: refugees are not a risk group per se, and they should benefit from the same control measures as the general host population; there will be no mandatory HIV screening in any population; and the rights of HIV-positive refugees against being deported and for asylum and eventual repatriation need to be protected. The following issues were presented at the workshop: an overview of HIV/AIDS and migration issues; STD/HIV control and prevention; HIV/AIDS among highly mobile populations along the Thailand/Myanmar border; migration trends in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; migrant farmworkers working in the US; changes in sexual practices among Mexican migrants to the US and their impact on the risk of HIV transmission; the importance of understanding the epidemiology, health-care seeking behaviors, and health beliefs of immigrants; the ability of PVOs and NGOs to provide effective HIV/AIDS prevention for refugees and migrants; the impact of political instability and civil strife on population movements and the prevalence of high-risk behaviors; and the important considerations needed for work with special target populations such as adolescents, women, mobile seasonal migrants, and urban residents.

  11. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 816.45 Section 816.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  12. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 816.45 Section 816.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  13. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 816.45 Section 816.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  14. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 816.45 Section 816.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  15. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 817.45 Section 817.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  16. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 817.45 Section 817.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  17. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 817.45 Section 817.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  18. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 817.45 Section 817.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  19. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 816.45 Section 816.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  20. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. 817.45 Section 817.45 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate...

  1. Factors That Affect Patient Attitudes toward Infection Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated patient attitudes toward different disease control measures taken in dental school clinics (n=272 patients) and private practices (n=107 patients). Variables examined included sex, age, educational background, and knowledge of infectious diseases. Patients tended to accept the control measures being used in each context. (MSE)

  2. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future. PMID:26205071

  3. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  4. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens. PMID:20345293

  5. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  6. Continuous performance measurement in flight systems. [sequential control model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.; Sloan, N. A.; Zeskind, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The desired response of many man machine control systems can be formulated as a solution to an optimal control synthesis problem where the cost index is given and the resulting optimal trajectories correspond to the desired trajectories of the man machine system. Optimal control synthesis provides the reference criteria and the significance of error information required for performance measurement. The synthesis procedure described provides a continuous performance measure (CPM) which is independent of the mechanism generating the control action. Therefore, the technique provides a meaningful method for online evaluation of man's control capability in terms of total man machine performance.

  7. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.111 Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.111 Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... designation of agency responsibility for enforcement of implementation. (b)...

  9. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  10. Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.

    PubMed

    Duftschmid, K E

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

  11. Development and validation of the RAND Asthma Control Measure.

    PubMed

    Lara, Marielena; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Eberhart, Nicole K; Stucky, Brian D; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2014-11-01

    Patient-based measures for asthma control are important in assessing the worldwide impact of this highly prevalent chronic illness. We sought to refine an asthma symptom scale that RAND had previously developed to shorten it and validate it further, as well as reflect updated international expert definitions of asthma control. We conducted rigorous psychometric testing of new and adapted self-administered survey items in a sample of 2032 adults with asthma. The reliability and preliminary validity of the resulting measure, henceforth referred to as the RAND Asthma Control Measure (RAND-ACM), matched or exceeded that of the original RAND measure and others in the literature. RAND-ACM scores for worse asthma control were significantly associated with worse asthma-related quality of life, increased asthma-related healthcare use, Hispanic ethnicity and lower educational level. Evidence for internal consistency was strong with a Cronbach's α of 0.84. We also found adequate concordance between the RAND-ACM and the Global Initiative for Asthma categories of "uncontrolled", "partly controlled" and "controlled" asthma. The RAND-ACM, a five-item self-reported asthma control survey measure, performs well in a large ethnically-diverse sample of US adults with asthma and provides a cost-free alternative to other asthma control measures currently available.

  12. Measurement of control system response using an analog operational circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    Ten basic steps are established for an analog method that measures control system response parameters. An example shows how these steps were used on a speed control portion of an auxiliary power unit. The equations and calculations necessary to describe this subsystem are given. The mechanization schematic and simulation diagram for obtaining the measured response parameters of the control system using an analog circuit are explained. Methods for investigating the various effects of the control parameters are described. It is concluded that the optimum system should be underdamped enough to be slightly oscillatory during transients.

  13. Trade transport and environment linkages at the U.S.-Mexico border: which policies matter?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Linda; Das, Monica

    2011-03-01

    We apply a fixed-effects model to examine the impact of trade and environmental policies on air quality at ports along the U.S.-Mexico border. We control for other factors influencing air quality, such as air quality of cities near the border, volume of traffic flows and congestion. Results show the air quality improved after 2004, when the diesel engine policy was applied. We see mixed results for the trade policy, whose implementation time varies across ports along the international border. Controlling for air quality in cities near the border is essential for assessing the policy contributions to air quality.

  14. Shaping the intestinal brush border

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Scott W.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells from diverse tissues, including the enterocytes that line the intestinal tract, remodel their apical surface during differentiation to form a brush border: an array of actin-supported membrane protrusions known as microvilli that increases the functional capacity of the tissue. Although our understanding of how epithelial cells assemble, stabilize, and organize apical microvilli is still developing, investigations of the biochemical and physical underpinnings of these processes suggest that cells coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling, membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linking, and extracellular adhesion to shape the apical brush border domain. PMID:25422372

  15. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  16. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  17. Analytical chemistry measurement assurance programs: More than just measurement control programs

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Shull, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Assurance of measurement accuracy and precision is required and/or recommended by regulations and guides for good laboratory practices for analytical chemistry laboratories. Measurement Control programs(MCPs) and or Measurement Assurance programs (MAPs) are means for determining and controlling the accuracy and precision of a laboratory`s measurements. Regulations and guides often allow for interpretation of what is necessary to assure measurement quality and how it is done. Consequently, a great diversity exists between laboratories` measurement quality control programs. This paper will describe various levels of measurement control(MC) and the differences between a comprehensive MAP and various levels of MCPs. It will explain the benefits of establishing a comprehensive MAP based on a set of basic principles. MCPs range from go/no-go testing of a check standard`s measurement against control limits to a comprehensive MAP. Features of the latter include: an independent verisimilitude (matrix matched) standard having known uncertainties; customer tolerance limits as well as control limits; statistical tests for bias and precision testing; and estimating the total measurement process uncertainty based upon the combination of both the measurement system and standard`s uncertainties. A commercial measurement assurance program (JTIPMAP TradeMark) was evaluated by the author`s laboratories and compared to locally developed as well as other commercial software packages. Results of the evaluation, comparisons, conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  18. Adaptive control of a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate.

  19. On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellezza, G.

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

  20. Dynamics of immigration control.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of optimal control measures for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paula; Silva, Cristiana J; Torres, Delfim F M

    2014-10-01

    We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for tuberculosis that considers reinfection. The control functions represent the fraction of early latent and persistent latent individuals that are treated. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented, for a certain time period, in order to reduce the number of active infected individuals, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. The optimal intervention is compared along different epidemiological scenarios, by varying the transmission coefficient. The impact of variation of the risk of reinfection, as a result of acquired immunity to a previous infection for treated individuals on the optimal controls and associated solutions, is analyzed. A cost-effectiveness analysis is done, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination.

  2. Discrete-time infinity control problem with measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, A. A.; Saberi, A.; Chen, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with measurement feedback. The authors extend previous results by having weaker assumptions on the system parameters. The authors also show explicitly the structure of H(sub infinity) controllers. Finally, they show that it is in certain cases possible, without loss of performance, to reduce the dynamical order of the controllers.

  3. Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, R.N.

    2000-01-04

    The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.

  4. Stabilization and feedback control of weak measurement monitored quantum oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Du Toit, Pieter; Burd, Shaun; Konrad, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We study feedback control of quantum oscillators, monitored through periodic weak measurement. By implementing reversals of measurement perturbations based on a Bayesian estimate of the state dynamics, we demonstrate suppressed measurement noise leading to greater oscillator stability and improved quantum feedback control. The work in this paper was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa through Grant No. 93602 as well as an award by the United States Airforce Office of Scientific Research, Award No. FA9550-14-1-0151.

  5. Control System Upgrade for a Mass Property Measurement Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mass Property Measurement Facility (MPMF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center has undergone modifications to ensure the safety of Flight Payloads and the measurement facility. The MPMF has been technically updated to improve reliability and increase the accuracy of the measurements. Modifications include the replacement of outdated electronics with a computer based software control system, the addition of a secondary gas supply in case of a catastrophic failure to the gas supply and a motor controlled emergency stopping feature instead of a hard stop.

  6. Measuring the development of executive control with the shape school.

    PubMed

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Bull, Rebecca; Martin, Jessica; Stroup, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Although several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders can emerge during the preschool period, there are comparatively few instruments to assess executive control. Evidence for validity of the Shape School (K. A. Espy, 1997) was examined in a sample of 219 typically developing young children. There was good evidence for validity, as Shape School performance variables were interrelated and were associated to other criterion measures considered to measure aspects of executive control. Also suggesting validity, the Shape School variables varied as a function of whether the task demands (a) were executive, (b) required inhibition of a prepotent response or context-controlled selection among relevant stimulus-response sets, and (c) included unitary or concurrent processing. The Shape School may be an effective tool by which to measure executive control in young children who have atypical developmental patterns. PMID:17154758

  7. Survey report: Potential options for the control of border agents` exposure to vehicle emissions at United States port of entry, San Ysidro, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Mead, K.R.; Heitbrink, W.A.

    1999-05-14

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a site visit in response to a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) request received from the United State Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Personal air samples were collected for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, and lead particulate matter. Personal and area air samples for lead, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons were all within acceptable occupational health criteria for full shift exposures, however, peak exposures exceeded the NIOSH recommended ceiling concentration of 200 parts per million. Based on these results, the NIOSH HHE team made several recommendations that included modifying the local exhaust ventilation systems, incorporating administrative controls, and elimination of some tasks.

  8. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  9. Border malaria in China: knowledge and use of personal protection by minority populations and implications for malaria control: a questionnaire-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Min, Xia; Hill, Nigel; Jones, Caroline; Zaixing, Zhang; Cameron, Mary M

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria control in remote, forested areas of the Mekong region relies on personal protection from mosquito bites. Uptake of these methods may be limited by knowledge of the link between mosquitoes and malaria as well as social and economic aspects. Understanding barriers to uptake will inform malaria control programmes on targets for improvement of delivery. Methods A total 748 key respondents: health providers and village heads, from 187 villages and 25 different ethnic groups, were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Differences in use of personal protection, and knowledge of malaria between groups were analysed using chi-square; and binary logistic regression used for multivariate analysis. Results Malaria knowledge was poor with 19.4% of women and 37.5% of men linking mosquitoes with malaria, although 95.6% knew one or more methods of mosquito control. Virtually all respondents used personal protection at some time during the year; and understanding of malaria transmission was strongly associated with bednet use. Those working in forest agriculture were significantly more likely to know that mosquitoes transmit malaria but this did not translate into a significantly greater likelihood of using bednets. Furthermore, use of personal protection while woing outdoors was rare, and less than 3% of respondents knew about the insecticide impregnation of bednets. The use of bednets, synthetic repellents and mosquito coils varied between ethnic groups, but was significantly more frequent among those with higher income, more years of education and permanent housing. The reported use of repellents and coils was also more common among women despite their low knowledge of malaria transmission, and low likelihood of having heard information on malaria within the last year. Conclusion The use of personal protection must be increased, particularly among outdoor workers that have higher malaria risk. However, personal protection is widely used and widely

  10. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  11. Automatic control and detector for three-terminal resistance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-10-26

    A device is provided for automatic control and detection in a three-terminal resistance measuring instrument. The invention is useful for the rapid measurement of the resistivity of various bulk material with a three-terminal electrode system. The device maintains the current through the sample at a fixed level while measuring the voltage across the sample to detect the sample resistance. The three-electrode system contacts the bulk material and the current through the sample is held constant by means of a control circuit connected to a first of the three electrodes and works in conjunction with a feedback controlled amplifier to null the voltage between the first electrode and a second electrode connected to the controlled amplifier output. An A.C. oscillator provides a source of sinusoidal reference voltage of the frequency at which the measurement is to be executed. Synchronous reference pulses for synchronous detectors in the control circuit and an output detector circuit are provided by a synchronous pulse generator. The output of the controlled amplifier circuit is sampled by an output detector circuit to develop at an output terminal thereof a D.C. voltage which is proportional to the sample resistance R. The sample resistance is that segment of the sample between the area of the first electrode and the third electrode, which is connected to ground potential.

  12. Control of the quantum open system via quantum generalized measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming; Zhu Xiaocai; Li Xingwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi

    2006-03-15

    For any specified pure state of quantum open system, we can construct a kind of quantum generalized measurement (QGM) that the state of the system after measurement will be deterministically collapsed into the specified pure state from any initial state. In other words, any pure state of quantum open system is reachable by QGM. Subsequently, whether the qubit is density matrix controllable is discussed in the case of pure dephasing. Our results reveal that combining QGM with coherent control will enhance the ability of controlling the quantum open system. Furthermore, it is found that the ability to perform QGM on the quantum open system, combined with the ability of coherence control and conditions of decoherence-free subspace, allows us to suppress quantum decoherence.

  13. Heating rate controller for thermally stimulated conductivity and thermoluminescence measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, E. G.; Littlejohn, M. A.; Oakley, E. M.; Hutchby , J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A temperature controller is described which enables the temperature of a sample mounted on a cold finger to be varied linearly with time. Heating rates between 0.5 and 10 K/min can be achieved for temperatures between 90 and 300 K. Provision for terminating the sample heating at any temperature between these extremes is available. The temperature can be held at the terminating temperature or be reduced to the starting temperature in a matter of minutes. The controller has been used for thermally stimulated conductivity measurements and should be useful for thermoluminescence measurements as well.

  14. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians need a practical, objective test of postural control that is sensitive to mild neurological disease, shows experimental and clinical validity, and has good test-retest reliability. We developed an instrumented test of postural sway (ISway) using a body-worn accelerometer to offer an objective and practical measure of postural control. Methods We conducted two separate studies with two groups of subjects. Study I: sensitivity and experimental concurrent validity. Thirteen subjects with early, untreated Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 12 age-matched control subjects (CTR) were tested in the laboratory, to compare sway from force-plate COP and inertial sensors. Study II: test-retest reliability and clinical concurrent validity. A different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated PD (tested ON medication), and 17 age-matched CTR subjects were tested in the clinic to compare clinical balance tests with sway from inertial sensors. For reliability, the sensor was removed, subjects rested for 30 min, and the protocol was repeated. Thirteen sway measures (7 time-domain, 5 frequency-domain measures, and JERK) were computed from the 2D time series acceleration (ACC) data to determine the best metrics for a clinical balance test. Results Both center of pressure (COP) and ACC measures differentiated sway between CTR and untreated PD. JERK and time-domain measures showed the best test-retest reliability (JERK ICC was 0.86 in PD and 0.87 in CTR; time-domain measures ICC ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 in PD and from 0.60 to 0.89 in CTR). JERK, all but one time-domain measure, and one frequency measure were significantly correlated with the clinical postural stability score (r ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, 0.01 < p < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, we recommend a subset of the most sensitive, reliable, and valid ISway measures to characterize posture control in PD: 1) JERK, 2) RMS amplitude and mean velocity from the time-domain measures, and 3) centroidal

  15. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Macuda, Todd; Qiu, Fangtu T.

    2005-10-01

    Single-cell recordings from macaque visual cortex have shown orientation-selective neurons in area in V2 code for border ownership [J. Neurosci. 20, 6594 (2000)]: Each piece of contrast border is represented by two pools of neurons whose relative firing rate indicates the side of border ownership. Here we show that the human visual cortex uses a similar coding scheme by demonstrating a border-ownership-contingent tilt aftereffect. The aftereffect was specific for the adapted location, indicating that the adapted neurons have small receptive fields. We conclude that figure-ground organization is represented by border-ownership-selective neurons at early stages in the human visual cortex.

  16. Passive Neutron Detection at Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Ely, James H.; Keller, Paul E.; McConn, Ronald J.

    2008-03-01

    Radiation portal monitor systems have been deployed to screen for illicit trafficking of radioactive materials at international border crossings. This report reviews some of the neutron detection requirements and capabilities of passive detection systems used for such applications. Simulations show the effects of cargo materials on neutron spectra, different detector geometries, using a large-array of neutron detectors, and the effects of backgrounds including “ship effect” neutrons.

  17. Quantum Control nd Measurement of Spins in Cold Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Spins are natural carriers of quantum information given their long coherence time and our ability to precisely control and measure them with magneto-optical fields. Spins in cold atomic gases provide a pristine environment for such quantum control and measurement, and thus this system can act as a test-bed for the development of quantum simulators. I will discuss the progress my group has made in collaboration with Prof. Jessen, University of Arizona, to develop the toolbox for this test-bed. Through its interactions with rf and microwave magnetic fields, whose waveforms are designed through optimal control techniques, we can implement arbitrary unitary control on the internal hyperfine spins of cesium atoms, a 16 dimensional Hilbert space (isomorphic to 4 qubits). Control of the collective spin of the ensemble of many atoms is performed via the mutual coupling of the atomic ensemble to a mode of the electromagnetic field that acts as a quantum data bus for entangling atoms with one another. Internal spin control can be used to enhance the entangling power of the atom-photon interface. Finally, both projective and weak-continuous measurements can be performed to tomograhically reconstruct quantum states and processes.

  18. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings.

  19. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. PMID:24798608

  20. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  1. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  2. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control. PMID:27215971

  3. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

  4. The role of root border cells in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-01

    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  5. Maintaining human health at the border of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Because international travel is now more frequent and convenient, communicable diseases that occur in one region can be transmitted to another area within a few hours. For this reason, many efforts have been undertaken in Taiwan to establish a comprehensive border quarantine system to protect against imported diseases that may threaten the health of the population. According to the International Health Regulations (2005), decades of development strategies for border quarantine have covered not only routine practices and specific measures for handling a pandemic but also have drawn attention to the development of core capacities at designated points of entry. However, as a result of the rapidly increasing number of points of entry, changes in transportation patterns, and the emergence of diseases, current border quarantine practice is being challenged to maintain human resources and the efficacy of entry screening. It is therefore critical to reexamine border quarantine strategies that will fit future needs and national conditions. This article reviews the current border health practices in Taiwan and discusses 5 key challenges to be further considered and improved. The findings can serve as a guide for further policy reform in Taiwan and other countries. PMID:25396287

  6. Measurement of workpiece temperature during welding for welding robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illegrams, P. F. A.

    MIG/MAG welding robot seam tracking system based on a symetrically noncontact temperature measurement is presented. Using literature in formation on temperature distribution during welding, a model for the prediction of the behavior of a pyrometer twin is constructed. The temperature difference between the measuring points constitutes the signal for a position control of the twin holding welding torch. As temperature measurement is made impossible by radiation originating from the welding arc, this is done during intermittent welding in time intervals in which the welding arc is switched off.

  7. Radio-controlled boat for measuring water velocities and bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej

    2016-04-01

    Radio-controlled boat named "Hi3" was designed and developed in order to facilitate water velocity and bathymetry measurements. The boat is equipped with the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 instrument that is designed for measuring open channel hydraulics (discharge and bathymetry). Usually channel cross sections measurements are performed either from a bridge or from a vessel. However, these approaches have some limitations such as performing bathymetry measurements close to the hydropower plant turbine or downstream from a hydropower plant gate where bathymetry changes are often the most extreme. Therefore, the radio-controlled boat was designed, built and tested in order overcome these limitations. The boat is made from a surf board and two additional small balance support floats. Additional floats are used to improve stability in fast flowing and turbulent parts of rivers. The boat is powered by two electric motors, steering is achieved with changing the power applied to left and right motor. Furthermore, remotely controlled boat "Hi3" can be powered in two ways, either by a gasoline electric generator or by lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are lighter, quieter, but they operation time is shorter compared to an electrical generator. With the radio-controlled boat "Hi3" we can perform measurements in potentially dangerous areas such as under the lock gates at hydroelectric power plant or near the turbine outflow. Until today, the boat "Hi3" has driven more than 200 km in lakes and rivers, performing various water speed and bathymetry measurements. Moreover, in future development the boat "Hi3" will be upgraded in order to be able to perform measurements automatically. The future plans are to develop and implement the autopilot. With this approach the user will define the route that has to be driven by the boat and the boat will drive the pre-defined route automatically. This will be possible because of the very accurate differential GPS from the Sontek River

  8. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removed control measures. 52.1890 Section 52.1890 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Administrative Code 3745-17-05 “Non-degradation Policy.” be removed from the Ohio SIP. The rule was...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removed control measures. 52.1890 Section 52.1890 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Administrative Code 3745-17-05 “Non-degradation Policy.” be removed from the Ohio SIP. The rule was...

  10. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-11-15

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes.

  11. Charge measurement and control for the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Saps; Quinn, Theodore; Keiser, G. M.; Gill, Dale; Sumner, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a technique based on photoemission for controlling the charge of the Gravity Probe B electrostatically suspended gyroscopes, and three methods for measuring this charge. Charging is caused by cosmic radiation in orbit and by enhanced field emission in ground testing. Errors induced by disturbing torques require the potential of the gyroscope to be smaller than 15 mV (15 pC) during the space experiment. The disturbing drift rate produced by measuring and controlling the charge in orbit is smaller than 10-13 deg/h, as compared with the 10-11 deg/h systematic drift rate of the gyroscope. The charge control technique is based on ultraviolet photoemission of electrons from both the gyroscope and a charge control electrode on the gyroscope housing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in ground testing and therefore its suitability for the space experiment. Calculations indicate that heating by absorbed photons is, in the worst case, smaller than 1 nW and thus not a problem for the experiment. The principal charge measurement method is based on the determination of the control effort needed to balance a force modulation applied to the suspension electrodes. This technique is insensitive to pickup from the suspension system and to gyroscope miscentering, and is independent of the gyroscope acceleration. We demonstrate that the force modulation method is suitable for charge monitoring in orbit with an accuracy equal to or better than 4 mV.

  12. Optimal Load Control via Frequency Measurement and Neighborhood Area Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, CH; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-11-01

    We propose a decentralized optimal load control scheme that provides contingency reserve in the presence of sudden generation drop. The scheme takes advantage of flexibility of frequency responsive loads and neighborhood area communication to solve an optimal load control problem that balances load and generation while minimizing end-use disutility of participating in load control. Local frequency measurements enable individual loads to estimate the total mismatch between load and generation. Neighborhood area communication helps mitigate effects of inconsistencies in the local estimates due to frequency measurement noise. Case studies show that the proposed scheme can balance load with generation and restore the frequency within seconds of time after a generation drop, even when the loads use a highly simplified power system model in their algorithms. We also investigate tradeoffs between the amount of communication and the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation-based experiments.

  13. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25395865

  14. Closed-loop snowplow applicator control using road condition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    Closed-loop control of a snowplow applicator, based on direct measurement of the road surface condition, is a valuable technology for the optimisation of winter road maintenance costs and for the protection of the environment from the negative impacts of excessive usage of de-icing chemicals. To this end, a novel friction measurement wheel is designed to provide a continuous measurement of road friction coefficient, which is, in turn, utilised to control the applicator automatically on a snowplow. It is desired that the automated snowplow applicator deploy de-icing materials right from the beginning of any slippery surface detected by the friction wheel, meaning that no portion of the slippery road surface should be left untreated behind, as the snowplow travels over it at a reasonably high speed. This paper describes the developed wheel-based measurement system, the friction estimation algorithm and the expected performance of the closed-loop applicator system. Conventional and zero velocity applicators are introduced and their hardware time delays are measured in addition to the time delay of the friction estimation algorithm. The overall performance of the closed-loop applicator control system is shown to be reliable at typical snowplowing speeds if the zero velocity applicator is used.

  15. Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

  16. Simulation study of process control by multistructure CD measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Ng, Luke K. C.; Yap, Carol

    2003-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.18 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate process control. So Advanced Process Control (APC) is going to be a must in the future deep sub-micron lithography, especially 0.18 μm and below. Successful implementation of APC into photolithography depends on how accurate we can determine exposure and defocus from in-line production wafer. Traditionally, in-line process control is based on single structure CD measurement, normally of the smallest dimension as per design. However single import is not enough to predict exposure and focus drift simultaneously. So a lot of studies were done on how to extract exposure and defocus information from in-line CD measurements. And one of these methods is to distinguish focus from energy by monitoring multi-structure CD (CDs of iso/dense, line/pillar and space/hole etc) on normal production wafer. In this paper, we will give a description of this concept. And from that we can see the advantages and drawbacks of this method. Photolithography Simulations (on Prolith) will be carried out to understand the problems we are facing to implement this method into tool matching and inline process control. Finally, we will also propose a new approach to overcome the drawbacks of this method.

  17. Temperature-controlled autocollimator with ultrahigh angular measuring precision

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Jie; Long Xingwu; Yang Kaiyong

    2005-12-15

    A temperature-controlled autocollimator with ultrahigh angular measuring precision is proposed in this article, which is different from our previous publication [J. Yuan and X. W. Long, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1362 (2003)]. The autocollimator consists of a zoom lens illuminating a charge-coupled device (CCD). This design provides a compact size and increased stability without compromising precision. Moreover, this design makes it possible to detect a target mirror with either plane reflectors or spherical reflectors. Devices for shock absorption and heat insulation were implemented to diminish external interferences. A special temperature-control system for the autocollimator is designed to control the temperature of the autocollimator. The temperature of the autocollimator fluctuates less than {+-}0.01 deg. C. The CCD camera's noise is a fatal obstacle that prevents us from achieving an ultrahigh angular measuring precision. In this article, the influence of the CCD camera's noise on the measuring resolution is analyzed theoretically in detail. Based on the analysis, some special noise-suppressing methods to eliminate the influence of the CCD camera's noise are proposed. Both the influence of the CCD camera's noise and the noise-suppressing methods have not been discussed in our previous publication [J. Yuan and X. W. Long, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1362 (2003)]. By using the methods mentioned above, the measuring precision of the autocollimator has been greatly improved and the requirements on the external condition have been greatly reduced. The method is proved to be reliable by a prototype experiment. Two-axis angular displacement can be measured simultaneously and a measuring precision of 0.005 arcsec has been achieved, which is currently the highest measuring precision in the world.

  18. A Clinical Tool to Measure Trunk Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Trunk Control Measurement Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyrman, Lieve; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat; Verheyden, Geert; De Cat, Jos; Monbaliu, Elegast; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study the psychometric properties of the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined. Twenty-six children with spastic CP (mean age 11 years 3 months, range 8-15 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n = 11, level II n = 5, level III n = 10) were included in this study. To…

  19. Measurement and Control of the Variability of Scanning Pressure Transducer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, David D.; Everhart, Joel L.; Hallissy, James B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the new wall pressure measurement system and data-quality monitoring software installed at 14x22 Ft subsonic tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The monitoring software was developed to enable measurement and control of the variability of the reference pressures and approximately 400 tunnel wall pressure measurements. Variability of the system, based upon data acquired over a year of wind tunnel tests and calibrations, is presented. The level of variation of the wall pressure measurements is shown to be predictable.

  20. ADVANCES TOWARDS THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL LHC TUNE AND CHROMATICITY

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON, P.; CUPOLO, J.; DEGEN, C.; DELLAPENNA, A.; HOFF, L.; MEAD, J.; SIKORA, R.

    2005-06-06

    Requirements for tune and chromaticity control in most superconducting hadron machines, and in particular the LHC, are stringent. In order to reach nominal operation, the LHC will almost certainly require feedback on both tune and chromaticity. Experience at RHIC has also shown that coupling control is crucial to successful tune feedback. A prototype baseband phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement system has recently been brought into operation at RHIC as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). We report on the performance of that system and compare it with the extensive accumulation of data from the RHIC 245MHz PLL.

  1. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  2. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  3. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  4. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  5. An effective technique for denture border evaluation.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, R D; DeFreest, C F

    1997-09-01

    Proper extension and adjustment of denture borders is a critical component in successful removable prosthodontic treatment. Unfortunately, commonly marketed disclosing media may not provide appropriate viscosities for the accurate assessment of denture border extensions. This article provides a technique for the mixing, unit-dose packaging, and utilization of a disclosing medium that is extremely well-suited for denture border applications. The technique employs commonly available materials and compiles with current "unit-dose" guidelines.

  6. Use of force-measuring transducers in manipulator control

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates two types of control structures for mechanical manipulators using force-measuring transducers with each type targeting specific properties of the manipulator. One approach is to measure torque in the drive train of the manipulator to increase backdrivability, sensitivity, and stiffness. The second approach is to measure the forces and torques at the wrist of the manipulator. This force/torque vector is then used in a stiffness control algorithm which resolves dissimilar kinematics and increases sensitivity. Experiments with the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) designed and built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show how drive-train torque feedback can reduce the apparent friction in a manipulator drive train resulting from friction in gear boxes, bearings, and transmission components. For robotic operation, drive-train torque feedback can yield a significantly stiffer drive train. For teleoperated systems, drive-train torque feedback translates into improved backdrivability, better sensitivity, and improved stiffness. A 6-axis, wrist-mounted force-torque sensor was used in a Cartesian stiffness control algorithm implemented on the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research Manipulator (CESARm) located at ORNL. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Measurement of a weak transition moment using Coherent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antypas, Dionysios

    We have developed a two-pathway Coherent Control technique for measurements of weak optical transition moments. We demonstrate this technique through a measurement of the transition moment of the highly-forbidden magnetic dipole transition between the 6s2S 1/21/2 and 7s2S 1/21/2 states in atomic Cesium. The experimental principle is based on a two-pathway excitation, using two phase-coherent laser fields, a fundamental field at 1079 nm and its second harmonic at 539.5 nm. The IR field induces a strong two-photon transition, while the 539.5 nm field drives a pair of weak one-photon transitions: a Stark-induced transition of controllable strength as well as the magnetic dipole transition. Observations of the interference between these transitions for different Stark-induced transition amplitudes, allow a measurement of the ratio of the magnetic dipole to the Stark-induced moment. The interference between the transitions is controlled by modulation of the phase-delay between the two optical fields. Our determination of the magnetic dipole moment is at the 0.4% level and in good agreement with previous measurements, and serves as a benchmark for our technique and apparatus. We anticipate that with further improvement of the apparatus detection sensitivity, the demonstrated scheme can be used for measurements of the very weak Parity Violation transition moment on the Cesium 6s2 S1/2→7s2 S1/2 transition.

  8. Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow metre.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Y; Lucas, G; Leeungculsatien, T

    2014-03-01

    Electromagnetic flow metres based on the principles of Faraday's laws of induction have been used successfully in many industries. The conventional electromagnetic flow metre can measure the mean liquid velocity in axisymmetric single phase flows. However, in order to achieve velocity profile measurements in single phase flows with non-uniform velocity profiles, a novel imaging electromagnetic flow metre (IEF) has been developed which is described in this paper. The novel electromagnetic flow metre which is based on the 'weight value' theory to reconstruct velocity profiles is interfaced with a 'Microrobotics VM1' microcontroller as a stand-alone unit. The work undertaken in the paper demonstrates that an imaging electromagnetic flow metre for liquid velocity profile measurement is an instrument that is highly suited for control via a microcontroller.

  9. Real-time control of sewer systems using turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Lacour, C; Schütze, M

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems has been proven useful as a means to reduce pollution by combined sewer overflow discharges. So far, RTC has been investigated mainly with a sole focus on water quantity aspects. However, as measurement techniques for pollution of wastewater are advancing, pollution-based RTC might be of increasing interest. For example, turbidity data sets from an extensive measurement programme in two Paris catchments allow a detailed investigation of the benefits of using pollution-based data for RTC. This paper exemplifies this, comparing pollution-based RTC with flow-based RTC. Results suggest that pollution-based RTC indeed has some potential, particularly when measurements of water-quality characteristics are readily available.

  10. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  11. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  12. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  13. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  14. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  15. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized.

  16. Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and diabetes complications. Nearly one in three Americans adults has high blood pressure, and the cost associated with treating this condition is staggering. The Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control is a resource developed by the American Medical Group Foundation in partnership with the American Medical Group Association. The goal of this toolkit is to mobilize health care practitioners to work together through team-based approaches to achieve an 80% control rate of high blood pressure among their patient population. The toolkit can be used by health educators, clinic administrators, physicians, students, and other clinic staff as a step-by-step resource for developing the infrastructure needed to better identify and treat individuals with high blood pressure or other chronic conditions.

  17. An appraisal of measures to prevent and control psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Farber, E M; Nall, L

    1984-03-01

    Prevention in a broad sense refers to limiting the progress of disease at any stage of its course; control refers to reduction in frequency and/or severity of a disease in a population. Measures to prevent and control psoriasis require a knowledge on behalf of both the physician and the patient to recognize genetic and environmental components in the onset and course of the disease. Triggering factors include streptococcal throat infection, injury, drugs, low humidity, and emotional stress. From a study of 102 severely affected psoriasis patients, the "Three-P Concept" for the management of psoriasis has evolved encompassing: (1) prevention of injury, (2) persistence in avoiding overtreatment, and (3) pauses or rest periods in the course of treatment with sedation, emolliation, and humidification. Educating psoriasis patients about their disease and encouraging them to take responsibility for self-care will lessen the morbidity.

  18. Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and diabetes complications. Nearly one in three Americans adults has high blood pressure, and the cost associated with treating this condition is staggering. The Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control is a resource developed by the American Medical Group Foundation in partnership with the American Medical Group Association. The goal of this toolkit is to mobilize health care practitioners to work together through team-based approaches to achieve an 80% control rate of high blood pressure among their patient population. The toolkit can be used by health educators, clinic administrators, physicians, students, and other clinic staff as a step-by-step resource for developing the infrastructure needed to better identify and treat individuals with high blood pressure or other chronic conditions. PMID:27440782

  19. Measures to Control Phlebotomus argentipes and Visceral Leishmaniasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Poché, Richard M.; Garlapati, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India. In 2005, India embarked on an initiative with Nepal, Bangladesh, and the World Health Organization to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis by 2015. With the goal of 1 case in 10,000 people still unmet, it is prudent to evaluate the tools that have been used thus far to reduce vector numbers and cases of the disease. Herein, we present a review of studies conducted on vector-control strategies in India to combat visceral leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, environmental modification, and feed-through insecticides. This review suggests that the quality of indoor residual spraying may enhance control measures while a combination of spraying, nets, and feed-through insecticides would best confront the diverse habitats of P. argentipes. PMID:27308270

  20. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  1. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  2. Teaching Orthodox Religious Education on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In geographical areas bordering those of other states, the function of educational systems, as the means for states to foster their citizens, is challenged by ambiguities and tensions connected to intercultural experiences. In this article, I illustrate some of the findings from a project that studies religious education in four border areas…

  3. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between" accommodation…

  4. Measurement and Control Systems of Tritium Facilities for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.

    2005-07-15

    The technical approach, equipment and software developed during the creation of measurement and control systems for two complexes are described. The first one is a complex that prepares the gas mixture and targets of the 'TRITON' facility. The 'TRITON' facility is designed for studying muon catalyzed fusion reactions in triple mixtures of H/D/T hydrogen isotopes over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The second one is 'ACCULINNA' - the liquid tritium target designed to investigate the neutron overloaded hydrogen and helium nuclei. These neutron-overloaded nuclei are produced in reactions of tritium beams on a heavy hydrogen and tritium target.

  5. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 3; Noise Control Measure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported herein is an extension to the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG1-2091 on the development of noise/source/path identification techniques for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft. The previous work developed a Conditioned Response Analysis (CRA) technique to identify potential noise sources that contributed to the dominating tonal responses within the aircraft cabin. The objective of the present effort was to improve and verify the findings of the CRA and develop and demonstrate noise control measures for single engine propeller driven General Aviation aircraft.

  6. The efficacy of control measures for eradicating legionellae in showers.

    PubMed

    Makin, T; Hart, C A

    1990-07-01

    The efficacy of secondary control measures on showers colonized with legionellae was assessed. Hyperchlorination of shower heads and angle valve strainers had only a short-lived effect on legionellae. Automatic drain valves fitted to showers were ineffective in maintaining a reduction in the number of legionellae in shower water. Regular flushing of showers reduced legionellae to below detectable levels. Removal of dead-legs from the feed-pipes supplying hot water to showers, resulted in a decrease in legionellae in these sites but an increase in legionellae colonizing mixer valve components. PMID:1974902

  7. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  8. Challenges in measuring medication adherence: experiences from a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kay; Mc Namara, Kevin P; George, Johnson

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of adherence is complex and many methods, both direct and indirect are used; there is no universal gold standard. In this article, we share our experiences in a randomised controlled study, the Hypertension Adherence Program in Pharmacy trial, evaluating a community pharmacy-based intervention for improving adherence to antihypertensive medication. Several objective and subjective measures of adherence (Morisky score, TABS score, MedsIndex, Medicines Possession Ratio) were used, but produced varying results, limiting confidence in the conclusions that could be drawn. Despite using a specifically designed data mining software program to identify potentially nonadherent patients from dispensing records, many participants were found to be adherent by the self reported Morisky scale. A lesson to be learned when targeting people for interventions to improve adherence is that information from dispensing records should be supplemented by other methods in order to identify patients most in need of assistance.

  9. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  10. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-06-27

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness.

  11. Post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.

    PubMed

    Ray, R C; Ravi, V

    2005-01-01

    Sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. These are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. Sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. Several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpotatoes. The most important among them are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus oryzae. The other less frequently occurring spoilage microorganisms include Cochliobolus lunatus (Curvularia lunata), Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Plenodomus destruens. Microbial spoilage of sweetpotato is found associated with decrease in starch, total sugar, organic acid (ascorbic acid and oxalic acid) contents with concomitant increase in polyphenols, ethylene, and in some instances phytoalexins. Several methods are used to control microbial spoilage. Curing to promote wound healing is found as the most suitable method to control microbial spoilage. Curing naturally occurs in tropical climates where mean day temperature during sweetpotato harvesting season (February-April) invariably remains at 32-35 degrees C and relative humidity at 80-95%. Sweetpotato varieties varied in their root dry matter content, and low root dry matter content attributed for their high curing efficiency. Curing efficiency of varieties also differed in response to curing periods. Fungicide treatment, bio-control, gamma irradiation, hydro warming, and storage in sand and saw dust were found to have intermediate impacts in controlling spoilage and enhancing shelf life of sweetpotato roots. Breeding program has to be chalked out to develop new varieties suitable to curing under tropical conditions in addition to developing varieties having multi

  12. Function of root border cells in plant health: pioneers in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Hawes, M C; Brigham, L A; Wen, F; Woo, H H; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Plants dedicate a large amount of energy to the regulated production of living cells programmed to separate from roots into the external environment. This unusual process may be worth the cost because it enables the plant to dictate which species will share its ecological niche. For example, border cells can rapidly attract and stimulate growth in some microorganisms and repel and inhibit the growth of others. Such specificity may provide a way to control the dynamics of adjacent microbial populations in the soil to foster beneficial associations and inhibit pathogenic invasion. Plant genes controlling the delivery of border cells and the expression of their unique properties provide tools to genetically engineer plants with altered border cell quality and quantity. Such variants are being used to test the hypothesis that the function of border cells is to protect plant health by controlling the ecology of the root system.

  13. Particle size measurement for the control of industrial crystallizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxman, A.

    1992-01-01

    The need for on-line sensors to monitor particulate processes is rapidly increasing. Such systems are a necessity to understand the complex phenomena of particle formation, growth, and breakage. Some aspects of the design of an on-line sensor for particle size analysis are discussed. The technique used is based on forward light scattering, which covers a size range from about 1 to 2,000 micrometers. The observations are used to develop a physical model and subsequently an effective control strategy for a 970 liter continuous crystallizer. The purpose of the controller is to manipulate the dynamics of the size distribution. Therefore, a firm relation between process inputs and outputs (i.e., the crystal size distribution) must first be established. Secondly, an intelligent interpretation of the recorded data, in this case a light scattering pattern, is required. Chapter headings include the following: Validation of Light Scattering Models for Polydisperse Particle Systems; Deconvolution Algorithm for the Recovery of Particle Size Distributions; Automated Measurement and Interpretation of Scattering Patterns; On-line Measurement of Crystal Size Distribution in Industrial Crystallizers.

  14. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  15. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  16. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Border Crossers during Temporary Enforcement of a Formal Entry Requirement for Mexican-Style Soft Cheeses, 2009†

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, AN V.; COHEN, NICOLE J.; GAO, HONGJIANG; FISHBEIN, DANIEL B.; KEIR, JANE; OCANA, J. MIGUEL; SENINI, LORI; FLORES, ALETA; WATERMAN, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego–Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.–Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement. PMID:25198849

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among border crossers during temporary enforcement of a formal entry requirement for Mexican-style soft cheeses, 2009.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Gao, Hongjiang; Fishbein, Daniel B; Keir, Jane; Ocana, J Miguel; Senini, Lori; Flores, Aleta; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-09-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego-Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among border crossers during temporary enforcement of a formal entry requirement for Mexican-style soft cheeses, 2009.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Gao, Hongjiang; Fishbein, Daniel B; Keir, Jane; Ocana, J Miguel; Senini, Lori; Flores, Aleta; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-09-01

    Mexican-style soft cheese known as queso fresco (QF), which is often unpasteurized, has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) exercises discretion in enforcement of noncommercial importation of cheese. To test control measures aimed at decreasing unlawful QF importation, in 2009 the FDA temporarily enforced a requirement for formal commercial entry for all cheeses over 5 lb (2.3 kg) at the San Diego-Tijuana border. Enforcement was combined with educational outreach. Border crossers importing cheese and those not importing cheese were surveyed at the beginning and end of the temporary enforcement period. Data collected included participant demographic information, knowledge of QF-associated health risks, and attitudes and practices regarding QF consumption and importation. We surveyed 306 importers and 381 nonimporters. Compared with nonimporters, importers had a lower level of knowledge regarding QF-associated health risks (P < 0.0001). Border crossers carrying cheese were more likely to have less education, be U.S. or dual residents, consume QF more frequently, and cross the border less often. Importation and consumption of unpasteurized QF remained prevalent among border crossers during the temporary enforcement period, and the level of knowledge regarding QF-associated risks remained low among these crossers. More vigorous, sustained messaging targeted at high-risk groups is needed to change behaviors. Definition and consistent enforcement of limits will likely be needed to reduce QF importation and the risk of QF-associated diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border; however, public health benefits will need to be balanced against the cost of enforcement. PMID:25198849

  20. Techniques to assess cross-border air pollution and application to a US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Shadwick, D S; Smith, L A; Somerville, M C; Dean, K E; Bowser, J J

    2001-08-10

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental composition, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and meteorology. Wind sector analyses of chemical tracers and diagnostic ratios, in addition to principal component analysis (PCA), were initially applied to assess cross-border and overall air shed influences. Linear-angular correlation statistics [Biometrika, 63, (1976), 403-405] and nonparametric multiple comparisons between wind sectors were computed with the particle element data using principal component scores from PCA to determine the direction of source classes. Findings suggest crustal particles and salts carried or stirred by sea breeze winds from a southerly and southeasterly direction from the Gulf of Mexico heavily influenced the elemental composition of the particulate samples. Pair-wise comparisons of wind directions for the principal component scores suggest possible oil combustion influences from utilities or boilers coming from the south and possible coal combustion influences from the north and northwest. The techniques discussed can provide a methodology to assess future ambient levels and cross-border influences in the Valley as conditions change. PMID:11516137

  1. Techniques to assess cross-border air pollution and application to a US-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, S; Shadwick, D S; Smith, L A; Somerville, M C; Dean, K E; Bowser, J J

    2001-08-10

    A year-long assessment of cross-border air pollution was conducted in the eastmost section of the US-Mexico border region, known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in South Texas. Measurements were conducted on the US side and included fine particle mass (PM2.5) and elemental composition, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and meteorology. Wind sector analyses of chemical tracers and diagnostic ratios, in addition to principal component analysis (PCA), were initially applied to assess cross-border and overall air shed influences. Linear-angular correlation statistics [Biometrika, 63, (1976), 403-405] and nonparametric multiple comparisons between wind sectors were computed with the particle element data using principal component scores from PCA to determine the direction of source classes. Findings suggest crustal particles and salts carried or stirred by sea breeze winds from a southerly and southeasterly direction from the Gulf of Mexico heavily influenced the elemental composition of the particulate samples. Pair-wise comparisons of wind directions for the principal component scores suggest possible oil combustion influences from utilities or boilers coming from the south and possible coal combustion influences from the north and northwest. The techniques discussed can provide a methodology to assess future ambient levels and cross-border influences in the Valley as conditions change.

  2. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  3. Speech intelligibility measure for vocal control of an automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Michel; Tsirigotis, Georgios

    1998-07-01

    The acceleration of investigations in Speech Recognition allows to augur, in the next future, a wide establishment of Vocal Control Systems in the production units. The communication between a human and a machine necessitates technical devices that emit, or are submitted to important noise perturbations. The vocal interface introduces a new control problem of a deterministic automaton using uncertain information. The purpose is to place exactly the automaton in a final state, ordered by voice, from an unknown initial state. The whole Speech Processing procedure, presented in this paper, has for input the temporal speech signal of a word and for output a recognised word labelled with an intelligibility index given by the recognition quality. In the first part, we present the essential psychoacoustic concepts for the automatic calculation of the loudness of a speech signal. The architecture of a Time Delay Neural Network is presented in second part where we also give the results of the recognition. The theory of the fuzzy subset, in third part, allows to extract at the same time a recognised word and its intelligibility index. In the fourth part, an Anticipatory System models the control of a Sequential Machine. A prediction phase and an updating one appear which involve data coming from the information system. A Bayesian decision strategy is used and the criterion is a weighted sum of criteria defined from information, minimum path functions and speech intelligibility measure.

  4. Substrate temperature measurement and control during thermal plasma CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Q.D.; Guo, H.; Han, Q.Y.; Heberlein, J.V.R.; Pfender, E.

    1993-09-01

    A technique is proposed for substrate temperature control, with emphasis on temperature uniformity across substrate. The technique includes a substrate holder design employing non-uniform water cooling and a means of substrate attachment featured by controlled thermal contact resistance for a given heat flux distribution from the plasma. The technique was applied to deposit diamond films over a 5 cm diameter area in a DC thermal plasma reactor, and proved adequate. Performance of single-color (0.655 {mu}m) and two-color (2.1 and 2.4 {mu}m) pyrometers were evaluated against DC thermo.] plasma radiation. It was found that both line and continuum emission of plasma jets caused large errors in temperature measurement of the single-color pyrometer. The two-color pyrometer, however, is shown to be less sensitive to the plasma radiation. The way the substrate temperature was controlled and monitored in this study is in general applicable to other TPCVD processes where intense local heating and a bright plasma background exist.

  5. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  6. Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple daily fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.

    1987-03-01

    The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple daily fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after irradiation. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of irradiation was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.

  7. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas

    SciTech Connect

    SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

    1999-08-01

    This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

  8. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility. PMID:27399701

  9. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units-IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors' signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients' mobility. PMID:27399701

  10. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-07-05

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units-IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors' signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients' mobility.

  11. Controlling Environmental Effects on Optical Measurements of Gate Dielectric Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Elisa, U.; Van Buskirk, Jonathan; Pois, Heath; Zhukov, Vladimir; Morris, Stephen; Kelso, Sue; Collings, Chris; McWhirter, Jim; Nguyen, Thierry; Ramamurthi, Saroja

    2005-09-09

    As the gate dielectric has scaled to the sub 3 nanometer regime, demands on gate dielectric thickness control have translated into the need for sub-monolayer precision on thickness measurements. While current ellipsometry techniques are capable of meeting these requirements, environmental film growth on the gate dielectric induces changes in the optical thickness of the film, yielding artificially thick results when measured. This growth is not constant, and we will discuss how both large scale and localized fluctuations of ambient parameters affect growth rates and can destabilize existing growth.In response to AMC (Airborne Molecular Contamination) layer formation, optical thickness metrology suppliers have developed a variety of techniques to remove the AMC layer from the film prior to measurement. As AMC growth rates are affected by humidity, air pressure, and air composition, each AMC desorption method must be customized for the individual properties of the gate dielectric and process environment to optimize AMC removal. Two AMC layer desorption techniques have been investigated and will be covered along with their respective strengths and complications in a production environment.

  12. Implications of the EU patients' rights directive in cross-border healthcare on the German sickness fund system.

    PubMed

    Kifmann, Mathias; Wagner, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We examine the implications of the EU directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare on the German sickness fund system. Since Germany implemented most requirements of the directive already in 2004, we first review Germany's experience with EU cross-border healthcare. We then focus on the possible effects of increased EU cross-border healthcare. While this gives patients more choice, the German sickness fund system faces a number of challenges. EU cross-border care may undermine efforts to keep healthcare expenditure under control. Cross-border care can also increase inequality of access. Furthermore, promoting cross-border care can be a means for sickness funds to attract good risks. We discuss these challenges and point out possible policy responses. PMID:24864382

  13. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  14. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp. PMID:26401787

  15. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  16. Spatial variation in contraceptive use in Bangladesh: looking beyond the borders.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sajeda; Basu, Alaka Malwade; Stephenson, Rob

    2002-05-01

    This article promotes a more complete understanding of social change by analyzing spatial patterns of contraceptive use in Bangladesh and the contiguous state of West Bengal in India. Multilevel analyses that control for variations in individual- and household-level correlates show an important role for cross-border influences only in those districts that share a common language across the border. The districts that are positive outliers in contraception hug the Bangladesh-West Bengal border. A map of outliers shows that the positive outliers form a contiguous band in a manner suggestive of a role for contagion.

  17. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    PubMed Central

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    that present to medical services for WNV testing and reported to public health officials are the most severe nueroinvasive cases. Much less is understood about the non-neuroinvasive cases with often present with non-descript symptoms. Results Vector mapping: Comparative densities of Ae. aegypti with academic partners of the Entomology and Public Health conducting a study capturing Ae. aegypti may help to enhance environmental programs. Laboratory Capacity: The laboratory training will cover conventional serological methods as well as recently FDA cleared molecular RT-PCR. Participants will include public health laboratory personnel working in molecular and serology diagnostics and other binational partners. Surveillance: A convenient seroprevalence study at sentinel-hospital site of symptomatic patients presenting in Arizona border hospital sites will be performed to better understand circulating levels of arboviral infections. Conclusions Appropriate and timely response to surveillance data is the key to identification human and animal disease associated with WNV, DENV, and other arboviruses. The mosquito vector Ae. aegypti is well established widespread and thriving in Arizona yet there is no autochthonous transmission of DENV identified to date. The results from this study will identify gaps and potential prevention and control measures for emerging infectious diseases including WNV and DENV in Arizona.

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  19. Temperature Controlled Vessel for Equation of State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Ted D.; Gehr, Russell J.; Stahl, David B.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Robbins, David L.

    2002-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a vessel capable of heating and cooling hazardous samples used in the laser-driven miniflyer experiments. For cooling, either liquid or gaseous nitrogen may be used. For heating, an electric element is used. The accessible temperature range is -100 degC to 300 degC. O-ring containment seals in the inner containment vessel establish temperature limits. The outer level of containment uses copper gaskets and commercial vacuum components. The vessel may be operated with a gas atmosphere or a vacuum. Temperature is monitored using two thermocouples, one on the heater and one on the inner containment vessel. A controller module monitors one thermocouple to reach and maintain the desired temperature. Using this vessel we can perform equation of state or spall strength measurements on hazardous materials in different phases or near solid-solid or solid-liquid phase transitions. Initial data taken with this system will be presented.

  20. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  1. Measurement-induced control with a nondestructive quantum gas microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Minwoo; Madjarov, Ivaylo S.; Rabinowitz, Jacob; Wellner, Zoe; Chen, Huiyao Y.; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    The physics of ultracold lattice gases has expanded from understanding Hubbard models to a much broader set of questions of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics, quantum thermodynamics, manybody entanglement, etc. These studies are increasingly being enabled by the advent of quantum gas microscopy, i.e. acquiring in-situ real space information, that is gaining prominence as a very powerful technique to study lattice gases. Nonetheless, the realization of fascinating correlated manybody states requires prohibitively low temperatures and entropies, far below what can be accessed through conventional evaporative cooling. The combination of quantum gas microscopy and measurement based quantum control offers an alternate route to state preparation of lattice gases in regimes of strong correlations. In this poster, we present our ongoing work on using site resolved imaging for the preparation of correlated manybody phases. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics.

  2. Nonintrusive Monitoring and Control of Metallurgical Processes by Acoustic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ling; Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Barati, Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of developing a new online monitoring technique based on the characteristic acoustic response of gas bubbles in a liquid has been investigated. The method is intended to monitor the chemistry of the liquid through its relation to the bubble sound frequency. A low-temperature model consisting of water and alcohol mixtures was established, and the frequency of bubbles rising under varying concentrations of methanol was measured. It was shown that the frequency of the sound created by bubble pulsation varies with the percentage of alcohol in water. The frequency drops sharply with the increase in methanol content up to 20 wt pct, after which the decreases is gradual. Surface tension seems to be a critical liquid property affecting the sound frequency through its two-fold effects on the bubble size and the pulsation domain. The dependence between the frequency and the liquid composition suggests the feasibility of developing an acoustic-based technique for process control purposes.

  3. Feasibility Analysis of Developing Cross-border Network Education in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jun

    In the era of economic globalization, strengthen of international cooperation on network education is a general trend. Although China has not made commitments about the market access and national treatment of cross-border supply in Schedule of Specific Commitments on Services, the basic conditions of network education development in China have been met. The Chinese government should formulate strategies for the development of cross-border network education and take relevant measures to implement them. In the near future, the carrying out of cross-border network education in China will become an irreversible trend, and will possess broad prospect with the advance of globalization of Chinese education.

  4. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  5. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  6. The impact of the EU Directive on patients' rights and cross border health care in Malta.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Aluttis, Christoph; Sorensen, Kristine; Pace, Roderick; Brand, Helmut

    2015-10-01

    The patients' rights and cross-border health care directive was implemented in Malta in 2013. Malta's transposition of the directive used the discretionary elements allowable to retain national control on cross-border care to the fullest extent. This paper seeks to analyse the underlying dynamics of this directive on the Maltese health care system through the lens of key health system stakeholders. Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews reveals six key themes: fear from the potential impact of increased patient mobility, strategies employed for damage control, opportunities exploited for health system reform, moderate enhancement of patients' rights, negligible additional patient mobility and unforeseen health system reforms. The findings indicate that local stakeholders expected the directive to have significant negative effects and adopted measures to minimise these effects. In practice the directive has not affected patient mobility in Malta in the first months following its implementation. Government appears to have instrumentalised the implementation of the directive to implement certain reforms including legislation on patients' rights, a health benefits package and compulsory indemnity insurance. Whilst the Maltese geo-demographic situation precludes automatic generalisation of the conclusions from this case study to other Member States, the findings serve to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which European legislation on health services is influencing health systems, particularly in small EU Member States.

  7. Transportation control measure: State Implementation Plan guidance (revised final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, D.S.; Deakin, E.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Morris, R.E.; Ireson, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    The document has been developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency to summarize current knowledge about transportation control measures (TCMs). The target audience includes transportation and air quality management staff at all government levels. The guidance development effort is motivated by the need to provide post-1987 guidance to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The document provides descriptions and examples of the most frequently implemented TCMs; institutional guidance such as assessing feasibility, agency responsibilities, and funding; and techniques for monitoring and enforcing TCMs. In addition, the document describes the tools available for evaluating TCM impacts on hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide emissions. Appendices present approaches to estimate TCM effects on PM-10 emissions; important sources of additional information; implementation experiences in various cities; and rules of thumb to quantitatively evaluate TCM transportation system effects. The information presented demonstrates that there have been significant advances in TCM development over the past decade, and that TCMs are appropriate control options for state implementation plans.

  8. Fluidic Control of Nozzle Flow: Some Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federspiel, John; Bangert, Linda; Wing, David; Hawkes, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental program that investigated the use of a secondary air stream to control the amount of flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle. These static tests utilized high pressure, ambient temperature air that was injected at the throat of the nozzle through an annular slot. Multiple injection slot sizes and injection angles were tested. The introduction of secondary flow was made in an opposing direction to the primary flow and the resulting flow field caused the primary stream to react as though the physical throat size had been reduced. The percentage reduction in primary flow rate was generally about twice the injected flow rate. The most effective throttling was achieved by injecting through the smallest slot in an orientation most nearly opposed to the approaching primary flow. Thrust edliciency, as measured by changes in nozzle thrust coefficient, was highest at high nozzle pressure ratios, NPR. The static test results agreed with predictions obtained prior from PABSD, a fully viscous computational fluid dynamics program. Since use of such an injection system on gas turbine engine exhaust nozzles would be primarily at high NPRs, it was concluded that fluidic control holds promise for reducing nozzle weight and complexity on future systems.

  9. Ambient-controlled scanning spreading resistance microscopy measurement and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu; Suo, Zhiyong; Fillmore, David; Lu, Shifeng; Jeff Hu, Y.; McTeer, Allen

    2013-12-01

    An ambient-controlled scanning spreading resistance microscopy (AC-SSRM) apparatus is utilized for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional doping profiling measurement. 1D SSRM profiling on a blanket (vertical) B-doped Si wafer is conducted to obtain a spreading resistance profile SR(x). Modeling is used to convert SR(x) to carrier profile n(x). Replacing the average mobility (μ) with a calibration using μ(x), the carrier (hole) profile n(x) is more accurate. This is especially pronounced near the surface and junction depth (xj) and is consistent with the continuous anodic oxidation technique/differential Hall effect (CAOT/DHE) measured carrier profiles. The model based on AC-SSRM data obtained xj = 103.4 nm, which was consistent to secondary ion mass spectrometry results of xj = 104.0 nm. Calibrated hole dose using μ(x) is 9.6 × 1014/cm2 and is relatively closer to DHE hole dose 1.4 × 1015/cm2. In addition, a fairly good consistency of sheet resistance (RS) values among 4 point probe (4PP), CAOT/DHE, and AC-SSRM methods has been demonstrated.

  10. Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Gladysz, S.; Almeida de Sá Barros, R.; Matt, S.; Nootz, G. A.; Josset, D. B.; Hou, W.

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam propagation underwater is becoming an important research topic because of high demand for its potential applications. Namely, ability to image underwater at long distances is highly desired for scientific and military purposes, including submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Optical communication in the ocean can provide covert data transmission with much higher rates than that available with acoustic techniques, and it is now desired for certain military and scientific applications that involve sending large quantities of data. Unfortunately underwater environment presents serious challenges for propagation of laser beams. Even in clean ocean water, the extinction due to absorption and scattering theoretically limit the useful range to few attenuation lengths. However, extending the laser light propagation range to the theoretical limit leads to significant beam distortions due to optical underwater turbulence. Experiments show that the magnitude of the distortions that are caused by water temperature and salinity fluctuations can significantly exceed the magnitude of the beam distortions due to atmospheric turbulence even for relatively short propagation distances. We are presenting direct measurements of optical underwater turbulence in controlled conditions of laboratory water tank using two separate techniques involving wavefront sensor and LED array. These independent approaches will enable development of underwater turbulence power spectrum model based directly on the spatial domain measurements and will lead to accurate predictions of underwater beam propagation.

  11. Aeroacoustic and wake measurements on a rotating controlled diffusion blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudi, Behdad

    Aeroacoustic and hot-wire wake measurements have been made for Rotating Controlled Diffusion Blades (RCDBs) configured as a 3 and a 9 blade axial fan. Six cases were identified for the three blade configuration based on its performance curve. Also, six cases corresponding to 6 distinct operating conditions: i) an attached flow, ii) a slightly separated flow, iii) deeply separated flow and three cases in the stall region have been selected for the nine blade configuration. These were examined using a detailed data acquisition program. The detailed results include the wake flow patterns and the associated noise radiation. Turbulence intensities and phase averaged velocity magnitudes have been obtained in the downstream region of the fan to represent the basic flow features for each defined case. A beamforming technique has been utilized to properly measure the radiated sound pressure level (SPL) created by the axial fan. Self-noise signatures of the propagated sound (auto-spectral density), corresponding to the defined cases, have been obtained in the range of 200-8000 Hz. Acoustic data and their links to: i) the physics of the flows, ii) aerodynamic loading and iii) fan rotational speed are presented. A semi-empirical model for trailing edge noise (a portion of the axial fan self-noise) was examined. Wake data (mean velocity and turbulence intensity downstream from the fan blades) were used as experimental inputs to these models. The experimental acoustic data and the semi-empirical results have been compared.

  12. Low frequency motion measurement and control of spacecrafts and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical application of the Watt-linkage for the development and implementation of mono-axial sensors aimed to low frequency motion measurement and control of spacecrafts and satellites. The basic component of these sensors is the one dimensional UNISA Folded Pendulum mechanical sensor, developed for ground-based applications, whose unique features are due to a very effective optimization of the effects of gravitational force on the folded pendulum mechanical components, that allowed the design and implementation of FP sensors compact (< 20 cm), light (< 300 g), scalable, tunable resonance frequency < 200mHz), with large band (10-6 Hz - 100Hz), high quality factor (Q > 15000 in vacuum at 1Hz), with good immunity to environmental noises and sensitivity, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout, and fully adaptable to the specific requirements of the application. In this paper we show how to extend the application of ground-based FP also to space, in absence of gravity, still keeping all the above interesting features and characteristics that make this class of sensors very effective in terms of large band, especially in the low frequency, sensitivity and long term reliability. Preliminary measurements on a prototype confirm the feasibility, showing also that very good performances can be relatively easily obtained.

  13. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-12-31

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency.

  14. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc.

    PubMed

    Blok, J

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  15. Transboundry air pollution along the United States - Mexico Border

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Data from the four border state agencies in the United States (Arizona Department of Health Services, California Air Resources Board, New Mexico Health and Environment Department and Texas Air Control Board) plus the Subsecretaria de Mejoramiento Del Ambiente and its successor Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia in Mexico have been gathered for the past 20 years. In addition, county and city agencies in the United States plus universities in both countries have contributed data for various periods of time. These data are stored in a data bank at the University of Texas at El Paso and updated periodically. This paper is a distillation of the above data. Transfrontier air pollution has been documented only in El Paso/Cd. Juarez and San Diego/Tijuana along the southern border of the united states. Health effects have been documented only in El Paso/Cd. Juarez.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Border Collie dog.

    PubMed

    Wu, An-Quan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Li-Li; Chen, Long; Yang, Tong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Border Collie dog is one of the famous breed of dog. In the present work we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Border Collie dog for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,730 bp with the base composition of 31.6% for A, 28.7% for T, 25.5% for C, and 14.2% for G and an A-T (60.3%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of dogs.

  17. Stage-dependent border cell and carbon flow from roots to rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Odell, Ryan E; Dumlao, Matthew R; Samar, Danial; Silk, Wendy K

    2008-04-01

    Rising CO(2) levels in the atmosphere have drawn attention to the important role of soil in sequestering carbon. This project goal was to quantify soil carbon deposition associated with border cell release and exudation from root growth zones. Carbon was measured with a Carlo Erba C/N analyzer in soil from the rhizosphere of mature grasses and, in separate experiments, in soil collected around root growth zones. Root border cells in "rhizosphere soil" (silica sand) were counted using a compound microscope after soil sonication and extraction with surfactant. For sand-grown Bromus carinatus, Zea mays, and Cucumis sativus, young seedlings (with roots shorter than 2 cm) released thousands of border cells, while older root tips released only hundreds. For a variety of native annual and perennial grasses and invasive annual grasses (Nassella pulchra, B. carinatus, B. diandrus, B. hordeaceus, Vulpia microstachys, Aegilops triuncialis, Lolium multiflorum, Zea mays), the rhizosphere of mature root systems contained between 18 and 32 μg C g(-1) sand more than that of the unplanted controls. Spatial analysis of the rhizosphere around the cucumber growth zone confirmed C enrichment there. The root tip provided C to the rhizosphere: 4.6 μg C in front of the growing tip, with the largest deposition, 20.4 μg C, to the rhizosphere surrounding the apical 3 mm (root cap/meristem). These numbers from laboratory studies represent the maximum C that might be released during flooding in soils. Scaling up from the organ scale to the field requires a growth analysis to quantify root tip distributions in space and time.

  18. Temperature Controlled Vessel for Equation of State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Ted D.; Gehr, Russell J.; Stahl, David B.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Robbins, David L.

    2001-06-01

    We have designed and constructed a vessel capable of heating and cooling hazardous samples used in the laser-driven miniflyer experiments. For cooling, either liquid or gaseous nitrogen may be used. For heating, an electric element is used. The accessible temperature range is -100° C to 300° C. O-ring containment seals in the internal sample container establish temperature limits. The last level of containment uses copper gaskets and commercial vacuum components. The vessel may be operated with a gas atmosphere or a vacuum. Temperature is monitored using two thermocouples, one on the heater and one on the sample container. A controller module monitors one thermocouple to reach and maintain the desired temperature. Using this vessel we can perform equation of state or spall strength measurements on hazardous materials in different phases or near solid-solid or solid-liquid phase transitions. Initial data taken with this system will be presented. This work was supported by the DOE Enhanced Surveillance Campaign through contract DE-AC04-76-DP00613.

  19. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  20. Does the Presence of Detached Root Border Cells of Zea mays Alter the Activity of the Pathogenic Nematode Meloidogyne incognita?

    PubMed

    Rodger, S; Bengough, A G; Griffiths, B S; Stubbs, V; Young, I M

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is a major pathogen of a range of important crops. Currently, control is typically achieved by the use of nematicides. However, recent work suggests that manipulating the ability of roots to slough off border cells, which then act as a decoy to the nematode, can significantly decrease damage to the roots. We investigated the attractiveness of border cells to M. incognita and the response of the nematode to border cells in close proximity. We found very limited attraction, in that nematodes did not preferentially alter direction to move toward the border cells, but a large and significant increase in nematode speed was observed once they were in the immediate vicinity of border cells. We discuss the results in the context of physical and biological mechanisms in relation to the control of pathogenic nematodes.

  1. Immune Complex Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Due to Autoantibodies to the Proximal Tubule Brush Border.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Ivy A; Collins, A Bernard; do Carmo, Paula Alves S; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Smith, R Neal; Colvin, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Immune complex tubulointerstitial nephritis due to antibodies to brush border antigens of the proximal tubule has been demonstrated experimentally and rarely in humans. Our patient developed ESRD and early recurrence after transplantation. IgG and C3 deposits were conspicuous in the tubular basement membrane of proximal tubules, corresponding to deposits observed by electron microscopy. Rare subepithelial deposits were found in the glomeruli. The patient had no evidence of SLE and had normal complement levels. Serum samples from the patient reacted with the brush border of normal human kidney, in contrast with the negative results with 20 control serum samples. Preliminary characterization of the brush border target antigen excluded megalin, CD10, and maltase. We postulate that antibodies to brush border antigens cause direct epithelial injury, accumulate in the tubular basement membrane, and elicit an interstitial inflammatory response.

  2. [Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].

    PubMed

    Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole.

  3. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  4. Working in Canada or the United States: perceptions of canadian nurses living in a border community.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sheila; Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Rajacich, Dale; Freeman, Michelle

    2010-09-01

    Recruitment and retention of registered nurses is a critical issue facing nursing leaders. Global shortages of nurses have been projected over the next decade. This study used the theoretical framework of push and pull factors to identify influences on nurses' decision to select work in either their home community or a cross-border community, when that opportunity was available to them. Registered nurses living along the southwest border of Ontario were identified with the assistance of the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO) and surveyed to determine the factors that influenced their decision to work in Canada or the United States, as well as their intent to remain in their current workplace. Measures included demographic information, reasons for selection of employment, and work environment factors relating to nurses' jobs, work relationships, scheduling/staffing, workload and attachment to their current place of employment. MANCOVA was used to examine differences between the two groups controlling for age, organizational tenure and employment status. Full-time employment was the greatest push factor identified by RNs, and nurses working in the United States were also more satisfied with the pull factors of development opportunities, relationships with physicians and supervisors, and scheduling congruence. Recommendations for recruitment and retention are discussed.

  5. Interception of spray drift by border structures. Part 1: wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    De Schampheleire, M; Nuyttens, D; Dekeyser, D; Verboven, P; Cornelis, W; Gabriels, D; Spanoghe, P

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the drift-intercepting potential of structures surrounding the field borders, like artificial screens and crops, which are not yet a part of the drift mitigation measures for field crop sprayers in Belgium. Drift-interception experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the International Centre for Eremology (Ghent University, Belgium) with various interception structures: Artificial screens with heights of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 m and screen open areas of 16, 36 and 63%; a row of plastic Christmas trees with heights of 0.5 and 0.75 m; and a potato canopy. The interception structure was positioned at 1 m from the field border. From the results it was found that type of border structure has a pronounced effect on the drift interception, while the height of the border structure had no significant effect.

  6. Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

    2007-02-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection.

  7. Border collision route to quasiperiodicity: Numerical investigation and experimental confirmation.

    PubMed

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, Somnath; Mohanan, Srijith; Banerjee, Soumitro

    2006-06-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed curve, there may be transitions between an ergodic torus and a resonance torus, but the mechanism of creation for the resonance tongues is distinctly different from that observed in smooth maps. The transition from a stable focus point to a resonance torus may lead directly to a new focus of higher periodicity, e.g., a period-5 focus. This article also contains a discussion of torus destruction via a homoclinic bifurcation in the piecewise-linear normal map. Using a dc-dc converter with two-level control as an example, we report the first experimental verification of the direct transition to quasiperiodicity through a border-collision bifurcation.

  8. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. PMID:25454637

  9. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's.

  10. Material Control and Accountability Measurements for FB-Line Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-12-03

    This report provides an overview of FB-Line processes and nuclear material accountability measurements. Flow diagrams for the product, waste, and packaging and stabilization processes are given along with the accountability measurements done before and after each of these processes. Brief descriptions of these measurements are provided. This information provides a better understanding of the general FB-Line processes and how MC and A measurements are used to keep track of the accountable material inventory.

  11. Measurement of performance using acceleration control and pulse control in simulated spacecraft docking operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Nine commercial airline pilots served as test subjects in a study to compare acceleration control with pulse control in simulated spacecraft maneuvers. Simulated remote dockings of an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) to a space station were initiated from 50, 100, and 150 meters along the station's -V-bar (minus velocity vector). All unsuccessful missions were reflown. Five way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) with one between factor, first mode, and four within factors (mode, bloch, range, and trial) were performed on the data. Recorded performance measures included mission duration and fuel consumption along each of the three coordinate axes. Mission duration was lower with pulse mode, while delta V (fuel consumption) was lower with acceleration mode. Subjects used more fuel to travel faster with pulse mode than with acceleration mode. Mission duration, delta V, X delta V, Y delta V., and Z delta V all increased with range. Subjects commanded the OMV to 'fly' at faster rates from further distances. These higher average velocities were paid for with increased fuel consumption. Asymmetrical transfer was found in that the mode transitions could not be predicted solely from the mission duration main effect. More testing is advised to understand the manual control aspects of spaceflight maneuvers better.

  12. Network communities within and across borders

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  13. Network communities within and across borders.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  14. Network communities within and across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index.

  15. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, N. W.; Mackenzie, A.; Honey, I. D.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm-1 ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10-5 mm2 (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm-1, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm-1, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm-1 for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and gave an in

  16. Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of Microjets Can we eliminate/minimize flow separation? Is the flow unsteadiness reduced? Guidelines for an active control Search for an appropriate sensor. Examine for means to develop a flow model for identifying the state of flow over the surface Guidelines toward future development of a Simple and Robust control methodology

  17. Measuring Joint Stimulus Control by Complex Graph/Description Correspondences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Spear, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Joint stimulus control occurs when responding is determined by the correspondence of elements of a complex sample and a complex comparison stimulus. In academic settings, joint stimulus control of behavior would be evidenced by the selection of an accurate description of a complex graph in which each element of a graph corresponded to particular…

  18. Species-dependent effects of border cell and root tip exudates on nematode behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Schmitt, M; Hawes, M C

    2000-11-01

    ABSTRACT Effects of border cell and root tip exudates on root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) behavior were examined. In whole-plant assays using pea, M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) accumulated rapidly around the 1- to 2-mm apical region ensheathed by border cells, but not in the region of elongation. Within 15 to 30 min, J2 which had accumulated within detached clumps of border cells lost motility and entered into a quiescent state. When border cells (and associated root tip exudates) were washed from pea roots prior to challenge with nematodes, no such accumulation and quiescence was induced. Attraction of nematodes by roots was species dependent: no attraction or accumulation occurred in snap bean. Using a quantitative assay, three categories of chemotaxis responses occurred: attraction (pea and alfalfa cv. Thor), repulsion (alfalfa cv. Moapa 69), and no response (snap bean and alfalfa cv. Lahonton). In contrast, total root tip exudates from all three plant species acted as a repellent for M. incognita in the sand assay. An in vitro assay was developed to characterize the induced quiescence response. When total root tip exudate from the tested legumes (as well as corn) was incubated with J2 populations, >80% of the nematodes lost motility. A similar response occurred in Caenorhabditis elegans. Border cell exudates did not induce or contribute to the induction of quiescence. Cocultivation of pea border cells with M. incognita resulted in changes in border cell shape similar to those observed in response to exogenous plant hormones. No such changes occurred in snap bean border cells. Understanding the cell- and host-specific extracellular recognition that occurs between roots and pathogenic nematodes in the early stages before infection occurs could lead to new avenues for disease control.

  19. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  20. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... approved VSP. These additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of... operations to deter unauthorized access; (4) Limiting the number of access points to the vessel by...

  1. Measuring and controlling the transport of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jason R.

    increases with pore diameter. We find that fluxes are faster in aqueous solutions than in hexane, which is attributed to the hydrophilic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. The impact of an applied magnetic flux gradient, which induces magnetization and motion, on permeation is also examined. Surface chemistry plays an important role in determining flux through porous media such as in the environment. Diffusive flux of nanoparticles through alkylsilane modified porous alumina is measured as a model for understanding transport in porous media of differing surface chemistries. Experiments are performed as a function of particle size, pore diameter, attached hydrocarbon chain length and chain terminus, and solvent. Particle fluxes are monitored by the change in absorbance of the solution in the receiving side of a diffusion cell. In general, flux increases when the membranes are modified with alkylsilanes compared to untreated membranes, which is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the porous membranes and differences in wettability. We find that flux decreases, in both hexane and aqueous solutions, when the hydrocarbon chain lining the interior pore wall increases in length. The rate and selectivity of transport across these membranes is related to the partition coefficient (Kp) and the diffusion coefficient (D) of the permeating species. By conducting experiments as a function of initial particle concentration, we find that KpD increases with increasing particle size, is greater in alkylsilane--modified pores, and larger in hexane solution than water. The impact of the alkylsilane terminus (--CH3, --Br, --NH2, --COOH) on permeation in water is also examined. In water, the highest KpD is observed when the membranes are modified with carboxylic acid terminated silanes and lowest with amine terminated silanes as a result of electrostatic effects during translocation. Finally, the manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles for the controlled formation

  2. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  3. Pleural pressure from abdominal to pulmonary rib cage: sweep of the lung border.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, E; Zocchi, L; Agostoni, P G; Macklem, P T

    1989-01-01

    Pleural pressure was measured by a capsule placed in the superior part of right 8th or 9th intercostal space of dogs in left lateral posture. Transit of lung border was observed through endothoracic fascia at sides of the capsule. During inspiration the capsule membrane faced sequentially: diaphragm, lung border, lung; vice versa during expiration. Pressure on the diaphragm at end expiration was -5.3 +/- 0.5 cm H2O, reflecting outward recoil of the rib cage. At transit of lung border during inspiration (bor. I) a marked negative pressure spike occurred; a smaller spike occurred at expiratory transit (bor. E). These spikes should reflect pleural liquid pressure at lung border. At bor. I lung volume and radial displacement of rib 9 or 10 were greater during active than passive ventilation, whereas at bor. E they were similar under both conditions. Hence, during spontaneous inspiration displacement of lung border lags behind lung and rib expansion. Speed of lung border (assessed from duration of negative spike) ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 cm/sec during spontaneous breathing. On average it was similar at bor. I and bor. E, while air flow was greater at bor. I.

  4. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  5. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California–Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other’s best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed “California Border Health Collaborative” unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the “Collaborative.” This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in “Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health.” PMID:26075195

  6. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  7. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  8. Comparative analysis of the retention of maxillary denture base with and without border molding using zinc oxide eugenol impression paste

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Simrat; Datta, Kusum; Gupta, S. K.; Suman, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of border molding on the retention of the maxillary denture base. Materials and Methods: Two special trays, one with full extensions to the periphery and one 2 mm short from the borders were made on the cast obtained from the preliminary impression. Border molding was done on the tray which was short from borders. On both trays, the final impression was made with zinc oxide eugenol impression paste. Heat cure denture bases were fabricated on the prepared casts and retention was measured using specially designed instrument. Observations and Results: Mean force with border molding (2765.0 g) was larger than mean force without border molding (1805.0 g) at P < 0.01 level. In terms of percentage, too, the mean improvement (59.4%) in force of dislodgement was statistically highly significant (i.e. P < 0.01). Clinical Significance: The results of the present study suggest that the dentures made with border molding will provide better retentive force than the dentures made without border molding. PMID:27134447

  9. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Hannah M.; Canavati, Sara E.; Rang, Chandary; Ly, Po; Sovannaroth, Siv; Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Menard, Didier; Ashton, Ruth A.; Meek, Sylvia R.; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2015-01-01

    Background Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR) parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling. Methods and Findings A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached) were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%). Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%), 55 P. falciparum (31.6%), two P. malariae (1.1%) and 20 mixed infections (11.5%). Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5%) had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%). Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon) also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases. Conclusions This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted “customised” interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in

  10. Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Definitions of methods of measurements of supporting and control surface areas are presented. Methods for measuring the supporting surface, i.e., the wing area, and the control surfaces, i.e., the horizontal tail area, the vertical tail area, and the trailing control surface areas are defined. Illustrations of each of the areas are included.

  11. A voice coil motor based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengdong; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Liangzhou; Zhou, Liping; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    In tactile scanning profiler, the measuring force would change in a wide range when it was used for profile measurement in a large range, which could possibly destroy the measured surface. To solve the problem, measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was needed. In the paper, a voice coil motor-based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was designed. In the design, a low stiffness coefficient spring was used to provide contact force, while a voice coil motor (VCM) to balance the spring force so that the contact force could be kept for constant measuring force. A VCM was designed specially, and for active measuring force control, a precision current source circuit under the control of a DSP unit was designed to drive the VCM. The performance of voice coil motor based measuring force control system had been tested, and its good characteristics were verified.

  12. Border disease virus among chamois, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005-2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001.

  13. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  14. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16 Border...) Minnesota—Grand Portage, International Falls, Minneapolis-St. Paul; (7) Montana—Raymond, Sweetgrass; (8)...

  15. Collaborative community conservation along the border

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Janos grasslands are part of the Sky Islands, a unique region of more than 40 isolated mountain ridges surrounded by dry grasslands that straddles the México/Arizona/New Mexico border. It is one of America’s great hotspots for wildlife diversity. It is a transition zone between the Chihuahuan Deser...

  16. Cultural allies: creating allegiances across borders.

    PubMed

    Canales, M

    1998-03-01

    Culture brokerage, as a nursing intervention, is a strategy that is intended to assist nurses to "bridge" the gap between the orthodox health care system and the health belief systems of clients and their families who are from "different" cultures. However, this intervention often reinforces and solidifies borders, rather than expanding or eliminating them. Culture brokerage will be examined against social constructions of "borders", "Others", and the power relationships that influence these constructions. Fein's (1979) "universe of obligation" will provide the framework for a critique of the culture brokerage intervention. This paper argues that culture brokerage maintains existing borders by ignoring the power differentials that exist between the nurse and the client. Reconceptualizing the nurse as cultural ally begins the process of bringing all clients into the universe of obligation. The nurse, as cultural ally, recognizes the differences that exist between the nurse and the client, and asks each to examine how their different lives and experiences are connected. It is through this nurse-client allegiance that borders can be crossed and meaningful relationships created. PMID:10481642

  17. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  18. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  19. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  20. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  1. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  2. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  3. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  4. Acculturation Tendencies in a Border Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Robert; Vincent, Vern; Wang, Lin; Villas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify variables distinguishing more acculturated versus less acculturated Latinos residing near the United States-Mexico border. The study sample consisted of 438 participants ranging in age from 20 to 68 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of items assessing acculturation,…

  5. 40 CFR 52.1890 - Removed control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxides of nitrogen from combustion sources and nitric acid plants. This action was preceded by a negative declaration regarding nitric acid plants dated April 11, 1994, and rule approvals (NOX SIP Call, NSPS, budget... plan controlling nitrogen oxide emissions from stationary sources in the State. The request...

  6. 40 CFR 49.143 - Construction and operational control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tanks subject to and controlled under the requirements specified in 40 CFR part 60, subpart OOOO are... to a utility flare or a pit flare capable of reducing the mass content of VOC in the natural gas... gas gathering pipeline system for sale or other beneficial purpose; or (ii) A utility flare...

  7. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  8. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... with the individual's claim of loss or theft. (3) If an individual cannot present his or her TWIC for... approved Facility Security Plan (FSP) the frequency of application of any access controls, particularly...

  9. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  10. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  11. 10 CFR 72.164 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.164 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to ensure that tools, gauges... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 72.164 Section...

  12. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.125 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section...

  13. 10 CFR 72.164 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.164 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to ensure that tools, gauges... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 72.164 Section...

  14. 10 CFR 72.164 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.164 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to ensure that tools, gauges... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 72.164 Section...

  15. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.125 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section...

  16. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.125 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section...

  17. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.125 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 71.125 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.125 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to assure that tools, gauges, instruments, and... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 71.125 Section...

  19. 10 CFR 72.164 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.164 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to ensure that tools, gauges... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 72.164 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 72.164 - Control of measuring and test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.164 Control of measuring and test equipment. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to ensure that tools, gauges... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of measuring and test equipment. 72.164 Section...

  1. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  2. Control of experimental uncertainties in filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forkey, Joseph N.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.

    1995-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering is a technique which allows for measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure in unseeded flows, spatially resolved in 2-dimensions. We present an overview of the major components of a Filtered Rayleigh Scattering system. In particular, we develop and discuss a detailed theoretical model along with associated model parameters and related uncertainties. Based on this model, we then present experimental results for ambient room air and for a Mach 2 free jet, including spatially resolved measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure.

  3. Pathogenesis of mucosal injury in the blind loop syndrome. Brush border enzyme activity and glycoprotein degradation.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A; Flanagan, P R; Forstner, G G

    1977-12-01

    The effect of intestinal bacterial over-growth on brush border hydrolases and brush border glycoproteins was studied in nonoperated control rats, control rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-emptying blind loops, and rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-filling blind loops. Data were analyzed from blind loop segments, segments above and below the blind loops, and three corresponding segments in the nonoperated controls. Rats with self-filling blind loops had significantly greater fat excretion than controls and exhibited significantly lower conjugated:free bile salt ratios in all three segments. Maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates and isolated brush borders from the self-filling blind loop, but alkaline phosphatase was not affected. The relative degradation rate of homogenate and brush border glycoproteins was assessed by a double-isotope technique involving the injection of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine 3 h and d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine 19 h before sacrifice, and recorded as a (3)H:(14)C ratio. The relative degradation rate in both homogenate and brush border fractions was significantly greater in most segments from rats with self-filling blind loops. In the upper and blind loop segments from rats with self-filling blind loops, the (3)H:(14)C ratios were higher in the brush border membrane than in the corresponding homogenates, indicating that the increased rates of degradation primarily involve membrane glycoproteins. Incorporation of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine by brush border glycoproteins was not reduced in rats with self-filling blind loops, suggesting that glycoprotein synthesis was not affected. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of brush border glycoproteins from the contaminated segments indicated that the large molecular weight glycoproteins, which include many of the surface hydrolases, were degraded most rapidly. Brush border maltase, isolated by immunoprecipitation, had (3)H:(14)C ratios characteristic of

  4. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets the... inspections and screening of people and their personal effects; and (11) Respond to the presence of... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of screening of people...

  5. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 49 CFR 1572.19(f); (ii) The individual can present another identification credential that meets the... inspections and screening of people and their personal effects; and (11) Respond to the presence of... additional security measures may include: (1) Increasing the frequency and detail of screening of people...

  6. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  7. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... unescorted access to secure areas for a period of no longer than 7 consecutive calendar days if: (i) The... paragraph (d) of this section. (5) Deny or revoke a person's authorization to be on the facility if...

  8. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  9. Border bias: the belief that state borders can protect against disasters.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arul; Mishra, Himanshu

    2010-11-01

    In this research, we documented a bias in which people underestimate the potential risk of a disaster to a target location when the disaster spreads from a different state, but not when it spreads from an equally distant location within the same state. We term this the border bias. Following research on categorization, we propose that people consider locations within a state to be part of the same superordinate category, but consider locations in two different states to be parts of different superordinate categories. The border bias occurs because people apply state-based categorization to events that are not governed by human-made boundaries. Such categorization results in state borders being considered physical barriers that can keep disasters at bay. We demonstrated the border bias for different types of disasters (earthquake, environmental risk) and tested the underlying process in three studies.

  10. Border bias: the belief that state borders can protect against disasters.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arul; Mishra, Himanshu

    2010-11-01

    In this research, we documented a bias in which people underestimate the potential risk of a disaster to a target location when the disaster spreads from a different state, but not when it spreads from an equally distant location within the same state. We term this the border bias. Following research on categorization, we propose that people consider locations within a state to be part of the same superordinate category, but consider locations in two different states to be parts of different superordinate categories. The border bias occurs because people apply state-based categorization to events that are not governed by human-made boundaries. Such categorization results in state borders being considered physical barriers that can keep disasters at bay. We demonstrated the border bias for different types of disasters (earthquake, environmental risk) and tested the underlying process in three studies. PMID:20943938

  11. Thermal measurements and control of a lightweight mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, W.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments to measure thermal time constants and temperature distributions on a simulated large mirror blank under various ventilating conditions are described. The blank was a single cast square cell honeycomb sandwich-type constructed of Pyrex-Tempax glass, and measured 60 cm in diameter and 30 cm thick. The experimental set-up is described, including the blank, the ventilation system, the thermometers, the anemometer, and the computer. Ventilation was found to reduce the mirror's thermal time constant by a factor of three, the temperature within the blank by a factor of nine, and the temperature difference between the blank and the ambient air by a factor of seven. The highest ventilation flow was 21 ft/sec, with an air volume of about 7000 cu ft/min. It is concluded that, from the thermal and economical point of view, a casted light-weight Pyrex mirror appears to be an attractive candidate for the reflector of future large telescopes.

  12. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  13. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  14. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  15. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  16. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  17. Controlling and Measuring Electrochemical Processes at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, Albert Leonard

    New applications for electrochemistry require an improved ability to characterize and influence processes at the nanoscale. For instance, the ability to create controllable nanostructures in a scalable manner can enable the wide use of nanotechnology. Furthermore, batteries that are used in electric vehicles and other mobile applications need to be lighter, safer and last longer. The performance of batteries is often controlled by nanoscale phenomena such as the breakdown of the electrolyte into a solid electrolyte interphase layer (SEI). In this thesis, a variety of techniques are discussed that address these deficiencies in our abilities to understand and control nanoscale phenomena. In particular, the use of nanosphere lithography to pattern thin films of aluminum prior to anodization is described, which allows for nearly arbitrary control of the pore size, interpore spacing and aspect ratio. Next, the ability to enhance the lithiation capacity of crystalline SiC via high temperature graphitization is explored. In particular, it is shown that if the SiC is doped and has the native oxide removed that the lithiation capacity of the SiC can be approximately double that of graphite. Characterization of nanoscale electrochemical phenomena can be performed by a wide variety of in situ and ex situ techniques. For instance, the same graphitized SiC can be exploited as a model system that mimics the basal planes of graphite, which is amenable to in situ X-ray characterization. By this method crystalline and textured LiF was found to grow on this surface during cycling along with other amorphous solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components. Scanning probe microscopy can also be employed to study Li-ion battery electrodes and the formation of SEI. In particular, the development of scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) as a technique for mapping both the topography and local ion current is examined. The application of SICM to study the inhibition of SEI formation via

  18. ESCRTs breach the nuclear border.

    PubMed

    Webster, Brant M; Lusk, C Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are best known for their role in sorting ubiquitylated membrane proteins into endosomes. The most ancient component of the ESCRT machinery is ESCRT-III, which is capable of oligomerizing into a helical filament that drives the invagination and scission of membranes aided by the AAA ATPase, Vps4, in several additional subcellular contexts. Our recent study broadens the work of ESCRT-III by identifying its role in a quality control pathway at the nuclear envelope (NE) that ensures the normal biogenesis of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Here, we will elaborate on how we envision this mechanism to progress and incorporate ESCRT-III into an emerging model of nuclear pore formation. Moreover, we speculate there are additional roles for the ESCRT-III machinery at the NE that broadly function to ensure its integrity and the maintenance of the nuclear compartment.

  19. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  20. Influenza A H5N1 Immigration Is Filtered Out at Some International Borders

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Robert G.; Fitch, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Geographic spread of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1, the bird flu strain, appears a necessary condition for accelerating the evolution of a related human-to-human infection. As H5N1 spreads the virus diversifies in response to the variety of socioecological environments encountered, increasing the chance a human infection emerges. Genetic phylogenies have for the most part provided only qualitative evidence that localities differ in H5N1 diversity. For the first time H5N1 variation is quantified across geographic space. Methodology and Principal Findings We constructed a statistical phylogeography of 481 H5N1 hemagglutinin genetic sequences from samples collected across 28 Eurasian and African localities through 2006. The MigraPhyla protocol showed southern China was a source of multiple H5N1 strains. Nested clade analysis indicated H5N1 was widely dispersed across southern China by both limited dispersal and long distance colonization. The UniFrac metric, a measure of shared phylogenetic history, grouped H5N1 from Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and Vietnam with those from southeastern Chinese provinces engaged in intensive international trade. Finally, H5N1's accumulative phylogenetic diversity was greatest in southern China and declined beyond. The gradient was interrupted by areas of greater and lesser phylogenetic dispersion, indicating H5N1 migration was restricted at some geopolitical borders. Thailand and Vietnam, just south of China, showed significant phylogenetic clustering, suggesting newly invasive H5N1 strains have been repeatedly filtered out at their northern borders even as both countries suffered recurring outbreaks of endemic strains. In contrast, Japan, while successful in controlling outbreaks, has been subjected to multiple introductions of the virus. Conclusions The analysis demonstrates phylogenies can provide local health officials with more than hypotheses about relatedness. Pathogen dispersal, the functional relationships among

  1. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  2. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  3. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NHEXAS-ARIZONA BORDER STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NHEXAS-Arizona Border Study employed a population based probability design to recruit a representative cohort residing within 40 Km of the US-Mexico Border in Arizona. As an extension of the NHEXAS Arizona statewide survey, the border study was designed to determine the dis...

  4. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement AGENCY: Office of Personnel..., to reflect changes in the retirement benefits available to customs and border protection officers... annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers employed by the United States Department...

  5. Evaluation of control measures for black carpenter ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Tripp, J M; Suiter, D R; Bennett, G W; Klotz, J H; Reid, B L

    2000-10-01

    Current control methods for the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), include the use of remedial and preventative residual sprays as well as toxic baits. We evaluated the acceptance of three baits (Maxforce, Niban, and Baygon) to field colonies of the black carpenter ant in the spring and fall. Maxforce bait granules were more readily accepted than either Niban or Baygon bait granules in the spring. A change in food preference from protein to sugar by the black carpenter ant appeared to reduce the number of Maxforce bait granules removed in the fall, resulting in no differences in bait acceptability. The longevity of Dursban 50W and Tempo 20WP were evaluated in the summer and fall on painted wood panels. Panels aged outside for 15 d under prevailing weather conditions exhibited increased LT50 values. For each sampling period, panels aged on the south face (in the sun) exhibited less insecticidal activity (i.e., large LT50 values) than panels on the north face (shaded; small LT50 values). At each sampling period, Tempo 20WP provided smaller LT50 values than Dursban 50W. Because of changing dietary preferences, our data highlight the importance of using various bait types for carpenter ant control. Moreover, the application of residual spays should be made to locations protected from direct sunlight.

  6. Evaluation of control measures for black carpenter ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Tripp, J M; Suiter, D R; Bennett, G W; Klotz, J H; Reid, B L

    2000-10-01

    Current control methods for the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), include the use of remedial and preventative residual sprays as well as toxic baits. We evaluated the acceptance of three baits (Maxforce, Niban, and Baygon) to field colonies of the black carpenter ant in the spring and fall. Maxforce bait granules were more readily accepted than either Niban or Baygon bait granules in the spring. A change in food preference from protein to sugar by the black carpenter ant appeared to reduce the number of Maxforce bait granules removed in the fall, resulting in no differences in bait acceptability. The longevity of Dursban 50W and Tempo 20WP were evaluated in the summer and fall on painted wood panels. Panels aged outside for 15 d under prevailing weather conditions exhibited increased LT50 values. For each sampling period, panels aged on the south face (in the sun) exhibited less insecticidal activity (i.e., large LT50 values) than panels on the north face (shaded; small LT50 values). At each sampling period, Tempo 20WP provided smaller LT50 values than Dursban 50W. Because of changing dietary preferences, our data highlight the importance of using various bait types for carpenter ant control. Moreover, the application of residual spays should be made to locations protected from direct sunlight. PMID:11057723

  7. Measuring quality: how to empower staff to take control.

    PubMed

    Grant, Lisa; Proctor, Tony

    A vast amount of information relating to standards of patient care is collated from hospital wards, yet there is not always evidence that this information is discussed or acted upon by ward staff. Involving ward staff in setting up systems to monitor performance and then deciding how to address shortcomings uses their insights into care provision and gives them ownership over standards of care. The balanced scorecard is an effective tool for monitoring quality that can be applied to healthcare. This article discusses how to use it to develop and implement systems of measuring the quality of care. PMID:21410000

  8. Fed-batch control based upon the measurement of intracellular NADH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armiger, W. B.; Lee, J. F.; Montalvo, L. M.; Forro, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments demonstrating that on-line measurements of intracellular NADH by culture fluorescence can be used to monitor and control the fermentation process are described. A distinct advantage of intercellular NADH measurements over other monitoring techniques such as pH and dissolved oxygen is that it directly measures real time events occurring within the cell rather than changes in the environment. When coupled with other measurement parameters, it can provide a finer degree of sophistication in process control.

  9. Integrated temperature measurement and control in polymer microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Christopher Robert

    Methods for integrating electrical components in low cost polymer microfluidic systems are presented. These methods include deposition and photolithographic patterning of thin-film metal layers on polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate), and the embedding of pre-fabricated and diced chips. The design and performance of Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs) fabricated with these methods is also discussed. The fabrication and testing of two polymer microfluidic systems is presented. The first system contains a two-dimensional array of RTDs in a microchannel capable of measuring the temperature distribution within the fluid. The second system employs Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE) for the detection of mutations in DNA samples. A compact mathematical model of the thermal effects caused by an integrated microheater is presented and validated with experimental measurements. This model may be applied to a wide variety of polymer microsystems which contain heaters and/or temperature sensors. The design of bubble pumps, hot plate chemical sensors, temperature gradient gel/capillary electrophoresis systems, flow sensors, etc. will be aided by this model.

  10. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  11. The Importance of Optical Pathlength Control for Plasma Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, M.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inductively coupled GEC Cell with modified viewing ports has been used to measure in-situ absorption in CF4 plasmas via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and the results compared to those obtained in a standard viewport configuration. The viewing ports were modified so that the window boundary is inside, rather than outside, of the GEC cell. Because the absorption obtained is a spatially integrated absorption, measurements made represent an averaging of absorbing species inside and outside of the plasma. This modification is made to reduce this spatial averaging and thus allow a more accurate estimation of neutral species concentrations and temperatures within the plasmas. By reducing this pathlength, we find that the apparent CF4 consumption increases from 65% to 95% and the apparent vibrational temperature of CF4 rises by 50-75 K. The apparent fraction of etch product SiF4 decreases from 4% to 2%. The data suggests that these density changes may be due to significant temperature gradients between the plasma and chamber viewports.

  12. Cross-Border Policy Effects on Alcohol Outcomes: Drinking Without Thinking on the U.S.-Mexico Border?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of two classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context – bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables – to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the U.S. Methods Data were collected from multi-stage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico Border (current drinker N=1351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and six different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. Results The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, six different social-cognitive variables – despite relating strongly with drinking – were comparable in border and non-border areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Conclusions Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their non-border counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both

  13. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Altare, Chiara; Masquelier, Bruno; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Design Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI) of 6,334 adult women aged 20–49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. Results After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km) in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32–1.90) than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km). Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. Conclusions The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended. PMID:27388539

  14. Effect of aortic constriction on the functional border zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, K.P.; Ning, X.H.; Gerren, R.A.; Drake, D.H.; Dunham, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    To evaluate how aortic constriction affects nonischemic myocardium adjacent to the perfusion boundary (the functional border zone) the authors measured systolic wall thickening (dWT) with sonomicrometers in eight anesthetized, open-chest dogs. The locations of the wall thickening measurements relative to the perfusion boundary (PB) were determined with myocardial blood flow (radioactivity-labelled microspheres) maps constructed from multiple, small tissue samples. In nonischemic myocardium more than 10 mm from the PB produced by circumflex coronary occlusion, dWT increased significantly from 2.57 +/- 0.62 to 3.24 +/- 0.73 mm. Within 10 mm of the PB, however, dWT did not change significantly. When the aorta was mechanically constricted, peak systolic pressure increased approx.50%. Wall thickening decreased to the same relative degree in nonischemic muscle less than 10 mm and more than 10 mm from the perfusion boundary. By fitting sigmoid curves to the data, they estimated the extent of nonischemic dysfunction. It averaged 26 +/- 6/sup 0/ (6-8 mm of endocardial circumference) during coronary occlusion alone and it was not significantly different (29 +/- 11/sup 0/) after aortic constriction. Thus elevated afterload affects nonischemic myocardium uniformly and does not increase the size ore relative severity of the functional border zone.

  15. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Powis, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Spacesuit navigation is one component of NASA s efforts to return humans to the Moon. Studies performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) considered various navigation technologies and filtering approaches to enable navigation on the lunar surface. As part of this effort, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) were studied to determine if they could supplement a radiometric infrastructure. MEMS IMUs were included in the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System (LECLDS) testbed during NASA s annual Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) event in 2009 and 2010. The testbed included one IMU in 2009 and three IMUs in 2010, along with a custom circuit board interfacing between the navigation processor and each IMU. The board was revised for the 2010 test, and this paper documents the design details of this latest revision of the interface circuit board and firmware.

  16. Measuring the Strength of State-Level Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Mosher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We describe a multi-step method of coding the strength of 18 alcohol policies included in the Alcohol Policy Information System for each of the 50 states. Method After thoroughly reviewing each policy area, we chose components that were most important in categorizing the strength or restrictiveness of the policy using the following criteria: overall reach, enforceability, and implementation. We determined a unique coding scheme for each policy area. Results The total number of categories per policy area ranged from two to six, with categories numbered in an ordered sequence from least to most restrictive. We provide three examples of our coding schemes: Keg Registration, Underage Possession, and Sunday Sales. We also rank the states on their alcohol policy sum score. Discussion This study demonstrates how alcohol policies can be measured quantitatively, an important step for assessing the effects of alcohol policies on various outcomes. PMID:25574422

  17. Radiation measuring apparatus employing variable rate pulse sampling control

    SciTech Connect

    Kakegawa, M.; Kumano, N.; Nohara, N.; Tanaka, E.; Tomitani, T.

    1980-01-29

    A scintillation type radiation-measuring apparatus comprising a radiation-detecting scintillator is described. A scintillation given off from the scintillator is converted into current by a photomultiplier tube. A current amplifier generates a plurality of pulses each proportional to the intensity of said converted current. The pulses have the width clipped by a clipped pulse generating circuit. The clipped form of the pulses is delayed by a delay circuit and integrated by an integrator; the wave height value of the outputs from the integrator is sampled by a sampling circuit to provide a sampled output. Means are provided to supply instructions to start and reset the operation of the integrator and to commence the operation of the sampling circuit in accordance with the interval between successively detected current pulses.

  18. Electromechanical analysis of infarct border zone in chronic myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Mickelsen, Steven R.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Kellman, Peter; Wen, Han; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that alterations in electrical activation sequence contribute to depressed systolic function in the infarct border zone, we examined the anatomic correlation of abnormal electromechanics and infarct geometry in the canine post-myocardial infarction (MI) heart, using a high-resolution MR-based cardiac electromechanical mapping technique. Three to eight weeks after an MI was created in six dogs, a 247-electrode epicardial sock was placed over the ventricular epicardium under thoracotomy. MI location and geometry were evaluated with delayed hyperenhancement MRI. Three-dimensional systolic strains in epicardial and endocardial layers were measured in five short-axis slices with motion-tracking MRI (displacement encoding with stimulated echoes). Epicardial electrical activation was determined from sock recordings immediately before and after the MR scans. The electrodes and MR images were spatially registered to create a total of 160 nodes per heart that contained mechanical, transmural infarct extent, and electrical data. The average depth of the infarct was 55% (SD 11), and the infarct covered 28% (SD 6) of the left ventricular mass. Significantly delayed activation (>mean + 2SD) was observed within the infarct zone. The strain map showed abnormal mechanics, including abnormal stretch and loss of the transmural gradient of radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strains, in the region extending far beyond the infarct zone. We conclude that the border zone is characterized by abnormal mechanics directly coupled with normal electrical depolarization. This indicates that impaired function in the border zone is not contributed by electrical factors but results from mechanical interaction between ischemic and normal myocardium. PMID:15908463

  19. Specification, Measurement, and Control of Electrical Switching Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    1999-01-01

    There have been several instances of susceptibility to switching transients. The Space Shuttle Spacelab Remote Acquisition Unit (RAU-A standard interface between Spacelab payloads and the Shuttle communications system) will shut down if the input 28 Vdc bus drops below 22 volts for more than 80 gs. Although a MIL-STD-461 derivative CS06 requirement was levied on the RAU, it failed to find this susceptibility. A heavy payload on one aircraft sags the 28 volt bus below 20 volts for milliseconds. Dc-dc converters have an operating voltage. A typical 28 Vdc-to-5 Vdc converter operates within tolerance when input potential is between 17-40 Vdc, A hold-up capacitor can be used to extend the time this range is presented to the convener when the line potential sags or surges outside this range. The designer must know the range of normal transients in order to choose the correct value of hold-up. This report describes the phenomena of electrical power bus transients induced by the switching of loads both on and off the bus, and control thereof.

  20. A Proposal for a Mist Cooling Control and Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Craig; Nakao, Masaki; Nishioka, Masatoshi; Nabeshima, Minako; Mizuno, Takeo

    Fine water mist sprays with average droplet diameters around 20 microns are being increasingly used as an energy-efficient means of cooling outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces such as rail platforms and shopping arcades. At high relative humidity there is a higher risk of wetting people and the ground beneath mist nozzles. Automated control systems are often set to run above a set dry bulb temperature and below a set relative humidity. Experiments show that mist evaporation rates before reaching the ground are closely related to the difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures, here labeled ΔTWB. Changing the operating parameters to include a minimum ΔTWB can allow use at higher relative humidity levels. If a common 28°C, 70% condition is sufficient to prevent floor-wetting, then a condition of 28°C with a ΔTWB > 4.3K should still prevent floor-wetting. This would allow operation at 75% relative humidity near 39°C.

  1. Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanism and control measures.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z L; Nagaraja, T G; Chengappa, M M

    1996-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming anaerobe, is a normal inhabitant of the alimentary tract of animals and humans. Two types of F. necrophorum, subspecies necrophorum (biotype A) and funduliforme (biotype B), have been recognized, which differ morphologically, biochemically, and biologically. The organism is an opportunistic pathogen that causes numerous necrotic conditions (necrobacillosis) such as bovine hepatic abscesses, ruminant foot abscesses and human oral infections. The pathogenic mechanism of F. necrophorum is complex and not well defined. Several toxins, such as leukotoxin, endotoxin, haemolysin, haemagglutinin and adhesin, have been implicated as virulence factors. Among these, leukotoxin and endotoxin are believed to be more important than other toxins in overcoming the host's defence mechanisms to establish the infection. F. necrophorum is encountered frequently in mixed infections and, therefore, synergisms between F. necrophorum and other pathogens may play an important role in infection. Several investigators have attempted to induce protective immunity against F. necrophorum using bacterins, toxoids, and other cytoplasmic components. Generally, none of the immunogens has afforded satisfactory protection against Fusobacterium infections. Because of the unavailability of suitable immunoprophylaxis, the control of F. necrophorum infection has depended mainly on the use of antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  3. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... local control. Whenever the Commissioner of Food and Drugs determines that the measures taken by...

  4. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  5. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  6. Sex and Self-Control Theory: The Measures and Causal Model May Be Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the distribution differences across sexes in key measures of self-control theory and differences in a causal model. Using cross-sectional data from juveniles ("n" = 1,500), the study shows mean-level differences in many of the self-control, risky behavior, and delinquency measures. Structural equation modeling findings support…

  7. Measurement and control of ice adhesion to aluminum 6061 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Paul; Gupta, Vijay

    1998-10-01

    A new experimental strategy for measuring the tensile strength of ice coatings to structural surfaces is presented. In this experiment, a laser-induced compressive stress pulse travels through a 1 mm-thick substrate disc that has a layer of ice grown on its front surface. The compressive stress pulse reflects into a tensile wave from the free surface of the ice and pulls the iceinterface apart, given a sufficient amplitude. The interface strength was calculated by recording the free surface velocity of an Al substrate using a Doppler interferometer and calculating the stress at the interface using a finite-difference elastic wave mechanics simulation with the free surface velocity as an input. The test procedure was used to study ice adhesion on 6061 aluminum alloy sheets. It was found that the adhesion strength of ice to unpolished aluminum substrates was 274 MPa at -10°C. This value decreased with temperature, down to 179 MPa at -40°C. Interestingly, this decrement in the tensile strength could be directly related to the existence of a liquid-like layer that is known to exist on the surface of solid ice till -30°C. The interface strength was also shown to decrease by polishing the Al substrate surface or by adding thin polymer coatings on the unpolished Al substrate. The sensitivity of the technique to such microstructural changes in the interfacial region is indicative of the experiments ability to provide basic adhesion data, which in turn, can be used to solve the deicing problem from a fundamental standpoint. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Low level genotypic chloroquine resistance near Malawi's northern border with Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Daniel J; Molyneux, Malcolm; Nkhoma, Standwell

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a prevalence study of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with antimalarial drug resistance at a rural site in Karonga near Malawi's northern border with Tanzania. We found a higher prevalence of the key chloroquine resistance-conferring mutation in the pfcrt gene (K76T) at this site in comparison with the prevalence in Blantyre, a city in the south of Malawi, far from an international border (9%vs. 0%; P < 0.0005). In contrast we found a lower prevalence of the quintuple dhfr/dhps mutation, which is highly predictive of SP treatment failure, at the Karonga site compared to Blantyre (76%vs. 88%; P < 0.005). The prevalence of the K76T pfcrt mutation at two Tanzanian sites close to the border with Malawi was recently reported to be over 50%. Our findings suggest a considerable 'leakage' of parasite antimalarial drug resistance across the border between two countries with different national malaria control policies and with different levels of resistance. Neighbouring countries should consider implementing common regional rather than national malaria treatment policies to prevent the spread of antimalarial drug resistance alleles across their borders.

  9. Rift border system: The interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in the Reconcavo basin, northeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, L.P.; Silva, T.F. da

    1995-11-01

    A geometric and depositional model is proposed to explain the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the main border of the Reconcavo basin. The architecture of the rift margin is characterized by a rift border system constituted by (1) a master fault, (2) a step, and (3) a clastic wedge. This footwall-derived clastic wedge is interpreted as alluvial fans and fan deltas composed of conglomerates that interfinger with hanging-wall strata. The analysis of the vertical distribution of coarse-grained components of this wedge suggests that its composition is geographically controlled, and no regular inverted stratigraphy is commonly described for this type of succession. During an initial lacustrine phase, turbidites accumulated farther from and parallel to the rift margin. The mapping of marker beds that bound these lacustrine turbidite deposits may be used to infer major periods of clastic influx and, therefore, to correlate with periods of fault-related subsidence or climatic fluctuations in the depositional basin and erosion of the sediment source area. Periods of limited back-faulting and basin expansion toward the main border are distinguished through patterns of progradation and aggradation indicating progressive retreat of the rift border and younging; in the footwall direction. The overall evolution of the rift border seems to be related to extension, block rotation, hanging-wall subsidence, and footwall uplift associated with the initial master fault, with limited propagation of faults away from the basin into the footwall.

  10. Striking a balance between national interests and patients' needs: cross-border projects meeting European challenges.

    PubMed

    Burger, Renate; Kostera, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the new opportunities for EU member state citizens to go abroad for medical treatment. The European Court of Justice has facilitated the access to medical treatment for EU citizens in other EU states. This development has worried national governments since they feared reduced control in their healthcare systems. The cross-border project "healthacross" between Austria and the Czech Republic however illustrates in which way authorities can respond to patients needs in two different countries. Nevertheless a plethora of administrative and practical problems have to be solved for cross-border co-operation in the provision of healthcare. PMID:21391444

  11. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the National Capital Air Quality Control Region. I - Measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment (COPE) and the National Capital Air Quality Control Region (NCAQCR) undertook a series of measurements of atmospheric CO and CH4 to determine the accuracy of the airborne COPE Correlation Interfer4meter. The device, a modified Michelson interferometer, measures the atmospheric column density of CO and CH4 at 2.3 microns with tropospheric measurement sensitivities of 70 and 10 PPB, respectively. Data for evaluating the remote measurements included atmospheric column density measurements at a ground truth site using a van-mounted infrared Fourier spectrometer; continuous ground level gas chromatographic measurements; and chromatographic data from atmospheric grab samples collected by aircraft and at ground locations. The instruments and sampling techniques used in the experiment are described in detail.

  12. Comparative Structures and Attitudes Along the U.S.-Mexican Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    Most on-going research on the U.S.-Mexican Border region is in the major content areas of political structure and urbanization, disaster relief, law enforcement, and self-identity studies. Political interaction contrasts the centrally controlled power structures of Mexico with the more complex economic and social structures of the United States.…

  13. Civic Stratification and the Exclusion of Undocumented Immigrants from Cross-border Health Care.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Waldinger, Roger

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework and an empirical example of the relationship between the civic stratification of immigrants in the United States, and their access to healthcare. We use the 2007 Pew Hispanic Center/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. Latinos (N = 2,783 foreign-born respondents) and find that immigrants who are not citizens or legal permanent residents are significantly more likely to be excluded from care in both the United States and across borders. Legal-status differences in cross-border care utilization persisted after controlling for health status, insurance coverage, and other potential demographic and socioeconomic predictors of care. Exclusion from care on both sides of the border was associated with reduced rates of receiving timely preventive services. Civic stratification, and political determinants broadly speaking, should be considered alongside social determinants of population health and health care. PMID:26582512

  14. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade.

  15. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  16. A Reconstruction Method Based on AL0FGD for Compressed Sensing in Border Monitoring WSN System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xi; Li, Wenzao; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Jiliu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, to monitor the border in real-time with high efficiency and accuracy, we applied the compressed sensing (CS) technology on the border monitoring wireless sensor network (WSN) system and proposed a reconstruction method based on approximately l0 norm and fast gradient descent (AL0FGD) for CS. In the frontend of the system, the measurement matrix was used to sense the border information in a compressed manner, and then the proposed reconstruction method was applied to recover the border information at the monitoring terminal. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the helicopter sound signal was used as an example in the experimental simulation, and three other typical reconstruction algorithms 1)split Bregman algorithm, 2)iterative shrinkage algorithm, and 3)smoothed approximate l0 norm (SL0), were employed for comparison. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has a better performance in recovering the helicopter sound signal in most cases, which could be used as a basis for further study of the border monitoring WSN system. PMID:25461759

  17. Pilot-model measurements of pilot responses in a lateral-directional control task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot response during an aircraft bank-angle compensatory control task was measured by using an adaptive modeling technique. In the main control loop, which is the bank angle to aileron command loop, the pilot response was the same as that measured previously in single-input, single-output systems. The pilot used a rudder to aileron control coordination that canceled up to 80 percent of the vehicle yawing moment due to aileron deflection.

  18. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  19. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  20. 40 CFR 725.975 - EPA approval of alternative control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which EPA has determined provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specified control... § 725.25(c). See 40 CFR 720.40(a)(2)(iv) for information on how to obtain e-PMN software. Support... control measures provide substantially the same degree of protection as the specific control...

  1. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  2. EO/IR sensors enhance border security, part two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Dror; McDaniel, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Advances in infrared sensors, as well as integrated controls and displays have led to mature designs being incorporated in civil as well as military surveillance and security systems. Technical challenges arise in applying electro-optical sensor technology to detect, track and identify individuals and to detect contraband and hidden objects; while at the same time providing positive cost/benefit metrics for both point protection and area surveillance applications. The previous paper, "EO/IR Sensors Enhance Border Security" addressed the advantages and disadvantages of specific electro-optical sensor modalities, including visible, near-, mid- and far-infrared as well as ultraviolet that may be used individually and in combination to perform specific security applications. System designs employing electro-optical and infrared sensors for surveillance applications were reviewed as well as the cost/benefit metrics used to define trades for both point protection and area surveillance applications. This paper will address the use of these infrared modalities with advanced image and sensor processing developed by Opgal specifically for border security applications.

  3. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-10-15

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small.

  4. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios and Mixing Ratios of Several VOC Including n-Hexane, Benzene, Toluene, p-Xylene, n-Octane, and n-Decane Measured During the Border Air Quality Study Campaign (June-July, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, A.; Moukhtar, S.; Huang, L.; Rudolph, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many important secondary pollutants are formed during the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. These organic compounds can contribute significant mass to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and therefore impact physical properties and composition of aerosols. Despite numerous studies, the formation processes for atmospheric PM are still not well understood. While there have been very extensive laboratory investigations of PM formation, nearly all of these studies have been conducted at VOC concentrations which exceed ambient atmospheric levels by several orders of magnitude. Consequently there is substantial uncertainty in the extrapolation of laboratory results to the atmosphere. Recently it has been demonstrated that stable carbon isotopic composition measurements can be very valuable in providing increased insight into the chemical and transport processes of VOC in the troposphere. Studies showed that isotope ratio measurements could aid in the determination of photochemical processing of individual VOC. It is expected that applying isotope measurements to studies of VOC oxidation products in the atmosphere will allow to establish quantitative relationship between the amount of precursor oxidized and the concentration of secondary pollutants formed during this process. Thus, the yield of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from this reaction can be calculated. A cartridge technique was developed for field sampling of VOC and subsequent laboratory analysis by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. It was first implemented during the BAQS field study (June-July, 2007) parallel to PM sampling. Stable carbon isotopic composition and concentrations of several VOC were determined and compared to those of PM. The results of these measurements will be presented and discussed.

  5. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  6. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  7. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  8. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  9. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  10. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Mukerjee, S; Monroy, G J; Keene, F E

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side.

  11. Border detection on Common Carotid Artery using Gauss-Markov Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility, high accuracy and high-speed. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy and high-speed detection method by Gauss-Markov estimation. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border. And, about high-speed, it realized by calculating matrix only one time.

  12. Novel EUV mask black border suppressing EUV and DUV OoB light reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shin; Kodera, Yutaka; Fukugami, Norihito; Komizo, Toru; Maruyama, Shingo; Watanabe, Genta; Yoshida, Itaru; Kotani, Jun; Konishi, Toshio; Haraguchi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    EUV lithography is the most promising technology for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 10nm node and beyond. The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (REMA) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from the image border overlaps edges of neighboring dies, affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack reflects 1-3% of actinic EUV light. To reduce this effect several types of image border with reduced EUV reflectance (<0.05%) have been proposed; such an image border is referred to as a black border. In particular, an etched multilayer type black border was developed; it was demonstrated that CD impact at the edge of a die is strongly reduced with this type of the black border (BB). However, wafer printing result still showed some CD change in the die influenced by the black border reflection. It was proven that the CD shift was caused by DUV Out of Band (OOB) light from the EUV light source. New types of a multilayer etched BB were evaluated and showed a good potential for DUV light suppression. In this study, a novel BB called `Hybrid Black Border' (HBB) has been developed to eliminate EUV and DUV OOB light reflection by applying optical design technique and special micro-fabrication technique. A new test mask with HBB is fabricated without any degradation of mask quality according to the result of CD performance in the main pattern, defectivity and cleaning durability. The imaging performance for N10 imaging structures is demonstrated on NXE:3300B in collaboration with ASML. This result is compared to the imaging results obtained for a mask with the earlier developed BB, and HBB has achieved ~3x improvement; less than 0.2 nm CD changes are observed in the corners of the die. A CD uniformity budget including

  13. 78 FR 78416 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-0253 AGENCY: U.S... on the information collection request (ICR) 3206-0253, Performance Measurement Surveys. As required... measurement surveys are valuable tools to gather information from our customers so we can design and...

  14. 75 FR 35092 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Performance Measurement Surveys. As required... high quality and diverse workforce. Performance measurement surveys are valuable tools to...

  15. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  16. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B.; Cockerill, Kristan

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  17. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  18. LANL's near-real-time measurement control bolt-on to LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Ruel D; Boyle, Caroline M

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has created a near-real-time Measurement Control Program (MCP) that integrates with Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS). The program was designed to take the place of an aging accounting system at LANL which incorporated the measurement control. LANL's Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) group developed many bolt-on features to enhance LANMAS called LAM CAS (Los Alamos Material Control and Accounting System), one of those bolt-on enhancements was to develop the MCP to replace the previous version. MCP was developed with the multiple end-user groups in mind by creating a near-real-time system that was user friendly, provided access controls, and account status of the measurement control systems.

  19. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  20. CO-OCCURRENCE OF ALCOHOL, DRUG USE, DSM-5 ALCOHOL USE DISORDER AND SYMPTOMS OF DRUG USE DISORDER ON BOTH SIDES OF THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S.-Mexico border displays elevated rates of hazardous alcohol and drug use. Whether the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and disorders is also high in the border area is unknown. Methods Data are from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected respondents interviewed from 2011–2013. Participants included 1,690 Mexican Americans from Texas (572 in an off-border city and 1,118 from 3 border cities) and 1,293 Mexicans from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas (415 in an off-border city and 878 from 3 Mexican cities bordering Texas) who reported drinking in the last 12 months. Participants were interviewed regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for: a) co-occurring hazardous alcohol use (5+/4+ at least monthly) and drug use (medical and illicit), and b) co-occurring presence of a DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit/control) of drug use disorders (DUD symptoms). Results Co-occurring hazardous alcohol and drug use was more common in the U.S. border cities (14.7%) than off-border (7.2%), but similar for Mexican border (1.2%) and off-border (1.4%) cities. Co-occurrence of AUD and DUD symptoms was likewise more common at the U.S. border (6.8%) than off-border (3.3%), as well as at the Mexican border (1.3%), compared to off-border (0.6%), but not statistically significant for Mexico. In models adjusting for demographics, mobility factors and exposure to the U.S. culture, border residence in both countries related to a nearly two-fold increase in prevalence ratios (PR) of co-occurring AUD and DUD symptoms (PR=1.97, 95%CI=1.36–2.85). Conclusions Increased rates of co-occurring alcohol and drug use disorders suggest an added negative impact on already difficult conditions of the border population. PMID:25833029

  1. Application of laser light scattering for determination of the border aerosol-air in a specialized physical laboratory setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damov, K. S.; Iliev, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    The current article examines the application of laser light scattering in a specialized laboratory setup. It is used for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume (High Concentration Aerosols) by the method of free flow out. The measurement chamber is first filled with the investigated aerosol. After a predetermined delay time the aerosol is allowed to flow out through a calibrated pipe with fixed size located few centimetres above the chamber's bottom. The lowering of the upper border aerosol-air is continuously scanned using a laser beam directed along the axis of the cylindrical chamber. The kinematic viscosity and mass density of the investigated aerosol phase are calculated by formulas obtained by the authors. The suggested application of laser light scattering led to higher accuracy of the determination the position of aerosol-air border, thence the certainty of this method. This improvement allowed the use of computer controlled optoelectronic setting. The use of laser light scattering significantly improves the method for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume.

  2. Controlled three-party communication using GHZ-like state and imperfect Bell-state measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei

    2011-02-01

    We present a controlled three-party communication protocol using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like state and imperfect Bell-state measurement. Using the idea of controlled quantum teleportation, it can realize the secret information transmission between the legitimate participants under the control of the controller. It needs no unitary operation to recover the original state for the receiver, and it saves half of communication cost publicized by the sender. The order rearrangement of particles and data block transmission ensure the security of communication. With imperfect Bell-state measurement, it is tolerant of some noise effects and is feasible by using the present optical technique.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of nonpoint-source control techniques for aquatic protection. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gadbois, L.E.

    1989-11-01

    Documenting the effectiveness of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control technologies requires a technique- and a site-specific monitoring program. This report details an evaluation method developed to determine which NPS control technique should be used, and how to evaluate the control's effectiveness. Attention to nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) originating from stormwater runoff is growing as point sources are eliminated or controlled. NPSP has largely escaped regulation because of frequent difficulty in identifying a culpable source and quantifying its environmental impact, as well as from little knowledge of effective control techniques. The lack of corporate knowledge of NPSP control techniques results from limited historical regulation and from poorly developed methods to measure the techniques' effectiveness. The refinement of a single or small set of control techniques will not be appropriate for all NPSP due to the diversity of pollutants in runoff. Several measures of effectiveness may be needed for each technique due to site-specific variations.

  4. Brief Report: Negative Controls to Detect Selection Bias and Measurement Bias in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Colford, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical laboratory experiments routinely use negative controls to identify possible sources of bias, but epidemiologic studies have infrequently used this type of control in their design or measurement approach. Recently, epidemiologists proposed the routine use of negative controls in observational studies and defined the structure of negative controls to detect bias due to unmeasured confounding. We extend this previous study and define the structure of negative controls to detect selection bias and measurement bias in both observational studies and randomized trials. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of negative controls in this context using examples from the epidemiologic literature. Given their demonstrated utility and broad generalizability, the routine use of prespecified negative controls will strengthen the evidence from epidemiologic studies. PMID:27182642

  5. Border health: who's guarding the gate?

    PubMed

    Ehnert, Karen; Galland, G Gale

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the global trade market have led to a thriving international pet trade in exotic animals, birds, and puppies. The flood of animals crossing the United States' borders satisfies the public demand for these pets but is not without risk. Imported pets may be infected with diseases that put animals or the public at risk. Numerous agencies work together to reduce the risk of animal disease introduction, but regulations may need to be modified to ensure compliance. With more than 280,000 dogs and 183,000 wildlife shipments being imported into the United States each year, veterinarians must remain vigilant so they can recognize potential threats quickly.

  6. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  7. Self-Control Constructs Related to Measures of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Mendoza, Don; Ainette, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To test self-regulation concepts in relation to dietary intake and physical activity patterns in adolescence, which we predicted to be influenced by components of a self-control model. Methods A survey was conducted with a multiethnic sample of 9th grade public school students in a metropolitan area (N = 539). Confirmatory analysis tested the measurement structure of self-control. Structural equation modeling tested the association of self-control constructs with measures of fruit and vegetable intake, saturated-fat intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Confirmatory analysis of 14 indicators of self-control showed best fit for a two-factor structure, with latent constructs of good self-control (planfulness) and poor self-control (impulsiveness). Good self-control was related to more fruit and vegetable intake, more participation in sports, and less sedentary behavior. Poor self-control was related to more saturated-fat intake and less vigorous exercise. These effects were independent of gender, ethnicity, and parental education, which themselves had relations to diet and exercise measures. Multiple-group modeling indicated that effects of self-control were comparable across gender and ethnicity subgroups. Conclusions Self-control concepts are relevant for patterns of dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents. Attention to self-control processes may be warranted for prevention programs to improve health behaviors in childhood and adolescence. PMID:18023783

  8. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    PubMed

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573

  9. Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

  10. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  11. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  12. Effects of urbanization and stormwater control measures on streamflows in the vicinity of Clarksburg, Maryland, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the efficacy of revised watershed management methods is important to mitigating the impacts of urbanization on streamflow. We evaluated the influence of land use change, primarily as urbanization, and stormwater control measures on the relationship between precipita...

  13. Multidimensional Scales for the Measurement of Locus of Control of Reinforcements for Physical Fitness Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Trial administrations of the FITLOC, multidimensional scales for the measurement of locus of control of reinforcement for physical fitness behavior, provided preliminary evidence for the scales' reliability and validity. (Author/CB)

  14. Spatial and temporal structure within moisture measurements of a stormwater control system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture sensing is a mature soil research technology commonly applied to agriculture. Such sensors may be appropriated for use in novel stormwater research applications. Knowledge of moisture (with respect to space and time) in infiltration based stormwater control measures (SCM...

  15. Feedback control of a solid-state qubit using high-fidelity projective measurement.

    PubMed

    Ristè, D; Bultink, C C; Lehnert, K W; DiCarlo, L

    2012-12-14

    We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating experiments more than 10 times faster than by passive initialization. This closed-loop qubit control is necessary for measurement-based protocols such as quantum error correction and teleportation. PMID:23368293

  16. Proof of quasi-adaptivity for the m-measurement feedback class of stochastic control policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1987-01-01

    Bounds on expected performance are established which show that the m-measurement feedback (mM) policy for nonlinear stochastic control performs as well or better than the open-loop optimal control policy, and thus is quasi-adaptive in the sense of Witenhausen (1966). The chain of performance inequalities indicate a tendency for the mM policy performance to improve with increasing m. It is suggested that the present analytical method, based on the construction of artificial control sequences denoted as utility controls, can be used to establish performance bounds on other well-known policies, avoiding the extensive Monte Carlo simulations necessary in comparing stochastic control policies.

  17. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  18. The bottom oxygen border of bioluminescence distribution in ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoruev, Valerii

    2006-02-01

    From materials of forwarding researches follows, that the depth of deposition of the bottom border of bioluminescence plankton has not correlation with any of measurable hydrological parameters. As the reaction of bioluminescence is oxygen depended, it was logical to assume, that the situation of the bottom maximum of luminescence plankton is determined by concentration of oxygen. The data of vertical distribution of bioluminescence intensity of plankton and concentration of oxygen received in the Black Sea and near to east coast of America were investigated. Is established, that the deep maximum of bioluminescence of plankton is found out between isooxygen 0.35 and 0.20 ml/l. At concentration of oxygen in water is lower 0.10-0.20 ml/l the bioluminescence of plankton it is not found out.

  19. Thermal monitoring, measurement, and control system for a Volatile Condensable Materials (VCM) test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermal monitoring and control concept is described for a volatile condensable materials (VCM) test apparatus where electric resistance heaters are employed. The technique is computer based, but requires only proportioning ON/OFF relay control signals supplied through a programmable scanner and simple quadrac power controllers. System uniqueness is derived from automatic temperature measurements and the averaging of these measurements in discrete overlapping temperature zones. Overall control tolerance proves to be better than + or - 0.5 C from room ambient temperature to 150 C. Using precisely calibrated thermocouples, the method provides excellent temperature control of a small copper VCM heating plate at 125 + or - 0.2 C over a 24 hr test period. For purposes of unattended operation, the programmable computer/controller provides a continual data printout of system operation. Real time operator command is also provided for, as is automatic shutdown of the system and operator alarm in the event of malfunction.

  20. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements. PMID:27271901

  1. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements.

  2. Measurement of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma guidelines: a comparison with the asthma control questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a validated tool to measure asthma control. Cut-off points that best discriminate “well-controlled” or “not well-controlled” asthma have been suggested from the analysis of a large randomized clinical trial but they may not be adequate for daily clinical practice. Aims To establish cut-off points of the ACQ that best discriminate the level of control according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2006 guidelines in patients with asthma managed at Allergology and Pulmonology Departments as well as Primary Care Centers in Spain. Patients and methods An epidemiological descriptive study, with prospective data collection. Asthma control following GINA-2006 classification and 7-item ACQ was assessed. The study population was split in two parts: 2/3 for finding the cut-off points (development population) and 1/3 for validating the results (validation population). Results A total of 1,363 stable asthmatic patients were included (mean age 38 ± 14 years, 60.3% women; 69.1% non-smokers). Patient classification according to GINA-defined asthma control was: controlled 13.6%, partially controlled 34.2%, and uncontrolled 52.3%. The ACQ cut-off points that better agreed with GINA-defined asthma control categories were calculated using receiver operating curves (ROC). The analysis showed that ACQ < 0.5 was the optimal cut-off point for “controlled asthma” (sensitivity 74.1%, specificity 77.5%) and 1.00 for “uncontrolled asthma” (sensitivity 73%, specificity 88.2%). Kappa index between GINA categories and ACQ was 0.62 (p < 0.001). Conclusion The ACQ cut-off points associated with GINA-defined asthma control in a real-life setting were <0.5 for controlled asthma and ≥1 for uncontrolled asthma. PMID:22726416

  3. Validity of a Measure of Children's Health Locus of Control: A Second-Order Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; And Others

    The study reported in this paper investigated the structure of the health locus of control beliefs of elementary school children using second-order factor analysis and the measurement characteristics of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales. Changes of wording were made in 10 of the MHLC Scales items in order to improve the…

  4. Statistical Process Control Charts for Measuring and Monitoring Temporal Consistency of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, M. Hafidz

    2010-01-01

    Methods of statistical process control were briefly investigated in the field of educational measurement as early as 1999. However, only the use of a cumulative sum chart was explored. In this article other methods of statistical quality control are introduced and explored. In particular, methods in the form of Shewhart mean and standard deviation…

  5. Reconsidering the Effect of Self-Control and Delinquent Peers: Implications of Measurement for Theoretical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meldrum, Ryan C.; Young, Jacob T. N.; Weerman, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research examining the effect of self-control and delinquent peers on crime suggests that both variables are strong correlates and that controlling for one fails to eliminate the effects of the other. Yet prior research was based on indirect and possibly biased indicators of peer delinquency. Recent research using direct measures of…

  6. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  7. 75 FR 65039 - Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 21, 2010 at 75 FR 35092 allowing for a 60... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Performance Measurement Surveys, OMB Control No. 3206-NEW AGENCY: U.S... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Performance Measurement Surveys. As...

  8. Review of drive symmetry measurement and control experiments on the Nova laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Hauer, A.A.; Delamater, N.D.

    1994-07-01

    Symmetric radiation drive is required for achieving ignition in laboratory experiments. Over the last two years, concerted series of drive symmetry experiments have been performed on the Nova laser system. The goals of this work were to develop measurements techniques and to apply them to symmetry variation and control experiments. The emphasis in this initial work has been on time integrated measurements (integrated over the laser drive pulse). The authors have also begun work on methods for time resolved measurements. Most of their work used the symmetry signature impressed on the compressed core of a capsule imploded in a hohlraum (cylindrical canister) environment. X-ray imaging of this core provides a mapping that can be compared with theoretical modeling and related to a specific amount of drive asymmetry. This method is indirect and they have taken great care in understanding the formation of the symmetry signature and in its comparison with simulations. A review of drive symmetry measurement and control experiments is presented, including data from time integrated and time resolved measurements; these measurements are also compared to modeling. Under carefully controlled conditions results from symmetry measurements (and from other auxiliary measurements) are reproducible, and indicate that aspects of implosions symmetry can be controlled.

  9. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  10. Displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei

    2011-05-01

    A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.

  11. Displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei

    2010-12-01

    A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.

  12. Joint air pollution sampling program in twin cities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Dávila, G H

    1976-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez (Chihuahua) and El Paso (Texas), two cities on the U.S.-Mexico border, form a single environmental system in which the same natural resources, especially air and water, are shared. It also constitutes a single metropolitan area which is characterized by high rates of pipulation growth, economic development, and urban expansion, all these factors mitigating against air quality. Early in 1972 the health authorities in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez initiated a joint air pollution sampling program with assistance from the Pan American Health Organization. The nearby city of Las Cruces (New Mexico) was later included in the program as well. Activities are carried out in accordance with a document entitled "Bases of Cooperation." The guiding criteria of the program are: functional simplicity, operational economy, and complementarity with other sampling programs conducted by the participating services. An Air Pollution Control Subcommittee is responsible for execution coordination of the program. Three studies are currently underway to determine levels of dust pollution in the air. A fourth study is aimed at measuring sulfur dioxide levels through the use of sulfation plates. The results collected reveal concentrations of particulates in the ambient air levels higher than the U.S. Federal primary standards. The program should be expanded to include the study of other pollutants and a joint inventory of emissions. In this way criteria on air quality may be established and joint plans of action and strategies drawn up for the control of air pollution in this important area.

  13. High-fidelity measurement and quantum feedback control in circuit QED

    SciTech Connect

    Sarovar, Mohan; Milburn, G. J.; Goan, H.-S.; Spiller, T. P.

    2005-12-15

    Circuit QED is a promising solid-state quantum computing architecture. It also has excellent potential as a platform for quantum control--especially quantum feedback control--experiments. However, the current scheme for measurement in circuit QED is low efficiency and has low signal-to-noise ratio for single-shot measurements. The low quality of this measurement makes the implementation of feedback difficult, and here we propose two schemes for measurement in circuit QED architectures that can significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio and potentially achieve quantum-limited measurement. Such measurements would enable the implementation of quantum feedback protocols and we illustrate this with a simple entanglement-stabilization scheme.

  14. Increased alpha band activity indexes inhibitory competition across a border during figure assignment.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M; Allen, John J B; Peterson, Mary A

    2016-09-01

    Figure-ground assignment is thought to entail inhibitory competition between potential objects on opposite sides of a shared border; the winner is perceived as the figure, and the loser as the shapeless ground. Computational models and response time measures support this understanding but to date no online measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment has been reported. The current study assays electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power as a measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment. Activity in the EEG alpha band has been linked to functional inhibition in the brain, and it has been proposed that increased alpha power reflects increased inhibition. In 2 experiments participants viewed silhouettes designed so that the insides would be perceived as figures. Real-world silhouettes depicted namable objects. Novel silhouettes depicted novel objects on the insides of their borders, but varied in the amount of hypothesized cross-border competition for figural status: In "Low-Competition" silhouettes, the borders suggested novel objects on the outside as well as on the inside. In "High-Competition" silhouettes the borders suggested portions of real-world objects on the outside; these compete with the figural properties favoring the inside as figure. Participants accurately categorized both types of novel silhouettes as "novel" objects and were unaware of the real world objects suggested on the outside of the High-Competition silhouettes. In both experiments, we observed more alpha power while participants viewed High- rather than Low-Competition novel silhouettes. These are the first results to show via an online index of neural activity that figure assignment entails inhibitory competition.

  15. Application and flight test of linearizing transformations using measurement feedback to the nonlinear control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Duke, Eugene L.; Menon, P. K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The design of nonlinear controllers has relied on the use of detailed aerodynamic and engine models that must be associated with the control law in the flight system implementation. Many of these controllers were applied to vehicle flight path control problems and have attempted to combine both inner- and outer-loop control functions in a single controller. An approach to the nonlinear trajectory control problem is presented. This approach uses linearizing transformations with measurement feedback to eliminate the need for detailed aircraft models in outer-loop control applications. By applying this approach and separating the inner-loop and outer-loop functions two things were achieved: (1) the need for incorporating detailed aerodynamic models in the controller is obviated; and (2) the controller is more easily incorporated into existing aircraft flight control systems. An implementation of the controller is discussed, and this controller is tested on a six degree-of-freedom F-15 simulation and in flight on an F-15 aircraft. Simulation data are presented which validates this approach over a large portion of the F-15 flight envelope. Proof of this concept is provided by flight-test data that closely matches simulation results. Flight-test data are also presented.

  16. Characterization of an Electrically Controlled Metamaterial Terahertz Modulator Using Dynamic Measurement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen; Chen, YongLi; Feng, LiShuang

    2016-10-01

    The characterization results of a typical electrically controlled metamaterial terahertz (THz) modulator obtained by the dynamic measurement method are presented and are in good agreement with the theoretical results predicted by a first-order model. The dynamic measurement method can characterize the modulation depth and modulation speed simultaneously. The reliability of the method is verified by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), and the current response method, which show that the more intuitive and comprehensive dynamic measurement method, can be used to characterize the electrically controlled metamaterial THz modulator accurately.

  17. MASS MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY FOR PLUTONIUM ALIQUOTS ASSAYED BY CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL COULOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, M.; Cordaro, J.

    2009-03-18

    Minimizing plutonium measurement uncertainty is essential to nuclear material control and international safeguards. In 2005, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 12183 'Controlled-potential coulometric assay of plutonium', 2nd edition. ISO 12183:2005 recommends a target of {+-}0.01% for the mass of original sample in the aliquot because it is a critical assay variable. Mass measurements in radiological containment were evaluated and uncertainties estimated. The uncertainty estimate for the mass measurement also includes uncertainty in correcting for buoyancy effects from air acting as a fluid and from decreased pressure of heated air from the specific heat of the plutonium isotopes.

  18. Preliminary estimates of range measurements to a spacecraft by means of ground digitally controlled oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, A.; Pease, G.

    1974-01-01

    Range measurements to the Pioneer 10 and Mariner 10 spacecraft were made, without the use of a ranging system per se, by using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network's new digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) device. These measurements were accomplished by controlling the linear ramps of the transmitted carrier frequency with a recently installed DCO instrument at the Goldstone facility and analyzing the received linearly ramped Doppler data with a computer program. The accuracy of these range measurements is on the order of 1.5 km.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Convergent Validity of Self-Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kern, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    There is extraordinary diversity in how the construct of self-control is operationalized in research studies. We meta-analytically examined evidence of convergent validity among executive function, delay of gratification, and self- and informant-report questionnaire measures of self-control. Overall, measures demonstrated moderate convergence (rrandom = .27 [95% CI = .24, .30]; rfixed = .34 [.33, .35], k = 282 samples, N = 33,564 participants), although there was substantial heterogeneity in the observed correlations. Correlations within and across types of self-control measures were strongest for informant-report questionnaires and weakest for executive function tasks. Questionnaires assessing sensation seeking impulses could be distinguished from questionnaires assessing processes of impulse regulation. We conclude that self-control is a coherent but multidimensional construct best assessed using multiple methods. PMID:21643479

  20. Application of Control charts and isotope correlations to spent fuel measurements at FCF.

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R. D.; Soltys, I.; Yacout, A. M.

    1999-07-26

    The material control and accountancy system for the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) initially uses calculated values for the mass flows of irradiated EBR-II driver fuel to be processed in the electrorefiner. These calculated values are continually verified by measurements performed by the Analytical Laboratory (AL) on samples from the fuel element chopper retained for each chopper batch. Measured values include U and Pu masses, U and Pu isotopic fractions, and burnup (via La and Tc). When the measured data become available, it is necessary to determine if the measured and calculated data are consistent. This verification involves accessing two databases and performing standard statistical analyses to produce control charts for these measurements. These procedures can now be invoked via a Web interface providing: a timely and efficient control of these measurements, a user-friendly interface, off-site remote access to the data, and a convenient means of studying correlations among the data. This paper will present the architecture of the interface and a description of the control procedures, as well as examples of the control charts and correlations.