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Sample records for bore nb3sn quadrupole

  1. Design of HQ -- a High Field Large Bore Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A. K.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Kashikhin, V.; Schmalze, J.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-08-17

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade, a large bore (120 mm) Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole with 15 T peak coil field is being developed within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The 2-layer design with a 15 mm wide cable is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality while exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses. In addition, HQ will determine the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal margins of Nb{sub 3}Sn technology with respect to the requirements of the luminosity upgrade at the LHC.

  2. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; /Fermilab /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Texas A-M

    2007-08-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure.

  3. ASSEMBLY AND TEST OF A 120 MM BORE 15 T NB3SN QUADRUPOLE FOR THE LHC UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wang, X.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A. K.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2010-05-23

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb{sub 3}Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a design short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field approaching 15 T, one of the main challenges of this magnet is to provide appropriate mechanical support to the coils. Compared to the previous LARP Technology Quadrupole and Long Quadrupole magnets, the purpose of HQ is also to demonstrate accelerator quality features such as alignment and cooling. So far, 8 HQ coils have been fabricated and 4 of them have been assembled and tested in HQ01a. This paper presents the mechanical assembly and test results of HQ01a.

  4. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2008-06-01

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb{sub 3}Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure.

  5. LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio,G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2007-08-27

    A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb{sub 3}Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure.

  6. Test Results of 15 T Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet HQ01 with a 120 mm Bore for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Schmalzle, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Cheng, D.W.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Joseph, J.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer,; P.l Xiaorong, W.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-08-03

    In support of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb{sub 3}Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a conductor peak field of 15 T, the magnet will operate under higher forces and stored-energy levels than that of any previous LARP magnet models. In addition, HQ has been designed to incorporate accelerator quality features such as precise coil alignment and adequate cooling. The first 6 coils (out of the 8 fabricated so far) have been assembled and used in two separate tests-HQ01a and HQ01b. This paper presents design parameters, summary of the assemblies, the mechanical behavior as well as the performance of HQ01a and HQ01b.

  7. LARP Long Quadrupole: A "Long" Step Toward an LHC Luminosity Upgrade with Nb3Sn Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2008-02-13

    The beginning of the development of Nb3Sn magnets for particle accelerators goes back to the 1960's. But only very recently has this development begun to face the challenges of fabricating Nb3Sn magnets which can meet the requirements of modern particle accelerators. LARP (the LHC Accelerator Research Program) is leading this effort focusing on long models of the Interaction Region quadrupoles for a possible luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. A major milestone in this development is to test, by the end of 2009, 4m-long quadrupole models, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator-type magnets approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is sufficiently mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, under development at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. Several challenges must be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb3Sn coils and magnets. These challenges and the solutions adopted will be presented together with the main features of the LQ magnets. Several R&D lines are participating to this effort and their contributions will be also presented.

  8. Performance of a 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil with a 300 mm wide cold bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tsubouchi, Hirokazu

    2016-08-01

    A large-bore 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was developed for a 25 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet. The magnet consisted of a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet of NbTi and Nb3Sn Rutherford coils, and a high-temperature superconducting magnet. The Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was fabricated by the react-and-wind method for the first time. The LTS magnet reached the designed operation current of 854 A without a training quench at a 1 h ramp rate. The central magnetic field generated by the LTS magnet was measured by a Hall sensor to be 14.0 T at 854 A in a 300 mm cold bore.

  9. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High- Luminosity LHC upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Chlachidze, G.; et al.

    2016-08-30

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb3Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  10. Test results of the LARP Nb$$_3$$Sn quadrupole HQ03a

    DOE PAGES

    DiMarco, J.; G. Ambrosio; Chlachidze, G.; ...

    2016-03-09

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developingmore » $$Nb_3Sn$$ quadrupoles of progressively increasing performance for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. The 120 mm aperture High-field Quadrupole (HQ) models are the last step in the R&D phase supporting the development of the new IR Quadrupoles (MQXF). Three series of HQ coils were fabricated and assembled in a shell-based support structure, progressively optimizing the design and fabrication process. The final set of coils consistently applied the optimized design solutions, and was assembled in the HQ03a model. Furthermore, this paper reports a summary of the HQ03a test results, including training, mechanical performance, field quality and quench studies.« less

  11. Test results of the LARP Nb$_3$Sn quadrupole HQ03a

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, J.; G. Ambrosio; Chlachidze, G.; Bossert, R.; Holik, T.; Orris, D.; Stoynev, S.; Strauss, T.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Yu, M.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Borgnolutti, F.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Pan, H.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, A. R.; Marchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G.; Salmi, T.; Wang, X. R.; Ferracin, P.; Bajas, H.; Ravaioli, E.; Todesco, E.

    2016-03-09

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles of progressively increasing performance for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. The 120 mm aperture High-field Quadrupole (HQ) models are the last step in the R&D phase supporting the development of the new IR Quadrupoles (MQXF). Three series of HQ coils were fabricated and assembled in a shell-based support structure, progressively optimizing the design and fabrication process. The final set of coils consistently applied the optimized design solutions, and was assembled in the HQ03a model. Furthermore, this paper reports a summary of the HQ03a test results, including training, mechanical performance, field quality and quench studies.

  12. Analysis of field errors for LARP Nb3Sn HQ03 quadrupole magnet

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaorong; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Guram; ...

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program, in close collaboration with CERN, has developed three generations of high-gradient quadrupole (HQ) Nb3Sn model magnets, to support the development of the 150 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC. The latest generation, HQ03, featured coils with better uniformity of coil dimensions and properties than the earlier generations. We tested the HQ03 magnet at FNAL, including the field quality study. The profiles of low-order harmonics along the magnet aperture observed at 15 kA, 1.9 K can be traced back to the assembled coil pack before the magnet assembly. Based on the measuredmore » harmonics in the magnet center region, the coil block positioning tolerance was analyzed and compared with earlier HQ01 and HQ02 magnets to correlate with coil and magnet fabrication. Our study the capability of correcting the low-order non-allowed field errors, magnetic shims were installed in HQ03. Furthermore, the expected shim contribution agreed well with the calculation. For the persistent-current effect, the measured a4 can be related to 4% higher in the strand magnetization of one coil with respect to the other three coils. Lastly, we compare the field errors due to the inter-strand coupling currents between HQ03 and HQ02.« less

  13. Magnetic analysis of the Nb$$_3$$Sn low-beta quadrupole for the high luminosity LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Bermudez, Susana Izquierdo; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; ...

    2017-01-10

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build 150 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated, assembled and tested in the first short model. This paper presents the magnetic analysis, comparing magnetic field measurements with the expectations and the field quality requirements. The analysis is focused on the geometrical harmonics, iron saturation effect and cold-warm correlation. Three dimensional effects such as the variability of the field harmonics along the magnet axis andmore » the contribution of the coil ends are also discussed. Furthemore, we present the influence of the conductor magnetization and the dynamic effects.« less

  14. Fabrication and test of 4M long Nb3SN quadrupole coil made of RRP-114/127 strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, Rodger; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, Nikolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Kashikhin, Vadim; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Mike; Turrioni, Daniele; Yamada, Ryuji; Zlobin, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) within the US-LHC Accelerator Research Project (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3SN superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. Several two-layer quadrupole models of the 1-meter and 3.4-meter length with 90 mm apertures have been fabricated and tested by the US-LARP collaboration. High-Jc Nb3SN RRP-54/61 strand was used for nearly all models. Large flux jumps typical for this strand, due to the large sub-element diameter, limited magnet quench performance at temperatures below 2.5-3K. This paper summarizes the fabrication and test by Fermilab of LQM01, a long quadrupole coil test structure (quadrupole mirror) with the first 3.4 m quadrupole coil made of more stable RRP-114/127 strand. The coil and structure are fully instrumented with voltage taps, full bridge strain gauges and strip heaters to monitor preload, thermal properties and quench behavior. Measurements during fabrication are reported, including preload during the yoke welding process. Testing is done at 4.5 K, 1.9 K and a range of intermediate temperatures. The test results include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

  15. Magnetic Measurements of the First Nb$_3$Sn Model Quadrupole (MQXFS) for the High-Luminosity LHC

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Ferracin, P.; Holik, E.; Sabbi, G.; Stoynev, S.; Strauss, T.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Todesco, E.; Velev, G.; Wang, X.

    2016-09-06

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are developing high-gradient Nb3Sn magnets for the High Luminosity LHC interaction regions. Magnetic measurements of the first 1.5 m long, 150 mm aperture model quadrupole, MQXFS1, were performed during magnet assembly at LBNL, as well as during cryogenic testing at Fermilab’s Vertical Magnet Test Facility. This paper reports on the results of these magnetic characterization measurements, as well as on the performance of new probes developed for the tests.

  16. Structure for an LHC 90mm Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Hafalia, A.R.; Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Higley, H.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lau, B.; Liggins, N.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi,G.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Swanson, J.

    2005-04-16

    A full-scale mechanical model of the LHC Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet structure has been designed, built and tested. The structure will support a 90mm bore, 1m long magnet prototype as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The structure utilizes Bladder and Key Technology to control and transfer pre-stress from an outer aluminum shell to an inner coil. Axial aluminum rods take care of pre-stress at the ends--ensuring that the coil is fully constrained along all three axes. The outer aluminum shell and an inner ''dummy coil'' (aluminum tube) were extensively instrumented with strain gauges. The gauges were used to monitor and map the effectiveness of the stress relation between the loading structure and a ''dummy'' coil through varying mechanical load conditions --from bladder and key pre-stress at room temperature through cool-down. Test results of the stress distribution in the structure and the in dummy coil is reported and compared with expected results calculated with the structural analysis program ANSYS.

  17. Testing of Nb3Sn quadrupole coils using magnetic mirror structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the design and parameters of a quadrupole mirror structure for testing the mechanical, thermal and quench performance of single shell-type superconducting quadrupole coils at field, current and force levels similar to that of real magnet. The concept was experimentally verified by testing two quadrupole coils, previously used in quadrupole models, in the developed mirror structure in the temperature range from 4.5 to 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, heaters, and strain gauges to monitor their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. A new quadrupole coil made of improved Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP-108/127 strand and cable insulation based on E-glass tape was also tested using this structure. The fabrication and test results of the quadrupole mirror models are reported and discussed.

  18. Development of MQXF: The Nb3Sn low-β quadrupole for the HiLumi LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Ferracin, P.; G. Ambrosio; Anerella, M.; ...

    2015-12-18

    The High Luminosity (HiLumi) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project has, as the main objective, to increase the LHC peak luminosity by a factor five and the integrated luminosity by a factor ten. This goal will be achieved mainly with a new interaction region layout, which will allow a stronger focusing of the colliding beams. The target will be to reduce the beam size in the interaction points by a factor of two, which requires doubling the aperture of the low-β (or inner triplet) quadrupole magnets. The use of Nb3Sn superconducting material and, as a result, the possibility of operating atmore » magnetic field levels in the windings higher than 11 T will limit the increase in length of these quadrupoles, called MQXF, to acceptable levels. After the initial design phase, where the key parameters were chosen and the magnet's conceptual design finalized, the MQXF project, a joint effort between the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program and the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN), has now entered the construction and test phase of the short models. Concurrently, the preparation for the development of the full-length prototypes has been initiated. Lastly, this paper will provide an overview of the project status, describing and reporting on the performance of the superconducting material, the lessons learnt during the fabrication of superconducting coils and support structure, and the fine tuning of the magnet design in view of the start of the prototyping phase.« less

  19. Nb3Sn Quadrupoles in the LHC IR Phase I Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin,A.; Johnstone, J.; Kashikhin, V.; Mokhov, N.; Rakhno, I.; deMaria, R.; Peggs, S.; Robert-Demolaize, F.; Wanderer, P.

    2008-06-23

    After a number of years of operation at nominal parameters, the LHC will be upgraded for higher luminosity. This paper discusses the possibility of using a limited number of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for hybrid optics layouts for the LHC Phase I luminosity upgrades with both NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles. Magnet parameters and issues related to using Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles including aperture, gradient, magnetic length, field quality, operation margin, et cetera are discussed.

  20. Nb3Sn quadrupoles in the LHC IR Phase I upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Johnstone, J.A.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Rakhno, I.L.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Wanderer, P.; /Brookhaven

    2008-06-01

    After a number of years of operation at nominal parameters, the LHC will be upgraded to a higher luminosity. This paper discusses the possibility of using a limited number of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for hybrid optics layouts for the LHC Phase I luminosity upgrades with both NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles. Magnet parameters and issues related to using Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles including aperture, gradient, magnetic length, field quality, operation margin, et cetera are discussed.

  1. Second-generation coil design of the Nb3Sn low-β quadrupole for the high luminosity LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Ambrosio, G.; Ballarino, A.; ...

    2016-01-18

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated and assembled in a first short model. A detailed visual inspection of the coils was carried out to investigate cable dimensional changes during heat treatment and the position of the windings in the coil straight section and in the end region. The analyses allow identifying a set of design changes which, combined with a finemore » tune of the cable geometry and a field quality optimization, were implemented in a new, second-generation, coil design. In this study, we review the main characteristics of the first generation coils, describe the modification in coil lay-out, and discuss their impact on parts design and magnet analysis.« less

  2. Assembly Tests of the First Nb 3 Sn Low-Beta Quadrupole Short Model for the Hi-Lumi LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, H.; Felice, H.; Cheng, D. W.; ...

    2016-01-18

    In preparation for the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) in collaboration with CERN is pursuing the development of MQXF: a 150-mm-aperture high-field Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet. Moreover, the development phase starts with the fabrication and test of several short models (1.2-m magnetic length) and will continue with the development of several long prototypes. All of them are mechanically supported using a shell-based support structure, which has been extensively demonstrated on several R&D models within LARP. The first short model MQXFS-AT has been assembled at LBNL with coils fabricated by LARP and CERN.more » In our paper, we summarize the assembly process and show how it relies strongly on experience acquired during the LARP 120-mm-aperture HQ magnet series. We also present comparison between strain gauges data and finite-element model analysis. Finally, we present the implication of the MQXFS-AT experience on the design of the long prototype support structure.« less

  3. The Study of Single Nb3Sn Quadrupole Coils Using a Magnetic Mirror Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chlachidze, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, N.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.

    2010-07-30

    Several 90-mm quadrupole coils made of 0.7-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn strand based on the 'Restack Rod Process' (RRP) of 108/127 design, with cored and non-cored cables and different cable insulation, were fabricated and individually tested at Fermilab using a test structure designed to provide a quadrupole magnetic field environment. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps and strain gauges to study quench performance and mechanical properties. The Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable parameters, the coil fabrication details, the mirror model assembly procedure and test results at temperatures of 4.5 K and 1.9 K are reported and discussed.

  4. Mechanical Performance of the LARP Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet LQS01

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Schmalzle, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Chlachidze, G.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Mumper, W.; Nobrega, F.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G.L.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-08-03

    As part of the effort towards the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets for future LHC luminosity upgrades, the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has fabricated and tested the quadrupole magnet LQS01. The magnet implements 3.4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils contained in a support structure characterized by an external aluminum shell segmented in four sections. The room temperature pre-load of the structure is obtained by shimming load keys through bladders, pressurized during the loading operations and removed before cool-down. Temperature compensated strain gauges, mounted on structure components and coil poles, monitor the magnet's mechanical behavior during assembly, cool-down and, excitation. During the first test, LQS01 reached the target gradient of 200 T/m; the gauge data indicated that the aluminum shell was pre-tensioned to the target value estimated by numerical models, but a lack of pre-load was measured in the coil inner layer during ramping. As a result, the test was interrupted and the magnet disassembled, and inspected. A second test (LQS01b) was then carried out following a re-loading of the magnet. The paper reports on the strain gauge results of the first test and the analysis performed to identify corrective actions to improve the coil pre-stress distribution. The mechanical performance of the magnet during the second cool-down and test is then presented and discussed.

  5. Field Quality of the First LARP Nb3Sn 3.7 m-Long Quadrupole Model of LQ Series

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Schmalzle, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Escallier, J.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Prebys, E.; Sabbi, G.L.; Tartaglia, M.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-08-03

    The US-LHC accelerator research program (LARP) built and tested the first 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole model of LQ series with a 90 mm bore diameter and a target field gradient of 200 T/m. The LQ series, developed in collaboration among FNAL, LBNL and BNL, is a scale up of the previously tested 1-m long technology quadrupoles of TQ series based on similar coils and two different mechanical structures (shell-based TQS and collar-based TQC), with a primary goal of demonstrating the Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet technology for the luminosity upgrade of LHC interaction regions. In this paper, we present the field quality measurements in the first 3.7-m long LQS01 model based on the modified TQS mechanical structure. The results are compared to the expectations from the magnet geometry and magnetic properties of coils and iron yoke. Moreover, we present a comparison between this magnet and the short models previously measured.

  6. Fabrication and Test of 90-mm Nb3Sn Quadrupole Model Based on Dipole-type Collar

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Velev, G.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-29

    A series of 90-mm TQC quadrupole models with a collar-based mechanical structure has been fabricated and tested within the framework of the US-LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) using quadrupole-symmetric stainless steel collar laminations. This paper describes the design features, construction and test of TQC02Eb, the first TQC made with dipole-type collar and collaring techniques. Magnet test includes quench performance and field quality measurements at 4.5 and 1.9 K. Results of model performance for TQC quadrupoles based on dipole-type and quadrupole-type collars are compared and discussed.

  7. Test Results of the First 3.7 m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole by LARP and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Schmalzle, J.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bingham, B.; Bocian, D.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Escallier, J.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Jochen, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kim, M.J.; Kovach, P.; Lam, M.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitshy, I.; Orris, D.; Prebys, E.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, G.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-08-03

    In December 2009 during its first cold test, LQS01, the first Long Nb{sub 3}Sn Quadrupole made by LARP (LHC Accelerator Research Program, a collaboration of BNL, FNAL, LBNL and SLAC), reached its target field gradient of 200 T/m. This target was set in 2005 by the US Department of Energy, CERN and LARP, as a significant milestone toward the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for possible use in LHC luminosity upgrades. LQS01 is a 90 mm aperture, 3.7 m long quadrupole using Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. The coil layout is equal to the layout used in the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQC and TQS models). Pre-stress and support are provided by a segmented aluminum shell pre-loaded using bladders and keys, similarly to the TQS models. After the first test the magnet was disassembled, reassembled with an optimized pre-stress, and reached 222 T/m at 4.5 K. In this paper we present the results of both tests and the next steps of the Long Quadrupole R and D.

  8. Fabrication and test of 4m long Nb3Sn quadrupole coil made of RRP-114-127 strand

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with LBNL and BNL (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. Several two-layer quadrupole models of the 1-meter and 3.4-meter length with 90mm apertures have been fabricated and tested by the US-LARP collaboration. High-Jc RRP-54/61 strand was used for nearly all models. Large flux jumps typical for this strand due to the large sub-element diameter limited magnet quench performance at temperatures below 2.5-3K. This paper summarizes the fabrication and test by Fermilab of LQM01, a long quadrupole coil test structure (quadrupole mirror) with the first 3.4m quadrupole coil made of more stable RRP-114/127 strand. The coil and structure are fully instrumented with voltage taps, full bridge strain gauges and strip heaters to monitor preload, thermal properties and quench behavior. Measurements during fabrication are reported, including preload during the yoke welding process. Testing is done at 4.5K, 1.9K and a range of intermediate temperatures. The test results include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.

  9. Mechanical qualification of the support structure for MQXF, the Nb3Sn low-β quadrupole for the high luminosity LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Juchno, M.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; ...

    2016-01-26

    Within the scope of the High Luminosity LHC project, the collaboration between CERN and U.S. LARP is developing new low-β quadrupoles using the Nb3Sn superconducting technology for the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. The magnet support structure of the first short model was designed and two units were fabricated and tested at CERN and at LBNL. The structure provides the preload to the collars-coils subassembly by an arrangement of outer aluminum shells pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. For the mechanical qualification of the structure and the assembly procedure, superconducting coils were replaced with solid aluminum “dummy coils”, the structure wasmore » preloaded at room temperature, and then cooled-down to 77 K. Mechanical behavior of the magnet structure was monitored with the use of strain gauges installed on the aluminum shells, the dummy coils and the axial preload system. As a result, this paper reports on the outcome of the assembly and the cool-down tests with dummy coils, which were performed at CERN and at LBNL, and presents the strain gauge measurements compared to the 3D finite element model predictions.« less

  10. Optimization and test of a 120mm LARP Nb3Sn quadrupole coil using magnetic mirror structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

    2011-09-01

    The US-LARP collaboration is developing a new generation of large-aperture high-field quadrupoles based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor for the LHC upgrades. The development and implementation of this new technology involves the fabrication and testing of series of model magnets, coils and other components with various design and processing features. New 120-mm HQ coils made of Rutherford cable, one with an interlayer resistive core, and both with optimized reaction processes, were fabricated and tested using a quadrupole mirror structure under operating conditions similar to those in a real magnet. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps and strain gauges to study the mechanical and quench performance. Quench antenna and temperature gauges were installed in the mirror structure to measure the coil temperature and locate quench origins. This paper presents details of the coil design and fabrication procedures, coil assembly and pre-stress in the quadrupole mirror structure, and coil test results.

  11. Test Results of LARP Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets Using a Shell-based Support Structure (TQS)

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lamm, M.; Tartaglia, M. A.; Zlobin, A. V.; Bajko, M.; Bordini, B.; DeRijk, G.; Giloux, C.; Karppinen, M.; Perez, J. C.; Rossi, L.; Siemko, A.; Todesco, E.

    2008-08-17

    Among the magnet development program of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade, six quadrupole magnets were built and tested using a shell based key and bladder technology (TQS). The 1 m long 90 mm aperture magnets are part o fthe US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) aimed at demonstrating Nb{sub 3}Sn technology by the year 2009, of a 3.6 m long magnet capable of achieving 200 T/m. In support of the LARP program the TQS magnets were tested at three different laboratories, LBNL, FNAL and CERN and while at CERN a technology-transfer and a four days magnet disassembly and reassembly were included. This paper summarizes the fabrication, assembly, cool-down and test results of the six magnets and compres measruements with design expectations.

  12. Test results of TQS03: a LARP shell-based Nb3Sn quadrupole using 108/127 conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Bajko, M.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Feuvrier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Godeke, A.; Lizarazo, J.; Rossi, L.; Sabbi, G.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, X.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2009-09-13

    Future insertion quadrupoles with large apertures and high gradients will be required for the Phase II luminosity upgrade (10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although improved designs, based on NbTi, are being considered as an intermediate step for the Phase I upgrade, the Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor is presently the best option that meets the ultimate performance goals for both operating field and temperature margin. As part of the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology, the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) developed and tested several 1-meter long, 90-mm aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles. The first two series of magnet used OST MJR 54/61 (TQ01 series) and OST RRP 54/61 (TQ02 series) strands. The third series (TQ03) used OST RRP 108/127 conductor. The larger number of sub-elements and the consequent reduction of the effective filament size, together with an increased fraction of copper and a lower Jc were expected to improve the conductor stability. The new coils were tested in the TQS03 series using a shell structure assembled with keys and bladders. The objective of the first test (TQS03a) was to evaluate the performances of the 108/127 conductor and, in particular, its behaviour at 1.9 K, while the second test (TQS03b) investigated the impact on high azimuthal pre-stress on the magnet performance. This paper reports on TQS03 fabrication, the strain gauge measurements performed during assembly, cool-down, excitation and the quench behavior of the two magnets.

  13. Nb3Sn for Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.

    2006-12-18

    In this article, the suitability of Nb3Sn to improve theperformance of superconducting Radio-Frequency (RF)cavities is discussed.The use of Nb3Sn in RF cavitiesis recognized as an enabling technology toretain a veryhigh cavity quality factor (Q0) at 4.2 K and tosignificantly improve the cavity accelerating efficiency per unitlength(Eacc). This potential arises through the fundamental properties ofNb3Sn. The properties that are extensively characterized in theliterature are, however, mainly related to improvements in currentcarrying capacity (Jc) in the vortex state. Much less is available forthe Meissner state, which is of key importance to cavities. Relevantdata, available for the Meissner state is summarized, and it is shown howthis already validates the use of Nb3Sn. In addition, missing knowledgeis highlighted and suggestions are given for further Meissner statespecific research.

  14. Fabrication and Test of a 3.7 m Long Support Structure for the LARP Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet LQS01

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Nobrega, F.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Trillaud, F.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-08-17

    The 3.7 m long quadrupole magnet LQS01 represents a major step of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) towards the development of long Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator quadrupole magnets for a LHC Luminosity upgrade. The magnet support structure is a scale up of the 1 m long Technology Quadrupole TQS design with some modifications suggested by TQS model test results. It includes an aluminum shell pre-tensioned over iron yokes using pressurized bladders and locking keys (bladder and key technology). The axial support is provided by two stainless steel end plates compressed against the coil ends by four stainless steel rods. The structure, instrumented with strain gauges, has been fabricated and assembled around four aluminum 'dummy coils' to determine pre-load homogeneity and mechanical characteristics during cool-down. After presenting the main magnetic and mechanical parameters of LQS01, we report in this paper on the design, assembly, and test of the support structure, with a comparison between strain gauges data and 3D finite element model results.

  15. Assembly and Loading of LQS01, a Shell-Based 3.7 m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Chlachidze, G.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Mumper, W.; Nobrega, F.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-10-19

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been engaged in the fabrication of the 3.7 m long quadrupole magnet LQS01 in order to demonstrate that Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are a viable option for future LHC Luminosity upgrades. The LQS01 design, a scale-up of the 1 m long Technology Quadrupole TQS, includes four 3.4 m long cos(theta) coils contained in a support structure based on four 1 m long aluminum shells pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders (shell-type structure). In order to verify assembly procedures and loading operations, the structure was pre-stressed around solid aluminum 'dummy coils' and cooled-down to 77 K. Mechanical behavior and stress variations were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the structure and on the dummy coils. The dummy coils were then replaced with Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly and loading procedure, in preparation for the cool-down and test. This paper reports on the cool-down test with dummy coils and on the assembly and loading of LQS01, with a comparison between 3D finite element model predictions and strain gauge data.

  16. Design and Analysis of TQS01, a 90 mm Nb3Sn Model Quadrupole for LHC Luminosity Upgrade Based on a Key and Bladder Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.C.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Novitsky, I.V.; Sabbi, G.L.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2006-06-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet technology for the LHC luminosity upgrade. Two 90 mm 'Technology Quadrupole' models (TQS01, TQC01) are being developed in close collaboration between LBNL and FNAL, using identical coil design, but two different support structures. The TQS01 structure was developed and tested at LBNL. With this approach coils are supported by an outer aluminum shell and assembled using keys and bladders. In contrast, the second model TQC01, utilize stainless steel collars and a thick stainless steel skin. This paper describes the TQS01 model magnet, its 3D ANSYS stress analysis, and anticipated instrumentation and assembly procedure.

  17. Design of Nb3Sn coils for LARP long magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Gourlay, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; /Fermilab /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Texas A-M

    2006-08-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has a primary goal to develop, assemble, and test full size Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet models for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major milestone in this development is to assemble and test, by the end of 2009, two 4m-long quadrupole cold masses, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator magnet models approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQ), under development at FNAL and LBNL, with gradient higher than 200 T/m and aperture of 90 mm. The mechanical design will be chosen between two designs presently explored for the TQs: traditional collars and Al-shell based design (preloaded by bladders and keys). The fabrication of the first long quadrupole model is expected to start in the last quarter of 2007. Meanwhile the fabrication of 4m-long racetrack coils started this year at BNL. These coils will be tested in an Al-shell based supporting structure developed at LBNL. Several challenges have to be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. This paper presents these challenges with comments and solutions adopted or under study for these magnets. The coil design of these magnets, including conductor and insulation features, and quench protection studies are also presented.

  18. Summary of the Persistent Current Effect Measurements in Nb 3 Sn and NbTi Accelerator Magnets at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Velev, G. V.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    In the past 10 years, Fermilab has been executing an intensive R&D program on accelerator magnets based on Nb3Sn superconductor technology. This R&D effort includes dipole and quadrupole models for different programs, such as LARP and 11 T dipoles for the LHC high-luminosity upgrade. Before the Nb3Sn R&D program, Fermilab was involved in the production of the low-beta quadrupole magnets for LHC based on the NbTi superconductor. Additionally, during the 2003-2005 campaign to optimize the operation of the Tevatron, a large number of Tevatron magnets were re-measured. As a result of this field analysis, a systematic study of the persistentmore » current decay and snapback effect in these magnets was performed. This paper summarizes the result of this study and presents a comparison between Nb3Sn and NbTi dipoles and quadrupoles.« less

  19. Dimensional changes of Nb3Sn Rutherford cables during heat treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Rochepault, E.; Ferracin, P.; Ambrosio, G.; ...

    2016-06-01

    In high field magnet applications, Nb3Sn coils undergo a heat treatment step after winding. During this stage, coils radially expand and longitudinally contract due to the Nb3Sn phase change. In order to prevent residual strain from altering superconducting performances, the tooling must provide the adequate space for these dimensional changes. The aim of this paper is to understand the behavior of cable dimensions during heat treatment and to provide estimates of the space to be accommodated in the tooling for coil expansion and contraction. In addition, this paper summarizes measurements of dimensional changes on strands, single Rutherford cables, cable stacks,more » and coils performed between 2013 and 2015. These samples and coils have been performed within a collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program to develop Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets for the HiLumi LHC. The results are also compared with other high field magnet projects.« less

  20. Nb3Sn SRF Cavities for Nuclear Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeev, Grigory

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear physics experiments rely increasingly on accelerators, which employ superconducting RF (SRF) technology. CEBAF, SNS, FRIB, ESS, among others exploit the low surface resistance of SRF cavities to efficiently accelerate particle beams towards experimental targets. Niobium is the cavity material of choice for all current or planned SRF accelerators, but it has been long recognized that other superconductors with high superconducting transition temperatures have the potential to surpass niobium for SRF applications. Among the alternatives, Nb3Sn coated cavities are the most advanced on the path to practical applications: Nb3Sn coatings on R&D cavities have Tc consistently close the optimal 18 K, very low RF surface resistances, and very recently were shown to reach above Hc1 without anomalous RF surface resistance increase. In my talk I will discuss the prospects of Nb3Sn SRF cavities, the research efforts to realize Nb3Sn coatings on practical multi-cell accelerating structures, and the path toward possible inclusion in CEBAF. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  1. Synthesis of superconducting Nb3Sn coatings on Nb substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, E.; Franz, S.; Reginato, F.; ...

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the electrochemical and thermal syntheses of superconductive Nb3Sn films are investigated. The Nb3Sn phase is obtained by electrodeposition of Sn layers and Cu intermediate layers onto Nb substrates followed by high temperature diffusion in inert atmosphere. Electrodeposition was performed from aqueous solutions at current densities in the 20 to 50 mA/cm2 range and at temperatures between 40 and 50°C. Subsequent thermal treatments were realized to obtain the Nb3Sn superconductive phase. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) demonstrated that after thermal treatment interdiffusion of Nb and Sn occurred across a thickness of about 13 μm. Scanning Electronmore » Microscopy (SEM) allowed accurately measuring the thickness of the Nb3Sn phase, whose average for the various types of film samples was between 5.7 and 8.0 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the presence of a cubic Nb3Sn phase (A15 structure) having (210) preferred orientation. The maximum obtained Tc was 17.68 K and the Bc20 ranged between 22.5 T and 23.8 T. With the procedure described in the present paper, coating complex shapes cost-effectively becomes possible, which is typical of electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, this approach can be implemented in classical wire processes such as "Jelly Roll" or "Rod in Tube", or directly used for producing superconducting surfaces. In conclusion, the potential of this method for Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) structures is also outlined.« less

  2. Synthesis of superconducting Nb3Sn coatings on Nb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzi, E.; Bestetti, M.; Reginato, F.; Turrioni, D.; Franz, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work the electrochemical and thermal syntheses of superconducting Nb3Sn films are investigated. The Nb3Sn phase is obtained by electrodeposition of Sn layers and Cu intermediate layers onto Nb substrates followed by high temperature diffusion in inert atmosphere. Electrodeposition was performed from aqueous solutions at current densities in the 20-50 mA cm-2 range and at temperatures between 40 °C and 50 °C. Subsequent thermal treatments were realized to obtain the Nb3Sn superconductive phase. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry demonstrated that after thermal treatment interdiffusion of Nb and Sn occurred across a thickness of about 13 μm. Scanning electron microscopy allowed accurately measuring the thickness of the Nb3Sn phase, whose average for the various types of film samples was between 5.7 and 8.0 μm. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of a cubic Nb3Sn phase (A15 structure) having (210) preferred orientation. The maximum obtained T c was 17.68 K and the B c20 ranged between 22.5 and 23.8 T. With the procedure described in the present paper, coating complex shapes cost-effectively becomes possible, which is typical of electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, this approach can be implemented in classical wire processes such as ‘jelly roll’ or ‘rod in tube’, or directly used for producing superconducting surfaces. The potential of this method for superconducting radiofrequency structures is also outlined.

  3. Fabrication and Analysis of 150-mm-Aperture Nb3Sn MQXF Coils

    DOE PAGES

    Holik, E. F.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; ...

    2016-01-12

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are combining efforts for the HiLumi-LHC upgrade to design and fabricate 150-mm-aperture, interaction region quadrupoles with a nominal gradient of 130 T/m using Nb3Sn. To successfully produce the necessary long MQXF triplets, the HiLumi-LHC collaboration is systematically reducing risk and design modification by heavily relying upon the experience gained from the successful 120-mm-aperture LARP HQ program. First generation MQXF short (MQXFS) coils were predominately a scaling up of the HQ quadrupole design allowing comparable cable expansion during Nb3Sn formation heat treatment and increased insulation fraction for electrical robustness. A total ofmore » 13 first generation MQXFS coils were fabricated between LARP and CERN. Systematic differences in coil size, coil alignment symmetry, and coil length contraction during heat treatment are observed and likely due to slight variances in tooling and insulation/cable systems. Analysis of coil cross sections indicate that field-shaping wedges and adjacent coil turns are systematically displaced from the nominal location and the cable is expanding less than nominally designed. Lastly, a second generation MQXF coil design seeks to correct the expansion and displacement discrepancies by increasing insulation and adding adjustable shims at the coil pole and midplanes to correct allowed magnetic field harmonics.« less

  4. Design, analyses, fabrication and characterization of Nb3Sn coil in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Kumar, Nitish; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory scale Nb3Sn coil is designed, analysed, fabricated and characterized in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler in solid nitrogen cooling mode and in conduction cooling mode. The magnetic field profile in axial and radial direction, Lorentz force component across the winding volume in operational condition are estimated in COMSOL. The coil is designed for 1.5 T at 100 A. It is fabricated in wind and react method. Before winding, the insulated Nb3Sn strand is wound on a copper mandrel which is thermally anchored with the 2nd stage of the cold head unit via a 10 mm thick copper ‘Z’ shaped plate The temperature distribution in 2nd cold stage, copper z plate and coil is monitored in both solid nitrogen cooling and conduction cooling mode. In solid nitrogen cooling mode, the quench of the coil occurs at 150 A for 0.01 A/s current ramp rate. The magnetic field at the centre of the coil bore is measured using transverse Hall sensor. The measured magnetic field value is compared with the analytical field value and they are found to be deviating ∼5% in magnitude. Again the coil is tested in conduction cooling mode maintaining the same current ramp rate and it is observed that the coil gets quenched at 70 A at temperature ∼ 10K.

  5. Test Results of 15 T Nb{sub 3}Sn Quadrupole Magnet HQ01 with a 120 mm Bore for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bingham, B.; Bossert, R.; Cheng, D. W.; Chlachidze, G.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joseph, J.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Wang, X.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2010-08-01

    In support of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb3 Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a conductor peak field of 15 T, the magnet will operate under higher forces and stored-energy levels than that of any previous LARP magnet models. In addition, HQ has been designed to incorporate accelerator quality features such as precise coil alignment and adequate cooling. The first 6 coils (out of the 8 fabricated so far) have been assembled and used in two separate tests-HQ01a and HQ01b. This paper presents design parameters, summary of the assemblies, the mechanical behavior as well as the performance of HQ01a and HQ01b.

  6. Nb3Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  7. Prospects for Improving the Critical Current Density of Superconducting Nb3Sn Strands via Optimization of Nb3Sn Fraction, Stoichiometry, and Grain Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingchen

    Superconducting Nb3Sn strands are the key building blocks of high-field (>10 T) magnets. There are multiple figures of merit defining the quality of a Nb3Sn strand, such as critical current density (Jc), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), and effective subelement size (deff). Among these the high-field Jc is the key factor for the application of Nb3Sn strands in magnets, because the supercurrent-carrying capability of Nb 3Sn strands essentially determines the limit of the magnetic field that can be generated in a given magnet design. It is the primary goal of this dissertation to explore ways to improve the high-field non-matrix Jc of Nb3Sn strands without sacrificing other factors (e.g., RRR and deff). A green-state Nb3Sn wire is composed of precursor metals or alloys, which transform to superconducting Nb3Sn phase through a diffusion reaction process during a heat treatment at typically 600-800 °C. The high-field non-matrix Jc of Nb 3Sn strands was improved significantly due to the extensive efforts by the scientists of the Nb3Sn community. These improvements in Jc were mainly driven by three aspects: improvement of the subelement design (i.e., optimizing the subelement architecture and the precursor amounts, e.g., enhancing the Nb and Sn fractions in subelements), use of the right type and amount of dopants, and optimization of the heat treatment schedules. However, the improvement in Jc of Nb3Sn strands has plateaued since 2002, with the rod-restack-process (RRP) strands pushing the 4.2 K, 12 T non-matrix Jc to ˜3000 A/mm2, and the 15 T value to ˜1600 A/mm 2. Given the plateau of Jc improvement over the last decade, researchers have been asking this question: how to further improve the high-field Jc of Nb3Sn strands? This is also the question that this dissertation aims to answer. For this goal, a literature review of the factors determining non-Cu Jc of Nb3Sn conductors is given in chapter 1. It is seen that the non-matrix Jc of Nb 3Sn strands are mainly

  8. Current Progress in Fabrication of a 14 Tesla Nb3Sn Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie, III; Benson, Christopher; Damborsky, Kyle; Diaczenko, Nick; Elliott, Tim; Garrison, Ray; Jaisle, Andrew; McInturff, Alfred; McIntyre, Peter; Sattarov, Dior

    2012-03-01

    The Accelerator Technology Laboratory at Texas A&M is fabricating a model dipole magnet, TAMU3, designed to operate at a 14 Tesla bore field. The dipole employs an advanced internal-tin Nb3Sn/Cu composite strand with enhanced current density. The coils must be processed through a heat treatment after winding, during which the Sn within the heterogeneous strands diffuse into the Cu/Nb matrix to form high-performance superconducting layers. Heat treatment of the first coil assembly revealed tin leakage from the Sn cores that was caused by omission of a pre-anneal step in the heat treatment. We are evaluating the electrical properties of the coil, the microstructure and short-sample superconducting performance of cut-off samples of current leads to determine the extent of damage to the performance of the windings. Results of those tests and plans for construction of TAMU3 will be presented.

  9. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of "ten stacks" of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  10. Recent Progress in Application of Internal Oxidation Technique in Nb3Sn Strands

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xingchen; Peng, Xuan; Sumption, Michael; Collings, E. W.

    2016-10-13

    The internal oxidation technique can generate ZrO2 nano particles in Nb3Sn strands, which markedly refine the Nb3Sn grain size and boost the high-field critical current density (Jc). This article summarizes recent efforts on implementing this technique in practical Nb3Sn wires and adding Ti as a dopant. It is demonstrated that this technique can be readily incorporated into the present Nb3Sn conductor manufacturing technology. Powder-in-tube (PIT) strands with fine subelements (~25 µm) based on this technique were successfully fabricated, and proper heat treatments for oxygen transfer were explored. Future work for producing strands ready for applications is proposed.

  11. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupolemagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich,Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman,Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-04-14

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

  12. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  13. PERSISTENT CURRENT EFFECT IN 15-16 T NB3SN ACCELERATOR DIPOLES AND ITS CORRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V. V.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2016-11-08

    Nb3Sn magnets with operating fields of 15-16 T are considered for the LHC Energy Doubler and a future Very High Energy pp Collider. Due to large coil volume, high critical current density and large superconducting (SC) filament size the persistent current effect is very large in Nb3Sn dipoles al low fields. This paper presents the results of analysis of the persistent current effect in the 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator being developed at FNAL, and describes different possibilities of its correction including passive SC wires, iron shims and coil geometry.

  14. A multiple-field coupled resistive transition model for superconducting Nb3Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, He; Zhang, Xin; Qiao, Li

    2016-12-01

    A study on the superconducting transition width as functions of the applied magnetic field and strain is performed in superconducting Nb3Sn. A quantitative, yet universal phenomenological resistivity model is proposed. The numerical simulation by the proposed model shows predicted resistive transition characteristics under variable magnetic fields and strain, which in good agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore, a temperature-modulated magnetoresistance transition behavior in filamentary Nb3Sn conductors can also be well described by the given model. The multiple-field coupled resistive transition model is helpful for making objective determinations of the high-dimensional critical surface of Nb3Sn in the multi-parameter space, offering some preliminary information about the basic vortex-pinning mechanisms, and guiding the design of the quench protection system of Nb3Sn superconducting magnets.

  15. Development of an Innovative Insulation for Nb3Sn Wind and React Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigsegur, A.; Rondeaux, F.; Prouzet, E.; Samoogabalan, K.

    2004-06-01

    At the present time, Nb3Sn is the best superconductor candidate for the realization of high field magnets (>10-11 teslas). However its implementation remains delicate because of the great brittleness of material after the heat treatment necessary to form the Nb3Sn compounds. The conventional insulation for Nb3Sn wind & react coils requires performing, after the heat treatment, a vacuum resin impregnation, which adds to the cost and raises failure risk. We propose a one-step innovating ceramic insulation deposited directly on the un-reacted conducting cable. The conducting cable is wound according to conventional techniques and, after the heat treatment necessary to the form the Nb3Sn, we obtain a coil having a mechanical cohesion, while maintaining a proper conductor positioning and a suitable electric insulation. We will have studied the electric properties of superconducting cable isolated at the room temperature and at 4.2 K.

  16. Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities: fabrication, results, properties, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, S.; Hall, D. L.

    2017-03-01

    A microns-thick film of Nb3Sn on the inner surface of a superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity has been demonstrated to substantially improve cryogenic efficiency compared to the standard niobium material, and its predicted superheating field is approximately twice as high. We review in detail the advantages of Nb3Sn coatings for SRF cavities. We describe the vapor diffusion process used to fabricate this material in the most successful experiments, and we compare the differences in the process used at different labs. We overview results of Nb3Sn SRF coatings, including CW and pulsed measurements of cavities as well as microscopic measurements. We discuss special considerations that must be practised when using Nb3Sn cavities in applications. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the state-of-the-art and describing the outlook for this alternative SRF material.

  17. RECENT STUDIES ON THE CURRENT LIMITATIONS OF STATE-OF-THE-ART Nb3Sn CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Daniel Leslie; Liepe, Matthias; Maniscalco, J. T.; Posen, Sam; Proslier, T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of Nb3Sn at Cornell University have yielded single-cell cavities that show excellent performance without the limiting Q-slope seen in previous work. This performance has been shown to be repeatable across multiple cavities. However, they are still limited by a quench field of approximately 16 MV/m, as well as residual resistance. In this work we present results quantifying the impact of ambient magnetic fields on Nb3Sn cavities, as well as discuss the impact of cavity cooldown procedures on cavity performance. Finally, we will briefly discuss XRD results that shed light on the composition of the Nb3Sn layer and how this relates to the current limits of these cavities.

  18. Quench protection studies of the 11-T Nb3Sn dipole for the LHC upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Bermudez, Susana Izquierdo; Auchmann, Bernhard; Bajas, Hugues; ...

    2016-06-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb3Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data frommore » the 2-m-long Nb3Sn dipole models. Here, the validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.« less

  19. Strain sensitivity and superconducting properties of Nb3Sn from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marzi, G.; Morici, L.; Muzzi, L.; della Corte, A.; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.

    2013-04-01

    Using calculations from first principles based on density-functional theory we have studied the strain sensitivity of the A15 superconductor Nb3Sn. The Nb3Sn lattice cell was deformed in the same way as observed experimentally on multifilamentary, technological wires subject to loads applied along their axes. The phonon dispersion curves and electronic band structures along different high-symmetry directions in the Brillouin zone were calculated, at different levels of applied strain, ɛ, on both the compressive and the tensile side. Starting from the calculated averaged phonon frequencies and electron-phonon coupling, the superconducting characteristic critical temperature of the material, Tc, has been calculated by means of the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula. As a result, the characteristic bell-shaped Tc versus ɛ curve, with a maximum at zero intrinsic strain, and with a slight asymmetry between the tensile and compressive sides, has been obtained. These first-principle calculations thus show that the strain sensitivity of Nb3Sn has a microscopic and intrinsic origin, originating from shifts in the Nb3Sn critical surface. In addition, our computations show that variations of the superconducting properties of this compound are correlated to stress-induced changes in both the phononic and electronic properties. Finally, the strain function describing the strain sensitivity of Nb3Sn has been extracted from the computed Tc(ɛ) curve, and compared to experimental data from multifilamentary, composite wires. Both curves show the expected bell-shaped behavior, but the strain sensitivity of the wire is enhanced with respect to the theoretical predictions for bulk, perfectly binary and stoichiometric Nb3Sn. An understanding of the origin of this difference might open potential pathways towards improvement of the strain tolerance in such systems.

  20. Quench Protection Studies of 11T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Models for LHC Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, Alexander; Chlachidze, Guram; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Karppinen, Mikko

    2014-07-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  1. Status of 11 T 2-in-1 Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, Alexander; Andreev, Nicolai; Apollinari, Giorgio; Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Buehler, Marc; Chlachidze, Guram; DiMarco, Joseph; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Turrioni, Daniele; Velev, Gueorgui; Auchmann, Bernhard; Karppinen, Mikko; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David

    2014-07-01

    The LHC upgrade plans foresee installation of additional collimators in the LHC lattice. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for these collimators, shorter and stronger Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems could be used. This paper describes the design and status of the twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole being developed by FNAL and CERN for the LHC, and reports test results of two collared coils to be used in the first 1 m long twin-aperture dipole model.

  2. Tests of Insulation Systems for Nb3SN Wind and React Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.

    2008-03-01

    Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb3Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500 V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

  3. Instrumentation and Quench Protection for LARP Nb3Sn Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidize, G.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R. C.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, X.

    2008-08-17

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing Nb{sub 3}Sn prototype quadrupoles for the LHC interaction region upgrades. Several magnets have been tested within this program and understanding of their behavior and performance is a primary goal. The instrumentation is consequently a key consideration, as is protection of the magnet during quenches. In all LARP magnets, the flexible circuits traces combine the instrumentation and the protection heaters. Their fabrication relies on printed circuit technology based on a laminate made of a 45-micron thick kapton sheet and a 25-micron thick foil of stainless steel. This paper reviews the protection heaters designs used in the TQ (Technology Quadrupole) and LR (Long Racetrack) series as well as the one used in LBNL HD2a high field dipole and presents the design of the traces for the Long Quadrupole (LQ), addressing challenges associated with the stored energy and the length of the magnet.

  4. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Novitski, I.

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  5. Microstructure observations on butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Tokitani, Masayuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki

    2017-01-01

    To precisely evaluate a butt joint technology for the JT-60SA CS coils, microstructure observations on the butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors were conducted using a FE-SEM. As a sample for the observations, the butt joint sample utilized in the joint resistance measurement was used. During the sample fabrication, the butt joint sample was heated up to about 920 K from room temperature for diffusion bonding after heat treatment for Nb3Sn production. Then, the sample was subjected to the cycles of electromagnetic force in the joint measurement. The observation results indicated that Nb3Sn strands and a copper sheet were butted properly at the interface of the butt joint. In addition, there were hairline cracks in the Nb3Sn layers of the strands near the interface. To investigate a cause of the crack initiation, the stresses generated in the butt joint under same conditions were analyzed using a simple model. As a result, the cracks would occur with an axial compressive stress generated by the butt joint fabrication.

  6. Nb3Sn RRP® strand and Rutherford cable development for a 15 T dipole demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, E.; Andreev, N.; Li, P.; ...

    2016-03-16

    Keystoned Rutherford cables made of 28 strands and with a stainless steel core were developed and manufactured using 1 mm Nb3Sn composite wires produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology with 127 and 169 restacks using the Restacked-Rod-Process®. Furthermore, the performance and properties of these cables were studied to evaluate possible candidates for 15 T accelerator magnets.

  7. Advances in development of Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, Sam; Liepe, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    A 1.3 GHz Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavity prepared with a modified annealing step reached Bp k>50 mT , well above Bc 1=25 ±7 mT , without the strong Q -slope observed in previous Nb3Sn cavities. At 4.2 K, it has a Q0 of approximately 1 ×1 010 at >10 MV /m , far outperforming Nb at useable gradients. At 2 K, quench occurred at ˜55 mT , apparently due to a defect, so additional treatment may increase the maximum gradient. Material parameters of the coating were extracted from Q vs T data, including a Tc of 18.0 ±0.1 K , close to the maximum literature value. High power pulses were used to reach fields far higher than in CW measurements, and near Tc, quench fields close to the superheating field were observed. Based on a review of previous experience with Nb3Sn cavities, a speculative mechanism involving weak link grain boundaries is presented to explain how the modified annealing step could be the cause of the absence of strong Q -slope. Finally, an analysis of the progress to date provides hints that the path forward for Nb3Sn cavities should focus on minimizing defects.

  8. Test results of a Nb3Al/Nb3Sn subscale magnet for accelerator application

    DOE PAGES

    Iio, Masami; Xu, Qingjin; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; ...

    2015-01-28

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been developing a Nb3Al and Nb3Sn subscale magnet to establish the technology for a high-field accelerator magnet. The development goals are a feasibility demonstration for a Nb3Al cable and the technology acquisition of magnet fabrication with Nb3Al superconductors. KEK developed two double-pancake racetrack coils with Rutherford-type cables composed of 28 Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating, quenching, and transformation in collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The magnet was fabricated to efficiently generate a high magnetic field in a minimum-gap common-coil configuration with twomore » Nb3Al coils sandwiched between two Nb3Sn coils produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A shell-based structure and a “bladder and key” technique have been used for adjusting coil prestress during both the magnet assembly and the cool down. In the first excitation test of the magnet at 4.5 K performed in June 2014, the highest quench current of the Nb3Sn coil, i.e., 9667 A, was reached at 40 A/s corresponding to 9.0 T in the Nb3Sn coil and 8.2 T in the Nb3Al coil. The quench characteristics of the magnet were studied.« less

  9. Development of a 15 T Nb3Sn accelerator dipole demonstrator at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Novitski, I.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Here, a 100 TeV scale Hadron Collider (HC) with a nominal operation field of at least 15 T is being considered for the post-LHC era, which requires using the Nb3Sn technology. Practical demonstration of this field level in an accelerator-quality magnet and substantial reduction of the magnet costs are the key conditions for realization of such a machine. FNAL has started the development of a 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale HC. The magnet design is based on 4-layer shell type coils, graded between the inner and outer layers to maximize the performance and reduce themore » cost. The experience gained during the Nb3Sn magnet R&D is applied to different aspects of the magnet design. This paper describes the magnetic and structural designs and parameters of the 15 T Nb3Sn dipole and the steps towards the demonstration model fabrication.« less

  10. Developmentof the 15 T Nb3Sn dipole HD2

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Dietderich, D.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Higley, H.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is continuing the development of HD2, a 1 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole generating a dipole field of 15 T in a 36 mm clear bore. With tilted (flared) ends to avoid obstructing the beam path, HD2 represents a step towards the development of cost effective accelerator quality magnets. The design has been optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and to address iron saturation and conductor magnetization effects. The support structure is based on an external aluminum shell, pre-tensioned with pressurized bladders and interference keys. Aluminum axial rods and stainless steel end plates provide longitudinal support to the coil ends during magnet excitation. This paper reports on field quality optimization and magnet parameters. The design and fabrication of the coil and structure components, and results from coil winding, reaction, and potting are also presented.

  11. Radio Frequency Magnetic Field Limits of Nb and Nb_{3}Sn.

    PubMed

    Posen, S; Valles, N; Liepe, M

    2015-07-24

    Superconducting radio frequency (srf) cavities, essential components of many large particle accelerators, rely on the metastable flux-free state of superconducting materials. In this Letter, we present results of experiments measuring the magnetic field limits of two srf materials, Nb and Nb_{3}Sn. Resonators made using these materials were probed using both high power rf pulses and dc magnetic fields. Nb, which is the current standard material for srf cavities in applications, was found to be limited by the superheating field H_{sh} when prepared using methods to avoid excessive rf dissipation at high fields. Nb_{3}Sn, which is a promising alternative material that is still in the early stages of development for srf purposes, was found to be limited between the onset field of metastability H_{c1} and H_{sh}. Analysis of the results shows that the limitation is consistent with nucleation of flux penetration at defects in the rf layer.

  12. Radio Frequency Magnetic Field Limits of Nb and Nb3 Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, S.; Valles, N.; Liepe, M.

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (srf) cavities, essential components of many large particle accelerators, rely on the metastable flux-free state of superconducting materials. In this Letter, we present results of experiments measuring the magnetic field limits of two srf materials, Nb and Nb3 Sn . Resonators made using these materials were probed using both high power rf pulses and dc magnetic fields. Nb, which is the current standard material for srf cavities in applications, was found to be limited by the superheating field Hsh when prepared using methods to avoid excessive rf dissipation at high fields. Nb3Sn , which is a promising alternative material that is still in the early stages of development for srf purposes, was found to be limited between the onset field of metastability Hc 1 and Hsh. Analysis of the results shows that the limitation is consistent with nucleation of flux penetration at defects in the rf layer.

  13. "Engineered dual NbTa barriers for higher Jc Nb3Sn superconductors"

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Barber; Karl T. Hartwig

    2012-07-07

    The tantalum (Ta) diffusion barrier in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors often develops a failure mode during wire drawing where the Nb and Ta layers deform non-uniformly leading to a rough interface with adjacent copper. The non-uniform deformation of these layers can lead to premature wire breakage and breaches in the barrier, and contamination of the copper stabilizer by tin (Sn). The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate that a dual NbTa layer made from severely deformed Nb and Ta exhibits improved co-deformation behavior with pure Cu in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors. This phase I project demonstrated improved microstructural uniformity and superior mechanical property characteristics of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) processed and rolled Nb and Ta sheets. The results of this work point to a method for fabrication of higher field and lower cost superconducting magnets for high energy physics applications.

  14. Testing of a Single 11 T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole Coil Using a Dipole Mirror Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, Alexander; Andreev, Nicolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Kashikhin, Vadim; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Turrioni, Daniele; Karppinen, Mikko; Smekens, David

    2014-07-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. To optimize coil design parameters and fabrication process and study coil performance, a series of 1 m long dipole coils is being fabricated. One of the short coils has been tested using a dipole mirror structure. This paper describes the dipole mirror magnetic and mechanical designs, and reports coil parameters and test results.

  15. Heat Treatment Optimization of Rutherford Cables for a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Marianne; Field, Michael; ...

    2017-01-09

    FNAL has been developing a 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator for a future Very High Energy pp Collider based on an optimized 60-mm aperture 4-layer “cos-theta” coil. In order to increase magnet efficiency, we graded the coil by using two cables with same 15 mm width and different thicknesses made of two different Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) wires. Due to the non-uniform field distribution in dipole coils the maximum field in the inner coil will reach 15-16 T, whereas the maximum field in the outer coil is 12-13 T. In preparation for the 15 T dipole coil reaction, heat treatmentmore » studies were performed on strands extracted from these cables with the goal of achieving the best coil performance in the corresponding magnetic fields. Particularly, the effect of maximum temperature and time on the cable critical current was studied to take into account actual variations of these parameters during coil reaction. In parallel and in collaboration with OST, development was performed on optimizing Nb3Sn RRP® wire design and layout. Index Terms— Accelerator magnet, critical current density, Nb3Sn strand, Rutherford cable.« less

  16. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yuhu; Calzolaio, Ciro; Senatore, Carmine

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  17. Magnetic and Structural Design of a 15 T $Nb_3Sn$ Accelerator Depole Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Novitski, I.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Hadron Colliders (HC) are the most powerful discovery tools in modern high energy physics. A 100 TeV scale HC with a nominal operation field of at least 15 T is being considered for the post-LHC era. The choice of a 15 T nominal field requires using the Nb3Sn technology. Practical demonstration of this field level in an accelerator-quality magnet and substantial reduction of the magnet costs are the key conditions for realization of such a machine. FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale HC. The magnet design is based on 4-layer shell type coils, graded between the inner and outer layers to maximize the performance. The experience gained during the 11-T dipole R&D campaign is applied to different aspects of the magnet design. This paper describes the magnetic and structural designs and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_3Sn$ dipole and the steps towards the demonstration model.

  18. HIGH Q0 AT MEDIUM FIELDS IN Nb3Sn SRF CAVITIES AT 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Liepe, Matthias; Proslier, T.

    2015-01-01

    Nb3Sn has proven itself to be a very promising alternative SRF material. With twice the critical temperature of niobium cavities, 1.3 GHz Nb3Sn cavities can achieve quality factors on the order of 1010 even at 4.2 K, significantly reducing cryogenic infrastructure and operational costs. In addition, its large predicted superheating field may allow for maximum accelerating gradients up to twice that of niobium for high energy applications. In this work, we report on new cavity results fromthe CornellNb3Sn SRF program demonstrating a significant improvement in the maximum field achieved with high Q0 in a Nb3Sn cavity. At 4.2 K, accelerating gradients above 16MV/m were obtainedwith Q0 of 8 × 109, showing the potential of this material for future applications. In addition to this result, current limitations are discussed.

  19. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  20. Finite-element analysis of transverse compressive and thermal loads on Nb3Sn wires with voids

    DOE PAGES

    Zhai, Y.; D'Hauthuille, L.; Barth, C.; ...

    2016-02-29

    High-field superconducting magnets play a very important role in many large-scale physics experiments, particularly particle colliders and fusion confinement devices such as Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The two most common superconductors used in these applications are NbTi and Nb3Sn. Nb3Sn wires are favored because of their significantly higher Jc (critical current density) for higher field applications. The main disadvantage of Nb3Sn is that the superconducting performance of the wire is highly strain sensitive and it is very brittle. This strain sensitivity is strongly influenced by two factors: plasticity and cracked filaments. Cracks are inducedmore » by large stress concentrators that can be traced to the presence of voids in the wire. We develop detailed 2-D and 3-D finite-element models containing wire filaments and different possible distributions of voids in a bronze-route Nb3Sn wire. We apply compressive transverse loads for various cases of void distributions to simulate the stress and strain response of a Nb3Sn wire under the Lorentz force. Furthermore, this paper improves our understanding of the effect voids have on the Nb3Sn wire's mechanical properties, and in so, the connection between the distribution of voids and performance degradation such as the correlation between irreversible strain limit and the void-induced local stress concentrations.« less

  1. Effect of quasi-hydrostatical radial pressure on Ic of Nb3Sn wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Ferreira, A.; Bordini, B.; Oberli, L.; Bottura, L.; Ballarino, A.; Flükiger, R.; Senatore, C.

    2012-11-01

    High-performance Nb3Sn conductors are intended to be used in large-scale magnets like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and in the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the occurrence of high electromagnetic forces, a detailed knowledge of the response of the critical current to the three-dimensional mechanical loads acting on the wires inside the cables is required. A detailed analysis of transverse stress effects on the critical current for powder-in-tube and bronze route Nb3Sn wires is presented. In an earlier publication, we have described the effect of transverse stress exerted on a Nb3Sn wire by means of two parallel plates. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of transverse stress exerted simultaneously by four walls on a wire being confined in a U-shaped groove. In order to get a more realistic picture of the situation of wires embedded in a Rutherford cable, the compression by four walls was also performed after impregnating the wire with epoxy in the same U-shaped groove. The result is very different from the case of pressing by means of two walls: the effect of pressure on Ic is now strongly reduced, which is attributed to the almost hydrostatic pressure in the U-shaped groove. This is further confirmed by the comparison between the effects of axial and transverse loads on the upper critical field and the pinning force. The present data are also compared against the effects of mechanical load on the critical current of cables in large-scale magnets.

  2. 11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Auchmann, B.; Barzi, E.; Izquierdo Bermudez, S.; Bossert, R.; Buehler, M.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Karppinen, M.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Rossi, L.; Smekens, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, Genadi

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.

  3. Development and Comparison of Mechanical Structures for FNAL 15 T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, I.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2016-11-08

    Main design challenges for 15 T accelerator magnets are large Lorentz forces at this field level. The large Lorentz forces generate high stresses in the coil and mechanical structure and, thus, need stress control to maintain them at the acceptable level for brittle Nb3Sn coils and other elements of magnet mechanical structure. To provide these conditions and achieve the design field in the FNAL 15 T dipole demonstrator, several mechanical structures have been developed and analysed. The possibilities and limitations of these designs are discussed in this paper

  4. Germination et texture du composé supraconducteur Nb3Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillard, R.; Ustinov, A. I.

    2002-07-01

    The composite design and/or manufacturing process of the Nb3Sn multifilamentary strands are continuously changed so as to improve the superconducting behaviour. Such an enhancement depends on both the amount and microstructure of the superconducting phase. The study of the parameters and of the mechanisms of the phase transformations is therefore of the higher importance. The stages of nucleation and growth of the Nb3Sn grains are mainly investigated by thin foil transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The results obtained with the various techniques are shown to be in accordance and to complete each other. An example establishes their usefulness in order to explain the evolution of the critical current density. The effect of the grain misorientation on the critical current density is also considered. L'amélioration du comportement supraconducteur des composites multifilantentaires à base de Nb3Sn passe par la définition de nouveaux designs et/ou de nouveaux procédés de fabrication. Le comportement supraconducteur est régi par la quantité et la microstructure de la phase supraconductrice. Ce dernier paramètre impose d'identifier la nature des mécanismes des transformations de phases et leurs paramèt res. La démarche met en oeuvre la microscopie électronique en transmission et la détermination des orientations cristallographiques aux rayons X. Elle est appliquée aux stades de germination et de croissance des grains de la phase Nb3Sn dans le procédé de la source d'étain interne. Les apports complémentaires et concordants des différentes techniques sont dégagés. L'importance des résultats pour l'interprétation des variations de la densité de courant critique est démontrée par un exemple. L'influence de la désorientation entre les grains sur la densité de courant critique est finalement considérée.

  5. ITER Model Coil Tests Overview: Nb3Sn Strand Properties in Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2003-04-14

    During the ITER Model Coil Program two large coils and three Insert coils were built and tested. The test campaigns provided very valuable data on the Conductor in Conduit Cable (CICC) properties. The tests showed that the Nb3Sn strands in CICC behave differently than so-called witness strands, which underwent the same heat treatment. The paper describes Volt-temperature characteristics (VTC) and Volt-Ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in the tests, presents comparisons with the witness strands, and interprets the test results.

  6. Design and fabrication of indigenous 30 kA Nb3Sn CICC for fusion relevant superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, P.; Ghate, M.; Pradhan, S.; Singh, A.; Hussain, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    “Magnet Technology Development Group” is engaged in focused research and development of indigenous fusion relevant superconducting magnet at Institute for Plasma Research in association with various R&D organizations. The fusion relevant superconducting magnet is under development using a cable in conduit conductor (CICC) with operating current of 30 kA at 12 T and 4.22 K. The 30 kA CICC has been designed in square cross-section (30 mm × 30 mm) consisting twisted Nb3Sn strands and copper strands as superconducting cable, SS316LN tubes as jacket material and SS304L foil as wrapping around the cabled strands. It has been designed on the basis of required critical design parameters, operation requirements and mechanical consideration during its fabrication. Cabling technology required for twisting of Nb3Sn and Copper strand in required configuration of cable is discussed in this paper. The effect of heat treatment on SS316LN jacket material as well as on Nb3Sn strands is mentioned in paper. 100 m long Nb3Sn based CICC is manufactured by pulled through technology on dedicated jacketing line. The manufacturing parameters and quality procedures for development of CICCs is successfully established and have been demonstrated with fabrication of 100 m Nb3Sn based CICC without any technical difficulties.

  7. Effect of annealing regimes on the structure of Nb3Sn superconducting layers in composites with internal tin sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. N.; Deryagina, I. L.; Valova-Zakharevskaya, E. G.; Patrakov, E. I.

    2016-10-01

    The structure and morphology of Nb3Sn superconducting layers that are formed in multifilamentary conductors with distributed tin sources in different diffusion-annealing regimes have been investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The composites studied differ in the design (the number of Nb filaments and their final diameter, initial tin concentration, the presence of reinforcing Cu‒Nb inserts in the stabilizing copper sheath, alloying of the copper matrix with manganese) and diffusion-annealing regime. In all of the conductors, superconducting layers arise with zones of different morphologies, namely, columnar grains are present along with fine equiaxed Nb3Sn grains. Compared to Nb3Sn-based conductors produced by the so-called bronze method, composites with internal tin layers are characterized by coarser Nb3Sn grains with a greater spread of sizes. Nevertheless, the critical current density J c of these latter can reach values 2276 A/mm2 due to a higher Sn concentration in the superconducting phase and a larger relative amount of this phase in the conductor. Lower values of the critical current density ( J c = 850 A/mm2) were obtained in the conductor with a reduced tin concentration in the matrix and an enhanced number of Nb filaments with a smaller diameter, in which coarser Nb3Sn grains with a wide spread of sizes and wider zones of columnar grains are formed.

  8. FEMCAM Analysis of SULTAN Test Results for ITER Nb3SN Cable-conduit Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhu Zhai, Pierluigi Bruzzone, Ciro Calzolaio

    2013-03-19

    Performance degradation due to filament fracture of Nb3 Sn cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) is a critical issue in large-scale magnet designs such as ITER which is currently being constructed in the South of France. The critical current observed in most SULTAN TF CICC samples is significantly lower than expected and the voltage-current characteristic is seen to have a much broader transition from a single strand to the CICC. Moreover, most conductors exhibit the irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and strain relaxation under electromagnetic cyclic loading. With recent success in monitoring thermal strain distribution and its evolution under the electromagnetic cyclic loading from in situ measurement of critical temperature, we apply FEMCAM which includes strand filament breakage and local current sharing effects to SULTAN tested CICCs to study Nb3 Sn strain sensitivity and irreversible performance degradation. FEMCAM combines the thermal bending effect during cool down and the EM bending effect due to locally accumulating Lorentz force during magnet operation. It also includes strand filament fracture and related local current sharing for the calculation of cable n value. In this paper, we model continuous performance degradation under EM cyclic loading based on strain relaxation and the transition broadening upon cyclic loading to the extreme cases seen in SULTAN test data to better quantify conductor performance degradation.

  9. Facile Synthesis of Nb3Sn Via a Hydrogen Reduction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhang, Long; Li, Yanxiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2017-02-01

    A controllable and facile process for the preparation of Nb3Sn intermetallic compound nanopowders using NbCl5 and SnCl2 vapors reduced by hydrogen has been developed. The vaporizing rates of the two chlorides are controlled by measuring their mass loss as a function of carrier gas (argon) flow rate at certain vaporization temperatures, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that hydrogenous Nb3Sn products are obtained under the vaporizing rate of 0.155 g min-1 for NbCl5 and 0.036 g min-1 for SnCl2 with the hydrogen flow rate of 2100 ml min-1 at 1273 K (1000 °C). Results of semi-quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) demonstrate that the atomic ratio of Nb to Sn in the as-synthesized products is 3.48:1, and the content of (Nb + Sn) is taken up to 89.61 wt pct from the total weight of the products. The products can be purified by vacuum heat treatment. Images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the products are homogenous particles with a mean diameter of 31 nm. In addition, the reaction ratio of the chlorides and the powder yield are controllable by hydrogen flow rate.

  10. An exponential scaling law for the strain dependence of the Nb3Sn critical current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordini, B.; Alknes, P.; Bottura, L.; Rossi, L.; Valentinis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The critical current density of the Nb3Sn superconductor is strongly dependent on the strain applied to the material. In order to investigate this dependence, it is a common practice to measure the critical current of Nb3Sn strands for different values of applied axial strain. In the literature, several models have been proposed to describe these experimental data in the reversible strain region. All these models are capable of fitting the measurement results in the strain region where data are collected, but tend to predict unphysical trends outside the range of data, and especially for large strain values. In this paper we present a model of a new strain function, together with the results obtained by applying the new scaling law on relevant datasets. The data analyzed consisted of the critical current measurements at 4.2 K that were carried out under applied axial strain at Durham University and the University of Geneva on different strand types. With respect to the previous models proposed, the new scaling function does not present problems at large strain values, has a lower number of fitting parameters (only two instead of three or four), and is very stable, so that, starting from few experimental points, it can estimate quite accurately the strand behavior in a strain region where there are no data. A relationship is shown between the proposed strain function and the elastic strain energy, and an analogy is drawn with the exponential form of the McMillan equation for the critical temperature.

  11. Nb3Sn(Ti) powder metallurgy processed high field superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourrahimi, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Foner, S.; Suenaga, M.

    1986-06-01

    Powder metallurgy processed Nb3Sn(Ti) superconducting wires were fabricated with Sn x wt. % Ti cores for 0≤x≤3, 16 or 22 vol % cores, and a Cu 45 wt. % Nb composite. The processing used swaging, cold hydrostatic extrusions, wire drawing and heat treatments of 750 °C for two to four days. Nominal areal reductions of 104 were used. Hydride-dehydride Nb and rotating electrode processed Nb powders gave the same performance. Overall critical current densities Jc were measured between 4.2 and 1.8 K for applied fields up to 23 T. Jc increased with increased Ti and/or Sn content. The Nb3Sn(Ti) wires using a Sn 3 wt. % Ti, 22 vol % core gave Jc >104 A/cm2 at 20 T and 4.2 K and Jc =104 A/cm2 at 23 T at 1.8 K. Removal of the precompression of the matrix increased Jc by about a factor of 2 at 20 T and 4.2 K.

  12. The effects of disorder on the normal state and superconducting properties of Nb3Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentink, M. G. T.; Dhalle, M. M. J.; Dietderich, D. R.; Godeke, A.; Hellman, F.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of disorder on the normal state resistivity and the superconducting properties of Nb{}3Sn is explored in a combination of ab initio calculations and microscopic theory. The crystal symmetry is calculated to be preferentially tetragonal at a normal state resistivity below 27.0 ± 1.4 μ {{Ω }}{cm}, and preferentially cubic above this value, which is shown to be consistent with the experimentally observed transition point. The phonon density of states, the Eliashberg spectrum {α }2(ω )F(ω ), the electron-phonon coupling constant, the characteristic frequency, the critical temperature T c, and the upper critical magnetic field at 0 K {H}{{c}2}(0) are calculated over a large normal state resistivity range and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The high degree of consistency between the calculation results and experimental observations is a strong indication that the calculation approach utilized here, a combination of ab initio calculations and microscopic theory, is a useful tool for understanding the superconducting and normal state properties of Nb{}3Sn.

  13. Magnetic field orientation dependence of critical current in industrial Nb 3Sn strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, T.; Cloez, H.

    In usual superconducting devices such as magnets for NMR, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the superconducting strand axis. But in some special devices, such as magnets for the toroidal field system of fusion machines, the strands can experience any field orientation. For NbTi strands, the pinning force is dependent on the field orientation because of the drawing process (Takacs, S., Polak, M. and Krempasky, L., Critical currents of NbTi tapes with differently oriented anisotropic defects, Cryogenics, 1983, 23, 153-159). In the case of Nb 3Sn strands, the draw and react process suggests that the pinning force is isotropic. In fact, preliminary experiments have shown the contrary, which is why the magnetic field orientation dependence of the critical current for two types of industrial Nb 3Sn strands has been measured. These measurements have been performed for seven field orientations at field strengths up to 20 T. A clear anisotropic effect has been observed, which cannot be explained by Kramer's pinning law. The results are in very good agreement with an empirical law proposed in a recent study by Takayasu et al. (Takayasu, M., Montgomery, D.B. and Minervini, J.V., Effect of magnetic field direction on the critical current of twisted multifilamentary superconducting wires, Inst. of Phys. Conf. Ser., 1997, 158, 917-920). The parameters to be used in this law could be specific to the manufacturing process.

  14. Status of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Project for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Savary, F.; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for the collimators could be obtained by replacing some LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. A joint development program with the goal of building a 5.5 m long two-in-one aperture Nb_3Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC is being conducted by FNAL and CERN magnet groups. As part of the first phase of the program, 1 m long and 2 m long single aperture models are being built and tested, and the collared coils from these magnets will be assembled and tested in two-in-one configuration in both laboratories. In parallel with the short model magnet activities, the work has started on the production line in view of the scale-up to 5.5 m long prototype magnet. The development of the final cryo-assembly comprising two 5.5 m long 11 T dipole cold masses and the warm collimator in the middle, fully compatible with the LHC main systems and the existing machine interfaces, has also started at CERN. This paper summarizes the progress made at CERN and FNAL towards the construction of 5.5 m long 11 T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype and the present status of the activities related to the integration of the 11 T dipole and collimator in the LHC.

  15. Properties and performance of fine-filament bronze-process Nb3Sn conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. S.; Cutro, J. M.; Zeitlin, B. A.; Ozeryansky, G. M.; Schwall, R. E.; Oberly, C. E.; Ho, J. C.; Woollam, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fine-filament bronze-process Nb3Sn superconductors were fabricated to fulfill stringent requirements on critical current under tension in a one-inch bend diameter, current density, stability, and conductor losses. A large fraction of niobium filaments was incorporated in a bronze matrix, and a cable containing 4453 2-micron diameter filaments in each of six strands provided a current density of 85,000 A/sq cm at 10 to the -11th ohm-cm, 10 T, and 4.2 K. The next step was to incorporate copper stabilizer in a conductor with 20,538 filaments. These conductors, fabricated so that bend strains of about 1% would be experienced by the filaments in the one-inch bend, stably carried currents in the 200-500 A range. A quench current of 540 A in a 5-cm bend corresponds to 158,000 A/sq cm in the bronze and filament area, believed to be the highest critical current density reported for multifilamentary Nb3Sn.

  16. Quench performance and field quality of FNAL twin-aperture 11 T Nb3Sn dipole model for LHC upgrades

    DOE PAGES

    Stoynev, Stoyan; Andreev, Nikolai; Apollinari, Giorgio; ...

    2016-12-07

    A 2 m long single-aperture dipole demonstrator and two 1 m long single-aperture models based on Nb3Sn superconductor have been built and tested at FNAL. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled in a twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator compatible with the LHC main dipole and tested in two thermal cycles. This paper summarizes the quench performance of the FNAL twin-aperture Nb3Sn 11 T dipole in the temperature range of 1.9-4.5 K. The results of magnetic measurements for one of the two apertures are also presented. Test results are compared to the performance of coils in a single-aperturemore » configuration. Lastly, a summary of quench propagation studies in both apertures is given.« less

  17. The First Benchmarking of ITER BR Nb3Sn Strand of CNDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Feng; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Ni, Zhipeng

    2012-09-01

    According to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Procurement Arrangement (PA) of Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) unit lengths for the Toroidal Field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) magnet systems of ITER, at the start of process qualification, the Domestic Agency (DA) shall be required to conduct a benchmarking of the room and low temperature acceptance tests carried out at the Strand Suppliers and/or at its Reference Laboratories designated by the ITER Organization (IO). The first benchmarking was carried out successfully in 2009. Nineteen participants from six DAs (China, European Union, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) participated in the first benchmarking. Bronze-route (BR) Nb3Sn strand and samples prepared by the ITER reference lab (CERN) were sent out to each participant by CERN. In this paper, the test facility and test results of the first benchmarking by the Chinese DA (CNDA) are presented.

  18. Statistical analysis of the Nb3Sn strand production for the ITER toroidal field coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostner, A.; Jewell, M.; Pong, I.; Sullivan, N.; Devred, A.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Zhou, C.

    2017-04-01

    The ITER toroidal field (TF) strand procurement initiated the largest Nb3Sn superconducting strand production hitherto. The industrial-scale production started in Japan in 2008 and finished in summer 2015. Six ITER partners (so-called Domestic Agencies, or DAs) are in charge of the procurement and involved eight different strand suppliers all over the world, of which four are using the bronze route (BR) process and four the internal-tin (IT) process. In total more than 500 tons have been produced including excess material covering losses during the conductor manufacturing process, in particular the cabling. The procurement is based on a functional specification where the main strand requirements like critical current, hysteresis losses, Cu ratio and residual resistance ratio are specified but not the strand production process or layout. This paper presents the analysis on the data acquired during the quality control (QC) process that was carried out to ensure the same conductor performance requirements are met by the different strand suppliers regardless of strand design. The strand QC is based on 100% billet testing and on applying statistical process control (SPC) limits. Throughout the production, samples adjacent to the strand pieces tested by the suppliers are cross-checked (‘verified’) by their respective DAs reference labs. The level of verification was lowered from 100% at the beginning of the procurement progressively to approximately 25% during the final phase of production. Based on the complete dataset of the TF strand production, an analysis of the SPC limits of the critical strand parameters is made and the related process capability indices are calculated. In view of the large-scale production and costs, key manufacturing parameters such as billet yield, number of breakages and piece-length distribution are also discussed. The results are compared among all the strand suppliers, focusing on the difference between BR and IT processes. Following

  19. Measurements of Rrr Variation in Strands Extracted from Nb3Sn-TYPE Rutherford Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Nazareth, V.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.; Collings, E. W.

    2008-03-01

    Modern high-Jc Nb3Sn strands and cables for use in high field accelerator magnets suffer from flux jump-related instabilities at low magnetic fields. These instabilities are determined by the values of Jc, deff, and RRR. It has been postulated that local RRR is a more relevant parameter than average RRR for stability considerations, but the range of RRR values present in a cable has not yet been quantified. Thus, longitudinal variations of RRR were estimated from multiple-tap measurements along the length of strands extracted from mixed strand cables. The cables had either 27 or 28 strands, two different keystone angles, and four different levels of compaction. One type of RRP strand was extracted from each cable, reacted, and then measured. RRR of the straight sections (on the faces) was above 100, while that at the edges of the strand was estimated to be an order of magnitude smaller ≈10. Selected regions of the strand with locally depressed RRR were examined by SEM and EDS to check for Sn leakage and examine the type of strand failure present. The implications of these measurements for stability were then discussed.

  20. Increasing the Jc of Tube-Type Nb3Sn Strands

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    In this Phase I, we successfully made strands with better Cu/Sn ratio to reduce the coarse Nb3Sn grain region, thereby providing the potential of increasing the non-Cu Jc in the Phase II and scaling up to 2 billets with 331 subelements. In order to improve the strandÃ's high field properties, we successfully doped low amount of Ti in the subelements and made a 217-subelement wire which has been drawn down to 0.7 mm without any breakage. This strand gave subelement size of 35m. We will scale up the Ti-doped billet to 271-subelement in 1.5 billet in this proposed Phase II. The hexagonal shaped subelements with round Nb-Sn have been developed for a 61-subelement restack. Thus the results indicated that for 217-subelement restack in a billet we have the potential to draw down this type of construction without problems while maintaining a good array to react more Nb to get higher non-Cu Jc in the Phase II.

  1. Magnetic characterization of Nb3Sn strands under applied strain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarzi, G.; Muzzi, L.; Rufoloni, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; della Corte, A.

    2009-02-01

    We performed magnetic characterizations, using a vibrating sample magnetometer, of an internal tin-type Nb3Sn technological strand. In order to compare the properties of this sample under different strain conditions, the same strand was tested under compression, obtained by swaging and compacting into thin stainless steel tubes before the heat treatment, as well as after a complete relaxation of the filament strain components, by chemical etching of the Cu and bronze matrix components. In particular, we analysed the Kramer extrapolated upper critical field Bc2K, and the zero-field critical temperature Tc(0) and its distribution, for all the samples. In order to clarify the effect of the strain due to both the stainless steel reinforcement and the copper matrix thermal pre-compression, we compared our experimental results with the predictions from well established scaling laws based on uniaxial models. Good agreement has been found with measured critical temperature Tc and extrapolated upper critical field Bc2K values, with proper choice of fit parameters. On the other hand, we observed a broadening of the superconducting Tc transition with increasing strain. This has to be ascribed to the effect of radial strain components, which cannot be neglected in the present work.

  2. A new generation Nb3Sn wire, and the prospects for its use inparticle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.

    2003-09-30

    The US DOE has initiated a Conductor Development Program aimed at demonstrating a high current density, cost effective Nb3Sn conductor for use in accelerator magnets. The first goal, an increase in current density by 50%, has been achieved in a practical conductor. The program is focused at present on achieving the second goal of reduced losses. The different approaches for achieving these goals will be discussed, and the status will be presented. Magnet technology R&D has been proceeding in parallel with the conductor development efforts, and these two technologies are reaching the level required for the next step--introduction into operating accelerator magnets. An obvious point for introducing this technology is the LHC interaction region magnets, which require large apertures and high fields (or high field gradients). By upgrading the interaction region magnets, machine performance can be enhanced significantly without replacing the arc magnets, which represent most of the cost of an accelerator. Design requirements generated by recent studies and workshops will be reviewed, and a roadmap for the development of the next-generation interaction region magnets will be presented.

  3. Nb3Sn cable development for the 11 T dipole demonstation model

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Lombardo, V.; Nobrega, F.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Karppinen, M.; /CERN

    2011-06-01

    Fermilab (FNAL) and CERN have started the development of 11 T 11-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipoles to replace a number of LHC NbTi dipoles and free space for cold collimators in the LHC DS areas. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb{sub 3}Sn cable to achieve the nominal field of 11 T at the nominal LHC operating current of 11.85 kA at 1.9 K with 20% margin. Keystoned cables with 40 and 41 strands with and without a stainless steel core were made out of hard Cu wires and Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP strand of 0.7 mm nominal diameter. The cable optimization process was aimed at achieving both mechanical stability and minimal damage to the delicate internal architecture of the Restacked-Rod-Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands with 127 restack design to be used in the magnet short models. Each cable was characterized electrically for transport properties degradation at high field and for low field stability, and metallographically for internal damage.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Modified JK2LB for Nb3Sn Cicc Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.; Toplosky, V. J.; Martovetsky, N. N.; Mann, T. L.; Miller, J. R.

    2010-04-01

    Since the introduction of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) concept, a variety of alloys have been proposed for fabricating the conduit in high field magnets. The conduit provides containment of the liquid helium coolant and is typically also the primary structural component for the magnet coils. These functions create requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. When the CICC uses Nb3Sn superconductor, the conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after exposure to the superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests for a modified heat of JK2LB, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The alloy is presently being considered as a candidate for use in ITER Central Solenoid (CS) Coils. The direct comparison of the data from the comprehensive test program with earlier versions of JK2LB and another CICC candidate alloy (modified 316LN) is intended to assist design engineers with material selection for CICC applications.

  5. Reduce Nb3Sn Strand Deformation when Fabricating High Jc Rutherford Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    During Phase I, our efforts were to reduce subelements deformation when fabricating Nb3Sn Rutherford cables. Our first focus is on 217-sublement tube type strand. We successfully made a few billets in OD tube with different Cu spacing between subelements, and supplied the strands to Fermi Lab for cabling. Through the rolling test characterization, these types of strands did not have enough bonding between subelements to withstand the deformation. We saw copper cracking between subelements in the deformed strands. We scaled up the billet from OD to 1.5 OD, and made two billets. This greatly improves the bonding. There is no copper cracking in the deformed strands when we scaled up the diameter of the billets. Fermi Lab successfully made cables using one of this improved strands. In their cables, no Cu cracking and no filament bridging occurred. We also successfully made a couple of billets with hex OD and round ID subelements for 61-subelement restack. Due to the lack of bonding, we could not judge its cabling property properly. But we know through this experiment, we could keep the Nb round, once we select the proper Cu spacing.

  6. Semi-analytical modeling of the coupled strain and low-temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity in Nb3Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Ding, He; Zhang, Xin; Qiao, Li

    2017-03-01

    A semi-analytical modeling framework on the microscopic basis is proposed in this paper to predict the low-temperature transport properties of strained Nb3Sn superconductors. The theoretical predictions agree well with experimental observations, which indicate that the competitions between the strain state-dependent variations in the phonon spectrum and the electron density of states (DOS) are an important consideration in interpreting the coupled low temperature-strain sensitivity of resistivity in superconducting Nb3Sn. The model is helpful for identifying the scaling law describing the anomalies in the strain dependence of superconducting critical properties of Nb3Sn conductors.

  7. Construction challenges and solutions in TAMU3, a 14 T stress-managed Nb3Sn dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, E. F.; Garrison, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Jaisle, A.; McInturff, A. D.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University is nearing completion of a Nb3Sn dipole that incorporates stress management directly in its windings. The windings utilize graded-cross-section cable made from 54/61 (54 out of a 61 subelement hexagonal pattern) Restacked Rod Processed® Nb3Sn/Cu conductor and fine-filament S-2 glass fabric insulation. Coil heat treatment and associated differential expansions have brought about some tin leakage, highresistance electrical shorts, and coil gaps. TAMU3b impregnation successfully increased the coil-to-ground resistance. Quench protection in TAMU3 was simulated using QUENCH. The tests of TAMU3 should provide the first examination of stress management at field intensities greater than 12 T.

  8. Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors for true temperature monitoring in Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajas, H.; Bajko, M.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Perez, J. C.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) planned at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb3Sn technology. The instrumentation required for the racetrack coils needs the development of reliable sensing systems able to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behavior during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation. With this purpose, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet fabricated at CERN. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents for the first time a feasibility study devoted to the implementation of an embedded FBG sensor for the measurement of the "true" temperature in the impregnated Nb3Sn coil during the fabrication process.

  9. Study of the effects of high temperatures during quenches on the performance of a small Nb3Sn racetrack magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbasciati, L.; Bauer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Lamm, M.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Lietzke, A.; Gourlay, S.

    2004-05-01

    Several high field Nb3Sn magnets of different design are under development for future particle accelerators. The high levels of stored energy in these magnets and the high current densities in the conductor can cause high peak temperatures during a quench. The thermal gradients generated in the epoxy-impregnated magnet coils during the fast temperature rise can result in high thermo-mechanical stresses. Considering the sensitivity of Nb3Sn to strain and epoxy cracks, it is important to define a maximum acceptable temperature in the coils during a quench which does not cause degradation of the magnet performance. A program was launched at Fermilab to study the effects of thermo-mechanical stress in Nb3Sn coils, supported by experiments and by analysis. In collaboration with LBNL, a sub-scaled magnet was built and instrumented to measure the effect of the thermo-mechanical shock during magnet quenches. The magnet consisted of two racetrack coils, assembled in a common coil configuration with a small gap in between. During the test, the magnet reached the maximum field of {\\sim } 11 T at the short sample current of 9100 A. Temperature excursions up to 400 K did not diminish the magnet quench performance; only after temperature excursions over 430 K did the magnet show detraining effects, which occasionally reduced the quench current to about 6%. Signs of irreversible degradation (reducing the maximum current of about 3%) appeared only after temperature excursions over 550 K.

  10. Critical current scaling and the pivot-point in Nb3Sn strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Y.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    Detailed measurements are provided of the engineering critical current density (Jc) and the index of transition (n-value) of two different types of advanced ITER Nb3Sn superconducting strand for fusion applications. The samples consist of one internal-tin strand (OST) and two bronze-route strands (BEAS I and BEAS II—reacted using different heat treatments). Tests on different sections of these wires show that prior to applying strain, Jc is homogeneous to better than 2% along the length of each strand. Jc data have been characterized as a function of magnetic field (B ≤ 14.5 T), temperature (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 12 K) and applied axial strain ( - 1% ≤ ɛA ≤ 0.8%). Strain-cycling tests demonstrate that the variable strain Jc data are reversible to better than 2% when the applied axial strain is in the range of - 1% ≤ ɛA ≤ 0.5%. The wires are damaged when the intrinsic strain (ɛI) is ɛI ≥ 0.55% and ɛI ≥ 0.23% for the OST and BEAS strands, respectively. The strain dependences of the normalized Jc for each type of strand are similar to those of prototype strands of similar design measured in 2005 and 2008 to about 2% which makes them candidate strands for a round-robin interlaboratory comparison. The Jc data are described by Durham, ITER and Josephson-junction parameterizations to an accuracy of about 4%. For all of these scaling laws, the percentage difference between the data and the parameterization is larger when Jc is small, caused by high B, T or |ɛI|. The n-values can be described by a modified power law of the form n=1+r{I}_{{c}}^{s}, where r and s are approximately constant and Ic is the critical current. It has long been known that pivot-points (or cross-overs) in Jc occur at high magnetic field and temperature. Changing the magnetic field or temperature from one side of the pivot-point to the other changes the highest Jc sample to the lowest Jc sample and vice versa. The pivot-point follows the B-T phase boundary associated with the upper

  11. Influence of cyclic loading at room temperature on the critical current at 4.2 K of Nb3Sn superconducting composite wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochiai, S.; Osamura, K.

    The influence of cyclic loading at room temperature on the critical current at 4.2 K of bronze-processed multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconducting composite wire was studied. After the first cycle, the critical current and upper critical magnetic field increased, reaching a maximum and then decreased with increasing applied stress. After the second and following cycles, the changes were small when the applied stress was not high enough to cause damage to the Nb3Sn. These results can be described well quantitatively by substituting the strain values of Nb3Sn calculated in this work into Ekin's scaling law for the strain effect. When the applied stress was high enough to cause damage to the Nb3Sn in the first cycle, the critical current decreased with increasing numbers of cycles.

  12. Magnetic design of large-bore superconducting quadrupoles for the AHF

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir S Kashikhin et al.

    2002-08-13

    The Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), under study by LANL, utilizes large-bore superconducting quadrupole magnets to image protons for radiography of fast events. In this concept, 50-GeV proton bunches pass through a thick object and are imaged by a lens system that analyzes the scattered beam to determine object details. Twelve simultaneous views of the object are obtained using multiple beam lines. The lens system uses two types of quadrupoles: a large bore (48-cm beam aperture) for wide field of view imaging and a smaller bore (23 cm aperture) for higher resolution images. The gradients of the magnets are 10.14 T/m and 18.58 T/m with magnetic lengths of 4.3 m and 3.0 m, respectively. The magnets are sufficiently novel to present a design challenge. Evaluation and comparisons were made for various types of magnet design: shell and racetrack coils, cold and warm iron, as well as an active superconducting screen. Nb{sub 3}Sn cable was also considered as an alternative to avoid quenching under high beam-scattering conditions. The superconducting shield concept eliminates the iron core and greatly lessens the cryogenic energy needed for cool down. Several options are discussed and comparisons are made.

  13. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2016-04-14

    This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.

  14. Validation of Finite-Element Models of Persistent-Current Effects in Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; ...

    2015-01-06

    Persistent magnetization currents are induced in superconducting filaments during the current ramping in magnets. The resulting perturbation to the design magnetic field leads to field quality degradation, in particular at low field where the effect is stronger relative to the main field. The effects observed in NbTi accelerator magnets were reproduced well with the critical-state model. However, this approach becomes less accurate for the calculation of the persistent-current effects observed in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Here a finite-element method based on the measured strand magnetization is validated against three state-of-art Nb3Sn accelerator magnets featuring different subelement diameters, critical currents, magnet designsmore » and measurement temperatures. The temperature dependence of the persistent-current effects is reproduced. Based on the validated model, the impact of conductor design on the persistent current effects is discussed. The performance, limitations and possible improvements of the approach are also discussed.« less

  15. LARP Long Quadrupole: A "Long" Step Toward an LHC

    ScienceCinema

    Giorgio Ambrosio

    2016-07-12

    The beginning of the development of Nb3Sn magnets for particle accelerators goes back to the 1960’s. But only very recently has this development begun to face the challenges of fabricating Nb3Sn magnets which can meet the requirements of modern particle accelerators. LARP (the LHC Accelerator Research Program) is leading this effort focusing on long models of the Interaction Region quadrupoles for a possible luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. A major milestone in this development is to test, by the end of 2009, 4m-long quadrupole models, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator-type magnets approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are “Proof-of-Principle” magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is sufficiently mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, under development at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. Several challenges must be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb3Sn coils and magnets. These challenges and the solutions adopted will be presented together with the main features of the LQ magnets. Several R&D lines are participating to this effort and their contributions will be also presented.

  16. LARP Long Quadrupole: A "Long" Step Toward an LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Ambrosio

    2008-02-13

    The beginning of the development of Nb3Sn magnets for particle accelerators goes back to the 1960’s. But only very recently has this development begun to face the challenges of fabricating Nb3Sn magnets which can meet the requirements of modern particle accelerators. LARP (the LHC Accelerator Research Program) is leading this effort focusing on long models of the Interaction Region quadrupoles for a possible luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. A major milestone in this development is to test, by the end of 2009, 4m-long quadrupole models, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator-type magnets approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are “Proof-of-Principle” magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is sufficiently mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, under development at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. Several challenges must be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb3Sn coils and magnets. These challenges and the solutions adopted will be presented together with the main features of the LQ magnets. Several R&D lines are participating to this effort and their contributions will be also presented.

  17. Recent Test Results of the High Field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet HD2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Bingham, B.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Wang, X.

    2009-10-19

    The 1 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet HD2, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, represents a step towards the development of block-type accelerator quality magnets operating in the range of 13-15 T. The magnet design features two coil modules composed of two layers wound around a titanium-alloy pole. The layer 1 pole includes a round cutout to provide room for a bore tube with a clear aperture of 36 mm. After a first series of tests where HD2 reached a maximum bore field of 13.8 T, corresponding to an estimated peak field on the conductor of 14.5 T, the magnet was disassembled and reloaded without the bore tube and with a clear aperture increased to 43 mm. We describe in this paper the magnet training observed in two consecutive tests after the removal of the bore tube, with a comparison of the quench performance with respect to the previous tests. An analysis of the voltage signals recorded before and after training quenches is then presented and discussed, and the results of coil visual inspections reported.

  18. Quench performance of Nb3Sn cos-theta coils made of 108/127 RRP strands

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    A series of 1-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models has been built at Fermilab in an attempt to refine the wind-and-react technology for Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Three models made with Powder-in-Tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strand reached their design field of 10 T demonstrating a good reproducibility of magnet quench performance and field quality. Recently a new dipole 'mirror' model based on Nb{sub 3}Sn coil made of improved Restack Rod Process strand was constructed and tested reaching the maximum field above 11 T. This paper describes the parameters of the RRP strand and cable used as well as the design, fabrication and test results of this magnet.

  19. Field quality of the Fermilab NB3SN cos-theta dipole models

    SciTech Connect

    E. Barzi et al.

    2002-06-28

    Three short Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models based on a single-bore cos-theta coil and a cold iron yoke have been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the results of magnetic measurements in those models. The geometrical harmonics, coil magnetization effects, cable eddy currents with and without a stainless steel core, and the ''snap-back'' effect at injection are presented.

  20. Investigation of alternative materials for impregnation of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak Reddy Chichili, Jay Hoffman and Alexander Zlobin

    2003-11-17

    Insulation is one of the most important elements of magnet design, which determines the electrical, mechanical, and thermal performance as well as lifetime of the magnet. The exposure to high radiation loads especially for the proposed LHC second-generation interaction region Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles further limits the choices of the insulation materials. Traditionally Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets were impregnated with epoxy to improve both the mechanical and electrical properties. However, the acceptable radiation limit for epoxy is low which reduces the lifetime of the magnet. The paper presents the results of the feasibility study to replace epoxy with high radiation-resistant material during vacuum impregnation. The mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of samples impregnated with Matrimid were measured and compared with epoxy-impregnated samples.

  1. Effect of Axial Loading on Quench Performance in Nb3Sn Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Bordini, B.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lizarazo, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; DiMarco, J.D.; Tartaglia, M.; Vedrice, P.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests has been performed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) with the goal of assessing the influence of coil axial pre-load on Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet training. The tests involved two subscale Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets: SQ02, a quadrupole magnet fabricated as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), and SD01, a dipole magnet developed in collaboration between CEA/Saclay and LBNL. Both magnets used similar Nb{sub 3}Sn flat racetrack coils from LBNL Subscale Magnet Program, and implemented an axial support system composed of stainless steel end-plates and aluminum rods. The system was designed to withstand full longitudinal electro-magnetic forces and provide controllable preloads. Quench performances, training, and quench locations have been recorded in various axial loading conditions. Test results are reported.

  2. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb3Sn wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; Oates, W.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-08-01

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductions between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.

  3. Correlation of filament distortion and RRR degradation in drawn and rolled PIT and RRP Nb 3 Sn wires

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, M.; Tarantini, C.; Starch, W.; ...

    2016-07-11

    PIT and RRP® Nb3Sn strands are being developed for high field accelerator magnet upgrades for the high luminosity LHC. Here we report a quantitative study of the shape and position of PIT filaments and RRP® sub-elements after rolling lengths of unreacted PIT and RRP® round wires to simulate cabling deformation. In the as-drawn condition, filament shape distortion occurs preferentially in the outer ring filaments. By contrast, rolling induces non-uniform shear bands that generate greater distortion of inner ring filaments. By making a full digitization of the shapes of all filaments, we find that a critical distortion occurs for thickness reductionsmore » between 10% and 20% when filament shapes in inner filament rings heavily degrade, especially in the vicinity of the strong 45° shear bands imposed by the rolling. It is well known that maintaining diffusion barrier integrity is vital to retaining adequate RRR in the stabilizing copper needed for magnet stability. Diffusion barrier breaks occur preferentially in these distorted inner filaments and drive local Sn leakage during reaction, increasing RRR degradation.« less

  4. Fabrication of 'TAMU3', a 'Wind/React' stress-managed 14T Nb3Sn block coil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Jaisle, A.; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2008-02-01

    The third phase of a high field dipole technology development, a full set (2+) of Stress-Managed winding modules is being fabricated. The dipole fabrication uses tooling, fixtures, procedures and technology modified and updated based on the second phase work and results reported plus new material developments and higher performance strand. The strand was furnished by the DOE HEP Nb3Sn conductor development program. The modules' cables were processed and cabled by the LBNL facility using the latest procedures developed. There were several new materials and processes introduced in this third phase to improve performance or simplify the fabrication which will be discussed. If all the performance inherent in the strand were to be achieved then the peak field should be higher than 14 T. The containment and flux return structure are the same as used in phase 2. This phase of the development will constitute the outer winding modules of a 'Collider' prototype Block dipole with Stress-Management. The lessons learned and the results obtained will be discussed.

  5. Multiscale analysis of the influence of the triplet helicoidal geometry on the strain state of a Nb 3Sn based strand for ITER coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boso, D. P.; Lefik, M.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2005-09-01

    A theoretical model of a beam of unidirectional composites—based on the homogenisation theory and a refined kinematical hypothesis—is used for the analysis of the influence of the helicoidal geometry of a superconducting strand triplet on its strain state. The triplet is the first cabling stage of the superconducting cables used to wind the coils of ITER fusion reactor. The multiscale modelling strategy is presented, for which a finite element code has been developed. A triplet of Nb 3Sn based strands subjected to an axial stretch is analysed, and the resulting complete 3D strain state in the Nb 3Sn filament is recovered. An "extra" strain is found due to the helicoidal geometry of the triplet. Discussion of the results concludes the paper.

  6. Effects of core type, placement, and width on the estimated interstrand coupling properties of QXF-type Nb3Sn Rutherford cables

    DOE PAGES

    Collings, E. W.; Sumption, M. D.; Majoros, M.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The coupling magnetization of a Rutherford cable is inversely proportional to an effective interstrand contact resistance Reff , a function of the crossing-strand resistance Rc, and the adjacent strand resistance Ra. In cored cables, Reff continuously varies with W, the core width expressed as percent interstrand cover. For a series of un-heat-treated stabrite-coated NbTi LHC-inner cables with stainless-steel (SS, insulating) cores, Reff (W) decreased smoothly as W decreased from 100%, whereas for a set of research-wound SS-cored Nb3Sn cables, Reff plummeted abruptly and remained low over most of the range. The difference is due to the controlling influence of Rcmore » - 2.5 μΩ for the stabrite/NbTi and 0.26 μΩ for Nb3Sn. The experimental behavior was replicated in the Reff (W)’s calculated by the program CUDI, which (using the basic parameters of the QXF cable) went on to show in terms of decreasing W that: 1) in QXF-type Nb3Sn cables (Rc = 0.26 μΩ), Reff dropped even more suddenly when the SS core, instead of being centered, was offset to one edge of the cable; 2) Reff decreased more gradually in cables with higher Rc’s; and 3) a suitable Reff for a Nb3Sn cable can be achieved by inserting a suitably resistive core rather than an insulating (SS) one.« less

  7. Significant enhancement of compositional and superconducting homogeneity in Ti rather than Ta-doped Nb3Sn

    DOE PAGES

    Tarantini, C.; Sung, Z. -H.; Lee, P. J.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Nb3Sn wires are now very close to their final optimization but despite its classical nature, detailed understanding of the role of Ta and Ti doping in the A15 is not fully understood. Long thought to be essentially equivalent in their influence on Hc2, they were interchangeably applied. Here we show that Ti produces significantly more homogeneous chemical and superconducting properties. Despite Ta-doped samples having a slightly higher Tc onset in zero-field, they always have a wider Tc-distribution. In particular, whereas the Ta-doped A15 has a Tc-distribution extending from 18 down to 5-6 K (the lowest expected Tc for the binarymore » A15 phase), the Ti-doped samples have no A15 phase with Tc below ~12 K. The much narrower Tc distribution in the Ti-doped samples has a positive effect on their in-field Tc-distribution too, leading to an extrapolated μ0Hc2(0) 2 Tesla larger than the Ta-doped one. Ti-doping also appears to be very homogeneous even when the Sn content is reduced in order to inhibit breakdown of the diffusion barriers in very high Jc conductors. As a result, the enhanced homogeneity of the Ti-doped samples appears to result from its assistance of rapid diffusion of Sn into the filaments and by its incorporation into the A15 phase interchangeably with Sn on the Sn sites of the A15 phase.« less

  8. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Hawn Sung, Zu; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-08-01

    High critical current density (J c) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a J c (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ˜2500 A mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ˜1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible J c must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high J c SG A15 and minimizing low J c large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. In one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial J c improvement.

  9. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    DOE PAGES

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Sung, Zu Hawn; ...

    2016-06-10

    High critical current density (Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain, superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In Powder-in-Tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5wt.%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment (HT) to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this paper we investigate recent highmore » quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc(12 T, 4.2 K) up to ~2500 A/mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ~1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible Jc must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high Jc small-grain (SG) A15 and minimizing low Jc large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. Finally, in one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial Jc improvement.« less

  10. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb3Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part I: Geometric and thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, G.; Bellina, F.

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the new lumped thermal model recently implemented in THELMA code for the coupled electromagnetic-thermal analysis of superconducting cables. A new geometrical model is also presented, which describes the Rutherford cables used for the accelerator magnets. A first validation of these models has been given by the analysis of the quench longitudinal propagation velocity in the Nb3Sn prototype coil SMC3, built and tested in the frame of the EUCARD project for the development of high field magnets for LHC machine. This paper shows in detail the models, while their application to the quench propagation analysis is presented in a companion paper.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  12. Critical current density of Nb3Sn wires after irradiation with 65MeV and 24GeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, T.; Scheuerlein, C.; Richter, D.; Bottura, L.; Ballarino, A.; Flükiger, R.

    2014-05-01

    Industrial Nb3Sn wires with Ti and Ta additives (RRP process) and with Ta additives (PIT process) with a diameter of 1 mm have been irradiated at room temperature with protons of 65 MeV and of 24 GeV at various fluences up to 1×1021 p/m2. A steady increase of Jc vs. fluence was observed for all the wires up to the highest fluence. The observed increase of Jc at 4.2K in all wires was quite similar in spite of the very different proton energies. With increasing fluence. the radiation induced pinning force was found to increase. the enhancement Jc/Jco after 5.04×1020 p/m2 reaching 1.4 for Ta and 1.8 for Ti alloyed wires at 10T. The present results were quantitatively analysed by assuming a radiation induced point pinning mechanism in addition to grain boundary pinning. The results are compared with those of an ongoing neutron irradiation study undertaken on the same Nb3Sn wires in collaboration with the Atominstitut Vienna. Proton irradiation was found to produce considerably higher damage than neutron irradiation.

  13. A model for the compositions of non-stoichiometric intermediate phases formed by diffusion reactions, and its application to Nb3Sn superconductors.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Sumption, M D

    2016-01-12

    In this work we explore the compositions of non-stoichiometric intermediate phases formed by diffusion reactions: a mathematical framework is developed and tested against the specific case of Nb3Sn superconductors. In the first part, the governing equations for the bulk diffusion and inter-phase interface reactions during the growth of a compound are derived, numerical solutions to which give both the composition profile and growth rate of the compound layer. The analytic solutions are obtained with certain approximations made. In the second part, we explain an effect that the composition characteristics of compounds can be quite different depending on whether it is the bulk diffusion or grain boundary diffusion that dominates in the compounds, and that "frozen" bulk diffusion leads to unique composition characteristics that the bulk composition of a compound layer remains unchanged after its initial formation instead of varying with the diffusion reaction system; here the model is modified for the case of grain boundary diffusion. Finally, we apply this model to the Nb3Sn superconductors and propose approaches to control their compositions.

  14. A model for the compositions of non-stoichiometric intermediate phases formed by diffusion reactions, and its application to Nb3Sn superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, X.; Sumption, M. D.

    2016-01-12

    In this work we explore the compositions of non-stoichiometric intermediate phases formed by diffusion reactions: a mathematical framework is developed and tested against the specific case of Nb3Sn superconductors. In the first part, the governing equations for the bulk diffusion and interphase interface reactions during the growth of a compound are derived, numerical solutions to which give both the composition profile and growth rate of the compound layer. The analytic solutions are obtained with certain approximations made. In the second part, we explain an effect that the composition characteristics of compounds can be quite different depending on whether it ismore » the bulk diffusion or grain boundary diffusion that dominates in the compounds, and that “frozen” bulk diffusion leads to unique composition characteristics that the bulk composition of a compound layer remains unchanged after its initial formation instead of varying with the diffusion reaction system; here the model is modified for the case of grain boundary diffusion. Lastly, we apply this model to the Nb3Sn superconductors and propose approaches to control their compositions.« less

  15. Measurements of the persistent current decay and snapback effect in Nb3Sn Fermilab-built accelerator prototype magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, Fermilab has been performing an intensive R an D program on Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. This program has included dipole and quadrupole magnets for different programs and projects, including LARP and VLHC. A systematic study of the persistent current decay and snapback effect in the fields of these magnets was executed at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. The decay and snapback were measured under a range of conditions including variations of the current ramp parameters and flattop and injection plateau durations. This study has mostly focused on the dynamic behavior of the normal sextupole and dodecapole components in dipole and quadrupole magnets respectively. The paper summarizes the recent measurements and presents a comparison with previously measured NbTi magnets.

  16. Development and test of Nb3Sn cos-theta magnets based on RRP and PIT strands

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab three cos({theta}) magnets--two mirror dipole magnets utilizing RRP cable and one dipole magnet utilizing PIT cable--have been designed, fabricated and tested recently. Both mirror magnets with RRP strands only reached {approx}50-60% of their estimated critical current limit. The PIT conductor based dipole however reached its critical current limit producing over 10 T magnetic field in the bore of the magnet. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results.

  17. Design and Fabrication of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Auchmann, B.; Karppinen, M.; /CERN

    2011-11-28

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas of points 2, 3 and 7. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for the collimators, a replacement of 8.33 T Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles with 11 T dipoles based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems is being considered. To demonstrate this possibility FNAL and CERN have started a joint program to develop a 2 m long single-aperture dipole magnet with the nominal field of 11 T at {approx}11.85 kA current and 60 mm bore. This paper describes the demonstrator magnet magnetic and mechanical designs and analysis, coil fabrication procedure. The Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable parameters and test results are also reported.

  18. Design and Fabrication of a Supporting Structure for 3.6m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Gourlay, Steve; Hafalia, A. Ray; Hannaford, Charles; Lietzke, Alan; Nobrega, A.R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, R. J; Zlobin, A.V.; Ferracin, P.

    2007-06-01

    As part of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), three US national laboratories (BNL, FNAL, and LBNL) are currently engaged in the development of superconducting magnets for the LHC Interaction Regions (IR) beyond the current design. As a first step towards the development of long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets, a 3.6 m long structure, based on the LBNL Subscale Common-Coil Magnet design, will be fabricated, assembled, and tested with aluminum-plate 'dummy coils'. The structure features an aluminum shell pre-tensioned over iron yokes using pressurized bladders and locking keys (bladder and key technology). Pre-load homogeneity and mechanical responses are monitored with pressure sensitive films and strain gauges mounted on the aluminum shell and the dummy coils. The details of the design and fabrication are presented and discussed, and the expected mechanical behavior is analyzed with finite element models.

  19. Assembly and Test of a Support Structure for 3.5 m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin,P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Muratore, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Wanderer, P.J.

    2007-08-27

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is currently developing 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets for a possible upgrade of the LHC Interaction Regions (IR). In order to provide a reliable test bed for the fabrication and test of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, LARP has started the development of the long racetrack magnet LRS01. The magnet is composed of two 3.6 m long racetrack coils contained in a support structure based on an aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders and interference keys. For the phase-one test of the assembly procedure and loading operation, the structure was pre-stressed at room temperature and cooled down to 77 K with instrumented, solid aluminum 'dummy coils'. Mechanical behavior and stress homogeneity were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the shell and the dummy coils. The dummy coils were replaced with reacted and impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly procedure, followed by cool-down to 4.5 K and powered magnet test. This paper reports on the assembly and loading procedures of the support structure as well as the comparison between strain gauge data and 3D model predictions.

  20. Assembly and Test of a Support Structure for 3.6 m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Muratore, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Wanderer, P.J.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is currently developing 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets for a possible upgrade of the LHC Interaction Regions (IR). In order to provide a reliable test bed for the fabrication and test of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, LARP has started the development of the long racetrack magnet LRS01. The magnet is composed of two 3.6 m long racetrack coils contained in a support structure based on an aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders and interference keys. For the phase-one test of the assembly procedure and loading operation, the structure was pre-stressed at room temperature and cooled down to 77 K with instrumented, solid aluminum 'dummy coils'. Mechanical behavior and stress homogeneity were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the shell and the dummy coils. The dummy coils were replaced with reacted and impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly procedure, followed by cool-down to 4.5 K and powered magnet test. This paper report on the assembly and loading procedures of the support structure as well as the comparison between strain gauge data and 3D model predictions.

  1. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb3Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part II: Model predictions and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, G.; Bellina, F.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application to a sample of Short Model Coil tested at CERN: a comparison is made between the experimental results and the model prediction, showing a good agreement. A comparison is also made with the prediction of the most common analytical models, which give large inaccuracies when dealing with low n-index cables like Nb3Sn cables.

  2. Formation and upper critical fields of the two distinct A15 phases in the subelements of powder-in-tube Nb3Sn wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Carmine; Flükiger, René

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the A15 layer in the subelements of a powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb3Sn wire exhibits two different grain morphologies: a region with fine grains (˜200 nm in size) representing about 60% of the total A15 area and one with large grains (1-2 μm in size). By means of high field specific heat and magnetization measurements, we have shown that these two A15 phases correspond to two distinctly different Tc distributions, the large grains region exhibiting a higher Tc and a lower Bc2, the fine grains region a lower Tc and a higher Bc2. We report here the values of the superconducting parameters (Tc, Bc2) of the two A15 phases, as determined from an original model to fit the experimental Tc distribution. After a prolonged reaction treatment (625 °C /320 h), an increase of the fine grain region was observed at the expenses of the large grain region, the Bc2(0 K) value of the former being raised from 28.8 to 31.7 T. These changes explain the marked increase of Jc to 2700 A /cm2 at 4.2 K/12 T, the highest value measured so far in PIT wires.

  3. Influence of the heat-treatment conditions, microchemistry, and microstructure on the irreversible strain limit of a selection of Ti-doped internal-tin Nb3Sn ITER wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheggour, N.; Lee, P. J.; Goodrich, L. F.; Sung, Z.-H.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Jewell, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Systematic studies of the intrinsic irreversible strain limit ɛirr,0, microstructure, and microchemistry were made on several internal-tin Nb3Sn pre-production wires, fabricated for the domestic agencies of the USA and China participating in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. These wires were produced by Luvata, Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST), and Western Superconducting Technologies (WST), and were intended for the tokamak’s toroidal-field coils. The results of this study show that, for a final heat-treatment at 650 °C to form the A15 phase, both ɛirr,0 and the de-pinning field Bc2* improved by increasing heat-treatment duration beyond 100 h for the Luvata wires. On the other hand, we saw no improvement in these two parameters as a function of heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. Furthermore, micro-chemical analysis of OST wires revealed that some Nb3Sn filaments have a Sn- and Ti-rich phase at the interface between Cu(Sn) matrix and Nb3Sn in the form of a shell around individual filaments. This phase is far less prominent in the Luvata and WST conductors, and could inhibit diffusion of Sn and Ti into Nb3Sn filaments during the reaction and may potentially be the reason for the lack of noticeable change in Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. The increase of ɛirr,0 and Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the Luvata wires and the lack of increase in the OST wires may suggest a possible correlation between ɛirr,0 and the stoichiometry of the A15 composition. Investigation of the samples’ microstructure revealed only a small number of cracked Nb3Sn filaments despite the significant and permanent degradation of their critical current Ic when subjected to longitudinal tensile strain ɛ beyond ɛirr,0. The scarcity of cracks indicate that Ic(ɛ) measurements are highly sensitive to crack formation in Nb3Sn filaments, especially at low electric-field criteria ≦̸0.1 μV cm-1, even when the sizes of the

  4. Fabrication and Test of LARP Technological Quadrupole Models of TQC Series

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, Rodger C.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Andreev, Nilolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Feher, Sandor; Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Orris, Darryl; Tartaglia, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander V.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Ferracin, Paolo; Hafalia, A. R.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Ghosh, Arup; Wanderer, Peter

    2008-08-17

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9 K to 4.5 K.

  5. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Wanderer, P.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G.

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  6. Instrument contributions to resolution and sensitivity in ultra high performance liquid chromatography using small bore columns: comparison of diode array and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Stephan; Miller, Christine A; van de Goor, Tom; Dittmann, Monika M

    2015-01-16

    UHPLC with DAD-UV detection or in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a robust and widely applicable platform for high sensitivity analyses of many types of chemical compounds. The majority of users employ narrow bore columns with 2.1mm internal diameter (ID) typically exhibiting very high efficiencies (>200,000 plates/m). This ultimately sets stringent demands upon the chromatographic system as the separation efficiency can be compromised by external contributions to dispersion caused by connection capillaries, auto-sampler and/or the detection device. Sample limited applications often use reduced column diameters down to capillary- or even nano-column format. Capillary (ID≤0.5mm) or small-bore columns (ID≤1mm) can be a good compromise between system robustness and enhanced sensitivity. Yet in this case, extra-column dispersion gains additional importance due to reduced peak volumes. To design an optimized system configuration for specific column dimensions and applications it is crucial to understand the dispersion contributions of individual extra-column components. This was subject to many studies done within our group and by others. Here, we employed a fully optimized UHPLC/UV system to investigate the contribution to peak dispersion obtained from columns ranging from capillary to narrow bore (0.3, 0.5, 1, 2.1mm) using a set of small molecules that were analyzed in gradient mode. Further UV detection was replaced by a triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS in order to evaluate its contribution to band broadening. In this context the impact of column-ID upon MS sensitivity when interfaced with an Agilent Jet Stream source was investigated. Data obtained from our test suite of compounds shows mostly mass-sensitive behavior of this advanced electrospray technology.

  7. Test Results of LARP 3.6 m Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils Support by Full-length and Segmented Shell Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, Joseph F.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Anerella, Michael; Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Cheng, D. W.; Cozzolino, John; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Escallier, John; Feher, Sandor; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup K.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joshi, Piyush; Kovach, Paul; Lietzke, A. F.; Louie, Wing; Marone, Andrew; McInturff, Al D.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Schmalzle, Jesse; Thomas, Richard; Turrioni, Daniele; Wanderer, Peter

    2008-08-17

    As part of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to build a high performance quadrupole magnet with Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor, a pair of 3.6 m-long Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack coils has been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and installed in two shell-type support structures built by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL). These magnet assemblies have been tested at 4.5 K at BNL to gauge the effect of extended length and prestress on the mechanical performance of the long structure compared to earlier short models. This paper presents the results of quench testing and compares the overall performance of the two versions of the support structure. We also summarize the shell strain measurements and discuss the variation of quench current with ramp rate.

  8. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  9. Nb3Sn Artificial Pinning Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, D.R.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    Extension of the APC approach to Nb{sub 3}Sn requires that a second phae be incorporated into the Nb{sub 3}Sn layer. The second phase would increase pinning strength by either reducing the grain size or by the second phase pinning the flux itwelf. The following criteria for elements to be candidates for the APC approach are: (1) they must form intermetallic compounds with Cu or Sn and (2) they must have negligible solubility in Cu and Nb or they must be strong oxide formers. many of the rare earth elements satisfy these criteria. To circumvent the large strains required to produce wires with a fine distribution of the second phase, film deposition techniques have been used. Critical current densities for Nb films doped with Ti and Y are about 4,000 A/mm{sup 2} at 6T and 4.2 K.

  10. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  11. Nb3Sn Superconductor Loss Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-08

    number of filaments becoming normal. 44 THE SECOND TRANSITION TEMPERATURE 7 It has been shown by Luhman and Suenaga that the critical tem- perature T...Vol. 2, Ed. by R. D. Parks, Marcel Dekker, New York (1969). 6. T. J. Callaghan and L. E. Toth, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4013 (1975). 7. T. Luhman and M

  12. Progress in the Long $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Quadrupole R&D by LARP

    DOE PAGES

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; ...

    2011-11-14

    After the successful test of the first long Nb3Sn quadrupole (LQS01) the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP, a collaboration of BNL, FNAL, LBNL and SLAC) is assessing training memory, reproducibility, and other accelerator quality features of long Nb3Sn quadrupole magnets. LQS01b (a reassembly of LQS01 with more uniform and higher pre-stress) was subjected to a full thermal cycle and reached the previous plateau of 222 T/m at 4.5 K in two quenches. A new set of four coils, made of the same type of conductor used in LQS01 (RRP 54/61 by Oxford Superconducting Technology), was assembled in the LQS01more » structure and tested at 4.5 K and lower temperatures. The new magnet (LQS02) reached the target gradient (200 T/m) only at 2.6 K and lower temperatures, at intermediate ramp rates. The preliminary test analysis, here reported, showed a higher instability in the limiting coil than in the other coils of LQS01 and LQS02.« less

  13. Correcting Quadrupole Roll in Magnetic Lenses with Skew Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell

    2014-11-10

    Quadrupole rolls (i.e. rotation around the magnet axis) are known to be a significant source of image blurring in magnetic quadrupole lenses. These rolls may be caused by errors in mechanical mounting of quadrupoles, by uneven radiation-induced demagnetization of permanent-magnet quadrupoles, etc. Here a four-quadrupole ×10 lens with so-called ”Russian” or A -B B-A symmetry is used as a model problem. Existing SLAC 1/2 in. bore high-gradient quadrupoles are used in the design. The dominant quadrupole roll effect is changes in the first-order part of the transfer map (the R matrix) from the object to the image plane (Note effects on the R matrix can be of first order in rotation angle for some R-matrix elements and second order in rotation angle for other elements, as shown below). It is possible to correct roll-induced image blur by mechanically adjusting the roll angle of one or more of the quadrupoles. Usually, rotation of one quadrupole is sufficient to correct most of the combined effect of rolls in all four quadrupoles. There are drawbacks to this approach, however, since mechanical roll correction requires multiple entries into experimental area to make the adjustments, which are made according to their effect on images. An alternative is to use a single electromagnetic skew quadrupole corrector placed either between two of the quadrupoles or after the fourth quadrupole (so-called “non-local” correction). The basic feasibility of skew quadrupole correction of quadrupole roll effects is demonstrated here. Rolls of the third lens quadrupole of up to about 1 milliradian can be corrected with a 15 cm long skew quadrupole with a gradient of up to 1 T/m. Since the effect of rolls of the remaining three lens quadrupoles are lower, a weaker skew quadrupole can be used to correct them. Non-local correction of quadrupole roll effects by skew quadrupoles is shown to be about one-half as effective as local correction (i.e. rotating individual quadrupoles to zero

  14. Test and Analysis of 4 Technology Quadrupole Shell (TQS) models for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, A.N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A. R.; Lietzke, A. F.; Novitski, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2008-06-01

    Test results are reported on TQS02a, a second model in support of the development of a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The magnet uses key and bladder technology with supporting iron yoke and an aluminum shell. Changes from the previous first model (tested in 2006) include: (1) Titanium island poles; (2) no axial island gaps during reaction; and (3) RRP Nb3Sn conductor. Design changes resulted from previous tests with three different magnet assemblies (TQS01a, TQS01b and TQS01c) using coils with bronze segmented islands, with gaps and MJR conductor The paper summarizes the assembly, cool-down and performance of TQS01a, TQS01b, TQS01c, and TQS02 and compares measurements with design expectations.

  15. Measurements and analysis of dynamic effects in the LARP model quadrupole HQ02b during rapid discharge

    DOE PAGES

    Sorbi, Massimo; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Bajas, Hugo; ...

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of some quench tests addressed to study the dynamic effects in the 1-m-long 120-mm-aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet, i.e., HQ02b, designed, fabricated, and tested by the LHC Accelerator Research Program. The magnet has a short sample gradient of 205 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field of 14.2 T. The test campaign has been performed at CERN in April 2014. In the specific tests, which were dedicated to the measurements of the dynamic inductance of the magnet during the rapid current discharge for a quench, the protection heaters were activated only in some windings, inmore » order to obtain the measure of the resistive and inductive voltages separately. The analysis of the results confirms a very low value of the dynamic inductance at the beginning of the discharge, which later approaches the nominal value. Indications of dynamic inductance variation were already found from the analysis of current decay during quenches in the previous magnets HQ02a and HQ02a2; however, with this dedicated test of HQ02b, a quantitative measurement and assessment has been possible. An analytical model using interfilament coupling current influence for the inductance lowering has been implemented in the quench calculation code QLASA, and the comparison with experimental data is given. In conclusion, the agreement of the model with the experimental results is very good and allows predicting more accurately the critical parameters in quench analysis (MIITs, hot spot temperature) for the MQXF Nb3Sn quadrupoles, which will be installed in the High Luminosity LHC.« less

  16. Magnetic instabilities in Nb3Sn strands and cables

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhim, Vadim V.; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a model for calculation of magnetic instabilities in superconducting wires with transport current and reports results of instability simulations in Nb{sub 3}Sn strands from different manufactures. The effect of magnetic instabilities on the strand and cable performance is presented and a criterion for the maximum effective sub-element size of strands for high field magnets is formulated.

  17. Field quality study in Nb(3)Sn accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Schlabach, P.; Velev, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Four nearly identical Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models of the same design were built and tested at Fermilab. It provided a unique opportunity of systematic study the field quality effects in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. The results of these studies are reported in the paper.

  18. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kumada, M.; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  19. Mechanical Design Studies of the MQXF Long Model Quadrupole for the HiLumi LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Heng; Anderssen, Eric; Ambrosio, Giorgio; ...

    2016-12-20

    The Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi) program requires new low-β triplet quadrupole magnets, called MQXF, in the Interaction Region (IR) to increase the LHC peak and integrated luminosity. The MQXF magnets, designed and fabricated in collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LARP, will all have the same cross section. The MQXF long model, referred as MQXFA, is a quadrupole using the Nb3Sn superconducting technology with 150 mm aperture and a 4.2 m magnetic length and is the first long prototype of the final MQXF design. The MQXFA magnet is based on the previous LARP HQ and MQXFS designs. Inmore » this paper we present the baseline design of the MQXFA structure with detailed 3D numerical analysis. A detailed tolerance analysis of the baseline case has been performed by using a 3D finite element model, which allows fast computation of structures modelled with actual tolerances. Tolerance sensitivity of each component is discussed to verify the actual tolerances to be achieved by vendors. In conclusion, tolerance stack-up analysis is presented in the end of this paper.« less

  20. Mechanical Design Studies of the MQXF Long Model Quadrupole for the HiLumi LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Heng; Anderssen, Eric; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Cheng, Daniel; Juchno, Mariusz; Ferracin, Paolo; Felice, Helene; Perez, Juan; Prestemon, Soren; Vallone, Giorgio

    2016-12-20

    The Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi) program requires new low-β triplet quadrupole magnets, called MQXF, in the Interaction Region (IR) to increase the LHC peak and integrated luminosity. The MQXF magnets, designed and fabricated in collaboration between CERN and the U.S. LARP, will all have the same cross section. The MQXF long model, referred as MQXFA, is a quadrupole using the Nb3Sn superconducting technology with 150 mm aperture and a 4.2 m magnetic length and is the first long prototype of the final MQXF design. The MQXFA magnet is based on the previous LARP HQ and MQXFS designs. In this paper we present the baseline design of the MQXFA structure with detailed 3D numerical analysis. A detailed tolerance analysis of the baseline case has been performed by using a 3D finite element model, which allows fast computation of structures modelled with actual tolerances. Tolerance sensitivity of each component is discussed to verify the actual tolerances to be achieved by vendors. In conclusion, tolerance stack-up analysis is presented in the end of this paper.

  1. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  2. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  3. Rotary earth boring tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, N.B.

    1983-09-27

    The present invention provides a nonstalling system for advancing a boring tool in situations where the inclination of the bore hole with respect to the vertical is such that the force of gravity does not provide effective forward thrust. A hydraulically powered marine screw propeller adjacent the boring tool provides the necessary thrust for the drilling operation. Pressurized drilling fluid provides the required hydraulic energy. The characteristics of the marine screw propeller are such that it provides maximum thrust at maximum rotative speed but should the tool stall the forward thrust drops to zero preventing stalling.

  4. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  5. Development of MQXF: The Nb3Sn low-β quadrupole for the HiLumi LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; G. Ambrosio; Anerella, M.; Ballarino, A.; Bajas, H.; Bajko, M.; Bordini, B.; Bossert, R.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Chlachidze, G.; Cooley, L.; Felice, H.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Holik, E.; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Fessia, P.; Grosclaude, P.; Guinchard, M.; Juchno, M.; Krave, S.; Lackner, F.; Marchevsky, M.; Marinozzi, V.; Nobrega, F.; Oberli, L.; Pan, H.; Perez, J. C.; Prin, H.; Rysti, J.; Rochepault, E.; Sabbi, G.; Salmi, T.; Schmalzle, J.; Sorbi, M.; Tavares, S. Sequeira; Todesco, E.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, X.; Yu, M.

    2015-12-18

    The High Luminosity (HiLumi) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project has, as the main objective, to increase the LHC peak luminosity by a factor five and the integrated luminosity by a factor ten. This goal will be achieved mainly with a new interaction region layout, which will allow a stronger focusing of the colliding beams. The target will be to reduce the beam size in the interaction points by a factor of two, which requires doubling the aperture of the low-β (or inner triplet) quadrupole magnets. The use of Nb3Sn superconducting material and, as a result, the possibility of operating at magnetic field levels in the windings higher than 11 T will limit the increase in length of these quadrupoles, called MQXF, to acceptable levels. After the initial design phase, where the key parameters were chosen and the magnet's conceptual design finalized, the MQXF project, a joint effort between the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program and the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN), has now entered the construction and test phase of the short models. Concurrently, the preparation for the development of the full-length prototypes has been initiated. Lastly, this paper will provide an overview of the project status, describing and reporting on the performance of the superconducting material, the lessons learnt during the fabrication of superconducting coils and support structure, and the fine tuning of the magnet design in view of the start of the prototyping phase.

  6. Low-cost boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibdon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

  7. Handling collision debris in quad- and dipole-first LHC IR options

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    Detailed MARS15 Monte Carlo energy deposition calculations are performed for two main designs of the LHC interaction regions (IR) capable to achieve a luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}: a traditional quadrupole-first scheme and the one with a dual-bore inner triplet with separation dipoles placed in front of the quadrupoles. It is shown that with the appropriate design of the Nb3Sn magnets, IR layout and a number of protective measures implemented, both schemes are feasible for the LHC luminosity upgrade up to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  8. Bore hole navigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.J.

    1987-09-29

    A bore hole navigator is described comprising a two axis platform for lowering down a bore hole on a cable with its longitudinal axis parallel to the local bore hole direction. The two axis platform has an outer gimbal, bearing supported on the outer gimbal axis for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the platform, and an inner gimbal axis orthogonal the the outer gimbal axis. The inner gimbal axis has multiple axis segments spaced along the longitudinal axis of the platform and each bearing supported on the outer gimbal. The inner gimbal axis segment has a two axis gyro mounted thereon with its spin axis orthogonal to the respective inner gimbal axis segment, a first gyro sensitive axis parallel to the respective inner gimbal axis segment and a second gyro sensitive axis orthogonal to the spin axis. The second inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch torquer thereon operative to provide a controllable torque about the respective inner gimbal axis segment. The third inner gimbal axis segment has a pitch resolver thereon operative to measure rotation of the respective inner gimbal axis segment with respect to the outer gimbal. The first, second and third inner gimbal axis segments are coupled to rotate together. The outer gimbal has a yaw torquer thereon to provide a controllable torque about the outer gimbal axis, and a yaw resolver thereon to measure rotation of the outer gimbal about the outer gimbal axis. The outer gimbal also has a single axis accelerometer therein having its sensitive axis orthogonal to the outer gimbal axis and the inner gimbal axis segments.

  9. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  10. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  11. Earth boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M. E.

    1985-11-19

    An earth boring machine for boring straight and level elongated holes through rock-laden earth. The machine includes a stationary elongated frame upon which a first slide is carried. A second slide is carried on the first slide. An elongated auger guiding sleeve is carried adjacent one end of the first slide and has a cutting edge on a remote end thereof. A power-driven auger assembly is carried on the second slide and includes an auger which extends within the guiding sleeve. A cutting tool is carried on the end of the auger adjacent a remote end of the guiding sleeve. An hydraulic cylinder is provided for advancing the first sleeve for driving the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve into the earth while the power driven auger removes the earth as the guiding sleeve is advanced. Another set of hydraulic cylinders are provided for advancing the second slide on the first slide causing the cutting tool to extend out beyond the remote end of the guiding sleeve for cutting through obstructions in the earth when the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve is prevented from moving forward.

  12. Conductor Specification and Validation for High-Luminosity LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Cooley, L. D.; Ghosh, A. K.; Dietderich, D. R.; ...

    2017-06-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will replace the main ring inner triplet quadrupoles, identified by the acronym MQXF, adjacent to the main ring intersection regions. For the past decade, the U.S. LHC Accelerator R&D Program, LARP, has been evaluating conductors for the MQXFA prototypes, which are the outer magnets of the triplet. Recently, the requirements for MQXF magnets and cables have been published in P. Ferracin et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 26, no. 4, 2016, Art. no.4000207, along with the final specification for Ti-alloyed Nb3Sn conductor determined jointly by CERN andmore » LARP. This paper describes the rationale beneath the 0.85 mm diameter strand’s chief parameters, which are 108 or more sub-elements, a copper fraction not less than 52.4%, strand critical current at 4.22 K not less than 631 A at 12 T and 331 A at 15 T, and residual resistance ratio of not less than 150. This paper also compares the performance for ~100 km production lots of the five most recent LARP conductors to the first 163 km of strand made according to the HL-LHC specification. Two factors emerge as significant for optimizing performance and minimizing risk: a modest increase of the sub-element diameter from 50 to 55 μm, and a Nb:Sn molar ratio of 3.6 instead of 3.4. Furthermore, the statistics acquired so far give confidence that the present conductor can balance competing demands in production for the HL-LHC project.« less

  13. Measurements and analysis of dynamic effects in the LARP model quadrupole HQ02b during rapid discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbi, Massimo; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Bajas, Hugo; Chlachidze, Guram; Marinozzi, Vittorio; Mariotto, Samuele; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis of some quench tests addressed to study the dynamic effects in the 1-m-long 120-mm-aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet, i.e., HQ02b, designed, fabricated, and tested by the LHC Accelerator Research Program. The magnet has a short sample gradient of 205 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field of 14.2 T. The test campaign has been performed at CERN in April 2014. In the specific tests, which were dedicated to the measurements of the dynamic inductance of the magnet during the rapid current discharge for a quench, the protection heaters were activated only in some windings, in order to obtain the measure of the resistive and inductive voltages separately. The analysis of the results confirms a very low value of the dynamic inductance at the beginning of the discharge, which later approaches the nominal value. Indications of dynamic inductance variation were already found from the analysis of current decay during quenches in the previous magnets HQ02a and HQ02a2; however, with this dedicated test of HQ02b, a quantitative measurement and assessment has been possible. An analytical model using interfilament coupling current influence for the inductance lowering has been implemented in the quench calculation code QLASA, and the comparison with experimental data is given. In conclusion, the agreement of the model with the experimental results is very good and allows predicting more accurately the critical parameters in quench analysis (MIITs, hot spot temperature) for the MQXF Nb3Sn quadrupoles, which will be installed in the High Luminosity LHC.

  14. Assembly Tests of the First Nb 3 Sn Low-Beta Quadrupole Short Model for the Hi-Lumi LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, H.; Felice, H.; Cheng, D. W.; Anderssen, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Perez, J. C.; Juchno, M.; Ferracin, P.; Prestemon, S. O.

    2016-01-18

    In preparation for the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) in collaboration with CERN is pursuing the development of MQXF: a 150-mm-aperture high-field Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet. Moreover, the development phase starts with the fabrication and test of several short models (1.2-m magnetic length) and will continue with the development of several long prototypes. All of them are mechanically supported using a shell-based support structure, which has been extensively demonstrated on several R&D models within LARP. The first short model MQXFS-AT has been assembled at LBNL with coils fabricated by LARP and CERN. In our paper, we summarize the assembly process and show how it relies strongly on experience acquired during the LARP 120-mm-aperture HQ magnet series. We also present comparison between strain gauges data and finite-element model analysis. Finally, we present the implication of the MQXFS-AT experience on the design of the long prototype support structure.

  15. Guided earth boring tool

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.; Wasson, M.R.; Herben, W.C.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a controllable tool for drilling holes in soft earth. The tool comprising an elongated rigid supporting drill rod or pipe, means supporting the drill rod or pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill rod or pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, means for rotating the drill rod or pipe while penetrating the earth, and means for controlling the direction of movement of the drill rod or pipe along a straight or curved path. The drill rod or pipe moving and rotating means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill rod or pipe during earth penetrating operation, an earth piercing member of substantially cylindrical shape. The tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod or pipe by the longitudinal rod or pipe moving means, and the direction controlling means comprising means causing drill rod or pipe movement in a curved path through the earth when the rod or pipe is not rotated and causing drill rod or pipe straight line movement when the rod or pipe is rotated.

  16. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e/sup +//e/sup -/ super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%.

  17. Quadrupole ion traps.

    PubMed

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    The extraordinary story of the three-dimensional radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap, accompanied by a seemingly unintelligible theoretical treatment, is told in some detail because of the quite considerable degree of commercial success that quadrupole technology has achieved. The quadrupole ion trap, often used in conjunction with a quadrupole mass filter, remained a laboratory curiosity until 1979 when, at the American Society for Mass Spectrometry Conference in Seattle, George Stafford, Jr., of Finnigan Corp., learned of the Masters' study of Allison Armitage of a combined quadrupole ion trap/quadrupole mass filter instrument for the observation of electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra of simple compounds eluting from a gas chromatograph. Stafford developed subsequently the mass-selective axial instability method for obtaining mass spectra from the quadrupole ion trap alone and, in 1983, Finnigan Corp. announced the first commercial quadrupole ion trap instrument as a detector for a gas chromatograph. In 1987, confinement of ions generated externally to the ion trap was demonstrated and, soon after, the new technique of electrospray ionization was shown to be compatible with the ion trap.

  18. Thrust generator for boring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, N.B.

    1984-03-13

    The present invention provides an electrically powered system for advancing a rotary boring tool in situations where the inclination of the bore hole is such that the force of gravity does not provide sufficient forward thrust. One or more marine screw propellers are rotated by the motor which itself is restrained from rotation by being fixedly connected to a flexible, twist resistant conduit for conducting the drilling fluid and electric power from the surface. The system may also provide for different rotative speeds for propeller and bit and for counter-rotating propellers to minimize torque forces on the conduit.

  19. Cable deformation simulation and a hierarchical framework for Nb3Sn Rutherford cables

    SciTech Connect

    Arbelaez, D.; Prestemon, S. O.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Sabbi, G.

    2009-09-13

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional strain state induced in the superconducting filaments due to loads on Rutherford cables is essential to analyze the performance of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. Due to the large range of length scales involved, we develop a hierarchical computational scheme that includes models at both the cable and strand levels. At the Rutherford cable level, where the strands are treated as a homogeneous medium, a three-dimensional computational model is developed to determine the deformed shape of the cable that can subsequently be used to determine the strain state under specified loading conditions, which may be of thermal, magnetic, and mechanical origins. The results can then be transferred to the model at the strand/macro-filament level for rod restack process (RRP) strands, where the geometric details of the strand are included. This hierarchical scheme can be used to estimate the three-dimensional strain state in the conductor as well as to determine the effective properties of the strands and cables from the properties of individual components. Examples of the modeling results obtained for the orthotropic mechanical properties of the Rutherford cables are presented.

  20. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  1. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb{sub 3}Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb{sub 3}Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn- , particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water-pressurized bladders, and we analyze the expected coil stresses with a two-dimensional finite element mechanical model.

  2. Measurement of Fast Voltage Transients in High-Performance Nb3Sn Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A. F.; Sabbi., G. L.; Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Zimmerman, S.; Joseph, J.; Doering, D.; Lizarazo, J.

    2008-06-01

    The Superconducting Magnet group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been developing Nb{sub 3}Sn high-field accelerator magnet technology for the last fifteen years. In order to support the magnet R&D effort, we are developing a diagnostic system that can help identify the causes of performance limiting quenches by recording small flux-changes within the magnet prior to quench-onset. These analysis techniques were applied to the test results from recent Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. This paper will examine various types of events and their distinguishing characteristics. The present measurement techniques are discussed along with the design of a new data acquisition system that will substantially improve the quality of the recorded signals.

  3. Measured strain in Nb3Sn coils during excitation and quence

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Barlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S. A.; Hannaford, C. R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-06-01

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a 'common coil' fashion capable of reaching 11 T at 4.2 K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  4. Fabrication of a Short-Period Nb3Sn Superconducting Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Godeke, Arno; Prestemon, Soren; Pipersky, Paul T.; Liggins, Nate L.; Higley, Hugh C.; Marks, Steve; Schlueter, Ross D.

    2007-06-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory develops high-field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets for HEP applications. In the past few years, this experience has been extended to the design and fabrication of undulator magnets. Some undulator applications require devices that can operate in the presence of a heat load from a beam. The use of Nb{sub 3}Sn permits operation of a device at both a marginally higher temperature (5-8K) and a higher J{sub c}, compared to NbTi devices, without requiring a larger magnetic gap. A half-undulator device consisting of 6 periods (12 coil packs) of 14.5 mm period was designed, wound, reacted, potted and tested. It reached the short sample current limit of 717A in 4 quenches. The non-Cu Jc of the strand was over 7,600 A/mm{sup 2} and the Cu current density at quench was over 8,000 A/mm{sup 2}. Magnetic field models show that if a complete device was fabricated with the same parameters one could obtain beam fields of 1.1 T and 1.6 T for pole gaps of 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively.

  5. Measured Strain of Nb3Sn Coils During Excitation and Quench

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Lietzke, S.; Mattafirri,M.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.

    2005-04-16

    The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a ''common coil'' fashion capable of reaching 11T at 4.2K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.

  6. Fabrication and Test Results of a Prototype, Nb3Sn Superconducting Racetrack Dipole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gourlay, S. A.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gupta, R.; Hannaford, R.; Harnden, W.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Millos, G.A.; Morrison, L.; Morrison, M.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1998-09-01

    A prototype, Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet, utilizing a racetrack coil design has been built and tested. This magnet represents the first step in a recently implemented program to develop a high field, accelerator quality magnet. This magnet was constructed with coils wound from conductor developed for the ITER project, limiting the magnet to a field of 6-7 Tesla. Subsequent magnets in the program will utilize improved conductor, culminating in a magnet design capable of producing fields approaching 15 Tesla. The simple geometry is more suitable for the use of brittle superconductors necessary to eventually reach high field levels. In addition, fewer and simpler parts are used in fabricating these coils compared with the more conventional cosine theta cross section coils. The general fabrication steps, mechanical design and quench performance are discussed.

  7. Development and test of Nb(3)Sn cos-theta dipoles based on PIT strands

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chichili, D.R.; Elementi, L.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Yamada, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Fermilab is involved in the development of new generation high-field accelerator magnets using state-of-the-art Nb{sub 3}Sn strands produced using different technologies. Two 1-m long models--mirror configuration and dipole magnet--were fabricated recently at Fermilab based on powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Sn strands with small effective filament size. This paper describes the parameters of superconducting strands and cable, the details of magnet design and fabrication procedure, and reports the results of PIT coil testing.

  8. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models.

  9. Development of a single-layer Nb3Sn common coil dipole model

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Novitski et al.

    2002-12-13

    A high-field dipole magnet based on the common coil design was developed at Fermilab for a future Very Large Hadron Collider. A short model of this magnet with a design field of 11 T in two 40-mm apertures is being fabricated using the react-and-wind technique. In order to study and optimize the magnet design two 165-mm long mechanical models were assembled and tested. A technological model consisting of magnet straight section and ends was also fabricated in order to check the tooling and the winding and assembly procedures. This paper describes the design and technology of the common coil dipole magnet and summarizes the status of short model fabrication.The results of the mechanical model tests and comparison with FE mechanical analysis are also presented.

  10. Effects of Rutherford Cable Parameters on Nb3Sn Extracted Strand Deformation and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Turrioni, Daniele; Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, M.; Collings, E.W.; Nazareth, V.; Sumptions, M.D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    In order to optimize parameters for Rutherford cables used in accelerator magnets, a number of cables were fabricated with different keystone angles, packing factors and numbers of strands. The effect of these parameters was measured on Nb{sub 3}Sn strand performance and deformation for two different RRP designs. High and low field current carrying capabilities and RRR were measured for the extracted strands. To correlate strand deformation with performance, the former was measured for several cables and conditions as a function of the strand location in the cable cross section.

  11. Strain and Magnetization Properties of High Subelement Count Tube-Type Nb3Sn Strands

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X.; Ghosh, A.; Gregory, E.; Tomsic, M.; Sumption, M.D.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.; Splett, J.D.

    2011-08-03

    A tubular technique for economical production of Nb{sub 3}Sn material with large numbers of subelements is being explored by Supergenics I LLC and Hyper Tech Research Inc. The number of subelements was increased to 919 (744 subelements plus 175 Cu filaments) by increasing the size at which restacking is carried out. The product exhibited no fabrication problems and was drawn down and tested at a wire diameter of 0.42 mm, where the subelements are 10 {micro}m in diameter. Recently we increased the subelement number to 1387 (1248 subelements plus 139 Cu filaments), which gives a subelement size of 12 {micro}m in 0.7 mm diameter wires. Heat treatment (HT) of different subelement restacks has been investigated, and the best results of critical current and stability are presented. The strain tolerance of the strands with 192 and 744 subelements was also tested, and the strand with fine subelement size showed a high intrinsic irreversible strain limit.

  12. Stability of High-Jc Nb3Sn Wires in the Adiabatic Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.; Gregory, E.; Peng, X.

    2011-08-03

    High-J{sub c} Nb{sub 3}Sn strands often exhibit instabilities in 4.2 K liquid helium at low fields {approx} 0.5 to 3 T which are associated with magnetization flux-jumps. However at 1.9 K in superfluid helium, a minimum in premature quench currents at intermediate fields of 5 to 7 T has been observed in voltage-current measurements. These measurements are typically used for critical current determinations, and the premature quenching is driven by current redistribution within the strand as the current is increased and is termed 'self-field' instability. In this paper, the magnetization and self-field stability of Nb{sub 3}Sn strands with J{sub c} {approx} 2000 A/mm{sup 2} at 12 T are described for a series of wires made using the Sn-tube approach with filament diameters ranging from 13 to 65 {mu}m. The copper stabilizer of these wires after reaction has residual resistivity ratio, RRR, of {approx}5, which in effect means that any dynamic stabilization from thermal conduction effects is negligible. In this regime of RRR, we find that the magnetization stability with transport current increases with decreasing filament diameter as predicted by simple adiabatic theory. We also observed that at 4.2 K the self-field stability improved with decreasing filament size, but became worse with decreasing temperature as seen in measurements at 2.0 K.

  13. Tests of insulation systems for Nb3Sn wind and react coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

  14. Measurement of inter-strand contact resistance in epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn Rutherford cables

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Ambrosio et al.

    2003-10-07

    An apparatus for the measurement, under transverse pressure, of the inter-strand contact resistance in epoxy-impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford cables has been recently assembled at Fermilab. Procedures have been developed to instrument and measure samples extracted from Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. Samples were extracted from coils fabricated with the Wind-and-React and the React-and-Wind technology, both presently under development at Fermilab. A ceramic binder is used to improve the insulation and to simplify the fabrication of coils using the Wind-and-React technology. Synthetic oil is used to prevent sintering during the heat treatment of coils to be wound after reaction. In order to evaluate the effects of the ceramic binder and of the synthetic oil on the inter-strand resistance, measurements of samples extracted from coils were compared with measurements of cable stacks with varying characteristics. In this paper we describe the apparatus, the sample preparation, the measurement procedure, and the results of the first series of tests.

  15. Fabrication and test of a racetrack magnet using pre-reacted Nb3Sn cable

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Ambrosio et al.

    2002-12-11

    A racetrack magnet, using Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting cable reacted before winding, has been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. It consists of two flat racetrack coils, connected in a common-coil configuration, separated by a 5 mm thick fiberglass plate. Synthetic oil was used to prevent sintering of the strands during the heat treatment. The coils were wound and vacuum impregnated in the mechanical structure. The turn-to-turn insulation, consisting of Kapton{reg_sign}and pre-impregnated fiberglass tapes as wide as the cable, was wound together with the bare cable in order to form a continuous inter-turn spacer. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, temperature sensors, spot heaters and quench heaters. The maximum current achieved was 12675 A which is 78% of the short sample limit at 5.1 K (minimum temperature in the coil during 75 A/s ramp). Measurement of the temperature margin revealed a low degradation in the innermost turns. Quench performances at different temperatures and ramp rate effects have been measured and are presented and discussed.

  16. Quench problems of Nb3 Sn cosine theta high field dipole model magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Ryuji; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and tested several cosine theta high field dipole model magnets for accelerator application, utilizing Nb{sub 3}Sn strands made by MJR method and PIT method. With Rutherford cables made with PIT strand we achieved 10.1 Tesla central field at 2.2 K operation, and 9.5 Tesla at 4.5 K operation. The magnet wound with the MJR cable prematurely quenched at 6.8 Tesla at 4.5 K due to cryo-instability. Typical quench behaviors of these magnets are described for both types of magnets, HFDA-04 of MJR and HFDA-05 of PIT. Their characteristics parameters are compared on d{sub eff}, RRR, thermal conductivity and others, together with other historical Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. It is suggested a larger RRR value is essential for the stability of the epoxy impregnated high field magnets made with high current density strands. It is shown that a magnet with a larger RRR value has a longer MPZ value and more stable, due to its high thermal conductivity and low resistivity.

  17. Effect of thermo-mechanical stress during quench on Nb3Sn cable performance

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Imbasciati et al.

    2002-12-09

    Several high field magnets using Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor are under development for future particle accelerators. The high levels of stored energy in these magnets can cause high peak temperatures during a quench. The thermomechanical stress generated in the winding during the fast temperature rise can result in a permanent damage of the brittle Nb{sub 3}Sn. Although there are several studies of the critical current degradation of Nb{sub 3}Sn strands due to strain, little is known about how to apply the strain limitations to define a maximum acceptable temperature in the coils during a quench. Therefore, an experimental program was launched, aimed at improving the understanding of the effect of thermo-mechanical stress in coils made from brittle Nb{sub 3}Sn. A first experiment, reported here, was performed on cables. The experimental results were compared to analytical and finite element models. The next step in the experimental program will be to repeat similar measurements in small racetrack coils and later in full size magnets.

  18. MAGNETIC PARAMETERS OF A NB3SN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET FOR A 56 HGz ECR ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Third generation Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources operate at microwave frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz and employ NbTi superconducting magnets with a conductor peak field of 6-7 T. A significant gain in performance can be achieved by replacing NbTi with Nb{sub 3}Sn, allowing solenoids and sextupole coils to reach a field of 15 T in the windings. In this paper we describe the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet for a fourth generation ECR source operating at a microwave frequency of 56 GHz. The magnet design features a configuration with an internal sextupole magnet surrounded by three solenoids. A finite element magnetic model has been used to investigate conductor peak fields and the operational margins. Results of the numerical analysis are presented and discussed.

  19. Increase Jc by Improving the Array of Nb3Sn strands for Fusion Application

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    During Phase I, our efforts were focusing on improving the array of subelement in the tube type strands by hardening the Sn core and the subelement matrix to effectively increase the Jc of the strands. Below is a summary of the results. 1) We were unsuccessful in improving the array using a Cu-Sn matrix approach. 2) We slightly improved the array using Sn with 1.5at%Ti doped core, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down without any breakage. 3) We greatly improved the array using the Glidcop Al-15 to replace the pure Cu sheath in the subelement, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down. Both strands have very good drawability and the array showed good improvement. 4) We also improved the array using improved wire drawing techniques using Hyper Tech's new caterpillar wire drawing machines to enable straight wire drawing for the entire wire drawing process. 5) The 919-subelement restack strand shows its non-Cu Jc over 2100 A/mm2 at 12 T/4.2 K and AC loss of 508 mJ/cm3.

  20. Tsunami Bores in Kitakami River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolkova, Elena; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami entered the Kitakami river and propagated there as a train of shock waves, recorded with a 1-min interval at water level stations at Fukuchi, Iino, and the weir 17.2 km from the mouth, where the bulk of the wave was reflected back. The records showed that each bore kept its shape and identity as it traveled a 10.9-km-path Fukuchi-Iino-weir-Iino. Shock handling based on the cross-river integrated classical shock conditions was applied to reconstruct the flow velocity time histories at the measurement sites, to estimate inflow into the river at each site, to evaluate the wave heights of incident and reflected tsunami bores near the weir, and to estimate propagation speed of the individual bores. Theoretical predictions are verified against the measurements. We discuss experiences of exercising the shock conditions with actual tsunami measurements in the Kitakami river, and test applicability of the shallow-water approximation for describing tsunami bores with heights ranging from 0.3 to 4 m in a river segment with a depth of 3-4 m.

  1. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  2. A superconducting quadrupole magnet array for a heavy ion fusion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Bangerter, r.; Chow, K.; Faltens, A.; Gourley, S.; Hinkins, R.; Gupta, R.; Lee, E.; McInturff, A.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.; Wolgast, D.

    2000-06-27

    A multi-channel quadrupole array has been proposed to increase beam intensity and reduce space charge effects in a Heavy Ion Fusion Driver. A single array unit composed of several quadrupole magnets, each with its own beam line, will be placed within a ferromagnetic accelerating core whose cost is directly affected by the array size. A large number of focusing arrays will be needed along the accelerating path. The use of a superconducting quadrupole magnet array will increase the field and reduce overall cost. We report here on the design of a compact 3 x 3 superconducting quadrupole magnet array. The overall array diameter and length including the cryostat is 900 x 700 mm. Each of the 9 quadrupole magnets has a 78 mm warm bore and an operating gradient of 50 T/m over an effective magnetic length of 320 mm.

  3. Test of a NbTi Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet Based on Alternating Helical Windings

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Trillaud, F.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G.; Giloux, C.; Perez, J. G.; Karppinen, M.

    2009-08-16

    It has been shown that by superposing two solenoid-like thin windings, that are oppositely skewed (tilted) with respect to the bore axis, the combined current density on the surface is cos({theta})-like and the resulting magnetic field in the bore is a pure dipole field. Following a previous test of such a superconducting dipole magnet, a quadrupole magnet was designed and built using similar principles. This paper describes the design, construction and test of a 75 mm bore 600 mm long superconducting quadrupole made with NbTi wire. The simplicity of the design, void of typical wedges, end-spacers and coil assembly, is especially suitable for future high field insert coils using Nb{sub 3}Sn as well as HTS wires. The 3 mm thick coil reached 46 T/m but did not achieve its current plateau.

  4. Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.

  5. Magnetic quench antenna for MQXF quadrupoles

    DOE PAGES

    Marchevsky, Maxim; Sabbi, GianLuca; Prestemon, Soren; ...

    2016-12-21

    High-field MQXF-series quadrupoles are presently under development by LARP and CERN for the upcoming LHC luminosity upgrade. Quench training and protection studies on MQXF prototypes require a capability to accurately localize quenches and measure their propagation velocity in the magnet coils. The voltage tap technique commonly used for such purposes is not a convenient option for the 4.2-m-long MQXF-A prototype, nor can it be implemented in the production model. We have developed and tested a modular inductive magnetic antenna for quench localization. The base element of our quench antenna is a round-shaped printed circuit board containing two orthogonal pairs ofmore » flat coils integrated with low-noise preamplifiers. The elements are aligned axially and spaced equidistantly in 8-element sections using a supporting rod structure. The sections are installed in the warm bore of the magnet, and can be stacked together to adapt for the magnet length. We discuss the design, operational characteristics and preliminary qualification of the antenna. Lastly, axial quench localization capability with an accuracy of better than 2 cm has been validated during training test campaign of the MQXF-S1 quadrupole.« less

  6. Magnetic quench antenna for MQXF quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Marchevsky, Maxim; Sabbi, GianLuca; Prestemon, Soren; Strauss, Thomas; Stoynev, Stoyan; Chlachidze, Guram

    2016-12-21

    High-field MQXF-series quadrupoles are presently under development by LARP and CERN for the upcoming LHC luminosity upgrade. Quench training and protection studies on MQXF prototypes require a capability to accurately localize quenches and measure their propagation velocity in the magnet coils. The voltage tap technique commonly used for such purposes is not a convenient option for the 4.2-m-long MQXF-A prototype, nor can it be implemented in the production model. We have developed and tested a modular inductive magnetic antenna for quench localization. The base element of our quench antenna is a round-shaped printed circuit board containing two orthogonal pairs of flat coils integrated with low-noise preamplifiers. The elements are aligned axially and spaced equidistantly in 8-element sections using a supporting rod structure. The sections are installed in the warm bore of the magnet, and can be stacked together to adapt for the magnet length. We discuss the design, operational characteristics and preliminary qualification of the antenna. Lastly, axial quench localization capability with an accuracy of better than 2 cm has been validated during training test campaign of the MQXF-S1 quadrupole.

  7. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  8. Through bore subsea christmas trees

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.S.; Simmers, G.F.C.; Johnson, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The workovers of subsea completed wells are expensive and time consuming as even the most routine tasks must be carried out by a semi-submersible. This paper describes the economic, safety and operational advantages which led to the development and successful first installation of 'through bore' subsea production trees. The conventional wet subsea trees have proved to be very reliable over the past ten years of operation in the Argyll, Duncan and Innes fields, however the completion strings require pulling on the average about once every three to five years. The conventional subsea tree/tubing hanger set up design requires the tree to be tripped and a rig BOP stack run to pull the tubing. This operation is time consuming, very weather sensitive and leaves the well temporarily without a well control stack on the wellhead. The 7 1/16'' 'through bore' subsea tree was developed to minimize the tubing pulling workover time and several trees have been run successfully since the latter part of 1984. The time saving on a tubing pulling workover is three days. In addition, the design considerably reduces the hazards and equipment damage risk inherent in the conventional design. Hamilton Brothers and National Supply Company in Aberdeen designed the equipment which must be considered a new generation of subsea production trees.

  9. Measuring the Magnetic Center Behavior of an ILC Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Adolphsen, Chris; Berndt, Martin; Jensen, David R.; Rogers, Ron; Sheppard, John C.; Lorant, Steve St; Weber, Thomas B.; Weisend, John, II; Brueck, Heinrich; Toral, Fernando; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2011-02-07

    The main linacs of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) consist of superconducting cavities operated at 2K. The accelerating cavities are contained in a contiguous series of cryogenic modules that also house the main linac quadrupoles, thus the quadrupoles also need to be superconducting. In an early ILC design, these magnets are about 0.6 m long, have cos (2{theta}) coils, and operate at constant field gradients up to 60 T/m. In order to preserve the small beam emittances in the ILC linacs, the e+ and e- beams need to traverse the quadrupoles near their magnetic centers. A quadrupole shunting technique is used to measure the quadrupole alignment with the beams; this process requires the magnetic centers move by no more than about 5 micrometers when their strength is changed. To determine if such tight stability is achievable in a superconducting quadrupole, we at SLAC measured the magnetic center motions in a prototype ILC quadrupole built at CIEMAT in Spain. A rotating coil technique was used with a better than 0.1 micrometer precision in the relative field center position, and less than a 2 micrometer systematic error over 30 minutes. This paper describes the warm-bore cryomodule that houses the quadrupole in its Helium vessel, the magnetic center measurement system, the measured center data and strength and harmonics magnetic data.

  10. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  11. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  12. Field quality measurements and abalysis of the LARP technology quadrupole models

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Schlabach, P.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-08-01

    One of the US-LHC accelerator research program goals is to develop and prove the design and technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for an upgrade of the LHC Interaction Region (IR) inner triplets. Four 1-m long technology quadrupole models with a 90 mm bore and field gradient of 200 T/m based on similar coils and different mechanical structures have been developed. In this paper, we present the field quality measurements of the first several models performed at room temperature as well as at superfluid helium temperature in a wide field range. The measured field harmonics are compared to the calculated ones. The field quality of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models is compared with the NbTi quadrupoles recently produced at Fermilab for the first generation LHC IRs.

  13. Field Quality Measurements and Analysis of the LARP Technology Quadrupole Models

    SciTech Connect

    Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Schlabach, P.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Velev, G.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G.I.; Bossert, R.

    2008-06-01

    One of the US-LHC accelerator research program goals is to develop and prove the design and technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for an upgrade of the LHC Interaction Region (IR) inner triplets. Four 1-m long technology quadrupole models with a 90 mm bore and field gradient of 200 T/m based on similar coils and different mechanical structures have been developed. In this paper, we present the field quality measurements of the first several models performed at room temperature as well as at superfluid helium temperature in a wide field range. The measured field harmonics are compared to the calculated ones. The field quality of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models is compared with the NbTi quadrupoles recently produced at Fermilab for the first generation LHC IRs.

  14. Bores and Swash on Natural Beaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    bore is one in which the ratio of bore height to the r height of the associated wave crest is greater than 0.5. The following section examines data...bores which often traversed the width of the surf zone without interference from following waves . It was often possible to relate swashes to individual...height and wave celerity in the surf zone’, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol 82, pp 1419-1424. ."-... Sutherland, A.J., Sharma, J.N, and Shemdin , O.H., 1976, " Wave

  15. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  16. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  17. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  18. Calculations and measurements for the SLAC SLC positron return quadrupole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Early, R.A.; Cobb, J.K.

    1986-09-01

    The three-dimensional magnetostatic computer program TOSCA, running on the NMFECC CRAY X-MP computer, was used to compute the integral of gradient length for the SLC type QT4 positron return line quadrupole magnet. Since the bore diameter of the magnet is 12.7 centimeters, and the length is only 10.16 centimeters, three dimensional effects are important. POISSON calculations were done on a two-dimensional model to obtain magnetic shimming which assured enough positive twelve pole to offset end effects, while TOSCA was used to estimate the effective length of the quadrupole. No corrections were required on the magnet as built. Measurements showed that the required integrated gradient was achieved for the given current, and that integrated higher harmonics were generally less than 0.1% of the quadrupole component.

  19. Full bore internal tieback system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, N.; Hosie, S.

    1993-06-29

    In a subsea well assembly having a tubular wellhead housing having a bore, the improvement is described comprising in combination: a counterbore in the bore of the wellhead housing; a tieback profile in the counterbore; a protective sleeve releasably secured in the counterbore and covering the tieback profile, the protective sleeve being movable to expose the tieback profile when it is desired to tieback the subsea well assembly; a tieback funnel which is configured to land on the rim of the wellhead housing when it is desired to tieback the subsea well assembly; and a tieback sleeve carried by the tieback funnel, having a profile on its exterior which is configured to engage the tieback profile in the counterbore after the protective sleeve has been moved to secure the tieback funnel to the wellhead housing, the tieback sleeve having a bore that has a diameter at least equal to the diameter of the bore immediately below the counterbore. A method of drilling and tying back a subsea well is described which includes the steps of installing an outer wellhead housing with conductor pipe extending into the well, then drilling the well to a greater depth, the improvement comprising: providing an inner wellhead housing with a bore, a rim, a counterbore extending downward from the rim, a tieback profile in the counterbore, and a sealing area located below the counterbore; releasably installing a protective sleeve in the counterbore so as to cover the tieback profile; securing a string of casing to the inner wellhead housing and landing the inner wellhead housing in the outer wellhead housing; drilling the well to a greater depth with the protective sleeve located in the counterbore; securing another string of casing to a casing hanger, landing the casing hanger in the inner wellhead housing, cementing the second string of casing in the well, and sealing the casing hanger to the sealing area of the bore of the inner wellhead housing.

  20. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  1. A Review of the Properties of Nb3Sn and Their Variation with A15Composition, Morphology and Strain State

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, Arno

    2006-03-27

    Significant efforts can be found throughout the literature to optimize the current carrying capacity of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires. The achievable transport current density in wires depends on the A15 composition, morphology and strain state. The A15 sections in wires contain, due to compositional inhomogeneities resulting from solid state diffusion A15 formation reactions, a distribution of superconducting properties. The A15 grain size can be different from wire to wire and is also not necessarily homogeneous across the A15 regions. Strain is always present in composite wires, and the strain state changes as a result of thermal contraction differences and Lorentz forces in magnet systems. To optimize the transport properties it is thus required to identify how composition, grain size and strain state influence the superconducting properties. This is not accurately possible in inhomogeneous and spatially complex systems such as wires. This article therefore gives an overview of the available literature on simplified, well defined(quasi--)homogeneous laboratory samples. After more than 50 years of research on superconductivity in Nb{sub 3}Sn, a significant amount of results are available, but these are scattered over a multitude of publications. Two reviews exist on the basic properties of A15 materials in general, but no specific review for Nb{sub 3}Sn is available. This article is intended to provide such an overview. It starts with a basic description of the Niobium--Tin intermetallic. After this it maps the influence of Sn content on the electron--phonon interaction strength and on the field-temperature phase boundary. The literature on the influence of Cu, Ti and Ta additions will then be briefly summarized.This is followed by a review on the effects of grain size and strain. The article is concluded with a summary of the main results.

  2. Development and test of single-layer common coil dipole wound with reacted Nb3Sn cable

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Kashikhin et al.

    2004-04-27

    The first one-meter long common coil dipole model (HFDC-01) has been fabricated and is being tested at Fermilab. This magnet has several innovative features such as: single-layer racetrack coils, a 22-mm wide 59-strand Rutherford-type cable made of 0.7-mm Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, and a stainless steel coil-support structure reinforced by horizontal bridges inserted between coil blocks. The model was instrumented with voltage taps, quench heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges in order to monitor the quench origin and propagation, and to study mechanical and quench protection issues. This paper summarizes the model design parameters, the fabrication procedures and the test results.

  3. New Developments in Nb3Sn PIT Strand: The Effects of Titanium and Second Phase Additions on the Superconducting Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Motowidlo, L.R.; Ghosh, A.; Distin, J.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2011-08-03

    We report the effect of titanium on the transport properties of multifilament PIT strand. In addition, the effect of second phase yttrium additions on the microstructure and the bulk pinning force are reported for PIT Nb{sub 3}Sn mono-core wires. High resolution SEM, EDS, magnetization, and transport measurements were utilized to evaluate the superconducting properties.

  4. Effect of Barrel Material on Critical Current Measurements of High-Jc RRP Nb3Sn Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, A.

    2011-08-03

    Nb{sub 3}Sn strands extracted from a 20-strand rectangular Rutherford cable were reacted on either stainless steel or Ti-alloy barrels and the critical current, I{sub c}, in the field range of 8-11.5 T was measured on ITER-type barrels made from Ti-6Al-4V alloy, 304 stainless steel and G-10. Measurements on the 'standard' Ti-alloy barrel using the test procedure employed at BNL are shown to reproduce I{sub c} for extracted strands to {+-}2%. The I{sub c} data for the sample mounted on the 'standard' Ti-alloy are fit to the deviatoric strain scaling model developed for Nb{sub 3}Sn by the University of Twente group using an arbitrary pre-strain. Using the parameters for this fit, the I{sub c} data for the other barrels are fitted by only adjusting the strain. Using this procedure, the strain difference due to the barrel material is determined. Assuming a thermal pre-strain of -0.2% for the sample measured on the Ti-alloy barrel, the use of stainless steel barrel increases the compressive strain by -0.07%, that of G-10 by -0.10%. With the wire soldered to the stainless steel barrel, the strain increases to -0.15%. Details of this study are presented.

  5. Use of High Resolution DAQ System to Aid Diagnosis of HD2b, a High Performance Nb3Sn Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Lizarazo, J.; Doering, D.; Doolittle, L.; Galvin, J.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Ratti, A.; Sabbi, G. L.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.; Zimmerman, S.

    2008-08-17

    A novel voltage monitoring system to record voltage transients in superconducting magnets is being developed at LBNL. This system has 160 monitoring channels capable of measuring differential voltages of up to 1.5kV with 100kHz bandwidth and 500kS/s digitizing rate. This paper presents analysis results from data taken with a 16 channel prototype system. From that analysis we were able to diagnose a change in the current-temperature margin of the superconducting cable by analyzing Flux-Jump data collected after a magnet energy extraction failure during testing of a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole.

  6. Study of the effects of high temperatures during quenches on the performance of a small Nb(3)Sn racetrack magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Imbasciati et al.

    2004-03-23

    Several high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets of different design are under development for future particle accelerators. The high levels of stored energy in these magnets and the high current densities in the conductor can cause high peak temperatures during a quench. The thermal gradients generated in the epoxy-impregnated magnet coils during the fast temperature rise can result in high thermo-mechanical stresses. Considering the sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn to strain and epoxy cracks, it is important to define a maximum acceptable temperature in the coils during a quench which does not cause degradation of the magnet performance. A program was launched at Fermilab to study the effects of thermo-mechanical stress in Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, supported by experiments and by analysis. In collaboration with LBNL, a sub-scaled magnet was built and instrumented to measure the effect of the thermo-mechanical shock during magnet quenches. The magnet consisted of two racetrack coils, assembled in a common coil configuration with a small gap in between. During the test, the magnet reached the maximum field of {approx} 11 T at the short sample current of 9100 A. Temperature excursions up to 400 K did not diminish the magnet quench performance; only after temperature excursions over 430 K, the magnet showed detraining effects, which reduced occasionally the quench current of about 6%. Signs of irreversible degradation (reducing the maximum current of about 3%) appeared only after temperature excursions over 550 K.

  7. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  8. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.

  9. In-bore instrumentation/diagnostics for large-bore EMLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.J. ); Ager, S.A. ); Hudson, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a flying laboratory technique of in-bore diagnostics for large-bore electromagnetic launchers (EMLs). The high pressure, heat, and magnetic flux environment of the EML and its containment structures do not allow easy implementation of conventional diagnostic techniques. Researchers have relied on remote sensing methods, such as B-dot probes (isolated from the bore), for data. The accuracy and relevance of such discrete, remote measurement is somewhat questionable. An in-house program has been initiated to determine the feasibility of making measurement of EML parameters on board a projectile. This technique utilizes off-the-shelf components in a configuration that has been proven effective in measuring projectile acceleration in the bore of propellant driven guns.

  10. Research and Development of Wires and Cables for High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-04-01

    The latest strategic plans for High Energy Physics endorse steadfast superconducting magnet technology R&D for future Energy Frontier Facilities. This includes 10 to 16 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for the luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider and eventually for a future 100 TeV scale proton-proton (pp) collider. This paper describes the multi-decade R&D investment in the Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which was crucial to produce the first reproducible 10 to 12 T accelerator-quality dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as their scale-up. We also indicate prospective research areas in superconducting Nb3Sn wires and cables to achieve the next goals for superconducting accelerator magnets. Emphasis is on increasing performance and decreasing costs while pushing the Nb3Sn technology to its limits for future pp colliders.

  11. Predatorial borings in late precambrian mineralized exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, S; Zhao, Y

    1992-07-17

    The late Precambrian tube-forming Cloudina, the earliest known animal to produce a mineralized exoskeleton, shows evidence of having been attacked by shell-boring organisms. Of more than 500 tubes from Shaanxi Province, China, 2.7% have rounded holes 40 to 400 micrometers in diameter. The relation between the size of the holes and the width of the bored tubes suggests that the attacking organism was a predator, selecting its prey for size. If true, this would be the oldest case of predation in the fossil record and would support the hypothesis that selection pressures from predation was a significant factor in the evolution of animal skeletons around the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary.

  12. General model for boring tool optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, G. M.; rbes, M. V. Ze; Popescu, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimizing a tool (and therefore those for boring) consist in improving its performance through maximizing the objective functions chosen by the designer and/or by user. In order to define and to implement the proposed objective functions, contribute numerous features and performance required by tool users. Incorporation of new features makes the cutting tool to be competitive in the market and to meet user requirements.

  13. Experimental stiffness of tapered bore seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The stiffness of tapered-bore ring seals was measured with air as the sealed fluid. Static stiffness agreed fairly well with results of a previous analysis. Cross-coupled stiffness due to shaft rotation was much less than predicted. It is suggested that part of the disparity may be due to simplifying assumptions in the analysis; however, these do not appear to account for the entire difference observed.

  14. WELL BORE BREAKOUTS AND IN SITU STRESS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, Mark D.; Moos, Daniel; Mastin, Larry; Anderson, Roger N.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed cross-sectional shape of stress induced well bore breakouts has been studied using specially processed ultrasonic borehole televiewer data. Breakout shapes are shown for a variety of rock types and introduce a simple elastic failure model which explains many features of the observations. Both the observations and calculations indicate that the breakouts define relatively broad and flat curvilinear surfaces which enlarge the borehole in the direction of minimum horizontal compression. Refs.

  15. Undular bore theory for the Gardner equation.

    PubMed

    Kamchatnov, A M; Kuo, Y-H; Lin, T-C; Horng, T-L; Gou, S-C; Clift, R; El, G A; Grimshaw, R H J

    2012-09-01

    We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV-type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves, and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.

  16. The biomechanics of burrowing and boring.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kelly M

    2015-01-15

    Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand.

  17. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Volk et al.

    2001-06-22

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to {minus}20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype.

  18. High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2001-01-04

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85% overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20% and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths.

  19. High Reliability Prototype Quadrupole for the Next Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 5600 magnets, each of which must be highly reliable and/or quickly repairable in order that the NLC reach its 85/ overall availability goal. A multidiscipline engineering team was assembled at SLAC to develop a more reliable electromagnet design than historically had been achieved at SLAC. This team carried out a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a standard SLAC quadrupole magnet system. They overcame a number of longstanding design prejudices, producing 10 major design changes. This paper describes how a prototype magnet was constructed and the extensive testing carried out on it to prove full functionality with an improvement in reliability. The magnet's fabrication cost will be compared to the cost of a magnet with the same requirements made in the historic SLAC way. The NLC will use over 1600 of these 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles with a range of integrated strengths from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of 0 to -20/ and core lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20/ adjustment. A magnetic measurement set-up has been developed that can measure sub-micron shifts of a magnetic center. The prototype satisfied the center shift requirement over the full range of integrated strengths.

  20. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  1. Quadrupole magnets for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A.; Barale, P.; Benjegerdes, R.; Caspi, S.; Cortella, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Gilbert, W.; Green, M.I.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

    1992-08-01

    At LBL, we have designed, constructed, and tested ten models (4-1meter, 6-5meter) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) main-ring 5 meter focusing quadrupole magnet (211Tesla/meter). The results of this program are herein summarized.

  2. Catalog of worldwide tidal bore occurrences and characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Lynch, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Documentation of tidal bore phenomena occurring throughout the world aids in defining the typical geographical setting of tidal bores and enables prediction of their occurrence in remote areas. Tidal bores are naturally occurring, tidally generated, solitary, moving water waves up to 6 meters in height that form upstream in estuaries with semidiurnal or nearly semidiurnal tide ranges exceeding 4 meters. Estuarine settings that have tidal bores typically include meandering fluvial systems with shallow gradients. Bores are well defined, having amplitudes greater than wind- or turbulence-caused waves, and may be undular or breaking. Formation of a bore is dependent on depth and velocity of the incoming tide and river outflow. Bores may occur in series (in several channels) or in succession (marking each tidal pulse). Tidal bores propagate up tidal estuaries a greater distance than the width of the estuary and most occur within 100 kilometers upstream of the estuary mouth. Because they are dynamic, bores cause difficulties in some shipping ports and are targets for eradication. Tidal bores are known to occur, or to have occurred in the recent past, in at least 67 localities in 16 countries at all latitudes, including every continent except Antarctica. Parts of Argentina, Canada, Central America, China, Mozambique, Madagascar, Northern Europe, North and South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.S.R. probably have additional undiscovered or unreported tidal bores. In Turnagain Arm estuary in Alaska, bores cause an abrupt increase in salinity, suspended sediment, surface character, and bottom pressure, a decrease in illumination of the water column, and a change in water temperature. Tidal bores occurring in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, have the

  3. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  4. Quench antenna studies of mechanical and quench performance in Fermilab interaction region quadrupoles for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Feher, S.; Hocker, A.; Lamm, M.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the US-LHC collaboration, Fermilab has built and tested seventeen high gradient quadrupole magnets, assembled into nine cryostats, for installation at the Large Hadron Collider Interaction Regions. Most of these magnets have only quarter coil voltage taps for quench characterization, but the magnetic measurement warm bore is instrumented with a quench antenna for localization and characterization. We report on studies using the quench antenna for pre-production prototype (with extensive voltage taps) and 17 production magnets. These include a summary of quench localization and development characteristics, as well as general features of flux changes observed during training ramps.

  5. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  6. Size segregation in a granular bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. N.; Vriend, N. M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of particle-size segregation in an upslope propagating granular bore. A bidisperse mixture of particles, initially normally graded, flows down an inclined chute and impacts with a closed end. This impact causes the formation of a shock in flow thickness, known as a granular bore, to travel upslope, leaving behind a thick deposit. This deposit imprints the local segregated state featuring both pure and mixed regions of particles as a function of downstream position. The particle-size distribution through the depth is characterized by a thin purely small-particle layer at the base, a significant linear transition region, and a thick constant mixed-particle layer below the surface, in contrast to previously observed S-shaped steady-state concentration profiles. The experimental observations agree with recent progress that upward and downward segregation of large and small particles respectively is asymmetric. We incorporate the three-layer, experimentally observed, size-distribution profile into a depth-averaged segregation model to modify it accordingly. Numerical solutions of this model are able to match our experimental results and therefore motivate the use of a more general particle-size distribution profile.

  7. True color tube bore inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, Martin J.; Harpring, Larry J.

    2000-03-01

    A True Color Tube Bore Inspection System (TCTBIS) has been developed to aid in the visual nondestructive examination of the inside surfaces of small bore stainless steel tubes. The instrument was developed to inspect for the presence of contaminants and oxidation on the inner surfaces of these 1.5 to 1.7 millimeter inside diameter tubes. Previously a parameter called the color factor, which can be calculated from the images collected by the TCTBIS, was found to be a good measure of the surface quality in these tubes. The color factor is a global number in the sense that it is calculated for the entire inspection region. Additional algorithms have also been developed to evaluate the tube based on surface inhomogeneities that are indicative of the presence of foreign matter, local chemical attack or other undesirable but localized conditions. These algorithms have been incorporated into an up-to-date apparatus which is described in detail. We have also investigated the feasibility of using artificial intelligence techniques to aid in the interpretation of these defects. Promising results were obtained with a feed forward, back propagation artificial neural network.

  8. Observational and Modeling Study of Mesopheric Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughmiller, P.; Kelley, M.; Hickey, M.

    In our studies of the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, some of the most intriguing mesospheric phenomena we observe high over the Hawaiian night skies are internal bores. These events affecting chemiluminescence are documented in monochromatic airglow images taken by high performance all-sky CCD imaging systems operating at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on top of Haleakala Crater. Data is collected as part of the ongoing, collaborative Maui - Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MALT) campaign, jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Bolstered by the Maui-MALT dataset, several theories now exist for mesospheric bores, agreeing in principle that they are likely nonlinear structures spawned by gravity waves and propagating within ducted waveguide regions, such as thermal inversion layers. A new investigation will model optical emissions using a robust, time-dependent, chemical dynamics model to explore the airglow response to ducted gravity waves and, in turn, the geographical and vertical coupling relationships which may exist.

  9. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  10. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  11. Oil well bore hole surveying by kinematic navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, W.H.; Vallot, L.C.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a bore hole survey apparatus, comprising: an instrumentation pod adapted for travel down a bore hole to be surveyed; the pod including a rate gyroscope for sensing rotation of the pod substantially about its longitudinal axis along which it travels in the bore hole; the pod including accelerometer means for sensing the Earth's gravity vector with respect to a frame of reference of the pod; means for lowering the pod in a bore hole and for measuring increments of the lowering; and computational means connected for receiving signals from the rate gyroscope, the accelerometers and the lowering means, and for calculating therefrom the updated attitude and position of the pod as it is lowered into the bore hole, the computational means being programmed with an algorithm which calculates the updated pod location.

  12. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  13. Effect of centrifugal forces on dimensional error of bored shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsuaga, M.; de Lacalle, L. N. López; Lobato, R.; Urbikain, G.; Campa, F.

    2012-04-01

    Boring operations of deep holes with a slender boring bar are often hindered by the precision because of their low static stiffness and high deformations. Because of that, it is not possible to remove much larger depths of cuts than the nose radius of the tool, unlike the case of turning and face milling operations, and consequently, the relationship between the cutting force distribution, tool geometry, feed rate and depth of cut becomes non-linear and complex. This problem gets worse when working with a rotating boring head where apart from the cutting forces and the variation of the inclination angle because of shape boring, the bar and head are affected by de centrifugal forces. The centrifugal forces, and therefore the centrifugal deflection, will vary as a function of the rotating speed, boring bar mass distribution and variable radial position of the bar in shape boring. Taking in to account all this effects, a load and deformation model was created. This model has been experimentally validated to use as a corrector factor of the radial position of the U axis in the boring head.

  14. Final Assembly and Factory Testing of the Jefferson Lab SHMS Spectrometer Quadrupole and Dipole Superconducting Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Brindza, Paul; Lassiter, Steven; Sun, Eric; ...

    2017-06-01

    Jefferson Lab is constructing an 11 Gev/c electron spectrometer called the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) as part of the 12 GeV JLAB upgrade for experimental Hall C. Three of the five superconducting(SC) SHMS magnets are under construction at SigmaPhi in Vannes France as a result of an international competition for design and fabrication. The three magnets Q2 and Q3 60 cm bore quadrupoles and the 60 cm warm bore dipole are complete or near complete and have many design features in common. All three magnets share a common superconductor, collaring system, cryostat design, cold to warm support, cryogenic interface,more » burnout resistant current leads, DC power supply, quench protection, instrumentation and controls. The three magnets are collared, installed in cryostats and welded up and in various stages of final testing. The Q2 quadrupole is due to ship from France to America in August arriving during this ASC conference and has passed all final hipot, leak and pressure tests. The dipole is in leak and pressure testing as of July 2016 while the Q3 quadrupole requires some outer vacuum vessel assembly. Delivery of the Q3 and Dipole magnets will follow the Q2 at about 1 month intervals. Lastly, factory testing have included hipot and electrical tests, magnetic tests at low field, mechanical alignments to center the coils, leak tests and ASME Code required pressure tests. Upon installation in Hall C at JLAB cold testing will commence.« less

  15. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  16. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  17. Characterization of the ELIMED prototype permanent magnet quadrupole system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, A. D.; Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Amato, A.; Amico, A. G.; Calanna, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; Amato, C.; De Luca, G.; Flacco, F. A.; Gallo, G.; Giove, D.; Grmek, A.; La Rosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Malka, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Scuderi, V.; Vauzour, B.; Zappalà, E.

    2017-01-01

    The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, [1]. It has been realized by the researchers of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and SIGMAPHI, a French company, using a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs), [2]. The final system that will be installed in Prague is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u, around 10 times more than the energies involved in the present work. The prototype, shown in this work, has been tested in collaboration with the SAPHIR experimental facility group at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqueé) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics.

  18. BORED AND ASSEMBLED GATE VALVES RECEIVING PROTECTIVE COATING IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BORED AND ASSEMBLED GATE VALVES RECEIVING PROTECTIVE COATING IN THE VALVE PAINT BOOTH OF THE VALVE ASSEMBLY BUILDING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Valve Assembly Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  20. 8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WHEEL RACK FOR BORING MILL. Fork loading crane, manufactured by Cleveland Tramrail, 2-1/2 ton capacity. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. DETAIL OF TWO LARGE BORE HOLES ON TOP OF SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TWO LARGE BORE HOLES ON TOP OF SOUTH QUARRY WALL, FACING NORTH - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  2. View of four large bore holes on top of quarry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of four large bore holes on top of quarry wall, facing northeast - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  3. VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  4. Seismic Analysis of Tunnel Boring Machine Signals at Kerckhoff Tunnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    of the MSHA system to detect a large tunnel boring machine (TBM) operating in granite at depths in excess of 1300 ft, the degree of accuracy of the...determined that the TBM could be detected at a horizontal range of about 80000 ft and the tunnel boring machine could be accurately located within approximately 100 ft at a slant range of approximately 5000 ft.

  5. Rectangular tunnel boring machine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.L.

    1984-12-04

    A machine for boring a tunnel having an end face wall, a roof wall, a bottom wall, and opposite side walls. The machine comprises a rotatable cutting wheel means having an annular peripheral wall supporting a plurality of cutting devices and a generally convex-shaped upper wall supporting a plurality of cutting devices. The cutting wheel means is rotatable about an axis of rotation which is inclined in a forward direction relative to a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tunnel for simultaneously cutting the tunnel face along two intersecting surfaces defined by the cutting devices on the annular peripheral wall and the cutting devices on the convex-shape upper wall. Support shoe means are mounted beneath the cutting wheel means for movably supporting the cutting wheel means on the tunnel floor. Drive motor means are mounted on the support shoe means and are operatively associated with the cutting wheel means for causing rotation of the cutting wheel means relative to the tunnel face and the support shoe means. Thrust means are connected to the support shoe means for advancing the cutting wheel means and the support shoe means toward the tunnel face. Gripping means are associated with the thrust means for gripping engagement with the opposite tunnel side walls to prevent axial rearward movement as the cutting wheel means and the support shoe means are advanced toward the tunnel face. Vertical and horizontal steering means for changing the direction of advance of the machine are described. Paddle means and conveyor means for removing rock cuttings from the end face of the tunnel are disclosed. Shield means for shielding workers from dust and debris and for containing the cuttings are also described.

  6. A merged quadrupole-calorimeter for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard; Hauptman, John

    2016-11-01

    The luminosity ℒ of colliding beams in a storage ring such as CEPC depends strongly on l∗, the half-length of the free space centered on the intersection point (IP). l∗ is also the length from the IP to the front edges of the two near-in quadrupoles that are focusing the counter-circulating beams to the IP spot. The detector length cannot, therefore, exceed 2l∗. Since ℒ increases strongly with decreasing l∗, there is incentive for reducing l∗; but this requires the detector to be shorter than desirable. This paper proposes a method for integrating these adjacent quadrupoles into the particle detector to retain (admittedly degraded) active particle detection of those forward going particles that would otherwise be obscured by the quadrupole. A gently conical quadrupole shape is more natural for merging the quadrupole into the particle detector than is the analytically exact cylindrical shape. This is true whether or not the calorimeter is integrated. It will be the task of accelerator physicists to determine the extent to which deviation from the pure quadrupole field compromises (or improves) accelerator performance. Superficially, both the presence of strongest gradient close to the IP and largest aperture farther from the IP seem to be advantageous. A tentative design for this merged, quadrupole-calorimeter is given.

  7. Nearshore internal bores and turbulent mixing in southern Monterey Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Ryan K.; Woodson, C. Brock; Arthur, Robert S.; Fringer, Oliver B.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2012-07-01

    We observed transient stratification and mixing events associated with nearshore internal bores in southern Monterey Bay using an array of instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution. The arrival of the bores is characterized by surging masses of dense (cold) water that tend to stratify the water column. The bore is followed by a gradual drop in the temperature throughout the water column over several hours (defined here as the bore period) until a sharp warm-front relaxation, followed by high frequency temperature fluctuations, returns the column back to nearly its original state (defined here as the mixing period). Mixing periods revealed increased temperature variance at high frequencies (ω > N¯), as well as a greater percentage of events where dynamic instabilities may be present (Ri< 0.25), suggesting active mixing of the stratified water column. Turbulent dissipation rates in the stratified interior during the mixing period, estimated using the technique of isopycnal slope spectra, revealed mean values the same order of magnitude as near-bed bottom-generated turbulence. Observations indicate that local shear-produced turbulent kinetic energy by the warm front relaxations dominates mixing in the stratified interior. The non-canonical nature of these bore and relaxation events is also investigated with a numerical model, and the dynamics are shown to depend on the internal Iribarren number. Our results suggest that nearshore internal bores interacting with local bathymetry dramatically alter local dynamics and mixing in the nearshore with important ecological implications.

  8. QUADRUPOLE BEAM-BASED ALIGNMENT AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    NIEDZIELA, J.; MONTAG, C.; SATOGATA, T.

    2005-05-16

    Successful implementation of a beam-based alignment algorithm, tailored to different types of quadrupoles at RHIC, provides significant benefits to machine operations for heavy ions and polarized protons. This algorithm was used to calibrate beam position monitor centers relative to interaction region quadrupoles to maximize aperture. This approach was also used to determine the optimal orbit through transition jump quadrupoles to minimize orbit changes during the transition jump for heavy ion acceleration. This paper provides background discussion and results from first measurements during the RHIC 2005 run.

  9. Clusterization and quadrupole deformation in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N. V.; Jolos, R. V.; Scheid, W.; Darai, J.; Hess, P. O.

    2006-04-26

    We study the interrelation of the clusterization and quadrupole deformation of atomic nuclei, by applying cluster models. Both the energetic stability and the exclusion principle is investigated. Special attention is paid to the relative orientations of deformed clusters.

  10. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  11. Integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole (10) is provided having an elongate housing (11) with an elongate central axis (12) and top, bottom and two side walls (13a-d) symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes (14a-d) formed integrally with the walls (13a-d), the vanes (14a-d) each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis (12) which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips (15a-d) spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls (13a-d), and the vanes (14a-d) integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane (16) passing through the tip of the vane, the walls (13a-d) having flat mounting surfaces (17, 18) at right angles to and parallel to the control plane (16), respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other.

  12. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  13. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  14. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  15. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  16. Quadrupole-bound anions: efficacy of positive versus negative quadrupole moments.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W R

    2012-02-07

    A pseudopotential method is utilized to study the critical stability of model anions formed by long-range quadrupolar molecular potentials. Results indicate that critical quadrupole moments of simple point-charge triads do not serve well as predictors of real quadrupole-bound anions of systems with negative moments.

  17. Pressure versus current scaling in a blocked bore rail gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B. D.; Eubank, Eric; Nunnally, W. C.

    1993-07-01

    The paper presents experimental results from a blocked bore plasma armature rail gun. A piezoelectric transducer mounted in the bore blocking structure recorded time-resolved pressures over a range of input currents from 50 to 150 kA. The bore block is located at four positions where peak current occurs for the four respective charging voltages to power the system. Problems associated with obtaining these measurements and the solutions employed are discussed. Average distances from the block face to the armature current centroid are estimated assuming a pressure balance between the magnetic and neutral pressures. The averages of the measured pressures were found to be proportional to the input current raised to the power of 1.655.

  18. Optimization of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for the HighCurrent Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Gourlay, Steve; Gung, Chen-yu; Hafalia, Ray; Lietzke, Alan; Martovetski, Nicolai; Mattafirri, Sara; Meinke, Rainer; Minervini, Joseph; Schultz, Joel; Seidl, Peter

    2005-09-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is progressing through a series of physics and technology demonstrations leading to an inertial fusion power plant. The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physics of intense beams with high line-charge density. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles have been developed for the HCX magnetic transport studies. A baseline design was selected following several pre-series models. Optimization of the baseline design led to the development of a first prototype that achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, without training, with measured field errors at the 0.1% level. Based on these results, the magnet geometry and fabrication procedures were adjusted to improve the field quality. These modifications were implemented in a second prototype. In this paper, the optimized design is presented and comparisons between the design harmonics and magnetic measurements performed on the new prototype are discussed.

  19. Continuous measurements of in-bore projectile velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Shahinpoor, M.; Hickman, R.

    1988-01-01

    The application of velocity interferometry to the continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity in a small-bore three-stage railgun is described. These measurements are useful for determining projectile acceleration and for evaluating gun performance. The launcher employed in these studies consists of a two-stage light gas gun used to inject projectiles into a railgun for additional acceleration. Results obtained for projectile velocities to 7.4 km/s with the two-stage injector are reported and potential improvements for railgun applications are discussed. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  1. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  2. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  3. Induced CMB quadrupole from pointing offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas; Sigurdson, Kris E-mail: dscott@phas.ubc.ca

    2011-01-01

    Recent claims in the literature have suggested that the WMAP quadrupole is not primordial in origin, and arises from an aliasing of the much larger dipole field because of incorrect satellite pointing. We attempt to reproduce this result and delineate the key physics leading to the effect. We find that, even if real, the induced quadrupole would be smaller than the WMAP value. We discuss reasons why the WMAP data are unlikely to suffer from this particular systematic effect, including the implications for observations of point sources. Given this evidence against the reality of the effect, the similarity between the pointing-offset-induced signal and the actual quadrupole then appears to be quite puzzling. However, we find that the effect arises from a convolution between the gradient of the dipole field and anisotropic coverage of the scan direction at each pixel. There is something of a directional conspiracy here — the dipole signal lies close to the Ecliptic Plane, and its direction, together with the WMAP scan strategy, results in a strong coupling to the Y{sub 2,−1} component in Ecliptic co-ordinates. The dominant strength of this component in the measured quadrupole suggests that one should exercise increased caution in interpreting its estimated amplitude. The Planck satellite has a different scan strategy which does not so directly couple the dipole and quadrupole in this way and will soon provide an independent measurement.

  4. Resonance methods in quadrupole ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole ion trap is widely used in the chemical physics community for making measurements on dynamical systems, both intramolecular (e.g. ion fragmentation reactions) and intermolecular (e.g. ion/molecule reactions). In this review, we discuss linear and nonlinear resonances in quadrupole ion traps, an understanding of which is critical for operation of these devices and interpretation of the data which they provide. The effect of quadrupole field nonlinearity is addressed, with important implications for promoting fragmentation and achieving unique methods of mass scanning. Methods that depend on ion resonances (i.e. matching an external perturbation with an ion's induced frequency of motion) are discussed, including ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection.

  5. The Large Quadrupole of Water Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Shuqiang; Tan, Ming-Liang; Ichiye, Toshhiko

    2011-04-07

    Many quantum mechanical calculations indicate water molecules in the gas and liquid phase have much larger quadrupole moments than any of the common site models of water for computer simulations. Here, comparisons of multipoles from quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level on a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVQZ level geometry of a waterlike cluster and from various site models show that the increased square planar quadrupole can be attributed to the p-orbital character perpendicular to the molecular plane of the highest occupied molecular orbital as well as a slight shift of negative charge toward the hydrogens. The common site models do not account for the p-orbital type electron density and fitting partial charges of TIP4P- or TIP5P-type models to the QM/MM dipole and quadrupole give unreasonable higher moments. Furthermore, six partial charge sites are necessary to account reasonably for the large quadrupole, and polarizable site models will not remedy the problem unless they account for the p-orbital in the gas phase since the QM calculations show it is present there too. On the other hand, multipole models by definition can use the correct multipoles and the electrostatic potential from the QM/MM multipoles is much closer than that from the site models to the potential from the QM/MM electron density. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations show that increasing the quadrupole in the soft-sticky dipole-quadrupole-octupole multipole model gives radial distribution functions that are in good agreement with experiment

  6. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  7. Boring and Drilling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on boring and drilling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, select, and understand the proper use of many common awls, bits, and drilling tools. The module may contain some or all of the following: a…

  8. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HYDRAULIC 48' BORING MILL. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF HYDRAULIC 48' BORING MILL. Manufactured by Simmons Machine Tool Corporation, Albany, New York, and Betts Company, a division of Niles Tool Company, Hamilton, Ohio. - Juniata Shops, Erecting Shop & Machine Shop, East of Fourth Avenue, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  10. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  11. High performance projectile seal development for non perfect railgun bores

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, T.R.; Vine, F.E. Le; Riedy, P.E.; Panlasigui, A.; Hawke, R.S.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    The sealing of high pressure gas behind an accelerating projectile has been developed over centuries of use in conventional guns and cannons. The principal concern was propulsion efficiency and trajectory accuracy and repeatability. The development of guns for use as high pressure equation-of-state (EOS) research tools, increased the importance of better seals to prevent gas leakage from interfering with the experimental targets. The development of plasma driven railguns has further increased the need for higher quality seals to prevent gas and plasma blow-by. This paper summarizes more than a decade of effort to meet these increased requirements. In small bore railguns, the first improvement was prompted by the need to contain the propulsive plasma behind the projectile to avoid the initiation of current conducting paths in front of the projectile. The second major requirements arose from the development of a railgun to serve as an EOS tool where it was necessary to maintain an evacuated region in front of the projectile throughout the acceleration process. More recently, the techniques developed for the small bore guns have been applied to large bore railguns and electro-thermal chemical guns in order to maximize their propulsion efficiency. Furthermore, large bore railguns are often less rigid and less straight than conventional homogeneous material guns. Hence, techniques to maintain seals in non perfect, non homogeneous material launchers have been developed and are included in this paper.

  12. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  13. Magnetic Measurement Results of the LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Caban, Keith; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reese, Ed; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    This note details the magnetic measurements and the magnetic center fiducializations that were performed on all of the thirty-six LCLS undulator quadrupoles. Temperature rise, standardization reproducibility, vacuum chamber effects and magnetic center reproducibility measurements are also presented. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator beam line has 33 girders, each with a LCLS undulator quadrupole which focuses and steers the beam through the beam line. Each quadrupole has main quadrupole coils, as well as separate horizontal and vertical trim coils. Thirty-six quadrupoles, thirty-three installed and three spares were, manufactured for the LCLS undulator system and all were measured to confirm that they met requirement specifications for integrated gradient, harmonics and for magnetic center shifts after current changes. The horizontal and vertical dipole trims of each quadrupole were similarly characterized. Each quadrupole was also fiducialized to its magnetic center. All characterizing measurements on the undulator quads were performed with their mirror plates on and after a standardization of three cycles from -6 to +6 to -6 amps. Since the undulator quadrupoles could be used as a focusing or defocusing magnet depending on their location, all quadrupoles were characterized as focusing and as defocusing quadrupoles. A subset of the undulator quadrupoles were used to verify that the undulator quadrupole design met specifications for temperature rise, standardization reproducibility and magnetic center reproducibility after splitting. The effects of the mirror plates on the undulator quadrupoles were also measured.

  14. Preliminary list of deep borings in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1905-01-01

    The first preliminary list of deep borings in the United States was issued as Water-Supply Papers Nos. 57 and 61. The present publication includes all of the wells listed in these two papers, together with many additional borings, mostly of recent date. Messrs. M. L. Fuller and A. C. Veatch, of the eastern section of hydrology, and other geologists of the Survey have contributed many new data. Descriptions of borings published in reports issued since 1901 have been incorporated as far as practicable. All the entries are by counties. The wells and borings reported in the paper are all more than 400 feet in depth. The information concerning them has been obtained partly from replies to circular letters sent to all parts of the United States and partly from geological reports and other published sources. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining replies to the circulars, to lack of knowledge on the part of correspondents, and to the incompleteness of published records, doubtless there are borings which have not been reported. In regions of oil and gas wells, where borings are numerous, the individual wells can not be listed here, but representative wells are given. References to logs or records of the wells or extended descriptions of them are given in footnotes, and after the list of wells in each State there is added a list of the principal publications relating to deep borings in that State.The bearing of the information given in the columns of the lists probably is apparent unless, perhaps, in the one headed "Height to which the water rises." In this column an entry such as "-45" indicates that the water rises to within 45 feet of the surface; "+45" indicates that it is a flowing well and has sufficient head to raise the water 45 feet above the surface in an open pipe 45 feet or more in height. The yield in gallons per minute usually is estimated. Depths and diameters often have been reported from memory and different sources of publication sometimes give different

  15. Hole-boring through clouds for laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Walter, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Power beaming to satellites with a ground-based laser can be limited by clouds. Hole-boring through the clouds with a laser has been proposed as a way to overcome this obstacle. This paper reviews the past work on laser hole-boring and concludes that hole-boring for direct beaming to satellites is likely to require 10--100 MW. However, it may be possible to use an airborne relay mirror at 10--25 km altitude for some applications in order to extend the range of the laser (e.g., for beaming to satellites near the horizon). In these cases, use of the relay mirror also would allow a narrow beam between the laser and the relay, as well as the possibility of reducing the crosswind if the plane matched speed with the cloud temporarily. Under these conditions, the power requirement to bore a hole through most cirrus and cirrostratus clouds might be only 500-kW if the hole is less than 1 m in diameter and if the crosswind speed is less than 10 m/s. Overcoming cirrus and cirrostratus clouds would reduce the downtime due to weather by a factor of 2. However, 500 kW is a large laser, and it may be more effective instead to establish a second power beaming site in a separate weather zone. An assessment of optimum wavelengths for hole boring also was made, and the best options were found to be 3.0--3.4 {mu}m and above 10 {mu}m.

  16. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies in semi-metallic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented on spectrum analysis of nuclear quadrupole resonance of antimony and arsenic tellurides. Numerical solutions for secular equations of the quadrupole interaction energy are also discussed.

  17. UNDERROAD BORING MACHINE OUTFIT, HORIZONTAL AUGER-TYPE, 8-, 12- AND 16-INCH PIPE CASING CAPACITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Report covers the testing and evaluation of an underroad boring machine outfit for use by troops engaged in the installation of Military pipeline...the structural and mechanical stability of the boring machine and its accessories. Conclusions: (a) An underroad boring machine outfit similar to the...Military Standard as Class II and Class IV items of supply; (b) neither service nor environmental testing of the boring machine outfit is necessary; and (c

  18. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  19. Thermal analysis of SC quadrupoles in accelerator interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, Igor; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents results of a thermal analysis and operation margin calculation performed for NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn low-beta quadrupoles in collider interaction regions. Results of the thermal analysis for NbTi quadrupoles are compared with the relevant experimental data. An approach to quench limit measurements for Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is discussed.

  20. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  1. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  2. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  3. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  4. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary... AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation. Each boring-type continuous-mining machine that is submitted for approval...

  5. UV absorption of the in-bore plasma emission from an EML using polycarbonate insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Clothiaux, E.J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the in-bore continuum emission spectrum, laced by absorption lines, observed to be completely cutoff for wavelengths shorter than about 3000 {Angstrom}. This cutoff wavelength is seen to occur at longer wavelengths as the plasma armature moves down the launcher bore. A mechanism for the absorption of shortwave radiation by ablated and evaporated bore materials is given.

  6. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding...

  7. A bi-axial active boring tool for chatter mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.

    1998-08-01

    This paper summarizes results of metal cutting tests using an actively damped boring bar to suppress regenerative chatter. PZT stack actuators were integrated into a commercially available two-inch diameter boring bar to suppress bending vibrations. Since the modified tool requires no specialized mounting hardware, it can be readily mounted on a variety of machines. A cutting test using the prototype bar to remove metal from a hardened steel workpiece verifies that the authors actively damped tool yields significant vibration reduction and improved surface finish as compared to the open-loop case. In addition, the overall performance of the prototype bar is compared to that of an unmodified bar of pristine geometry, revealing that a significant enlargement of the stable machining envelope is obtained through application of feedback control.

  8. Frac height may increase away from well bore

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, E. )

    1991-02-25

    Well logs with deep investigation capabilities are necessary to determine accurately the height of hydraulically produced fractures. Logs with shallow investigation capability will indicate the height of the fracture near the well bore, but as shown in a test in an East Texas well, fracture height in some formations can be substantially greater away from the well bore. In the East Texas test, six wire line surveys were run, including the usual gamma ray surveys. The fracture heights determined by the above logs are plotted. The independent estimates of gross fracture height varied considerably. Four logs, TWRL, VDL, SCAN, and CEL appear to be influenced by the fracture. Results were inconclusive from the Au and the CBL log. Analysis of each of these indicates a different minimum fracture height in this well.

  9. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  10. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  11. Development of 20 T class superconducting magnet with large bore

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Itoh, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Wada, H.; Maeda, H. ); Kuroishi, K.; Suzuki, F.; Takizawa, T.; Tada, N. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a 20T class superconducting magnet has been constructed at the National Research Institute for Metals in Japan. Its outermost two of four coils have been operated at 4.2K. Before operating all coils at 1.8K, in saturated superfluid helium, breakdown voltages within the coils were measured. With an inner coil of preliminary design, the system should generate 20.4T in a 44mm free bore.

  12. Self-Boring Pressuremeter in Pluvially Deposited Sands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    OF TABLES TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF INSTALLATION CONDITIONS DURING SELF-BORING TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF GENERAL CALIBRATION CHAMBER CONDITIONS AFTER SAMPLE...CANKOMETER MARK VIII FIG. 4: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TICINO AND HOKKSUND SAND FIG. 5: SCHEMATIC OUTLINE OF SAND SPREADER FIG. 6: SCHEMATIC OUTLINE...COMPARISON OF CALCULATED #Ps ROM SBPT AND EQUIVALENT O FROM TRIAXIAL TESTS 04 LIST OF APPENDIXES APP. I : EXAMPLE OF COMPUTER GENERATED PLOTS FOR

  13. Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

    1997-05-01

    Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

  14. The propagation of internal undular bores over variable topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimshaw, R.; Yuan, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the coastal ocean, large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal wave trains are commonly observed. These are long nonlinear waves and can be modelled by equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type. Typically they occur in regions of variable bottom topography when the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation is an appropriate model. Of special interest is the situation when the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term changes sign at a certain critical point. This case has been widely studied for a solitary wave, which is extinguished at the critical point and replaced by a train of solitary waves of the opposite polarity to the incident wave, riding on a pedestal of the original polarity. Here we examine the same situation for an undular bore, represented by a modulated periodic wave train. Numerical simulations and some asymptotic analysis based on Whitham modulation equations show that the leading solitary waves in the undular bore are destroyed and replaced by a developing rarefaction wave supporting emerging solitary waves of the opposite polarity. In contrast the rear of the undular bore emerges with the same shape, but with reduced wave amplitudes, a shorter overall length scale and moves more slowly.

  15. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance.

  16. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  17. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pettifer, Robert F; Collins, Stephen P; Laundy, David

    2008-07-10

    The Borrmann effect-a dramatic increase in transparency to X-ray beams-is observed when X-rays satisfying Bragg's law diffract through a perfect crystal. The minimization of absorption seen in the Borrmann effect has been explained by noting that the electric field of the X-ray beam approaches zero amplitude at the crystal planes, thus avoiding the atoms. Here we show experimentally that under conditions of absorption suppression, the weaker electric quadrupole absorption transitions are effectively enhanced to such a degree that they can dominate the absorption spectrum. This effect can be exploited as an atomic spectroscopy technique; we show that quadrupole transitions give rise to additional structure at the L(1), L(2) and L(3) absorption edges of gadolinium in gadolinium gallium garnet, which mark the onset of excitations from 2s, 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) atomic core levels, respectively. Although the Borrmann effect served to underpin the development of the theory of X-ray diffraction, this is potentially the most important experimental application of the phenomenon since its first observation seven decades ago. Identifying quadrupole features in X-ray absorption spectroscopy is central to the interpretation of 'pre-edge' spectra, which are often taken to be indicators of local symmetry, valence and atomic environment. Quadrupolar absorption isolates states of different symmetries to that of the dominant dipole spectrum, and typically reveals orbitals that dominate the electronic ground-state properties of lanthanides and 3d transition metals, including magnetism. Results from our Borrmann spectroscopy technique feed into contemporary discussions regarding resonant X-ray diffraction and the nature of pre-edge lines identified by inelastic X-ray scattering. Furthermore, because the Borrmann effect has been observed in photonic materials, it seems likely that the quadrupole enhancement reported here will play an important role in modern optics.

  18. Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.

  19. Photoassociation of a cold-atom-molecule pair: Long-range quadrupole-quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Kokoouline, V.

    2010-10-15

    The general formalism of the multipolar expansion of electrostatic interactions is applied to the calculation of the potential energy between an excited atom (without fine structure) and a ground-state diatomic molecule at large mutual separations. Both partners exhibit a permanent quadrupole moment so that their mutual long-range interaction is dominated by a quadrupole-quadrupole term, which is attractive enough to bind trimers. Numerical results are given for an excited Cs(6{sup 2}P) atom and a ground-state Cs{sub 2} molecule. The prospects for achieving photoassociation of a cold-atom-dimer pair are thus discussed and found promising. The formalism can be generalized to the long-range interaction between molecules to investigate the formation of cold tetramers.

  20. British experience with the self-boring pressuremeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroth, C. P.

    The optimum position of the cutter of a soil pressuremeter is discussed and experience gained in geotechnical engineering applications are reviewed emphasizing the use of the instrument for the measurement of the shear modulus of the ground. The effects of the cutter position on the degree of disturbance of the ground being bored is analyzed, showing that an adjustment of the rotative cutter position relative to the sharp cutting edge of the cylindrical container minimizes ground disturbances. Use of the instrument in clay and sand soils is detailed. Measurements of the shear modulus together with the effective lateral stress are obtained for finite element computations in realistic models of soil behavior.

  1. Small bore ceramic laser tube inspection light table

    DOEpatents

    Updike, Earl O.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting small bore ceramic laser tubes, which includes a support base with one or more support rollers. A fluorescent light tube is inserted within the laser tube and the laser tube is supported by the support rollers so that a gap is maintained between the laser tube and the fluorescent tube to enable rotation of the laser tube. In operation, the ceramic tube is illuminated from the inside by the fluorescent tube to facilitate visual inspection. Centering the tube around the axial light of the fluorescent tube provides information about straightness and wall thickness of the laser tube itself.

  2. Microcomputer Boring and Subsurface Data Package: User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    have been written using dBASE II (trademark of Ashton-Tate) software on a microcomputer with the MS-DOS (trademark of Microsoft Corp.) or the CP /M...Places *4 TOTAL 4* 00141 Figure 2. Structure for BORDBM data hase f iles ,%B - - -Z MS-O --- "- DBASE -- DO BORORN CP /M MAIN MENU FOR BORING DATA BASE... PORNO STORE (EWHCORD-EWLCORD)/EWINC+COL TO MAXCOL *start of main do loop **** main do loop * DO WHILE .NOT. EOF IF NSCORD/(nsinc*10) =INT(NSCORD/(nsinc

  3. Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2016-12-01

    Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.

  4. Transient Shock Formation of Pulsed Electrothermal Plasma Discharge Confined in an Extended Bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungjin; Kwak, Ho Sang; Park, Joong-Youn

    An electrothermal gun possesses a great potential to be an efficient source of pulsed plasma discharge for nanomaterials production or thermal plasma spray coatings. A plasma discharge by intense pulsed power is numerically studied utilizing time-dependent gas dynamics equations which are solved by FCT (flux-corrected transport) algorithm in two-dimensional domain of the interior capillary bore region and the external region of extended bore. Plasma conditions at the bore exit, mass ablation of polycarbonate bore wall, and degree of ionization are determined at different levels of transient arc current profile. As a way to controlling the plasma discharge, the extended bore at the capillary exit is considered and the flow pattern of pulsed plasma discharge in the extended bore exhibit complex shock structure from slightly to highly underexpanded jet depending on the level of arc current profiles. Flow instability of oscillating Mach disk is found at higher level of arc current profile cases.

  5. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  6. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  7. Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.

  8. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2013-06-20

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  9. Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-15003 Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials Mark E. Todaro...SUBTITLE Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...thermomechanical effects that occur at the bore of large and medium caliber guns during firing. Hence, PLH has been used not only to gain insight into the erosion

  10. Mechanics of Cutting and Boring. Part 7. Dynamics and Energetics of Axial Rotation Machines,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    9 5. Measurements of head power as a function of axial thrust for a tunnel boring machine 11 6. Torque and torque force as...functions of axial thrust for a tunnel boring machine ....... 11 7. Maximum working thrust plotted against head diameter for some existing machines...the hole wall, or by the wall, ceiling or floor of a chamber occupied by the boring machine . For deep vertical drilling in rock, the weight of the

  11. Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Franz L.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.

  12. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  13. Nuclear quadrupole resonance echoes from hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Ota, Go; Itozaki, Hideo

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the echo phenomenon of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) from hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). We detected the pure NQR echo signal of HMT with a short pulse interval. The intensity of the echo signal increased as the pulse interval time was decreased. We observed that a clean echo signal was generated even when the pulse interval was shorter than the decay time constant T(2)(*). Since the short interval time gives a strong echo, our result insists that shorter interval time is preferred for the NQR detection.

  14. The Pipe-Quadrupole, an Alternative for High Gradient Interaction Region Quadrupole Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Oort, J.M. van; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    In the design of interaction region (IR) quadrupoles for high luminosity colliders such as the LHC or a possible upgrade of the Tevatron, the radiation heating of the coil windings is an important issue. Two obvious solutions to this problem can be chosen. The first is to reduce the heat load by added shielding, increased cooling with fins or using Nb{sub 3}Sn to increase the temperature margin. The second solution eliminates the conductor from the areas with the highest radiation intensity, which are located on the symmetry-axes of the midplanes of the coils. A novel quadrupole design is presented, in which the conductor is wound on four half-moon shaped supports, forming elongated toroid sections. The assembly of the four shapes yields a quadrupole field with an active flux return path, and a void in the high radiation area. This void can be occupied by a liquid helium cooling pipe to lower the temperature of the windings from the inside. The coil layout, harmonic optimization and mechanical design are shown, together with the calculated temperature rise for the radiation load of the LHC interaction region quadrupoles.

  15. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  16. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel; Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  17. Successive impact of tidal bores on sedimentary processes: Arcins channel, Garonne River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reungoat, David; Leng, Xinqian; Chanson, Hubert

    2017-03-01

    A tidal bore is a hydrodynamic shock, propagating upstream as the tidal flow turns to rising, with macro-tidal conditions in a funnel shaped system with shallow waters. The tidal bore of the Garonne River was extensively investigated in the Arcins channel between 2010 and 2013, typically over one to two days. In 2015, new field measurements were repeated systematically at the same site on 29 August-1 September 2015 and on 27 October 2015. The nature of the observations was comprehensive, encompassing hydrodynamics and turbulence, as well as sediment properties and transport. The tidal bore occurrence had a marked effect on the velocity and suspended sediment field, including a rapid flow deceleration and flow reversal during the bore passage, with very large suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) during the passage of the tidal bore front and early flood tide, as well as very large suspended sediment flux during the very early flood tide. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data indicated a gradual increase in initial mean SSC estimate prior to the bore from 29 August to 1 September 2015. A comparison between suspended sediment flux data showed very significant suspended sediment flux on the first day of tidal bore occurrence, with a decreasing magnitude over the next three days. The data suggested a two-stage bed scour process: at each tidal bore event, surface erosion occurred initially, in the form of stripping; the first stage was followed by delayed mass erosion, occurring about 5-15 min after the tidal bore.

  18. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A. D.; Scuderi, V.; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. In the actual ion acceleration scheme, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main limiting factors for beam applications and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) has been realized [2] by INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. This system is meant to be a prototype to a more performing one [3] to be installed at ELI-Beamlines for the collection of ions. The final system is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u. In order to validate the design and the performances of this large bore, compact, high gradient magnetic system prototype an experimental campaign have been carried out, in collaboration with the group of the SAPHIR experimental facility at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. During this campaign a deep study of the quadrupole system optics has been performed, comparing the results with the simulation codes used to determine the setup of the PMQ system and to track protons with realistic TNSA-like divergence and spectrum. Experimental and simulation results are good agreement, demonstrating the possibility to have a good control on the magnet optics. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here.

  19. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  20. Consistent quadrupole-octupole collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolski, A.; Mazurek, K.; Góźdź, A.

    2016-11-01

    Within this work we present a consistent approach to quadrupole-octupole collective vibrations coupled with the rotational motion. A realistic collective Hamiltonian with variable mass-parameter tensor and potential obtained through the macroscopic-microscopic Strutinsky-like method with particle-number-projected BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) approach in full vibrational and rotational, nine-dimensional collective space is diagonalized in the basis of projected harmonic oscillator eigensolutions. This orthogonal basis of zero-, one-, two-, and three-phonon oscillator-like functions in vibrational part, coupled with the corresponding Wigner function is, in addition, symmetrized with respect to the so-called symmetrization group, appropriate to the collective space of the model. In the present model it is D4 group acting in the body-fixed frame. This symmetrization procedure is applied in order to provide the uniqueness of the Hamiltonian eigensolutions with respect to the laboratory coordinate system. The symmetrization is obtained using the projection onto the irreducible representation technique. The model generates the quadrupole ground-state spectrum as well as the lowest negative-parity spectrum in 156Gd nucleus. The interband and intraband B (E 1 ) and B (E 2 ) reduced transition probabilities are also calculated within those bands and compared with the recent experimental results for this nucleus. Such a collective approach is helpful in searching for the fingerprints of the possible high-rank symmetries (e.g., octahedral and tetrahedral) in nuclear collective bands.

  1. Monopole, Quadrupole and Pairing: a Shell Model View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuker, A. P.

    The three main contributions to the nuclear Hamiltonian-monopole, quadrupole and pairing - are analyzed in a shell model context. The first has to be treated phenomenologically, while the other two can be reliably extracted from the realistic interactions. Due to simple scaling properties, the realistic quadrupole and pairing interactions eliminate the tendency to collapse of their conventional counterparts, while retaining their basic simplicity.

  2. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  3. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  4. Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam

    DOEpatents

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1985-01-01

    A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow throughout the assembly.

  5. Commissioning a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y

    2010-12-03

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing such a system. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). A previous study investigated the error associated with each step by using a permanent quadrupole magnet on an optical mover system. The study reported an error of 11{micro}m for step 1 and a repeatability of 4{micro}m for step 2. However, the set up used a FARO arm to measure tooling balls and didn't allow to accurately check step 2 for errors; an uncertainty of 100{micro}m was reported. Therefore, even though the repeatability was good, there was no way to check that the error in step 2 was small. Following the recommendations of

  6. Synchrotron Tune Adjustment by Longitudinal Motion of Quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, K. J.

    1996-05-01

    Adjustment of the tune of a synchrotron is generally accomplished by globally varying the strength of quadrupoles, either in the main quadrupole bus or in a set of dedicated trim quadrupoles distributed around the ring. An alternate scheme for tune control involves varying the strengths of quadrupoles only within a local insert, thereby adjusting the phase advance across this insert to create a "phase trombone." In a synchrotron built of permanent magnets, such as the proposed Fermilab Recycler Ring, tune adjustment may also be accomplished by constructing a phase trombone in which the longitudinal position rather than strength of a number of quadrupoles is adjusted. Design philosophies and performance for such phase trombones will be presented. *Operated by Universities Research Association, Inc., under contract with the US. Department of Energy.

  7. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Ludlow, J A; Lee, Teck - Ghee; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  8. Machine vision system for the control of tunnel boring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habacher, Michael; O'Leary, Paul; Harker, Matthew; Golser, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a machine vision system for the control of dual-shield Tunnel Boring Machines. The system consists of a camera with ultra bright LED illumination and a target system consisting of multiple retro-reflectors. The camera mounted on the gripper shield measures the relative position and orientation of the target which is mounted on the cutting shield. In this manner the position of the cutting shield relative to the gripper shield is determined. Morphological operators are used to detect the retro-reflectors in the image and a covariance optimized circle fit is used to determine the center point of each reflector. A graph matching algorithm is used to ensure a robust matching of the constellation of the observed target with the ideal target geometry.

  9. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  10. Supersonic Quadrupole Noise Theory for High-Speed Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    High-speed helicopter rotor impulsive noise prediction is an important problem of aeroacoustics. The deterministic quadrupoles have been shown to contribute significantly to high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise of rotors, particularly when the phenomenon of delocalization occurs. At high rotor-tip speeds, some of the quadrupole sources lie outside the sonic circle and move at supersonic speed. Brentner has given a formulation suitable for efficient prediction of quadrupole noise inside the sonic circle. In this paper, we give a simple formulation based on the acoustic analogy that is valid for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise prediction. Like the formulation of Brentner, the model is exact for an observer in the far field and in the rotor plane and is approximate elsewhere. We give the full analytic derivation of this formulation in the paper. We present the method of implementation on a computer for supersonic quadrupoles using marching cubes for constructing the influence surface (Sigma surface) of an observer space- time variable (x; t). We then present several examples of noise prediction for both subsonic and supersonic quadrupoles. It is shown that in the case of transonic flow over rotor blades, the inclusion of the supersonic quadrupoles improves the prediction of the acoustic pressure signature. We show the equivalence of the new formulation to that of Brentner for subsonic quadrupoles. It is shown that the regions of high quadrupole source strength are primarily produced by the shock surface and the flow over the leading edge of the rotor. The primary role of the supersonic quadrupoles is to increase the width of a strong acoustic signal.

  11. Connecting wind-driven upwelling and offshore stratification to nearshore internal bores and oxygen variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Ryan K.; Woodson, C. Brock; Leary, Paul R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2014-06-01

    This study utilizes field observations in southern Monterey Bay, CA, to examine how regional-scale upwelling and changing offshore (shelf) conditions influence nearshore internal bores. We show that the low-frequency wind forcing (e.g., upwelling/relaxation time scales) modifies the offshore stratification and thermocline depth. This in turn alters the strength and structure of observed internal bores in the nearshore. An internal bore strength index is defined using the high-pass filtered potential energy density anomaly in the nearshore. During weak upwelling favorable conditions and wind relaxations, the offshore thermocline deepens. In this case, both the amplitude of the offshore internal tide and the strength of the nearshore internal bores increase. In contrast, during strong upwelling conditions, the offshore thermocline shoals toward the surface, resulting in a decrease in the offshore internal tide amplitude. As a result, cold water accumulates in the nearshore (nearshore pooling), and the internal bore strength index decreases. Empirical orthogonal functions are utilized to support the claim that the bore events contribute to the majority of the variance in cross-shelf exchange and transport in the nearshore. Observed individual bores can drive shock-like drops in dissolved oxygen (DO) with rapid onset times, while extended upwelling periods with reduced bore activity produce longer duration, low DO events.

  12. Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1994-10-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). This paper presents abbreviated results from a demonstration of the laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center in May 1994 on RDX-based explosives.

  13. Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

    1994-10-01

    Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

  14. An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, S.R.

    1987-10-05

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

  15. Atomic Quadrupole Moment Measurement Using Dynamic Decoupling.

    PubMed

    Shaniv, R; Akerman, N; Ozeri, R

    2016-04-08

    We present a method that uses dynamic decoupling of a multilevel quantum probe to distinguish small frequency shifts that depend on m_{j}^{2}, where m_{j}^{2} is the angular momentum of level |j⟩ along the quantization axis, from large noisy shifts that are linear in m_{j}, such as those due to magnetic field noise. Using this method we measured the electric-quadrupole moment of the 4D_{5/2} level in ^{88}Sr^{+} to be 2.973_{-0.033}^{+0.026}ea_{0}^{2}. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in ^{88}Sr^{+} based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.

  16. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  17. Roll measurement of Tevatron dipoles and quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; Elementi, L.; Gollwitzer, K.; Jostlein, H.; Nobrega, F.; Shiltsev, V.; Stefanski, R.

    2006-09-01

    In 2003 a simple digital level system was developed to allow for rapid roll measurements of all dipoles and quadrupoles in the Tevatron. The system uses a Mitutoyo digital level and a PC running MS WINDOWS XP and LAB VIEW to acquire data on the upstream and downstream roll of each magnet. The system is sufficiently simple that all 1,000 magnets in the Tevatron can be measured in less than 3 days. The data can be quickly processed allowing for correction of rolled magnets by the Fermilab alignment group. Data will be presented showing the state of the Tevatron in 2003 and the changes in rolls as measured in each shutdown since then.

  18. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  19. Magnetic measurement system for harmonic analysis of LBL SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) model dipoles and quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Nelson, D.H.; Taylor, C.E.; Travis, N.J.; Van Dyke, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    Specialized hardware and software have been developed to facilitate harmonic error analysis measurements of one-meter-long Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) model dipole and quadrupole magnets. Cold bore measurements feature cryogenic search-coil arrays with high bucking ratios that also have sufficient sensitivity to make room-temperature measurements at the low magnet currents of approx.10 A. Three sets of search coils allow measurements of the center, either end, and/or the axially integrated field. Signals from the search coils are digitally integrated by means of a voltage-to-frequency converter feeding an up-down counter. The data are drift corrected, Fourier analyzed, converted to physical quantities, and printed and plotted. A cycle of measurements including data acquisition, processing, and the generation of tabular and graphic output requires 80 seconds. The vast amount of data generated (several hundred measurement cycles for each magnet) has led to the development of postprocessing programs and procedures. Spreadsheets allow easy manipulation and comparison of results within a test series and between magnets. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution.

  1. Acoustic monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles: An experiment revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel A.; Titlow, Joseph P.; Bemmen, Ya-Juan

    1999-08-01

    A simple and inexpensive demonstration of acoustic monopole, dipole, and quadrupole sources utilizes four 4-in. boxed loudspeakers and a homemade switch box. The switch box allows the speakers to be driven in any combination of phase relationships. Placing the speakers on a rotating stool allows students to measure directivity patterns for monopole, dipole, and quadrupole speaker combinations. Stacking the speakers in a square, all facing the same direction, allows students to aurally compare the frequency and amplitude dependence of sound radiation from monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles.

  2. Emission of nuclear quadrupole resonance from polycrystalline hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Ota, G; Itozaki, H

    2008-03-01

    The angular dependence of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signal intensity emitted from polycrystalline hexamethylenetetramine has been analytically investigated for all directions for non-contact detection of chemicals by nuclear quadrupole resonance. The field pattern of the NQR signal from a column sample was measured. The emitted patterns were the same as that from a united single magnetic dipole, which fitted well to the estimation based on quadrupole principle axis system. This result is helpful to design an antenna for NQR remote detection.

  3. Packing assembly for use in a plunger bore

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Cobb, H.V.; Winn, F.M.

    1986-02-25

    A packing assembly is described which is adapted to be installed in a machine, such as a pump, the machine having a housing with a plunger bore and a plunger therin to provide a fluid-tight seal for the machine. The assembly consists of: a packing gland which fastens into one end of the plunger bore; a packing gland spacer positioned adjacent to and in contact with the packing gland; a lubrication gland positioned adjacent to and in contact with the packing gland spacer; a separate stack of packing rings, which includes at least two packing rings, each ring in the stack has a front face defining a concave shape, a rear face defining a convex shape, and a groove, defining a concave shape, in the front face; a female adaptor ring positioned between the lubrication gland and the packing ring stack, the female adaptor ring has a front face with a concave shape, the concave shape defines an angle which substantially conforms to the angle defined by the convex shape of the rear face of the last packing ring in the stack, such that the front face of the female adaptor ring can seat firmly against the rear face of the last packing ring; a male-female adaptor ring positioned between two packing rings in the stack, the male-female adaptor ring has a front face and rear face, the rear face has a convex shape and an integral rib member defining a convex shape, on the rear face, and the front face has a concave shape; the convex shape of the rear face of the male-female adaptor ring defines an angle which substantially conforms to the angle defined by the concave shape of the front face of the last packing ring in the stack and the convex shape of the face of the last packing ring in the stack and the convex shape of the rib member substantially conforms to the concave shape of the groove in the front face of the last packing ring.

  4. Mixing and sediment resuspension associated with internal bores in a shallow bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Homma, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Fringer, Oliver B.; Nagai, Takeyoshi; Kitade, Yujiro; Okayasu, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Observations of the run-up of internal bores in a shallow bay were made with a tow-yo instrument and mooring arrays with high spatial and temporal resolution. Shoreward propagating internal bores have been studied with laboratory experiments and numerical models, but few observational studies have shown the detailed structure of the run-up of internal bores induced by internal tides. Our observations showed that internal bores propagate along the slope, accompanied by strong turbulent mixing and strong sediment resuspension in a shallow bay. The isothermal displacement due to the bores reached 20 m vertically in a water depth of 40 m. Turbidity measurements showed suspended particles transported from the sloping bottom and offshore above the thermocline, forming an intermediate nepheloid layer (INL). At the head of the bore (dense water), a vortex accompanied by strong vertical motion induced strong vertical sediment resuspension and a steep isothermal displacement. The rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reached 10-6 W kg-1 at the head of the wave. A nonhydrostatic numerical simulation in a two-dimensional domain reproduced fine features associated with the run-up of an internal bore and the vortex motion at its head.

  5. Tunnel Boring Machine Technology for a Deeply Based Missile System. Volume I, Application Feasibility. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A091 976 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES GOLDEN F/G 13/2 NNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYS-ETC(U) .UA 80 G B CLARK. L...TR-79-120, Vol. I, Pt. 1 AFWL-TR- 79-120 Vol. I ~Pt. I TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Volume I of 11 lApplication... BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Final Report Vol I of II: Application Feasibility 6. PERFORMINGORO. REPORTNUMM Part I of 2 7

  6. Effect of Sputtering Parameters on Ta Coatings for Gun Bore Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Dean W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.; Rice, Joseph P.; Lee, Sabrina L.; Windover, Donald

    2000-11-30

    Tantalum offers a number of attractive properties for gun bore coating applications, including a high melting temperature, high ductility, and an environmentally friendly deposition method. However, vapor-deposited tantalum can appear in both the characteristic bcc phase found in the bulk material, and in a very brittle and less desirable 'beta' phase. Presence of the beta phase in bore coatings is considered undesirable because of its brittleness and resulting failure as the coating is stressed. A high-rate triode sputtering system with a cylindrical coating geometry was used to produce thick tantalum coatings on 4340 steel smooth bore cylindrical substrates.

  7. Tidal bores, turbulence and mixing above deep-ocean slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Kraig

    2016-11-01

    A tidally driven, stably-stratified turbulent boundary layer over supercritically sloping topography is simulated numerically using a spectral LES approach (Winters, 2015, 2016). The near boundary flow is characterized by quasi-periodic, bore-like motions, whose temporal signature is compared to the high-resolution ocean mooring data of van Haren (2006). The relatively thick bottom boundary layer remains stably stratified owing to the regular cycling of unmixed ambient fluid into the turbulent boundary layer and episodic expulsion events where fluid is ejected into the stratified interior. The effective diffusivity of the flow near the boundary is estimated by means of a synthetic dye tracer experiment. The average dissipation rate within the dye cloud is computed and combined with the diffusivity estimate to yield an overall mixing efficiency of 0.15. Both the estimated diffusivity and dissipation rates are in reasonable agreement with the microstructure observations of Kunze et al. (2012) when scaled to the environmental conditions at the Monterey and Soquel Canyons and to the values estimated by van Haren and Gostiaux (2012) above the sloping bottom of the Great Meteor Seamount in the Canary Basin.

  8. Braided composite bore evacuator chambers for tank cannons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Philip C.

    1990-01-01

    Typically, continuous filament composite components are fabricated using a filament winding technique. In this operation, fibers are introduced to a rotating mandrel while a guide holding the material traverses back and forth to place the material in a helical pattern over the surface of the mandrel. This procedure is continued until complete coverage is obtained. An alternative method for fabricating continuous filament composite components is braiding. In the braiding operation a mandrel is traversed through the center of the braider while 144 strands of material traverse around a carrier ring. As the fibers are applied to a mandrel surface, 72 carriers holding the fibers travel clockwise, while another 72 carriers travel counterclockwise to interlock fibers. An additional 72 carriers located on the back of the braider introduce longitudinal fibers to the composite giving the composite lateral strength. The goal of using the braider is to reduce production time by simultaneously applying 144 strands of material onto a mandrel as opposed to the four-strand wrapping most filament winding techniques offer. Benefits to braiding include the ability to (1) introduce longitudinal fibers to the composite structure; (2) fabricate non-symmetric components without using complex functions to produce full coverage; and (3) produce a component with a higher degree of damage tolerance due to the interlocking of fibers. The fabrication of bore evacuator chambers for a tank cannon system is investigated by utilizing a 144 carrier braiding machine, an industrial robot, and a resin applicator system.

  9. Remotely variable multiple bore ram system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, D.A.

    1989-05-02

    A ram assembly is described for use in a ram type blow out preventer, comprising: a thrust rod defining a longitudinal axis; a ram block body interconnected to the rod and defining a vertical cylindrical and normal to the longitudinal axis of the thrust rod; a ram shoe preselected from a plurality of parts thereof having different bores, the shoe having a load shoulder with a vertical cylindrical pin hole extending through the shoulder, and further having pipe faces and a seal disposed between the pipe faces and circumscribing the shoe; and a lock pin means having a collet hole disposed in one end for releasably interconnecting the ram shoe and the ram block when the lock pin means, the lock pin hole, and the pin hole are coaligned in vertical registry with the lock pin means disposed in the lock pin hole and the pin hole. The patent also describes a method using a running tool suspended from a drill hole string for changing from a first location a pair of ram shoes releasably interconnected by pins to respective rams of a ram type blow out preventer.

  10. PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO.Y.PILAT,F.ROSER,T.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed.

  11. Thermal Analysis of the ILC Superconductin Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Ian; /Rose-Hulman Inst., Terre Haute /SLAC

    2006-09-13

    Critical to a particle accelerator's functioning, superconducting magnets serve to focus and aim the particle beam. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has received a prototype superconducting quadrupole designed and built by the Centro de Investigaciones Energ{acute e}ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol{acute o}gicas (CIEMAT) to be evaluated for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. To ensure proper functioning of the magnet, the device must be maintained at cryogenic temperatures by use of a cooling system containing liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The cool down period of a low temperature cryostat is critical to the success of an experiment, especially a prototype setup such as this one. The magnet and the dewar each contain unique heat leaks and material properties. These differences can lead to tremendous thermal stresses. The system was analyzed mathematically, leading to ideal liquid helium and liquid nitrogen flow rates during the magnet's cool-down to 4.2 K, along with a reasonable estimate of how long this cool-down will take. With a flow rate of ten gaseous liters of liquid nitrogen per minute, the nitrogen shield will take approximately five hours to cool down to 77 K. With a gaseous helium flow rate of sixty liters per minute, the magnet will take at least nineteen hours to cool down to a temperature of 4.2 K.

  12. Nuclear spin squeezing via electric quadrupole interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Korkmaz, Yaǧmur; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2016-01-01

    Control over nuclear-spin fluctuations is essential for processes that rely on preserving the quantum state of an embedded system. For this purpose, squeezing is a viable alternative, so far that has not been properly exploited for the nuclear spins. Of particular relevance in solids is the electric quadrupole interaction (QI), which operates on nuclei having spin higher than 1/2. In its general form, QI involves an electric-field gradient (EFG) biaxiality term. Here, we show that as this EFG biaxiality increases, it enables continuous tuning of single-particle squeezing from the one-axis twisting to the two-axis countertwisting limits. A detailed analysis of QI squeezing is provided, exhibiting the intricate consequences of EFG biaxiality. The initial states over the Bloch sphere are mapped out to identify those favorable for fast initial squeezing, or for prolonged squeezings. Furthermore, the evolution of squeezing in the presence of a phase-damping channel and an external magnetic field are investigated. We observe that dephasing drives toward an antisqueezed terminal state, the degree of which increases with the spin angular momentum. Finally, QI squeezing in the limiting case of a two-dimensional EFG with a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed, which is of importance for two-dimensional materials, and the associated beat patterns in squeezing are revealed.

  13. Dynamics of a charged drop in a quadrupole electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sudip; Mayya, Y. S.; Thaokar, Rochish

    2015-07-01

    Quadrupole electric fields are commonly employed for confining charged conducting drops in Paul traps for studying Rayleigh instability characteristics. We investigate the effect of these fields on the deformation and stability characteristics of a charged liquid drop, using the axisymmetric boundary integral method (BIM). Different combinations of the amount of charge and strength of the electric field give rise to different equilibrium shapes. Interestingly, unlike in the case of uniform fields, stable oblate equilibrium drop shapes are sustained in quadrupole fields. In a positive endcap configuration of the quadrupole setup a drop carrying a small negative charge displays a transition from oblate to prolate as the field strength increases. On the other hand, for the case of a highly charged drop, a shift in the Rayleigh critical charge is observed in the presence of a weak quadrupole field. The Rayleigh instability displays imperfect transcritical bifurcation characteristics with respect to imposed prolate and oblate perturbations. Results are of significance in i) interpreting deformation and the Rayleigh stability effects using Paul traps with quadrupole fields, ii) designing more efficient quadrupole-field-based technologies for emulsification of water in oil.

  14. Strong turbulent mixing induced by internal bores interacting with internal tide-driven vertically sheared flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Fringer, Oliver B.; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Amakasu, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    We observed the formation of an internal bore interacting with the vertically sheared flow generated during the previous phase of the internal tide, which resulted in strong turbulent mixing. The rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reached on the order of 10-5 W kg-1 during the event. Numerical simulations reproduced the observed interaction of internal bores with the sheared flow and verified the hypothesized breaking and mixing mechanism. The numerical results indicated that the Iribarren number, or the ratio of the topographic slope to the internal wave slope, plays a major role in the mixing intensity and types of internal bores. It was found that waves with low Iribarren numbers lead to bores that interact with vertically sheared flows induced by the previous phase of the internal tide and are more likely to produce strong wave breaking and mixing.

  15. The influence of vibrations on surface roughness formed during precision boring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzeniewski, Dariusz; Znojkiewicz, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis of vibrations on surface roughness generated during boring with the application of the conventional boring tool and one with the damper is presented. The experiments included the measurement of vibration accelerations carried out with the piezoelectric sensor, as well as the evaluation of surface roughness parameters after each machining pass. The obtained results reveal that in the investigated range, no stability loss was found. Furthermore, the growth of the rotational speed induces the increase of vibration level, as well as the growth of the differences between the vibration values generated during boring with the conventional tool and one equipped with damper. Vibrations have also the direct influence on the machined surface roughness. In case of the tool equipped with the damper, the tool's overhang L had more intense influence than rotational speed n. However, for the conventional boring tool this dependency was unequivocal.

  16. Heavy duty precision leveling jacks expedite setup time on horizontal boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenbaugh, W.; Jones, C.

    1966-01-01

    Leveling jack is a precise alignment tool which expedites the setup of components or assemblies up to 2500 pounds on horizontal boring mills. This tool eliminates the necessity of wedges and blocks to shim the components to proper position.

  17. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shixiang; Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ailing; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er

    2014-02-01

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  18. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shixiang Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Zhang, Ailing; Chen, Jia'er

    2014-02-15

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  19. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  20. In-bore chronograph--a laser radar for interior ballistics measurements, part 1: system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Greg; Fowler, Stuart R.; Halsey, Howard W.; Whittle, Kerry B.; Kamerman, Gary W.

    1993-10-01

    An internal research and development program at Teledyne Brown Engineering has produced a laser radar device to measure velocities of projectiles as they travel through the barrel of a gun. The technique measures velocities directly via the Doppler shift imposed on a retro- reflected laser beam. The device, called the In-Bore Chronograph (IBC), is believed to be the first coherent laser radar to be offered commercially. The IBC measures in-bore velocities from 5 to 2500 m/sec.

  1. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  2. A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

    2005-01-01

    We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

  3. Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    This research developed theories and conducted numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L{sub 0} for intermediate- and low-frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. The frequency is predicted to be inversely proportional to the wave number. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VIII presents a summary of the research described.

  4. Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop theories and conduct numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L{sub 0} for intermediate- and low frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion ounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Two intermediate-frequency modes are predicted.

  5. Tidal Bore detection in the Garonne River using high frequency GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Roussel, Nicolas; Darrozes, José; Bonneton, Philippe; Bonneton, Natalie; Detandt, Guillaume; Perosanz, Felix; Loyer, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A tidal bore is a positive surge propagating upstream that may form when a rising tide with significant amplitude enters shallow, gently sloping and narrowing rivers. Tidal bores have a significant impact on the river ecosystem behavior, especially in terms of sediment transport. Most of the existing field studies were limited to visual observations. Only a few field experiments have been devoted to a quantitative study of the tidal bore dynamics. We carried out a field study in August, 2015, using a GNSS buoy to measure the tidal bore in the Garonne River (France) at Podensac located 140 km upstream of the estuary mouth. Precise Point Positioning and Differential GNSS techniques were used to determine the river surface height variations with a 20 Hz sampling rate. This site was selected owing to the presence of well-developed undular tidal bores and also because of the absence of any significant curvature of the river at this location, which limits the complexity of the tidal bore structure. The Gironde estuary is located in the Bay of Biscay, on the southwest coast of France, and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne. In the Gironde mouth, the mean neap tidal range and mean spring tidal range is 2.5 m and 5 m, respectively. As the tide propagates upstream a marked ebbflood asymmetry occurs in the upper reaches of the estuary and the wave is amplified. This large amplitude tidal wave propagates in the Garonne and Dordogne rivers up to 160 km from the estuary mouth. Both GNSS buoy and reference station use a Leica AR10 antenna and GR25 receiver. Both stations (reference and buoy) acquired data with a 20 Hz sampling rate. GNSS data were processed using RTKLib. Results allowed to detect the the wave train of the tidal bore that caused an elevation of the surface of around 1.5 m. Comparisons were performed using acoustic data showing a good agreement between both sources of data.

  6. Stability of an aqueous quadrupole micro-trap

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstić, Predrag S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently demonstrated functionality of an aqueous quadrupole micro- or nano-trap opens a new avenue for applications of the Paul traps, like is confinement of a charged biomolecule which requires water environment for its chemical stability. Besides strong viscosity forces, motion of a charged particle in the aqueous trap is subject to dielectrophoretic and electrophoretic forces. In this study, we describe the general conditions for stability of a charged particle in an aqueous quadrupole trap. We find that for the typical micro-trap parameters, effects of both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis significantly influence the trap stability. In particular, the aqueous quadrupole trap could play of a role of a synthetic virtual nanopore for the 3rd generation of DNA sequencing technology.

  7. Stability of an aqueous quadrupole micro-trap

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstić, Predrag S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently demonstrated functionality of an aqueous quadrupole micro- or nano-trap opens a new avenue for applications of the Paul traps, like is confinement of a charged biomolecule which requires water environment for its chemical stability. Besides strong viscosity forces, motion of a charged particle in the aqueous trap is subject to dielectrophoretic and electrophoretic forces. In this study, we describe the general conditions for stability of a charged particle in an aqueous quadrupole trap. We find that for the typical micro-trap parameters, effects of both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis significantly influence the trap stability. In particular, the aqueous quadrupole trap couldmore » play of a role of a synthetic virtual nanopore for the 3rd generation of DNA sequencing technology.« less

  8. Variable-field permanent magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use In the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum, of 4.3 T by a 90{degrees} rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material.

  9. Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with both dipole and quadrupole moments.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Ana L; Delgado, Francisco J García; Gámez, Francisco; Lago, Santiago; Garzón, Benito

    2011-06-21

    New Gibbs ensemble simulation data for a polar fluid modeled by a square-well potential plus dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are presented. This simulation data is used in order to assess the applicability of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994)] to systems where more than one term in the multipole expansion is relevant. It is found that this theory is able to reproduce qualitatively well the vapor-liquid phase diagram for different multipolar moment strengths, corresponding to typical values of real molecules, except in the critical region. Hence, this theory is used to model the behavior of substances with multiple chemical bonds such as carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide and we found that with a suitable choice of the values of the intermolecular parameters, the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these species is adequately estimated.

  10. Removal of Axial Twist in RHIC Insertion Quadrupole Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, J.; Anerella, M.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Muratore, P.

    1997-05-01

    The focusing triplets located on either side of the six interaction points of RHIC each consist of three 13cm aperture quadrupoles with magnetic lengths of 1.44m (Q1), 3.40m (Q2), and 2.10m (Q3). The field quality and alignment of these magnets are most critical to the performance of the accelerator. The maximum allowable axial twist of the cold mass, defined as the standard deviation in the quadrupole roll angle, is 0.5 mrad. This requirement has occasionally exceeded the capabilities of the assembly fixturing and the procedures used to complete the axial welding of the shell halves around the cold mass yoke. A corrective shell welding technique has been successfully employed to remove excessive axial twist of the 13cm quadrupoles. This ``custom straightening" method will be described along with the before and after mechanical inspection data. The magnetic results which confirm the untwisting procedure shall also be discussed.

  11. Study the most favorable shapes of electrostatic quadrupole doublet lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, O. A.; Sise, O.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens with two different electrode shapes were studied with the aid of computer simulation. The optimal electrode voltages of the electrostatic quadrupole lenses which give the stigmatic image in both planes simultaneously were found for both concave cylindrical electrode shape and plan electrode shape of the operation mode: parallel to point focusing. The effect of electrode shape on the image properties was investigated, and the aberration figures were studied. The results showed that under the same operation condition and the geometrical dimensions, the changing of the electrode shape of the electrostatic quadrupole doublet lenses lead to important differences in the optical properties of the lenses and the characteristics of the systems.

  12. Cryogen free superconducting splittable quadrupole magnet for linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Andreev, N.; Kerby, J.; Orlov, Y.; Solyak, N.; Tartaglia, M.; Velev, G.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    A new superconducting quadrupole magnet for linear accelerators was fabricated at Fermilab. The magnet is designed to work inside a cryomodule in the space between SCRF cavities. SCRF cavities must be installed inside a very clean room adding issues to the magnet design, and fabrication. The designed magnet has a splittable along the vertical plane configuration and could be installed outside of the clean room around the beam pipe previously connected to neighboring cavities. For more convenient assembly and replacement a 'superferric' magnet configuration with four racetrack type coils was chosen. The magnet does not have a helium vessel and is conductively cooled from the cryomodule LHe supply pipe and a helium gas return pipe. The quadrupole generates 36 T integrated magnetic field gradient, has 600 mm effective length, and the peak gradient is 54 T/m. In this paper the quadrupole magnetic, mechanical, and thermal designs are presented, along with the magnet fabrication overview and first test results.

  13. Study of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinchan; Zhang Xiaobing; Mao Fuming; Xiao Mei; Cui Yunkang; Engelsen, Daniel den; Lei Wei

    2008-03-15

    The design of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer (MCQMS) having a small total volume of only 20 cm{sup 3}, including Faraday cup ion detector and ion source, is described. This MCQMS can resist a vacuum baking temperature of 400-500 deg. C. The quadrupole elements with a hyperbolic surface are made of a ceramic material and coated with a thin metal layer. The quadrupole mass filter has a field radius of 3 mm and a length of 100 mm. Prototypes of this new MCQMS can detect a minimum partial pressure of 10{sup -8} Pa, have a peak width of {delta}M=1 at 10% peak height from mass number 1 to 60, and show an excellent long-term stability. The new MCQMS is intended to be used in residual gas analyses of electron devices during a mutual pumping and baking process.

  14. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2004-08-17

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  15. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    SciTech Connect

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2005-12-13

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  16. Experimental evaluation of tappet/bore and cam/tappet friction for a direct acting bucket tappet valvetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Pieprzak, J.M.; Willermet, P.A.; Dailey, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on tappet/bore friction and torque at the camshaft that were measured for a direct acting bucket tappet using a cam/tappet friction torque and friction coefficient as a function of cam angle were derived from those measurements. The results showed that, for the particular geometry tested, tappet/bore friction torque accounted for about 13% of the total cam/tappet/bore friction torque at 250 cam rpm. This fraction decreased with increasing speed. Tappet bore friction was greatest at about {plus minus}40 degrees of cam angle, where side loads on the tappet bore were highest. In contrast, earlier results for a center pivot rocker arm design showed tappet bore friction to be negligible.

  17. Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.

  18. Simultaneous quadrupole and octupole shape phase transitions in Thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. P.; Song, B. Y.; Yao, J. M.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2013-11-01

    The evolution of quadrupole and octupole shapes in Th isotopes is studied in the framework of nuclear Density Functional Theory. Constrained energy maps and observables calculated with microscopic collective Hamiltonians indicate the occurrence of a simultaneous quantum shape phase transition between spherical and quadrupole-deformed prolate shapes, and between non-octupole and octupole-deformed shapes, as functions of the neutron number. The nucleus 224Th is closest to the critical point of a double phase transition. A microscopic mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed in terms of the evolution of single-nucleon orbitals with deformation.

  19. Simulation of nuclear quadrupole resonance for sensor probe optimization.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Junichiro; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    A simulation method to estimate the detection efficiency of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) was proposed for optimizing a sensing probe operating at radio frequencies (RFs). It first calculates the transmitted magnetic field from the probe coil to the target sample. The nuclei make quadrupole resonance by it. We considered this nonlinear reaction to estimate NQR emission by the nuclei. Then the received NQR signal intensity from the sample at the probe coil. We calculated the efficiency by testing two different probe types (solenoid and gradiometer) and by changing the relative positions of the probe and sample. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Origin of low-energy quadrupole collectivity in vibrational nuclei.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Fujita, H; Krugmann, A; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Pietralla, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Scheikh-Obeid, A; Wambach, J

    2011-02-11

    The coupling of the giant quadrupole resonance to valence-space configurations is shown to be the origin of the formation of low-lying quadrupole-collective structures in vibrational nuclei with symmetric and mixed-symmetric character with respect to the proton-neutron degree of freedom. For the first time experimental evidence for this picture is obtained from electron- and proton scattering experiments on the nucleus ^{92}Zr that are sensitive to the relative phase of valence-space amplitudes by quantum interference.

  1. An introduction to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chernushevich, I V; Loboda, A V; Thomson, B A

    2001-08-01

    A brief introduction is presented to the basic principles and application of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometer. The main features of reflecting TOF instruments with orthogonal injection of ions are discussed. Their operation and performance are compared with those of triple quadrupoles with electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) TOF mass spectrometers. Examples and recommendations are provided for all major operational modes: mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS), precursor ion scans and studies of non-covalent complexes. Basic algorithms for liquid chromatography/MS/MS automation are discussed and illustrated by two applications.

  2. Enantioselective column coupled electrophoresis employing large bore capillaries hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry for ultra-trace determination of chiral compounds in complex real samples.

    PubMed

    Piešťanský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Kovaľ, Marián; Havránek, Emil; Mikuš, Peter

    2015-12-01

    A new multidimensional analytical approach for the ultra-trace determination of target chiral compounds in unpretreated complex real samples was developed in this work. The proposed analytical system provided high orthogonality due to on-line combination of three different methods (separation mechanisms), i.e. (1) isotachophoresis (ITP), (2) chiral capillary zone electrophoresis (chiral CZE), and (3) triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS). The ITP step, performed in a large bore capillary (800 μm), was utilized for the effective sample pretreatment (preconcentration and matrix clean-up) in a large injection volume (1-10 μL) enabling to obtain as low as ca. 80 pg/mL limits of detection for the target enantiomers in urine matrices. In the chiral CZE step, the different chiral selectors (neutral, ionizable, and permanently charged cyclodextrins) and buffer systems were tested in terms of enantioselectivity and influence on the MS detection response. The performance parameters of the optimized ITP - chiral CZE-QqQ MS method were evaluated according to the FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. Successful validation and application (enantioselective monitoring of renally eliminated pheniramine and its metabolite in human urine) highlighted great potential of this chiral approach in advanced enantioselective biomedical applications.

  3. Field Quality of the First LARP Nb{sub 3}Sn 3.7 m-Long Quadrupole Model of LQ Series

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Escallier, J.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Lamm, M. J.; Nobrega, F.; Prebys, E.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2010-08-01

    The US-LHC accelerator research program (LARP) built and tested the first 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole model of LQ series with a 90 mm bore diameter and a target field gradient of 200 T/m. The LQ series, developed in collaboration among FNAL, LBNL and BNL, is a scale up of the previously tested 1-m long technology quadrupoles of TQ series based on similar coils and two different mechanical structures (shell-based TQS and collar-based TQC), with a primary goal of demonstrating the Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet technology for the luminosity upgrade of LHC interaction regions. In this paper, we present the field quality measurements in the first 3.7-m long LQS01 model based on the modified TQS mechanical structure. The results are compared to the expectations from the magnet geometry and magnetic properties of coils and iron yoke. Moreover, we present a comparison between this magnet and the short models previously measured.

  4. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  5. Solitons, compactons and undular bores in Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-like systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Aparna; Talukdar, B.; Das, Umapada; Chatterjee, Supriya

    2017-02-01

    We examine the effect of dissipation on travelling waves in nonlinear dispersive systems modelled by Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM)-like equations. In the absence of dissipation, the BBM-like equations are found to support soliton and compacton /anticompacton solutions depending on whether the dispersive term is linear or nonlinear. We study the influence of increasing nonlinearity of the medium on the soliton and compacton dynamics. The dissipative effect is found to convert the solitons either to undular bores or to shock-like waves depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the equations. The anticompacton solutions are also transformed to undular bores by the effect of dissipation. But the compactons tend to vanish due to viscous effects. The local oscillatory structures behind the bores and /or shock-like waves in the case of solitons and anticompactons are found to depend sensitively both on the coefficient of viscosity and solution of the unperturbed problem.

  6. Method and tool for machining a transverse slot about a bore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David-Malig, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cutting a transverse slot about a bore of smaller diameter than that of the slot are disclosed. The invention consists of introducing a cutting head facing transversely to the bore, through the bore opening its distance from the mill shaft being progressively extended by the addition of spacers between the head and the shaft until the desired slot depth is obtained. The spacers are held in position by a cable passing from the cutting head through the series of spacers and out along the mill shaft. The mill shaft carrying the cutting head is moved transversely into the object wherein the slot is being cut as the object is being rotated thereabout by the mill table to which it is affixed.

  7. An excitation spectrum criterion for the vibration-induced fatigue of small bore pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussou, P.

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine an easy-to-use criterion to evaluate the risk of vibration-induced fatigue of small bore pipes. The failure mechanism considered is the resonant amplification of a stationary broadband excitation by the main pipe, leading to bending stresses above the fatigue limit of the steel. Based on the Euler beam theory, a simple model is built up for the natural mode shapes of the small bore pipe close to its root. It is shown that the velocity spectrum at the root of the small bore pipe is equal to the r.m.s. value of the bending stress multiplied by a function of the natural frequency, the damping coefficient, the speed of elastic waves in the steel, Young's modulus and a nondimensional factor weakly depending on the geometry of the small bore pipe. A maximum velocity spectrum can then be deduced, assuming that a small bore pipe vibrates mainly on its natural mode shapes. The maximum excitation spectrum is defined for each frequency f as the one which would generate a maximum bending stress equal to the endurance limit of the steel, would the small bore pipe have a natural frequency equal to f. Using envelope values of the nondimensional factor, the stress intensification factor, the peak factor and the endurance limit of the steel, one obtains the following maximum velocity spectrum for the stainless steel: v<6mm/s/sqrt(f), and the following maximum velocity spectrum for the ferritic steel: v<2.7mm/s/sqrt(f). The velocity spectrum criterion appears less penalizing than the 12mm/s criterion and more conservative than the strict enforcement of the ANSI-OM3 standard. Comparisons with former plant studies show that the velocity spectrum criterion leads to the correct fatigue diagnosis.

  8. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-09-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior-inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet.

  9. In-bore setup and Software for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with Z-frame that give a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allow performance of MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning, and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP, and superior-inferior axes were 0.8 ± 1.0 degrees, 1.7 ± 1.6 degrees, and 0.0 ± 0.0 degrees respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle placement error was 3.0 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop set up and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. PMID:22951350

  10. Magnetic field data on Fermilab Energy-Saver quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.E.; Brown, B.C.; Cooper, W.E.; Fisk, H.E.; Gross, D.A.; Hanft, R.; Ohnuma, S.; Turkot, F.T.

    1983-03-01

    The Fermilab Energy Saver/Doubler (Tevatron) accelerator contains 216 superconducting quadrupole magnets. Before installation in the Tevatron ring, these magnets plus an additional number of spares were extensively tested at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF). Details on the results of the tests are presented here.

  11. A LIGA Fabricated Quadrupole Array for Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, K.; Wiberg, D. V.; Hecht, M. H.; Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Yee, K.; Fuerstenau, S.; Brennen, R. A.; Hruby, J.; Bonivert, W.

    1997-01-01

    A linear array of nine quadrupoles was fabricated using the LIGA process. Pole heights ranging from 1 to 3 mm were fabricated using synchrotron X-ray exposures to form free standing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) molds into which copper, gold or nickel were electroplated.

  12. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  13. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2012-12-21

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  14. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  15. Modifications of the design of the final transformer in the FFS to accommodate lower gradients in the final quadrupole triplet

    SciTech Connect

    Murray J.J.

    1983-07-29

    The final transformer of the FFS includes the soft bend magnet and two symmetric quadrupole triplets. It ends at the IP. It is a telescopic transformer (meaning that its transfer matrix is diagonal) with a magnification of -1/5 in both planes. In the current design, L*, the distance between the downstream end of Q1 and the IP, is equal to 7.25 feet (2.21 m) and space is provided upstream of Q6 to accommodate a 27 foot long soft bend magnet. Satisfaction of the foregoing conditions leads to field gradients of about 19.8 kg/cm in Q1 and Q3 and 18.1 kg/cm in Q2. It now appears that it would be very difficult to attain such gradients. For practical superconducting quad designs, meaning iron-free, 5 cm bore, two-layer windings and 4.2/sup 0/K, experts have estimated that gradients of at least 14 kg/cm would be reasonable. This raises the question, can the final transformer in the FFS be modified to accommodate gradients of 14 kg/cm or less and if so at what price in performance.

  16. Testing of an actively damped boring bar featuring structurally integrated PZT stack actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.

    1998-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of cutting tests performed using an actively damped boring bar to minimize chatter in metal cutting. A commercially available 2 inch diameter boring bar was modified to incorporate PZT stack actuators for controlling tool bending vibrations encountered during metal removal. The extensional motion of the actuators induce bending moments in the host structure through a two-point preloaded mounting scheme. Cutting tests performed at various speeds and depths of cuts on a hardened steel workpiece illustrate the bar`s effectiveness toward eliminating chatter vibrations and improving workpiece surface finish.

  17. Experimental study of underground exploration by auger boring on a Mars rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Masaki; Saitou, Kenji; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawashima, Nobuki

    Results are presented of a system study conducted on the possibility of exploring Mars using a Mars rover; emphasis is focused on the underground exploration of Mars by an auger boring machine. An engineering model was constructed, and a boring test was conducted using simulated Martian soil. It is shown that it is possible to drill soil composed of dust, sand, and gravel measuring 0.007-16 mm in diameter to a depth of 1.5 m. The diffusion of the collected sample can be confined to less than a thickness of 20 cm.

  18. Analytical studies of advanced high-field designs: 20-tesla large-bore superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Leber, R.L.; Hickman, R.B.; Lee, J.D.

    1983-09-30

    Several emerging technologies have been combined in a conceptual design study demonstrating the feasibility of producing ultrahigh magnetic fields from large-bore superconducting solenoid magnets. Several designs have been produced that approach peak fields of 20-T in 2.0-m diameter inner bores. The analytical expressions comprising the main features of CONDUCTOR and ADVMAGNET, the two computer programs used in the design of these advanced magnets, are also discussed. These magnets and design techniques will make a paramount contribution to the national mirror-fusion endeavor and to the newly emerging field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) whole-body scanners.

  19. Titanium carbide modified hardfacing for use on bearing surfaces of earth boring bits

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.; Barnard, L.H.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a method of manufacturing an earth boring bit of the type having a rotatable cutter secured to a bearing shaft on a head of the bit and at least one friction bearing surface. The improvement comprises; forming a hardfacing composition by combining a particulate titanium carbide with a hard metal alloy, the particulate titanium carbide having a particle size less than about 10 micron; applying the hardfacing composition to the friction bearing surface of a selected one of the bearing shaft and rotatable cut of the earth boring bit.

  20. Targeted proteomic quantification on quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Domon, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein

  1. A Size-Distance Scaling Demonstration Based on the Holway-Boring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shawn P.; Hoefling, Crystal L.

    2013-01-01

    We explored size-distance scaling with a demonstration based on the classic Holway-Boring experiment. Undergraduate psychology majors estimated the sizes of two glowing paper circles under two conditions. In the first condition, the environment was dark and, with no depth cues available, participants ranked the circles according to their angular…

  2. 33. Drawing R268 (1916), 'Record Of Wash Borings and Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Drawing R-268 (1916), 'Record Of Wash Borings and Test Piles Taken In Vicinity Of Hunters Point, Cal.'; showing site in 1916 with Dry Docks 1 and 2 and without Dry Dock No. 4. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Potential biomass reductions to Miscanthus × giganteus by stem-boring caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury from stem-boring caterpillars has been observed on the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize in both its native and introduced ranges. Because some species causing stem injury in the United States have not been identified, potential biomass reducti...

  4. EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR ROCK AND WELL BORE CEMENT ALTERATION WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2

    SciTech Connect

    William k. O'Connor; Gilbert E Rush

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the alteration of reservoir rock and well bore cement at their interface, under supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), was conducted at the laboratory-scale using simulated brine solutions at down-hole conditions. These studies were intended to identify potential leakage pathways for injected CO{sub 2} due to degradation of the well bore. Two distinct test series were conducted on core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin, IL, and the Grand Ronde basalt from the Pasco Basin, WA. LaFarge Class H well bore cement was used for both series. Reservoir rock/cement cores were immersed within a CO{sub 2}-saturated brine for up to 2000 hours at 35 degrees C and 100 atm CO{sub 2}. Results suggest that the impact of SCCO{sub 2} injection is reservoir-specific, being highly dependent on the reservoir brine and rock type. Brine pH can be significantly altered by CO{sub 2} injection, which in turn can dramatically impact the dissolution characteristics of the reservoir rock. Finally, well bore cement alteration was identified, particularly for fresh cast cement allowed to cure at SCCO{sub 2} conditions. However, this alteration was generally limited to an outer rind of carbonate and Ca-depleted cement which appeared to protect the majority of the cement core from further attack. These studies indicate that at the cement-rock interface, the annular space may be filled by carbonate which could act as an effective barrier against further CO{sub 2} migration along the well bore.

  5. Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu

    2014-09-21

    In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.

  6. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; Spencer, C.M.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  7. Beta function measurement in the Tevatron using quadrupole gradient modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, A.; Lebrun, P.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Early in Run2, there was an effort to compare the different emittance measurements in the Tevatron (flying wires and synchrotron light) and understand the origin of the observed differences. To measure the beta function at a few key locations near the instruments, air-core quadrupoles were installed. By modulating the gradient of these magnets and measuring the effect on the tune, the lattice parameters can be extracted. Initially, the results seem to disagree with other methods. At the time, the lattice was strongly coupled due to a skew component in the main dipoles, caused by sagging of the cryostat. After a large fraction of the superconducting magnets were shimmed to remove a strong skew quadrupole component, the results now agree with the theoretical values to within 20%.

  8. Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure in the Vinyl - Chloride Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.; Messinger, Joseph P.

    2015-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of the vinyl chloride--hydrogen chloride complex, presented at last year's symposium, is greatly complicated by the presence of two chlorine nuclei as well as an observed, but not fully explained tunneling motion. Indeed, although it was possible at that time to demonstrate conclusively that the complex is nonplanar, the chlorine nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting in the rotational spectrum resisted analysis. With higher resolution, Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectra, the hyperfine structure has been more fully resolved, but appears to be perturbed for some rotational transitions. It appears that knowledge of the quadrupole coupling constants will provide essential information regarding the structure of the complex, specifically the location of the hydrogen atom in HCl. Our progress towards obtaining values for these constants will be presented.

  9. Quadrupole association and dissociation of hydrogen in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrey, Robert C.

    2016-10-01

    Radiative association and photodissociation rates are calculated for quadrupole transitions of H2. A complete set of bound and unbound states are included in a self-consistent master equation to obtain steady-state concentrations for a dilute system of hydrogen atoms and molecules. Phenomenological rate constants computed from the steady-state concentrations satisfy detailed balance for any combination of matter and radiation temperature. Simple formulas are derived for expressing the steady-state distributions in terms of equilibrium distributions. The rate constant for radiative association is found to be generally small for all temperature combinations. The photodissociation rate constant for quadrupole transitions is found to dominate the rate constants for other H2 photodestruction mechanisms for {T}{{R}} ≤slant 3000 K. Implications for the formation and destruction of H2 in the early Universe are discussed.

  10. Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.

  11. 3D simulations of an electrostatic quadrupole injector

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P. |; Friedman, A.; Yu, S.

    1993-02-01

    Analysis of the dynamics of a space charge dominated beam in a lattice of electrostatic focusing structures requires a full three-dimensional conic that includes self-consistent space charge fields and the fields from the complex conductor shapes. The existing WARP3d code, a particle simulation code which has been developed for heavy-ion fusion (HIF) applications contains machinery for handling particles in three-dimensional fields. A successive overrelaxation field solver with subgrid-scale placement of boundaries for rounded surface and four-fold symmetry has been added to the code. The electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector for the ILSE accelerator facility being planned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is shown as an application. The issue of concern is possible emittance degradation because the focusing voltages are a significant fraction of the particles` energy and because there are significant nonlinear fields arising from the shapes of the quadrupole structures.

  12. Test results of LHC interaction regions quadrupoles produced by Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Chichili, D.R.; Feher, S.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, A.; Nicol, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Rabehl, R.; Robotham, W.; Scanlan, R.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Strait, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Velev, G.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The US-LHC Accelerator Project is responsible for the production of the Q2 optical elements of the final focus triplets in the LHC interaction regions. As part of this program Fermilab is in the process of manufacturing and testing cryostat assemblies (LQXB) containing two identical quadrupoles (MQXB) with a dipole corrector between them. The 5.5 m long Fermilab designed MQXB have a 70 mm aperture and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a peak field gradient of 215 T/m. This paper summarizes the test results of several production MQXB quadrupoles with emphasis on quench performance and alignment studies. Quench localization studies using quench antenna signals are also presented.

  13. ELECTRON TRAPPING IN WIGGLER AND QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF CESRTA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lanfa; Huang, Xiaobiao; Pivi, Mauro; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D [1]. One of the primary goals of the CesrTA program is to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with low emittance positron beam to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies and benchmark predictions by simulation codes. This paper reports the simulation of the electron-cloud formation in the wiggler and quadrupole magnets using the 3D code CLOUDLAND. We found that electrons can be trapped with long lifetime in a quadrupole magnet due to the mirror field trapping mechanism and photoelectrons produced in the wiggler zero field zone have long lifetime due to their complicated trajectory.

  14. Quadrupole Ion/Neutral Mass Spectrometer for Space Shuttle Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-07

    fCon linue on reverse if neeec’O ond ientify by block number) _ A Quadrupole Ion/Neutral Mass Spectrometer (QINMS) was developed for the fourth flight...The charging of spacecraft surfaces, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys. 19:577-616. 16. Paul , W., Rheinhard, H. P., and von Zahn, U. (1958) Das elektrische...massenfilter als massenspektrometer und isotopentrenner, Z. Ph sik 152:143-182. Paul , W., and Steinwedel, H. (1953) Z. Naturforsch 8a:448. Paul , W

  15. Magnetic performance of new Fermilab high gradient quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Hanft, R.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Mokhtarani, A.; Riddiford, A.

    1991-05-01

    For the Fermilab Tevatron low beta insertions installed in 1990--1991 as part of a luminosity upgrade there were built approximately 35 superconducting cold iron quadrupoles utilizing a two layer cos 2{theta} coil geometry with 76 mm diameter aperature. The field harmonics and strengths of these magnets obtained by measurement at cryogenic conditions are presented. Evidence for a longitudinal periodic structure in the remnant field is shown. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, A.

    1982-10-19

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  17. MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.; PEGGS,S.; PILAT,R.; PTITSYN,V.

    2004-07-05

    The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model.

  18. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Brodowski, John

    1982-11-23

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators.

  19. Transverse beam emittance measurement using quadrupole variation at KIRAMS-430

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Dong Hyun; Hahn, Garam; Park, Chawon

    2015-02-01

    In order to produce a 430 MeV/u carbon ion (12 C 6+) beam for medical therapy, the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) has carried out the development of a superconducting isochronous cyclotron, the KIRAMS-430. At the extraction of the cyclotron, an Energy Selection System (ESS) is located to modulate the fixed beam energy and to drive the ion beam through High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) into the treatment room. The beam emittance at the ion beamline is to be measured to provide information on designing a beam with high quality. The well-known quadrupole variation method was used to determine the feasibility of measuring the transverse beam emittance. The beam size measured at the beam profile monitor (BPM) is to be utilized and the transformation of beam by transfer matrix is to be applied being taken under various transport condition of varying quadrupole magnetic strength. Two different methods where beam optics are based on the linear matrix formalism and particle tracking with a 3-D magnetic field distribution obtained by using OPERA3D TOSCA, are applied to transport the beam. The fittings for the transformation parameters are used to estimate the transverse emittance and the twiss parameters at the entrance of the quadrupole in the ESS. Including several systematic studies, we conclude that within the uncertainty the estimated emittances are consistent with the ones calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Summers, D. J.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  1. The exact calculation of quadrupole sources for some incompressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of the acoustic analogy of Lighthill to the acoustic and aerodynamic problems associated with moving bodies. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, which is an interpretation of the acoustic analogy for sound generation by moving bodies, manipulates the source terms into surface and volume sources. Quite often in practice the volume sources, or quadrupoles, are neglected for various reasons. Recently, Farassat, Long and others have attempted to use the FW-H equation with the quadrupole source and neglected to solve for the surface pressure on the body. The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of the quadrupole source to the acoustic pressure and body surface pressure for some problems for which the exact solution is known. The inviscid, incompressible, 2-D flow, calculated using the velocity potential, is used to calculate the individual contributions of the various surface and volume source terms in the FW-H equation. The relative importance of each of the sources is then assessed.

  2. Quadrupole Magnetic Sorting of Porcine Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Shenkman, Rustin M.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Kirchhof, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Inconsistent isolation, purification, and recovery of large numbers of high-quality islets remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Removing islets as soon as they are liberated from the pancreas during digestion and circumventing the need for density gradient purification is likely to result in substantially increased viable islet yields by minimizing exposure to proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mechanical stress associated with centrifugation. This study capitalized on the hypervascularity of islets compared with acinar tissue to explore their preferential enrichment with magnetic beads to enable immediate separation in a magnetic field utilizing a quadrupole magnetic sorting. The results demonstrate that (1) preferential enrichment of porcine islets is achievable, but homogeneous bead distribution within the pancreas is difficult to achieve with current protocols; (2) greater than 70% of islets in the dissociated pancreatic tissue were recovered by quadrupole magnetic sorting, but their purity was low; and (3) infused islets purified by density gradients and subsequently passed through quadrupole magnetic sorting had similar potency as uninfused islets. These results demonstrate proof of concept and define the steps for implementation of this technology in pig and human islet isolation. PMID:19505179

  3. Quadrupole Splitting Distribution of Fe2+ in Synthetic Trioctahedral Micas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhammer, G. J.; Amthauer, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Roth, G.

    2002-06-01

    About 80 different synthetic trioctahedral micas {K}[Fe2+ 3- x Me x ]4O10(OH)2 with Me = Ni2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and subsequently investigated by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectra were refined in terms of a quadrupole splitting distribution (QSD) with at least 2 components for Fe2+ and additional components for Fe3+ on octahedral and tetrahedral positions. Three Fe2+ components have to be used in all samples containing distinct amounts of trivalent cations (Fe3+, Al3+). A rough positive correlation between the intensity of this third Fe2+ QSD component and the content of trivalent octahedral cations has been found. Substitution of Fe2+ by smaller divalent cations causes a distinct increase of ferrous quadrupole splitting. This suggests the remaining Fe2+O4(OH)2 octahedra to become more regular. This holds true for micas with and with composition of the tetrahedral sheet. In micas with Fe3+ in tetrahedral coordination there is a distinct increase of the quadrupole splitting of tetrahedral Fe3+ with decreasing size of the octahedral sheet. This can be explained by an increasing distortion of the second oxygen coordination sphere around tetrahedral Fe3+ due to increasing ditrigonal distortion of the tetrahedral sheet.

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with both dipole and quadrupole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Ana L.; García Delgado, Francisco J.; Gámez, Francisco; Lago, Santiago; Garzón, Benito

    2011-06-01

    New Gibbs ensemble simulation data for a polar fluid modeled by a square-well potential plus dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are presented. This simulation data is used in order to assess the applicability of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994), 10.1016/0378-4371(94)90469-3] to systems where more than one term in the multipole expansion is relevant. It is found that this theory is able to reproduce qualitatively well the vapor-liquid phase diagram for different multipolar moment strengths, corresponding to typical values of real molecules, except in the critical region. Hence, this theory is used to model the behavior of substances with multiple chemical bonds such as carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide and we found that with a suitable choice of the values of the intermolecular parameters, the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these species is adequately estimated.

  5. CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2006-12-01

    Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds Ntot˜59, there is a 10% 20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2% 4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l2. The suppression is much smaller for Ntot>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound Ntot˜59.

  6. Position Stability Monitoring of THEthe LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz Dieter; Gassner, Georg; Peters, Franz; /SLAC

    2012-03-26

    X-ray FELs demand that the positions of undulator components be stable to less than 1 {mu}m per day. Simultaneously, the undulator length increases significantly in order to saturate at x-ray wavelengths. To minimize the impact of the outside environment, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator is placed underground, but reliable data about ground motion inside such a tunnel was not available in the required stability range during the planning phase. Therefore, a new position monitor system had been developed and installed with the LCLS undulator. This system is capable of measuring x, y, roll, pitch and yaw of each of the 33 undulator quadrupoles with respect to stretched wires. Instrument resolution is about 10 nm and instrument drift is negligible. Position data of individual quadrupoles can be correlated along the entire 132-m long undulator. The system has been under continuous operation since 2009. This report describes long term experiences with the running system and the observed positional stability of the undulator quadrupoles.

  7. First tests of a superconducting RFQ (rf quadrupole) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Shepard, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    High surface electric fields have been obtained in the first tests of a superconducting rf quadrupole device. The rf quadrupole fields were generated between niobium vanes 6.5 cm in length, with an edge radius of 2 mm, and with a beam aperture of 6 mm diameter. In tests at 4.2 K, the 64 MHz device operated cw at peak surface electric fields of 128 MV/m. Virtually no electron loading was observed at fields below 100 MV/m. It was possible to operate at surface fields of 210 MV/m in pulses of 1 msec duration using a 2.5 kW rf source. For the vane geometry tested, more than 10 square centimeters of surface support a field greater than 90% of the peak field. The present result indicates that electric fields greater than 100 MV/m can be obtained over an appreciable area, sufficient for some accelerator applications. It also shows that superconducting rf technology may provide an extended range of options for rf quadrupole design.

  8. Tunnel Boring Machine Technology for a Deeply Based Missile System. Volume II. State-of-the-Art Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    7 A-AG9A 13 e04..RADO SCHOOL OF MINES GOLDEN FB1u TUNNL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE F/6-.13C/1 LUG 80 B B CLARK, L OZDEMIR...F WANG sY60𔄁 -.4-0057ILSSFE AFWL-TR-79-I2O-VOL-2 NL 2flfllflfflfllflfflf AFWL-TR-79-120, Vol. II AFWL LR - LEVE P) Vol. 11 TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY...andSubitt.e) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Final Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Combined Well-Bore Flow and Depth-Dependent Water Sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Christensen, Allen H.; Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Crawford, Steven M.; Smith, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a combined well-bore flow and depth-dependent sample collection tool. It is suitable for use in existing production wells having limited access and clearances as small as 1 inch. The combination of well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data is especially effective in assessing changes in aquifer properties and water quality with depth. These are direct measures of changes in well yield and ground-water quality with depth under actual operating conditions. Combinations of other geophysical tools capable of making these measurements, such as vertical-axis current meters used with wire-line samplers, are commercially available but these tools are large and can not easily enter existing production wells.

  10. Non-intrusive measurement of inner bore temperature of small arms using integrated ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Pimentel, R.; Lord, M.; Beauchesne, A.; Kruger, S. E.; Stowe, R.; Wong, F.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Management of thermal input to a small arms weapons system is a significant design and operational constraint. A collaborative project was initiated with the objective to measure non-intrusively the inner bore barrel temperature of a small arm during actual firing. The approach uses integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) and the velocity temperature dependence of the longitudinal wave propagating through thickness. IUT is successfully implemented on a small arm at 3 locations and results from several firing tests are presented. The small but systematic increase in ultrasonic time delay of less than 1 ns after each firing shot is reliably measured, in agreement with a simple 1D model of heat conduction, and measured temperature rises are consistent with the thicknesses at the different locations. The evaluation of the peak inner bore temperatures using IUT and their validation using eroding surface thermocouples at the same locations in the barrel are discussed.

  11. Zone electrophoresis in an inner-cooling wide-bore electrophoresis system with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yugao; Liu, Danning; Wang, Huaifeng; Yuan, Ruijuan; Bao, James Jianmin

    2008-08-01

    A novel, high-performance wide-bore electrophoresis (WE) system with inner-cooling has been developed. By introducing the mode of a shell and tube heat exchanger into this system to remove Joule heat generated during electrophoresis, it is feasible to extend electrophoresis from the conventional capillary (i.d. <100 microm) to a wide-bore tube (i.d. >1000 microm). The wide tube allows the loading of over 1.0 microL of the sample with an LOD of 3.0 x 10(-4) mg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio, 3:1). Satisfactory separations of model compounds have been achieved on the WE system.

  12. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOEpatents

    Caruso, Philip M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Ladhani, Azad A.; DeMania, Alan Richard; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David; Rathbun, Lisa Shirley; Akin, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  13. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changhai; Deng, Aihua; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sarkar, Sumit; Verma, Gunjan; Vishwakarma, Chetan; Noaman, Md; Rapol, Umakant

    2015-02-01

    We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 87Rb atoms using an electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC trap). More than 5 × {{10}8} atoms from a magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil thereby changing the distance between the quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80%. This approach is different from the conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation of more than 105 atoms.

  15. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J.; Sawyer, T. C.; Scott, J. C.

    1999-04-01

    Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment), a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

  16. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-04-01

    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these coral reefs were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in coral mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and coral cover was used to describe the present condition of coral reefs. Coral reefs are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the coral reef framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern coral reefs affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the reef framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern coral reefs beyond their survival threshold.

  17. Long time existence results for bore-type initial data for BBM-Boussinesq systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtea, Cosmin

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we deal with the long time existence for the Cauchy problem associated to BBM-type Boussinesq systems of equations which are asymptotic models for long wave, small amplitude gravity surface water waves. As opposed to previous papers devoted to the long time existence issue, we consider initial data with nontrivial behavior at infinity which may be used to model bore propagation.

  18. Preliminary list of deep borings in the United States Part II: Nebraska-Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1902-01-01

    The wells and borings reported in the paper are all more than 400 feet in depth. The information concerning them has been obtained partly from replies to circular letters sent to all parts of the United States an  to lack of knowledge on the part of correspondents, and to the incompleteness of published records, doubtless there are borings which have not been reported. In regions of oil and gas wells, where borings are numerous, the individual wells can not be listed here, but representative wells are given. References to logs or records of the wells, or extended descriptions of them, are given in footnotes, and after the list of wells in each State there is added a list of the principal publications relating to deep borings in that state.The bearing of the information given in the columns of the lists probably is apparent, unless, perhaps, in the one headed "Height to which the water rises." In this column an entry such as "-45" indicates that the water rises to within 45 feet of the surface; "+45" indicates that it is a flowing well and has sufficient head to raise the water 45 feet above the surface in an open pipe 45 feet or more in height. The yield in gallons per minute usually is estimated. Depths and diameters often have been reported from memory, and different sources of publication sometimes give different figures. Most wells which are not stated to be "for oil," "for gas," "brine," "abandoned," etc., in the remarks column, or "not any" in the yield column, generally afford more or less water. Many of the gas and oil wells, active or abandoned, yield salt water.

  19. Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching is a stress response of corals induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen reefs that cover the entire distributional range of corals along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these coral reefs were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in coral mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and coral cover was used to describe the present condition of coral reefs. Coral reefs are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the coral reef framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern coral reefs affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the reef framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern coral reefs beyond their survival threshold. PMID:23610632

  20. Tunnel Boring Machine Technology for a Deeply Based Missile System. Volume I, Application Feasibility. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    evaluation of the ground char- acteristics necessary for the design of the tunnel excavation and support. Boreholes. laboratory and in situ tests are the...main in- vestigation tools. The extent of the proqram, i.e., the number of boreholes and the type and number of tests , will depend eventually on the...borings to determine the boundar- ies of the soil and rock types; (ii) Geophysical and other geoloaical testing methods to develop an inferred

  1. The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian (late ordovician) of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2014-01-01

    The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

  2. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  3. "I'm Bored!" Spring Fever and the Gifted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindbom-Cho, Desiree R.

    2013-01-01

    "I'm bored!" It is the refrain dreaded by all parents. By the time winter weather has come and gone, all kids, not just gifted ones, are ready for a change of scenery and/or a change in routine. What is an overworked parent plagued by spring fever him- or herself to do? Finding the right distraction for a gifted child can prove…

  4. Sensing of upslope passages of frontal bores across the trench slope break of the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Yoshio; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shiobara, Hajime; Paros, Jerome M.; Furue, Ryo

    2016-05-01

    The circum-Pacific trench slope system is one of the most spectacular topographic features of the Earth. We report the relatively frequent occurrence of upslope passages (˜50 times a year) of internal bores in the Japan Trench system. Observations were made using a triaxial accelerometer, a tiltmeter, and a current meter at the seafloor, ˜3400 m deep, during 10 months from 2013 to 2014. We detected 42 tilt events from the records of the accelerometer and confirmed their consistency with the tiltmeter records. The tilt occurred always landward by 1-10 µrad with a rise time on the order of 1000 s and return to the original with a much longer recovery time. The current and temperature records available for the first two events indicated that landward tilting was associated with an upslope current with a speed of several cm/s and a temperature drop of several tens of m °C. The temperature remained cold even after the current had diminished. All of these observations implied the frontal passages of upslope advancing bores, which caused the instrument to be tilted landward. The observational site was located at the trench slope break, separating the trench slope (sloping supercritically or near critically for the M2 internal tide) from the fore-arc basin (sloping subcritically). This unique locality suggested the internal tide origin of the observed bores, although other possibilities could not be precluded. Bores generated on the trench slope may play a role for upslope transportation of suspended sediments stirred up by deep submarine landslides.

  5. Study of spatio-temporal dynamics of laser-hole boring in near critical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochitsky, Sergei; Gong, Chao; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan

    2015-11-01

    At high-intensities of light, radiation pressure becomes one of the dominant mechanisms in laser-plasma interaction. The radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can steepen and push the critical density region of an overdense plasma creating a cavity or a hole. This hole boring phenomenon is of importance in fast-ignition fusion, high-gradient laser-plasma ion acceleration, and formation of collisionless shocks. Here multi-frame picosecond optical interferometry is used for the first direct measurements of space and time dynamics of the density cavity as it is pushed forward by a train of CO2 laser pulses in a helium plasma. The measured values of the hole boring velocity into an overdense plasma as a function of laser intensity are consistent with a theory based on energy and momentum balance between the heated plasma and the laser and with two-dimensional numerical simulations. We show possibility to extract a relative plasma electron temperature within the laser pulse by applying an analytical theory to the measured hole boring velocities. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-SC0010064.

  6. Hole boring velocity measurements in near critical density plasmas by a CO2 laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei; Pigeon, Jeremy; Joshi, Chan

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of plasma dynamics during the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with an above critical density plasma is important for understanding absorption, transport and particle acceleration mechanisms. An important process that affects these mechanisms is hole boring occurring at the critical density because of the radiation pressure of the laser pulse. Yet, no systematic measurements of the hole boring velocity's (vhb) dependence on laser intensity (I) have been made. In this talk, we present experimental results of vhb in near critical density plasmas produced by CO2 laser as a function of I in the range of 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. A novel four frame Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a 1 ps, 532 nm probe laser pulse was developed to record the evolution of the plasma density profile and the motion of the near critical density layer. Using this diagnostic, we observed the motion of the steepened plasma profile due to the incident, time-structured CO2 laser pulse. Experimental results show the hole boring velocity increases from 0.004c to 0.007c as the laser intensity is increased from 1*1015 to 1.6*1016 W/cm2. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-92-ER40727, NSF grant PHY-0936266 at UCLA.

  7. Structure of an internal bore and dissipating gravity current as revealed by Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Melfi, S. H.; Skillman, William C.; Whiteman, D.; Dorian, Paul B.; Ferrare, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Raman lidar observations of a weak gravity current and an internal bore associated with a thunderstorm gust front are presented. These observations have been complemented by conventional surface meteorologial analyses, special radiosonde data, spectral and bandpass filter analysis of barograph data, and infrared satellite imagery. Results obtained reveal the time-space continuity and dynamic nature of two boundary-layer disturbances seen in the lidar data. A comparison of the lidar display with the rawinsonde data makes it possible to determine the thermal fields associated with these disturbances at high temporal resolution (2 min) and an altitude of 6 km. The airflow associated with the disturbances was inferred by synthesizing the lidar and rawinsonde data. One of the two disturbances represents a dissipating outflow boundary (gust front) and can be characterized as a gravity current. The second disturbance represents an internal bore propagating ahead of the gravity current on a surface-based stable layer, which acted as a waveguide. The lidar revealed a mean bore depth of 1.9 km, observed and calculated speeds were in good agreement (about + or - 20 percent).

  8. Effect of Sputtering Parameters on Ta Coatings for Gun Bore Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Dean W.; Mcclanahan, Edward R.; Rice, Joseph P.; Lee, Sabrina L.; Windover, Donald

    2000-11-01

    Tantalum offers a number of attractive properties for gun bore coating applications, including a high melting temperature, high ductility, and an environmentally friendly deposition method. However, vapor-deposited tantalum can appear in both the characteristic bcc phase found in the bulk material, and in a very brittle and less desirable "beta" phase. Presence of the beta phase in bore coatings is considered undesirable because of its brittleness and resulting failure as the coating is stressed. A high-rate triode sputtering system with a cylindrical coating geometry was used to produce thick tantalum coatings on 4340 steel smooth bore cylindrical substrates. A systematic series of tests were performed to evaluate the effects of sputtering gas species (Ar, Kr, Xe) and substrate temperature (100-300?C) during deposition on the phase and microstructure of the coatings. Heavier sputtering gases and higher substrate temperatures were found to promote the formation of bcc-phase tantalum coatings. Use of a movable target assembly was shown to promote the production of dense, single-phase tantalum coatings.

  9. Supraclavicular approach to the subclavian/innominate vein for large-bore central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Muhm, M; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Apsner, R; Kritzinger, M; Hiesmayr, M; Druml, W

    1997-12-01

    Infraclavicular and internal jugular catheterization are commonly used techniques for hemodialysis access, but may at times be impeded in patients whose anatomy makes cannulation difficult. In an effort to enlarge the spectrum of alternative access sites, we evaluated the supraclavicular approach for large-bore catheters. During an 18-month period we prospectively collected data on success rate and major and minor complications of the supraclavicular access for conventional dialysis catheters as well as Dacron-cuffed tunneled devices in 175 adult patients admitted for various extracorporeal therapies and bone marrow transplantation. Two hundred eight large-bore catheters (99 conventional dialysis catheters, 63 semirigid tunneled Dacron-cuffed catheters, and 46 Hickman catheters) were successfully placed in 164 patients (success rate, 93.8%), 58 (33.1%) of whom had been previously catheterized. Complications included pneumothorax (one patient), arterial puncture (seven patients), and puncture of the thoracic duct (two patients) without sequelae. Postinsertional chest radiographs demonstrated impressive coaxial lie of most catheters. Catheter malpositions occurred only sporadically (1%). Difficulty of introducing the catheter via a placed sheath was rarely observed. There was no clinically significant evidence of catheter-induced venous thrombosis or stenosis. We conclude that the supraclavicular route is an easy and safe first approach for large-bore catheters, as well as a useful alternative to traditional puncture sites for precatheterized and anatomically problematic patients.

  10. Bore-sight calibration of the profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The bore-sight calibration procedure and results of a profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field is presented in the paper. The task is a part of Autonomous Mapping Airship (AMA) project which aims to create s surveying system with specific properties suitable for effective surveying of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers per a day). As is obvious from the project name an airship is used as a carrier. This vehicle has some specific properties. The most important properties are high carrying capacity (15 kg), long flight time (3 hours), high operating safety and special flight characteristics such as stability of flight, in terms of vibrations, and possibility to flight at low speed. The high carrying capacity enables using of high quality sensors like professional infrared (IR) camera FLIR SC645, high-end visible spectrum (VIS) digital camera and optics in the visible spectrum and tactical grade INSGPS sensor iMAR iTracerRT-F200 and profile laser scanner SICK LD-LRS1000. The calibration method is based on direct laboratory measuring of coordinate offset (lever-arm) and in-flight determination of rotation offsets (bore-sights). The bore-sight determination is based on the minimization of squares of individual point distances from measured planar surfaces.

  11. Chemical and mechanical bioerosion of boring sponges from Mexican Pacific coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Carballo, José Luis

    2008-09-01

    Species richness (S) and frequency of invasion (IF) by boring sponges on living colonies of Pocillopora spp. from National Park Isla Isabel (México, East Pacific Ocean) are presented. Twelve species belonging to the genera Aka, Cliona, Pione, Thoosa and Spheciospongia were found, and 56% of coral colonies were invaded by boring sponges, with Cliona vermifera Hancock 1867 being the most abundant species (30%). Carbonate dissolution rate and sediment production were quantified for C. vermifera and Cliona flavifodina Rützler 1974. Both species exhibited similar rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution (1.2+/-0.4 and 0.5+/-0.2 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively, mean +/- s.e.m.), and sediment production (3.3+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1)), resulting in mean bioerosion rates of 4.5+/-0.9 and 5.1+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively. These bioerosion rates are close to previous records of coral calcification per unit of area, suggesting that sponge bioerosion alone can promote disequilibrium in the reef accretion/destruction ratio in localities that are heavily invaded by boring sponges. The proportion of dissolved material by C. vermifera and C. flavifodina (27 and 10.2%, respectively) confirms that chemical bioerosion plays an important role in sponge bioerosion and in the CaCO3 cycle in coral reefs.

  12. Ab initio calculation of the deuterium quadrupole coupling in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggenberger, Rolf; Gerber, Stefan; Huber, Hanspeter; Searles, Debra; Welker, Marc

    1992-10-01

    The quadrupole coupling constant and asymmetry parameter for the deuteron in liquid heavy water was determined using purely theoretical methods. Molecular-dynamics simulations with the ab initio potential-energy surface of Lie and Clementi were used to generate snapshots of the liquid. The electric-field gradient at the deuteron was then calculated for these configurations and averaged to obtain the liquid quadrupole coupling constant. At 300 K a quadrupole coupling constant of 256±5 kHz and an asymmetry parameter of 0.164±0.003 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole coupling constant was investigated.

  13. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  14. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  15. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  16. Environmental impact of a flocculant used to enhance solids transport during well bore clean-up operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yunus, M.N.M.; Procyk, A.D.; Malbrel, C.A.; Ling, K.L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper investigates particle flocculation as a mechanism to remove residual contaminants in well bores during completion operations. Laboratory tests and field trials were conducted demonstrating the ability of flocculating polymer sweeps to improve well bore cleaning efficiency. This process reduces the volume of fluid accumulated in the well bore that is discharged to the environment and minimizes the risk of formation damage by residuals left in the well bore. In addition, a comprehensive environmental impact study was performed on the flocculating polymers which included 72 hrs-EC50, 48 hrs-LC50, 10 day- LC50 tests on a variety of marine organisms, and bioaccumulation and biodegradability tests. In all cases, the flocculating polymers were shown to be environmentally safe at the recommended concentrations.

  17. Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. V. L. S. Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.

    2014-04-15

    A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 μm leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (∼±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D{sup +}) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H{sup +}) and D{sup +} beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H{sup +} and D{sup +} beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.

  18. Finding the Magnetic Center of a Quadrupole to High Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jenson, D.R.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    In a companion pro, collposal it is proposed to align quadrupoles of a transport line to within transverse tolerances of 5 to 10 micrometers. Such a proposal is meaningful only if the effective magnetic center of such lenses can in fact be repeatably located with respect to some external mechanical tooling to comparable accuracy. It is the purpose of this note to describe some new methods and procedures that will accomplish this aim. It will be shown that these methods are capable of yielding greater sensitivity than the more traditional methods used in the past. The notion of the ''nodal'' point is exploited.

  19. Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Bartelson, L.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Crisp, J.; DiMarco, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Johnson, D.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. [1] Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40{pi} to 60{pi} mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets. Details can be found in Ref [2].

  20. Microwave spectrum, molecular structure, and quadrupole coupling of vinyl chloroformate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimler, Jonathan; Broadbent, Stacy; Utzat, Karissa A.; Bohn, Robert K.; Restrepo, Albeiro; Harvey Michels, H.; True, Nancy S.

    2012-09-01

    Vinyl chloroformate is confirmed to have the planar structure reported in an earlier study [1]. Our study uses much higher resolution microwave rotational spectra and ab initio calculations have been extended to a higher level. Naturally abundant isotopologs with single substitution of 37Cl, 13C, and 18O isotopes have also been measured and a substitution structure obtained. The quadrupole coupling constants of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologs have been determined. The potential energy profiles of internal rotation about the Odbnd Csbnd Osbnd C and Csbnd Osbnd Cdbnd C dihedral angles have been calculated.

  1. Nuclear quadrupole resonance studies project. [spectrometer design and spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, A. N.

    1978-01-01

    The participation of undergraduates in nuclear quadrupole resonance research at Grambling University was made possible by NASA grants. Expanded laboratory capabilities include (1) facilities for high and low temperature generation and measurement; (2) facilities for radio frequency generation and measurement with the modern spectrum analyzers, precision frequency counters and standard signal generators; (3) vacuum and glass blowing facilities; and (4) miscellaneous electronic and machine shop facilities. Experiments carried out over a five year period are described and their results analyzed. Theoretical studies on solid state crystalline electrostatic fields, field gradients, and antishielding factors are included.

  2. Novel integrated design framework for radio frequency quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Simon; Easton, Matthew; Lawrie, Scott; Letchford, Alan; Pozimski, Jürgen; Savage, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel design framework for Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs), developed as part of the design of the FETS RFQ, is presented. This framework integrates several previously disparate steps in the design of RFQs, including the beam dynamics design, mechanical design, electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical modelling and beam dynamics simulations. Each stage of the design process is described in detail, including the various software options and reasons for the final software suite selected. Results are given for each of these steps, describing how each stage affects the overall design process, with an emphasis on the resulting design choices for the FETS RFQ.

  3. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOEpatents

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  4. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

    2004-11-10

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

  5. Quadrupole Splitting Distributions in Grandidierite and Kornerupine from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Li; Laixi, Tong; Xiaohan, Liu; Liudong, Ren; Mingzhi, Jin; Milan, Liu

    2000-12-01

    The Mössbauer spectra of grandidierite and kornerupine at 298 and 90 K were measured. The quadrupole splitting distributions from the Mössbauer spectra were obtained by using the Voigt-based method, and the assignments for QSDs in the Mössbauer spectra of both minerals are presented. Site occupancies of iron in the crystal structures of two minerals were determined, and the chemical formulas of grandidierite and kornerupine were rewritten based on the relative absorption areas and Mössbauer fraction f for Fe3+ and Fe2+.

  6. Nb{sub 3}Sn ARC quadrupole magnets for VLHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Superconducting quadrupoles with a field gradient of 400-450 T/m for a future Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) are being studied at Fermilab. To reach the target field gradient in a 40-50 mm aperture, Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor is used at an operating temperature of 4.2 K. Two cases with different magnet functions, beam separation distances and coil arrangements have been analyzed and optimized in order to provide the required field quality and magnet parameters.

  7. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.; Ball, Millicent, J.

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  8. Structure and Evolution of an Undular Bore on the High Plains and Its Effects on Migrating Birds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, John D.; Stoelinga, Mark T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Johnson, Jim

    1998-06-01

    On 18 September 1992 a series of thunderstorms in Nebraska and eastern Colorado, which formed south of a synoptic-scale cold front and north of a Rocky Mountain lee trough, produced a cold outflow gust front that moved southeastward into Kansas, southeastern Colorado, and Oklahoma around sunset. When this cold outflow reached the vicinity of the lee trough, an undular bore developed on a nocturnally produced stable layer and moved through the range of the Dodge City WSR-88D Doppler radar. The radar data revealed that the undular bore, in the leading portion of a region of northwesterly winds about 45 km wide by 4 km high directly abutting the cold outflow, developed five undulations over the course of 3 h. Contrary to laboratory tank experiments, observations indicated that the solitary waves that composed the bore probably did not form from the enveloping of the head of the cold air outflow by the stable layer and the breaking off of the head of the cold air outflow. The synoptic-scale cold front subsequently intruded on the surface layer of air produced by the cold outflow, but there was no evidence for the formation of another bore.Profiler winds, in the region affected by the cold air outflow and the undular bore, contained signals from nocturnally, southward-migrating birds (most likely waterfowl) that took off in nonfavorable southerly winds and remained aloft for several hours longer than usual, thereby staying ahead of the turbulence associated with the undular bore.

  9. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors. Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  10. The quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn isotopes - an apology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, H.; Barbosa, M. B.; Correia, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 we presented an update of the nuclear quadrupole moments (Q) for the Cd and Zn isotopes, based essentially on straightforward density functional (DF) calculations (H. Haas and J.G. Correia, Hyperfine Interact 198, 133-137 (2010)). It has been apparent for some years that the standard DF procedure obviously fails, however, to reproduce the known electric-field gradient (EFG) for various systems, typical cases being Cu2O, As and Sb, and the solid halogens. Recently a cure for this deficiency has been found in the hybrid DF technique. This method is now applied to solid Cd and Zn, and the resultant quadrupole moments are about 15 % smaller than in our earlier report. Also nuclear systematics, using the recently revised values of Q for the long-lived 11/2 isomers in111Cd to129Cd, together with earlier PAD data for107,109Cd, leads to the same conclusion. In addition, EFG calculations for the cadmium dimethyl molecule further support the new values: Q(111Cd, 5/2+) = .683(20) b, Q(67Zn, gs) = .132(5) b. This implies, that the value for the atomic EFG in the 3it {P}1 state of Zn must be revised, as it has been for Cd.

  11. Nuclear electric quadrupole moment of potassium from the molecular method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade; Visscher, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    The current standard nuclear quadrupole moments (NQMs) of the 39K , 40K , and 41K isotopes have recently been contested by Singh and co-workers on the basis of their atomic computational data [Singh et al., Phys. Rev. A 86, 032509 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032509]. Thus we performed relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at the potassium nuclei in three diatomic molecules (KF, KCl, and KBr) and combined these values with accurate experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants to provide an independent assessment of these NQMs. Our most accurate results, obtained by treating electron correlation with coupled cluster theory, employing a four-component Hamiltonian that includes the Gaunt two-electron correction, and with an incremented relativistic basis set of quadruple-ζ quality, yield Q (39K)=60.3 (6 ) , Q (40K)=-75.0 (8 ) , and Q (41K)=73.4 (7 ) mb . These values are in better agreement with the results obtained by Singh et al. and indicate that the standard NQMs should be revised.

  12. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  13. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Heavy ion plasma confinement in an RF quadrupole trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schermann, J.; Major, F. G.

    1971-01-01

    The confinement of an electron free plasma in a pure quadrupole RF electric trap was considered. The ultimate goal was to produce a large density of mercury ions, in order to realize a trapped ion frequency standard using the hyperfine resonance of 199 Hg(+) at 40.7 GHz. An attempt was made to obtain an iodine plasma consisting of equal numbers of positive and negative ions of atomic iodine, the positive iodine ions, being susceptible to charge-exchange with mercury atoms, will produce the desired mercury ions. The experiment showed that the photoproduction of ions pairs in iodine using the necessary UV radiation occurs with a small cross-section, making it difficult to demonstrate the feasibility of space charge neutralization in a quadrupole trap. For this reason it was considered expedient to choose thallium iodide, which has a more favorable absorption spectrum (in the region of 2000 to 2100 A). The results indicate that, although the ionic recombination is a serious limiting factor, a considerable improvement can be obtained in practice for the density of trapped ions, with a considerable advantage in lifetimes for spectroscopic purposes. The ion pair formation by photoionization is briefly reviewed.

  15. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  16. Determination of nuclear quadrupole moments – An example of the synergy of ab initio calculations and microwave spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kellö, Vladimir

    2015-01-22

    Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.

  17. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  18. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  19. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and aligrnent for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  20. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.