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Sample records for boreal scots pine

  1. Computations on frost damage to Scots pine under climatic warming in boreal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Kolstroem, M.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the risk of frost damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern regions under climatic warming, a submodel for such damage to trees was included in a forest ecosystem model of the gap type. An annual growth multiplier describing the effects of frost was calculated with the help of simulated daily frost hardiness and daily minimum temperature. The annual growth multiplier was used in the main ecosystem model when simulating the development of a tree stand using a time step of one year. Simulations of the growth and development of Scots pine stands in southern Finland (61{degrees} N) under an elevating temperature indicated that climatic warming could increase the risk of frost damage due to premature onset of growth during warm spells in the late winter and early spring. Risk of frost damage implies uncertainty in yield expectations from boreal forest ecosystems in the event of climatic warming. 38 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  3. Above- and belowground fluxes of CH4 from boreal shrubs and Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Santalahti, Minna; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-04-01

    Boreal upland forests are considered as an important sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) due to CH4 oxidizing microbes in the soil. However, recent evidence suggests that vegetation can act as a significant source of CH4. Also, preliminary measurements indicate occasional emissions of CH4 above the tree canopies of a boreal forest. Nevertheless, the sources and the mechanisms of the observed CH4 emissions are still mostly unknown. Furthermore, the majority of CH4 flux studies have been conducted with the soil chamber method, thus not considering the role of the vegetation itself. We conducted a laboratory experiment to study separately the above- and belowground CH4 fluxes of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), which were grown in microcosms. The above- and belowground fluxes of the plants were measured separately, and these fluxes were compared to fluxes of microcosms containing only humus soil. In addition to the flux measurements, we analysed the CH4 producing archaea (methanogens) and the CH4 consuming bacteria (methanotrophs) with the qPCR method to discover whether these microbes contribute to the CH4 exchange from the plant material and the soil. The results of the flux measurements indicate that the humus soil with roots of lingonberry, heather, and Scots pine consume CH4 compared to bare humus soil. Simultaneously, the shoots of heather and Scots pine emit small amounts of CH4. We did not find detectable amounts of methanogens from any of the samples, suggesting the produced CH4 could be of non-microbial origin, or produced by very small population of methanogens. Based on the first preliminary results, methanotrophs were present in all the studied plant species, and especially in high amounts in the rooted soils, thus implying that the methanotrophs could be responsible of the CH4 uptake in the root-soil systems.

  4. Vertical and seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in boreal Scots pine forest soil.

    PubMed

    Santalahti, Minna; Sun, Hui; Jumpponen, Ari; Pennanen, Taina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-11-01

    Fungal communities are important for carbon (C) transformations in boreal forests that are one of the largest C pools in terrestrial ecosystems, warranting thus further investigation of fungal community dynamics in time and space. We investigated fungal diversity and community composition seasonally and across defined soil horizons in boreal Scots pine forest in Finland using 454 pyrosequencing. We collected a total of 120 samples from five vertical soil horizons monthly from March to October; in March, under snow. Boreal forest soil generally harbored diverse fungal communities across soil horizons. The communities shifted drastically and rapidly over time. In late winter, saprotrophs dominated the community and were replaced by ectomycorrhizal fungi during the growing season. Our studies are among the first to dissect the spatial and temporal dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems and highlights the ecological importance of vertically distinct communities and their rapid seasonal dynamics. As climate change is predicted to result in warmer and longer snow-free winter seasons, as well as increase the rooting depth of trees in boreal forest, the seasonal and vertical distribution of fungal communities may change. These changes are likely to affect the organic matter decomposition by the soil-inhabiting fungi and thus alter organic C pools.

  5. Effects of snow condition on microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Masataka; Domisch, Timo; Dannoura, Masako; Ataka, Mioko; Finér, Leena; Repo, Tapani; Osawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming scenarios predict decreasing snow depths and increasing winter precipitation in boreal forests ("rain on snow"). I These conditions may affect the decomposition and the microbial respiration of leaf litter, contributing a major part of tree litters, To understand how different snow conditions during winter would affect the microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest, we conducted a laboratory experiment using needle litter of two age classes (newly dropped and older litter). The experiment simulated four different winter treatments, followed by spring and early summer : (1) ambient snow cover (SNOW), (2) Compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), (3) frozen flood (FLOOD) and (4) no snow cover at all (NO SNOW). The experiment was carried out in four walk-in dasotrons (n=3) with soil temperatures of -2° C and air temperatures of 2° C during winter and increased to 15° C and 20° C during spring, respectively . Needle litter samples were collected three times (prior to the winter, just after winter and at the end of the experiment). We evaluated the microbial respiration from the litter at several temperatures (-5° C, 0° C, 5° C and 12° C), the SIR index (an index estimating the microbial biomass), and the C/N ratio .And we calculated Q10 value (index of microbial respiration activity) using microbial respiration data. We found significant differences in microbial respiration between the newly dropped and older litter at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences in Q10 value and the SIR (index of microbial biomass) between the different winter treatments. All samples showed decrease of microbial activity with time. Finally, we conclude that the winter snow conditions with mild air temperatures as used in our experiment, are not detrimentally affecting the Scots pine needle litter decomposition and its respiration.

  6. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  7. Modelling and measurement of solar induced fluorescence in a boreal scots pine canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, C. J.; Drolet, G.; Atherton, J.; Wade, T. J.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Levula, J.; Nikinmaa, E.; Vesala, T.

    2012-12-01

    temperature and photo-inhibition must be taken into account. We further present the strengths and weaknesses of retrieving Fs from field based radiance measurements in a strongly seasonal Scots pine canopy in boreal Finland, and explore the utility of Fs to track the seasonality in ecosystem photosynthetic light use efficiency and gross primary productivity.

  8. Soil CO_{2} efflux in boreal Scots pine stands: Temporal and spatial variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinistö, Sini; Kellomäki, Seppo; Silvola, Jouko

    2010-05-01

    Soil CO2 efflux was measured with a portable chamber in a managed Scots pine forest in Finland for three years. Our objectives were 1) to identify factors related to temporal variation of soil CO2 efflux in a boreal pine forest, 2) to evaluate simple predictive models of temporal variation, and 3) to assess spatial variation of soil CO2 efflux on different scales and across different development stages of the forest. Plot averages for soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.04 to 0.90 gCO2m-2h-1 during the snow-free period, i.e. May -October, and from 0.04 to 0.13 gCO2m-2h-1 in winter. Soil temperature was a good predictor of soil CO2 efflux. A quadratic model of ln-transformed efflux and a Lloyd &Taylor version of the Arrhenius function had the best fit among temperature response models, explaining 68-87% of the variation over the snow-free period. The results revealed strong seasonality: at a given soil temperature soil CO2efflux was higher later in the season than in spring and early summer. Regression coefficients for temperature (approximations of a Q10 value) of month-specific models decreased with increasing average soil temperatures. Efflux in July, the month of peak photosynthesis, showed no clear response to temperature or moisture. The effect of moisture early in the season was confounded by simultaneous advancement of growing season and increase in temperature. In a dry year, however, the effect of drought was evident as soil CO2 efflux was some 30% smaller in September than in the previous wet year. Spatial variation of soil CO2 efflux was measured at two locations some 30 km apart. The main set-up consisted of three 20 m x 20 m plots with 10 randomly chosen, permanent measurement points in each, measured for three years. They represented two stands and two stages of forest development: one plot in a stand at pole stage (40 years old) and two plots in an older stand (65 yrs). Tree location data and root density samples were collected to be related to variation

  9. The allocation of carbon in most common boreal dwarf shrubs compared to Scots pine seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Liisa; del Rosario Dominguez Carrasco, Maria; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    The floor of boreal pine forests consists of a dense layer of ground vegetation consisting of dwarf shrubs, herbs, grasses, mosses and lichens. The primary productivity of this vegetation is reported to be notable but the carbon (C) dynamics of the most common dwarf shrub plant species, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea is poorly understood. In a controlled laboratory experiment, we determined the full C balances of these dwarf shrubs for the first time and compared to Pinus sylvestris by using long-term biomass accumulation, 13C pulse labelling, CO2 exchange measurements and analysis of non-structural carbon. The observed differences in the carbon dynamics are important in estimating the origin of belowground CO2 fluxes in the field and in evaluating their biological relevance. Our results will improve current understanding of CO2 sources and sinks in boreal forests.

  10. Diurnal patterns in Scots pine stem oleoresin pressure in a boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Hölttä, T; Vanhatalo, A; Aalto, J; Nikinmaa, E; Rita, H; Bäck, J

    2016-03-01

    Coniferous tree stems contain large amounts of oleoresin under positive pressure in the resin ducts. Studies in North-American pines indicated that the stem oleoresin exudation pressure (OEP) correlates negatively with transpiration rate and soil water content. However, it is not known how the OEP changes affect the emissions of volatile vapours from the trees. We measured the OEP, xylem diameter changes indicating changes in xylem water potential and monoterpene emissions under field conditions in mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees in southern Finland. Contrary to earlier reports, the diurnal OEP changes were positively correlated with temperature and transpiration rate. OEP was lowest at the top part of the stem, where water potentials were also more negative, and often closely linked to ambient temperature and stem monoterpene emissions. However, occasionally OEP was affected by sudden changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD), indicating the importance of xylem water potential on OEP as well. We conclude that the oleoresin storage pools in tree stems are in a dynamic relationship with ambient temperature and xylem water potential, and that the canopy monoterpene emission rates may therefore be also regulated by whole tree processes and not only by the conditions prevailing in the upper canopy.

  11. Annual pattern of photosynthesis in Scots pine in the boreal zone.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pertti; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2003-02-01

    To detect seasonal changes in photosynthetic rate in the field, a set of 18,000 photosynthetic measurements made between April and October on three shoots of Scots pine growing near the northern timberline was studied. The measurements were analyzed in the framework of an optimal stomatal control model of photosynthesis, in which irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation, I), air humidity and ambient temperature are driving variables. All driving variables were monitored concomitantly with gas exchange measurements throughout the growing season. The model has nine parameters, of which six were assumed to be constant over the growing season and were fixed based on previous information. The three variable parameters were the initial slope (alpha) and saturation value (gamma) of the light-response curve of carboxylation efficiency in the intercellular cavity, and the cost of transpiration (lambda), in carbon units, regulating the degree of stomatal opening. These parameters could not be estimated independently, nor could their values be satisfactorily found by standard nonlinear regression techniques. A Monte Carlo based simulation procedure was devised to analyze the best-fit parameters and their mutual correlations near the minimum of the residual sum of squares. This was accomplished by replacing the saturation value of the light-response curve with a linearity parameter that determined the shape of the curve. In the best fit solutions, only alpha and lambda varied from day to day, whereas the shape of the curve was constant (i.e., gamma was proportional to alpha). Both alpha and lambda showed consistent patterns from spring to autumn, but the seasonal variation was considerably greater for alpha than for lambda. The optimal stomatal control model with the seven fixed and two daily parameter values gave a good overall fit for photosynthetic rate over the season (PEV > 95%).

  12. Field and controlled environment measurements show strong seasonal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration potential in boreal Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the seasonality of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees and its control by the environment requires separation of the instantaneous and slow responses, as well as the dynamics of light reactions, carbon reactions, and respiration. We determined the seasonality of photosynthetic light response and respiration parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the field in southern Finland and in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in the field using a continuously operated automated chamber setup and fluorescence monitoring systems. We also carried out monthly measurements of photosynthetic light, CO2 and temperature responses in standard conditions with a portable IRGA and fluorometer instrument. The field and response measurements indicated strong seasonal variability in the state of the photosynthetic machinery with a deep downregulation during winter. Despite the downregulation, the photosynthetic machinery retained a significant capacity during winter, which was not visible in the field measurements. Light-saturated photosynthesis (P sat) and the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response (α) obtained in standard conditions were up to 20% of their respective summertime values. Respiration also showed seasonal acclimation with peak values of respiration in standard temperature in spring and decline in autumn. Spring recovery of all photosynthetic parameters could be predicted with temperature history. On the other hand, the operating quantum yield of photosystem II and the initial slope of photosynthetic light response stayed almost at the summertime level until late autumn while at the same time P sat decreased following the prevailing temperature. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters with the environmental drivers suggests that light and minimum temperature are also decisive factors in the seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees.

  13. Field and controlled environment measurements show strong seasonal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration potential in boreal Scots pine

    PubMed Central

    Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Bäck, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the seasonality of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees and its control by the environment requires separation of the instantaneous and slow responses, as well as the dynamics of light reactions, carbon reactions, and respiration. We determined the seasonality of photosynthetic light response and respiration parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the field in southern Finland and in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured in the field using a continuously operated automated chamber setup and fluorescence monitoring systems. We also carried out monthly measurements of photosynthetic light, CO2 and temperature responses in standard conditions with a portable IRGA and fluorometer instrument. The field and response measurements indicated strong seasonal variability in the state of the photosynthetic machinery with a deep downregulation during winter. Despite the downregulation, the photosynthetic machinery retained a significant capacity during winter, which was not visible in the field measurements. Light-saturated photosynthesis (Psat) and the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response (α) obtained in standard conditions were up to 20% of their respective summertime values. Respiration also showed seasonal acclimation with peak values of respiration in standard temperature in spring and decline in autumn. Spring recovery of all photosynthetic parameters could be predicted with temperature history. On the other hand, the operating quantum yield of photosystem II and the initial slope of photosynthetic light response stayed almost at the summertime level until late autumn while at the same time Psat decreased following the prevailing temperature. Comparison of photosynthetic parameters with the environmental drivers suggests that light and minimum temperature are also decisive factors in the seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in boreal evergreen trees. PMID:25566291

  14. Soil concentrations and soil-atmosphere exchange of alkylamines in a boreal Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Pihlatie, Mari; Launiainen, Samuli; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-03-01

    Alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in the boreal forest atmosphere. To better understand the behavior and sources of two alkylamines, dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA), we estimated the magnitudes of soil-atmosphere fluxes of DMA and DEA using a gradient-diffusion approximation based on measured concentrations in soil solution and in the canopy air space. The ambient air concentration of DMA used in this study was a sum of DMA and ethylamine. To compute the amine fluxes, we first estimated the soil air space concentration from the measured soil solution amine concentration using soil physical (temperature, soil water content) and chemical (pH) state variables. Then, we used the resistance analogy to account for gas transport mechanisms in the soil, soil boundary layer, and canopy air space. The resulting flux estimates revealed that the boreal forest soil with a typical long-term mean pH 5.3 is a possible source of DMA (170 ± 51 nmol m-2 day-1) and a sink of DEA (-1.2 ± 1.2 nmol m-2 day-1). We also investigated the potential role of fungi as a reservoir for alkylamines in boreal forest soil. We found high DMA and DEA concentrations both in fungal hyphae collected from field humus samples and in fungal pure cultures. The highest DMA and DEA concentrations were found in fungal strains belonging to decay and ectomycorrhizal fungal groups, indicating that boreal forest soil and, in particular, fungal biomass may be important reservoirs for these alkylamines.

  15. Gas-phase alkylamines in a boreal Scots pine forest air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku; Pihlatie, Mari

    2013-12-01

    Alkylamines are highly reactive volatile nitrogen compounds that may take part in aerosol formation and growth in the atmosphere in boreal forests. We measured alkylamine concentrations from May to October 2011 in a boreal forest at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. The weekly air samples were collected in phosphoric acid-impregnated fiberglass filters through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter and analyzed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer. Ethylamine (EA) and dimethylamine (DMA), propylamine (PA) and trimethylamine (TMA), and diethylamine (DEA) were observed on levels above the detection limits, while butylamine and triethylamine were under the detection limits. The highest concentrations for EA + DMA (157 ± 20 pptV) and PA + TMA (102 ± 61 pptV) were observed from September to October. For DEA the seasonal course was different and the highest concentrations were measured during the summer (max 15.5 ± 0.5 pptV, early July). The amine concentrations were compared with those of ambient air ions, other trace gases (O3, NO, NOx and CO and monoterpenes), and with soil and air temperatures and litterfall. Positive and negative cluster ions did not correlate with the amine concentration measured. However, peaks in the positive and negative intermediate ions showing similar concentrations occurred simultaneously with peaks in EA + DMA and DEA during the summer. The number of new particle formation days followed the sum of the alkylamine concentrations observed during the autumn. The autumnal monoterpene emissions from the forest floor and litterfall maxima coincided with the elevated or peaked EA + DMA and PA + TMA concentrations. Similar to the monoterpene concentrations in the forest air, amine concentrations seem to be linked with vegetation, soil activity, and litterfall, and rather than with other trace gases in the atmosphere.

  16. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko; Havimo, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory. PMID:28614351

  17. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko; Havimo, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.

  18. Contribution of root and rhizosphere respiration to the annual variation of carbon balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, J. F. J.; Pumpanen, J.; Kolari, P.; Juurola, E.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-06-01

    A large part of gross primary production (GPP) is consumed in root and rhizosphere respiration (Rr). To measure Rr, a group of evergreen coniferous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were girdled in a 45-year-old even aged forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In the girdling, phloem and bark were removed from breast height around the trees. We measured soil CO2 effluxes with a dynamic chamber at the girdled plot and at a non-girdled control plot in close vicinity. Before the girdling, effluxes were 22% higher at the plot to be girdled compared to the control plot. We scaled the measurements so that before girdling the effluxes representing total soil respiration (Rs) were at the same level. We compared the Rr and Rd to GPP measured with eddy covariance system. Our results show that Rr has higher seasonal variation than Rd, and also spatial variability was higher for Rr. The annual Rr:Rs and Rr:GPP-ratios were 0.36 and 0.21, respectively. Rr:Rd varied seasonally and in late summer and in autumn Rr exceeded Rd. Rr followed GPP with a delay of several weeks. During winter and spring Rr was very low, even when GPP and soil temperature had significantly risen. We conclude that Rr and Rd have different response to the environment and that for Rr the substrate availability is a more important explaining variable than soil temperature.

  19. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Treesearch

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  20. Are Scots pine forest edges particularly prone to drought-stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Schunk, Christian; Taeger, Steffen; Lemme, Hannes; Gößwein, Sebastian; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    foresters may need to revise concepts of Scots pine management at forest edges and in forest islands under an increasingly warmer and drier climate. 1. Cienciala, E. et al. The effect of a north-facing forest edge on tree water use in a boreal Scots pine stand. Can. J. For. Res. 32, 693-702 (2002). 2. Buras, A. et al. Tuning the Voices of a Choir: Detecting Ecological Gradients in Time-Series Populations. PLOS ONE 11, e0158346 (2016). 3. Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. & López-Moreno, J. I. A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. J. Climate 23, 1696-1718 (2009).

  1. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  2. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, R.W. )

    1993-02-20

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. The compounds [Delta][sup 3]-carene and [alpha]-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while [Delta][sup 3]-carene was predominant at the northern site. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20[degrees]C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 [plus minus] 0.4 [mu]g (gdw (grams dry weight) h)[sup [minus]1], and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 [plus minus] 0.7 [mu]g(gdw h)[sup [minus]1]. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are too high for boreal coniferous forests. 52 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Responses of Scots pine to waterlogging during growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repo, Tapani; Launiainen, Samuli; Lehto, Tarja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Ruhanen, Hanna; Heiskanen, Juha; Laurén, Ari; Silvennoinen, Raimo; Vapaavuori, Elina; Finér, Leena

    2016-04-01

    For the future management and sustainable use of boreal forests it is crucial to consider the rate and strength of tree responses to an elevated water table and the concurrent oxygen limitations, especially in peatlands. We examined the response dynamics of 7-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to a five-week waterlogging (WL) during a growing season in a root lab experiment. WL took place after shoot elongation had ended whereas growth of the trunk diameter was still in progress. We monitored shoots and roots before, during and after WL treatment. Relations between the shoot and root responses, the latter being the primary target of the WL stress, will be discussed. We hypothesize that root responses, in terms of growth by minirhizotron imaging, will appear with delay as compared with the first symptoms in physiology of above-ground organs.

  4. Imaging spectroscopy in soil-water based site suitability assessment for artificial regeneration to Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Maarit; Närhi, Paavo; Sutinen, Raimo

    In a humid northern boreal climate, the success rate of artificial regeneration to Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) can be improved by including a soil water content (SWC) based assessment of site suitability in the reforestation planning process. This paper introduces an application of airborne visible-near-infrared imaging spectroscopic data to identify suitable subregions of forest compartments for the low SWC-tolerant Scots pine. The spatial patterns of understorey plant species communities, recorded by the AISA (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications) sensor, were demonstrated to be dependant on the underlying SWC. According to the nonmetric multidimensional scaling and correlation results twelve understorey species were found to be most abundant on sites with high soil SWCs. The abundance of bare soil, rocks and abundance of more than ten species indicated low soil SWCs. The spatial patterns of understorey are attributed to time-stability of the underlying SWC patterns. A supervised artificial neural network (radial basis functional link network, probabilistic neural network) approach was taken to classify AISA imaging spectrometer data with dielectric (as a measure volumetric SWC) ground referencing into regimes suitable and unsuitable for Scots pine. The accuracy assessment with receiver operating characteristics curves demonstrated a maximum of 74.1% area under the curve values which indicated moderate success of the NN modelling. The results signified the importance of the training set's quality, adequate quantity (>2.43 points/ha) and NN algorithm selection over the NN algorithm training parameter optimization to perfection. This methodology for the analysis of site suitability of Scots pine can be recommended, especially when artificial regeneration of former mixed wood Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst) - downy birch ( Betula pubenscens Ehrh.) stands is being considered, so that artificially regenerated areas to Scots pine can be optimized

  5. Scots pine in eastern Nebraska: A provenance study

    Treesearch

    Ralph A. Read

    1971-01-01

    Seedling progenies of 36 rangewide provenances of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were established in a field test in eastern Nebraska. Results in growth and other characteristics after 8 years reveal that (1) southern origins bordering the Mediterranean grow slowly to moderately fast and remain dark green in winter, (2) central European origins grow very fast and turn...

  6. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  7. Response of Scots pine stand vitality to changes in environmental factors in Poland, 1991-1995

    Treesearch

    Jerzy Wawrzoniak

    1998-01-01

    Vitality inventories of Scots pine stands, the most common species in Poland, have been done since 1991 by using the ICP-Forest methodology. In Scots pine stands older than 40 years, 1,040 observation plots were established. Defoliation was used as the primary indicator of stand vitality. During 1991 to 1995, SO2 and NOx...

  8. Driving factors of a vegetation shift from Scots pine to pubescent oak in dry Alpine forests.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Andreas; Bigler, Christof; Eilmann, Britta; Feldmeyer-Christe, Elisabeth; Gimmi, Urs; Ginzler, Christian; Graf, Ulrich; Mayer, Philipp; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Weber, Pascale; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zweifel, Roman; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have reported on forest declines and vegetation shifts triggered by drought. In the Swiss Rhone valley (Valais), one of the driest inner-Alpine regions, the species composition in low elevation forests is changing: The sub-boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominating the dry forests is showing high mortality rates. Concurrently the sub-Mediterranean pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has locally increased in abundance. However, it remains unclear whether this local change in species composition is part of a larger-scale vegetation shift. To study variability in mortality and regeneration in these dry forests we analysed data from the Swiss national forest inventory (NFI) on a regular grid between 1983 and 2003, and combined it with annual mortality data from a monitoring site. Pine mortality was found to be highest at low elevation (below 1000 m a.s.l.). Annual variation in pine mortality was correlated with a drought index computed for the summer months prior to observed tree death. A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated for the NFI data increased pine mortality on dryer sites with high stand competition, particularly for small-diameter trees. Pine regeneration was low in comparison to its occurrence in the overstorey, whereas oak regeneration was comparably abundant. Although both species regenerated well at dry sites, pine regeneration was favoured at cooler sites at higher altitude and oak regeneration was more frequent at warmer sites, indicating a higher adaptation potential of oaks under future warming. Our results thus suggest that an extended shift in species composition is actually occurring in the pine forests in the Valais. The main driving factors are found to be climatic variability, particularly drought, and variability in stand structure and topography. Thus, pine forests at low elevations are developing into oak forests with unknown consequences for these ecosystems and their goods and

  9. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    PubMed Central

    Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.

    2011-01-01

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

  10. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    PubMed

    Iason, Glenn R; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Brewer, Mark J; Summers, Ron W; Moore, Ben D

    2011-05-12

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ(3)-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes.

  11. Quantitative characterization of clumping in Scots pine crowns

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Sievänen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Proper characterization of the clumped structure of forests is needed for calculation of the absorbed radiation and photosynthetic production by a canopy. This study examined the dependency of crown-level clumping on tree size and growth conditions in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and determined the ability of statistical canopy radiation models to quantify the degree of self-shading within crowns as a result of the clumping effect. Methods Twelve 3-D Scots pine trees were generated using an application of the LIGNUM model, and the crown-level clumping as quantified by the crown silhouette to total needle area ratio (STARcrown) was calculated. The results were compared with those produced by the stochastic approach of modelling tree crowns as geometric shapes filled with a random medium. Key Results Crown clumping was independent of tree height, needle area and growth conditions. The results supported the capability of the stochastic approach in characterizing clumping in crowns given that the outer shell of the tree crown is well represented. Conclusions Variation in the whole-stand clumping index is induced by differences in the spatial pattern of trees as a function of, for example, stand age rather than by changes in the degree of self-shading within individual crowns as they grow bigger. PMID:24431344

  12. Duration of shoot elongation in Scots pine varies within the crown and between years

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Nikinmaa, Eero; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Shoot elongation in boreal and temperate trees typically follows a sigmoid pattern where the onset and cessation of growth are related to accumulated effective temperature (thermal time). Previous studies on leader shoots suggest that while the maximum daily growth rate depends on the availability of resources to the shoot, the duration of the growth period may be an adaptation to long-term temperature conditions. However, other results indicate that the growth period may be longer in faster growing lateral shoots with higher availability of resources. This study investigates the interactions between the rate of elongation and the duration of the growth period in units of thermal time in lateral shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Methods Length development of 202 lateral shoots were measured approximately three times per week during seven growing seasons in 2–5 trees per year in a mature stand and in three trees during one growing season in a sapling stand. A dynamic shoot growth model was adapted for the analysis to determine (1) the maximum growth rate and (2) the thermal time reached at growth completion. The relationship between those two parameters and its variation between trees and years was analysed using linear mixed models. Key Results The shoots with higher maximum growth rate within a crown continued to grow for a longer period in any one year. Higher July–August temperature of the previous summer implied a higher requirement of thermal time for growth completion. Conclusions The results provide evidence that the requirement of thermal time for completion of lateral shoot extension in Scots pine may interact with resource availability to the shoot both from year to year and among shoots in a crown each year. If growing season temperatures rise in the future, this will affect not only the rate of shoot growth but its duration also. PMID:23985987

  13. Effects of prolonged drought stress on Scots pine seedling carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Biasi, Christina; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-12-14

    As the number of drought occurrences has been predicted to increase with increasing temperatures, it is believed that boreal forests will become particularly vulnerable to decreased growth and increased tree mortality caused by the hydraulic failure, carbon starvation and vulnerability to pests following these. Although drought-affected trees are known to have stunted growth, as well as increased allocation of carbon to roots, still not enough is known about the ways in which trees can acclimate to drought. We studied how drought stress affects belowground and aboveground carbon dynamics, as well as nitrogen uptake, in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to prolonged drought. Overall 40 Scots pine seedlings were divided into control and drought treatments over two growing seasons. Seedlings were pulse-labelled with (13)CO2 and litter bags containing (15)N-labelled root biomass, and these were used to follow nutrient uptake of trees. We determined photosynthesis, biomass distribution, root and rhizosphere respiration, water potential, leaf osmolalities and carbon and nitrogen assimilation patterns in both treatments. The photosynthetic rate of the drought-induced seedlings did not decrease compared to the control group, the maximum leaf specific photosynthetic rate being 0.058 and 0.045 µmol g(-1) s(-1) for the drought and control treatments, respectively. The effects of drought were, however, observed as lower water potentials, increased osmolalities as well as decreased growth and greater fine root-to-shoot ratio in the drought-treated seedlings. We also observed improved uptake of labelled nitrogen from soil to needles in the drought-treated seedlings. The results indicate acclimation of seedlings to long-term drought by aiming to retain sufficient water uptake with adequate allocation to roots and root-associated mycorrhizal fungi. The plants seem to control water potential with osmolysis, for which sufficient photosynthetic capability is needed.

  14. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  15. Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, H.; Steppe, K.; Nadezhdina, N.; de Beeck, M. Op; Deckmyn, G.; Meiresonne, L.; Lemeur, R.; Čermák, J.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2007-02-01

    In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and - storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May-18 October). Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD). During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD) storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

  16. Bio-monitoring the genotoxicity of populations of Scots pine in the vicinity of a radioactive waste storage facility.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Kim, Jin Kyu; Oudalova, Alla A; Vasiliyev, Denis V; Dikareva, Nina S; Zimin, Vladimir L; Dikarev, Vladimir G

    2005-05-02

    Results of a long-term (1997-2002) study of the Scots pine populations growing in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility ('Radon' LWPE) are presented. Cytogenetic disturbances in reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) tissues sampled from Scots pine populations were studied to examine whether Scots pine trees have experienced environmental stress in areas with relatively low levels of pollution. The data clearly indicate the presence of mutagenic contaminants in the environment of the pine trees. An increased number of mitotic abnormalities, especially multipolar mitoses was found in the pine tree populations submitted to man-made exposure, which suggests that the cytogenetic damage is mainly caused by chemical contamination. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds from the impacted populations was shown by use of acute gamma-irradiation. During the observation period 1997-2002, pine trees exposed to anthropogenic pollution showed a steady increase of cytogenetic alterations in the root meristem cells.

  17. Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja; Finér, Leena

    2008-10-01

    In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships between root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a controlled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of sap flow or totally blocked it if soil thawing lagged the start of the growing period by 7 days. This effect was reflected in the electrical impedance of needles and trunks and in the relative electrolyte leakage of needles. Prolonged soil frost reduced or completely inhibited root growth. In unfrozen soil, limited trunk sap flow was observed despite unfavorable aboveground growing conditions (low temperature, low irradiance, short photoperiod). Following the earliest soil thaw, sap flow varied during the growing season, depending on light and temperature conditions, phenological stage of the plant and the amount of live needles in the canopy. The results suggest that delayed soil thawing can reduce tree growth, and if prolonged, it can be lethal.

  18. Feast and famine: previous defoliation limiting survival of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino; Castro, Jorge; Baraza, Elena

    2004-12-01

    This study analyses the consequences of previous defoliation on the survival of the larvae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) feeding on relict Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) ssp. nevadensis Christ in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). Egg batches of the pine processionary moth were placed on four groups of Scots pines that underwent different periods of herbivory. The larval survival was related to the nitrogen content, fibre, phenolics and terpenes in the needles. Larval survival was higher in undefoliated pines, lower in pines defoliated two consecutive years, and intermediate in pines defoliated only one year, suggesting a direct relationship between previous defoliation and larval survival. In contrast, none of the characteristics of the needles showed a clear relationship with larval survival. The resulting reduction in larval number also affects the capacity of the larvae to develop during winter, because it hampered nest warming. Thus, previous defoliation limits, although it does not impede, the possibility of repeated defoliation on Scots pine.

  19. Needle removal by pine sawfly larvae increases branch-level VOC emissions and reduces below-ground emissions of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Rajendra P; Markkanen, Juha M; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2013-05-07

    Climate warming is expected to increase the frequency of insect outbreaks in Boreal conifer forests. We evaluated how needle removal by the larvae of two diprionid sawfly species affects the composition and quantity of VOC emissions from Pinus sylvestris L. saplings. Feeding damage significantly increased the rate of localized VOC emissions from the damaged branch. The emissions of total monoterpenes (MTs) were dominating (96-98% of total VOCs) and increased by14-fold in Neodiprion sertifer-damaged branches and by 16-fold in Diprion pini-damaged branches compared to intact branches. Emissions of δ-3-carene, α-pinene, sabinene, and β-phellandrene were most responsive. Feeding damage by N. sertifer larvae increased the emission rates of total sesquiterpenes by 7-fold (4% of total VOCs) and total green leaf volatiles by 13-fold (<1% of total VOCs). The VOC emissions from N. sertifer larvae constituted nearly 25% of the total branch emissions. N. sertifer feeding in the lower branches induced 4-fold increase in MT emissions in the top crown. Defoliation of Scots pine by D. pini significantly reduced the below-ground emissions of total MTs by approximately 80%. We conclude that defoliators could significantly increase total VOC emissions from the Scots pine canopy including MT emissions from resin storing sawfly larvae.

  20. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Monoterpenes in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Tissues Affect Pine Weevil Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Nordlander, Göran; Björklund, Niklas; Nordenhem, Henrik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-12-01

    In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Hypothesizing that the variations may be at least due partly to volatiles released by MeJA-treated seedlings and their effects on pine weevil orientation, we examined tissue extracts of seedlings (from the same batches as previously used) by two-dimensional GC-MS. We found that the MeJA treatment increased contents of the monoterpene (-)-β-pinene in phloem (the weevil's main target tissue) of both tree species, however, the (-)-β-pinene/(-)-α-pinene ratio increased more in the phloem of P. sylvestris. We also tested the attractiveness of individual monoterpenes found in conifer tissues (needles and phloem) for pine weevils using an arena with traps baited with single-substance dispensers and pine twigs. Trap catches were reduced when the pine material was combined with a dispenser releasing (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (-)-bornyl acetate or 1,8-cineole. However, (-)-α-pinene did not have this effect. Thus, the greater field protection of MeJA-treated P. sylvestris seedlings may be due to the selective induction of increases in contents of the deterrent (-)-β-pinene, in contrast to strong increases in both non-deterrent (-)-α-pinene and the deterrent (-)-β-pinene in P. abies seedlings.

  1. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    PubMed

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2017-09-18

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Changes in Scots Pine Transcriptome during Heartwood Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Paasela, Tanja; Harju, Anni; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Kärkkäinen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood is desired in woodworking industries due to its favorable timber characteristics and natural durability that is contributed by heartwood extractives. It has been discussed whether the Scots pine heartwood extractives (mainly stilbenes and resin acids) are synthesized in the cells of the transition zone between sapwood and heartwood, or if they are transported from the sapwood. Timing of heartwood formation during the yearly cycle has also not been unambiguously defined. We measured steady-state mRNA levels in Scots pine transition zone and sapwood using RNA sequencing. Year-round expression profiles of selected transcripts were further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Differentially accumulating transcripts suggest that, of the Scots pine heartwood extractives, stilbenes are synthesized in situ in the transition zone and gain their carbon-skeletons from Suc and triglycerides. Resin acids, on the other hand, are synthesized early in the spring mainly in the sapwood, meaning that they must be transported to the heartwood transition zone. Heartwood formation is marked by programmed cell death that occurs during the summer months in the transition zone. PMID:27600814

  3. Ectomycorrhizae of young and mature Scots pine trees in industrial regions in Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka; Maria Rudawska; Tomasz Leski

    1998-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees grown in forests influenced by different levels of air pollutants were investigated. Total numbers of mycorrhizal root tips in the soil horizons and the frequency of mycorrhizal morphotypes were compared as indicators of ectomycorrhizal status. The studies were conducted in two comparable...

  4. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions.

  5. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Julio Camarero, J.; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin (‘rear edge’) of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species’ European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). Methods A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. Key Results The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. Conclusions The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern ‘rear edge’, in order to avoid biased predictions based solely

  6. Contrasting Hydraulic Architectures of Scots Pine and Sessile Oak at Their Southernmost Distribution Limits

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Hacke, Uwe G.; Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species’ responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions. Hydraulic traits such as xylem- and leaf-specific maximum hydraulic conductivity (KS-MAX and KL-MAX), leaf-to-xylem area ratio (AL:AX) and functional xylem fraction (FX) were measured in July 2015 during a long and exceptionally dry summer. Additionally, xylem-specific native hydraulic conductivity (KS-N) and native percentage of loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured for Scots pine. Interspecific differences in these hydraulic traits as well as intraspecific variability between sites were assessed. The influence of annual, summer and growing season site climatic aridity (P/PET) on intraspecific variability was investigated. Sessile oak displayed higher values of KS-MAX, KL-MAX, AL:AX but a smaller percentage of FX than Scots pines. Scots pine did not vary in any of the measured hydraulic traits across the sites, and PLC values were low for all sites, even during one of the warmest summers in the region. In contrast, sessile oak showed significant differences in KS-MAX, KL-MAX, and FX across sites, which were significantly related to site aridity. The striking similarity in the hydraulic traits across Scots pine sites suggests that no adjustment in hydraulic architecture was needed, likely as a consequence of a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, sessile oak

  7. Contrasting Hydraulic Architectures of Scots Pine and Sessile Oak at Their Southernmost Distribution Limits.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Hacke, Uwe G; Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species' responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions. Hydraulic traits such as xylem- and leaf-specific maximum hydraulic conductivity (KS-MAX and KL-MAX), leaf-to-xylem area ratio (AL:AX) and functional xylem fraction (FX) were measured in July 2015 during a long and exceptionally dry summer. Additionally, xylem-specific native hydraulic conductivity (KS-N) and native percentage of loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured for Scots pine. Interspecific differences in these hydraulic traits as well as intraspecific variability between sites were assessed. The influence of annual, summer and growing season site climatic aridity (P/PET) on intraspecific variability was investigated. Sessile oak displayed higher values of KS-MAX, KL-MAX, AL:AX but a smaller percentage of FX than Scots pines. Scots pine did not vary in any of the measured hydraulic traits across the sites, and PLC values were low for all sites, even during one of the warmest summers in the region. In contrast, sessile oak showed significant differences in KS-MAX, KL-MAX, and FX across sites, which were significantly related to site aridity. The striking similarity in the hydraulic traits across Scots pine sites suggests that no adjustment in hydraulic architecture was needed, likely as a consequence of a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, sessile oak displayed

  8. Moderate stress responses and specific changes in polyamine metabolism characterize Scots pine somatic embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Heikki M.; Sarjala, Tytti; Jokela, Anne; Häggman, Hely; Vuosku, Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the methods with the highest potential for the vegetative propagation of commercially important coniferous species. However, many conifers, including Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), are recalcitrant to SE and a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the SE process is needed. In Scots pine SE cultures, embryo production is commonly induced by the removal of auxin, addition of abscisic acid (ABA) and the desiccation of cell masses by polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the present study, we focus on the possible link between the induction of somatic embryo formation and cellular stress responses such as hydrogen peroxide protection, DNA repair, changes in polyamine (PA) metabolism and autophagy. Cellular PA contents and the expression of the PA metabolism genes arginine decarboxylase (ADC), spermidine synthase (SPDS), thermospermine synthase (ACL5) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were analyzed, as well as the expression of catalase (CAT), DNA repair genes (RAD51, KU80) and autophagy-related genes (ATG5, ATG8) throughout the induction of somatic embryo formation in Scots pine SE cultures. Among the embryo-producing SE lines, the expression of ADC, SPDS, ACL5, DAO, CAT, RAD51, KU80 and ATG8 showed consistent profiles. Furthermore, the overall low expression of the stress-related genes suggests that cells in those SE lines were not stressed but recognized the ABA + PEG treatment as a signal to trigger the embryogenic pathway. In those SE lines that were unable to produce embryos, cells seemed to experience the ABA + PEG treatment mostly as osmotic stress and activated a wide range of stress defense mechanisms. Altogether, our results suggest that the direction to the embryogenic pathway is connected with cellular stress responses in Scots pine SE cultures. Thus, the manipulation of stress response pathways may provide a way to enhance somatic embryo production in recalcitrant Scots pine SE lines. PMID:26786537

  9. In situ measurement of Scots pine needle PRI.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, Matti; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Perheentupa, Viljami; Markiet, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) calculated from narrow-band spectral reflectance data is a vegetation index which is increasingly used as an indicator of photosynthetic activity. The leaf-level link between the status of photosynthetic apparatus and PRI has been robustly established under controlled light conditions. However, when a whole canopy is measured instantaneously, the PRI signal is heavily modified by vegetation structure and local variations in incident light conditions. To apply PRI for monitoring the photosynthesis of whole canopies under natural conditions, these large-scale measurements need to be validated against simultaneous leaf PRI. Unfortunately, PRI changes dynamically with incident light and has a large natural variation. No generally accepted procedure exists today for determining the PRI of canopy elements in situ. We present a successful procedure for in situ measurements of needle PRI. We describe, characterize and test an optical measurement protocol and demonstrate its applicability in field conditions. The measurement apparatus consisted of a light source, needle clip, spectroradiometer and a controlling computer. The light level inside the clip was approximately two-thirds of that on sunlit needle surfaces at midday. During each measurement the needle was inserted into the clip for approximately 5 s. We found no near-instantaneous changes (sub-second scale jumps) in PRI during the measurements. The time constants for PRI variation in light to full shade acclimations were approximately 10 s. The procedure was successfully applied to monitor the greening-up of Scots pine trees. We detected both facultative (diurnal) PRI changes of 0.02 (unitless) and constitutive (seasonal) variations of 0.1. In order to reliably detect the facultative PRI change of 0.02, 20 needles need to be sampled from both sunlit and shaded locations. We established a robust procedure for irradiance-dependent leaf (needle) PRI measurements, facilitating

  10. Mistletoe-induced crown degradation in Scots pine in a xeric environment.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Andreas; Eilmann, Britta; Koechli, Roger; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Increasing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) mortality has been recently observed in the dry inner valleys of the European Alps. Besides drought, infection with pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) seems to play an important role in the mortality dynamics of Scots pines, but how mistletoes promote pine decline remains unclear. To verify whether pine mistletoe infection weakens the host via crown degradation, as observed for dwarf mistletoes, we studied the negative effects of pine mistletoe infestation on the photosynthetic tissues and branch growth of pairs of infested and non-infested branches. Pine mistletoe infection leads to crown degradation in its host by reducing the length, the radial increment, the ramification, the needle length and the number of needle years of the infested branches. This massive loss in photosynthetic tissue results in a reduction in primary production and a subsequent decrease in carbohydrate availability. The significant reduction in needle length due to mistletoe infection is an indication for a lower water and nutrient availability in infested branches. Thus, mistletoe infection might lead to a decrease in the availability of water and carbohydrates, the two most important growth factors, which are already shortened due to the chronic drought situation in the area. Therefore, pine mistletoe increases the risk of drought-induced mortality of its host when growing in a xeric environment.

  11. Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

  12. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Gülcü, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively. PMID:28133603

  13. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  14. Influence of long-term chronic exposure and weather conditions on Scots pine populations.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Vasiliyev, Denis; Makarenko, Ekaterina; Volkova, Polina; Kuzmenkov, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    Over a period of 8 years (2007-2014), we were evaluating seed quality and morphological abnormalities in Scots pine trees affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The calculated dose rates for the trees at the study sites varied from background values at the reference sites to 40 mGy/year at the most contaminated site. We investigated whether radioactive contamination and/or weather factors could decrease the reproductive capacity or increase the frequency of morphological abnormalities of needles in pine trees. Scots pine seeds are characterized by high interannual variability of viability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. No consistent differences in reproductive capacity were detected between the impacted and reference populations. Brachyblasts with three needles were found only in the affected populations; however, their frequency was very low and only at the very border of significance at the p < 0.10 level.

  15. Intra- and interspecific interactions of Scots pine and European beech in mixed secondary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Stereńczak, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    By the mid successional stages, secondary forests of Scots pine in Europe are dominated by mixed stands of pioneer Scots pine and late-successional European beech. The objective of this study was to explore the interactions of pine and beech with their conspecific and heterospecific neighbours in these forests. To accomplish the objective, pine and beech trees were stem-mapped in forty 500 m2 plots randomly located within 18 mixed stands in Milomlyn Forest District, northern Poland. The interactions within and between the species were analysed through two structurally different univariate and bivariate second-order summary statistics, i.e. pair correlation function g(r) and mark correlation function kmm(r). Field measurements showed that the overstorey was dominated by even-aged pine, whereas uneven-aged beech was the only species in the understorey. Pine trees presented an aggregation, while beech trees exhibited a dispersed structure in all stands. In addition, pine trees showed strong attraction to beech trees at small spatial scales (0-2 m). Negative correlation was found between tree height and diameter at breast height of beech, while there was no correlation between height and diameter of pine trees. We conclude that pine trees exhibit negative intraspecific interactions at small spatial scales that are mostly driven by their competitive interactions. Beech trees show strong positive intraspecific interactions and form clumps within pine canopy cover. The strong positive interspecific interactions of pine and beech are the outcome of their different shade tolerance. Our results help to explain successful coexistence of pine and beech in the study site and highlight detailed tree-tree interactions of the species in mixed stands.

  16. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2011-04-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional-structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source-sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees. This work provides a new method for characterizing

  17. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional–structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. Methods In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source–sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. Key Results The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees

  18. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 C degrees up to 2 C. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed.

  19. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks. PMID:27630643

  20. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  1. Pisolithus tinctorius promotes germination and forms mycorrhizal structures in Scots pine somatic embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Karoliina; Häggman, Hely

    2002-10-01

    The results of the present study show that inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch potentially enhances the germination of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) somatic embryos in vitro. Stimulation by Pisolithus tinctorius was only observed in the absence of direct contact between the symbionts; mature embryos were not sufficiently robust for balanced interaction with the fungus on half-strength DCR medium. Subsequently, on MMN medium with a reduced sugar concentration, direct contact between somatic embryo-derived plants and the fungus resulted in in vitro formation of mycorrhiza. Ex vitro inoculation also improved adaptation of the somatic embryo-derived plants, even though mycorrhizal structures were not observed. The reactions to Pisolithus tinctorius varied between different Scots pine cell lines both in vitro and ex vitro.

  2. Predicting the decomposition of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch stems in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Harri; Hynynen, Jari; Siitonen, Juha; Sievänen, Risto

    2006-10-01

    Models were developed for predicting the decomposition of dead wood for the main tree species in Finland, based on data collected from long-term thinning experiments in southern and central Finland. The decomposition rates were strongly related to the number of years after tree death. In contrast to previous studies, which have used the first-order exponential model, we found that the decomposition rate was not constant. Therefore, the Gompertz and Chapman-Richard's functions were fitted to the data. The slow initial decomposition period was mainly due to the fact that most dead trees remained standing as snags after their death. The initial period was followed by a period of rapid decomposition and, finally, by a period of moderately slow decomposition. Birch stems decomposed more rapidly than Scots pine and Norway spruce stems. Decomposition rates of Norway spruce stems were somewhat lower than those of Scots pine. Because the carbon concentration of decaying boles was relatively stable (about 50%) the rate of carbon loss follows that of mass loss. Models were also developed for the probability that a dead tree remains standing as a snag. During the first years after death, the probability was high. Thereafter, it decreased rapidly, the decrease being faster for birch stems than for Scots pine and Norway spruce stems. Almost all stems had fallen down within 40 years after their death. In Scots pine and Norway spruce, most snags remained hard and belonged to decay class 1. In birch, a higher proportion of snags belonged to the more advanced decay classes. The models provide a framework for predicting dead wood dynamics in managed as well as dense unthinned stands. The models can be incorporated into forest management planning systems, thereby facilitating estimates of carbon dynamics.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  4. Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali S; García-Gil, M R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated Scots pine adaptive responses to the light spectra by measuring hypocotyl length in seeds sampled from three natural Scots pine ecotypes across a latitudinal cline ranging from 63° to 68° N in Sweden where the adaptive cline is known to be steeper. Seeds were germinated under dark (D) and three monochromatic continuous light wavelengths: blue (B), red (R) and far-red (FR). Analysis of variance revealed a northward decrease in the inhibitory effect of FR with respect to D, the so-called far red high irradiance response. Ecotypic variation for hypocotyl development was observed under the FR and D treatments, while the trends for the B and R treatments were not statistically significant. Under FR the ecotypic variation showed an increase in hypocotyl length northwards, in contrast to the treatment under D which showed a decrease in the hypocotyl length northwards. These results could be interpreted in view of the previously reported northward increase in FR requirement to maintain growth in Norway spruce and Scots pine. Prior to the performance of the main light experiment, the maternal effect on progeny performance was investigated, which showed the absence of maternal environment effect on the performance of the seedlings.

  5. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  6. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  7. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places.

    PubMed

    Julio Camarero, J; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin ('rear edge') of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species' European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern 'rear edge', in order to avoid biased predictions based solely on warmer climatic scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by

  8. Photosynthetic electron transport adjustments in overwintering Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Sane, P V; Zeinalov, Y; Malmberg, G; Gardeström, P; Huner, N P; Oquist, G

    2001-08-01

    As shown before [C. Ottander et al. (1995) Planta 197:176-183], there is a severe inhibition of the photosystem (PS) II photochemical efficiency of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during the winter. In contrast, the in vivo PSI photochemistry is less inhibited during winter as shown by in vivo measurements of deltaA820/A820 (P700+). There was also an enhanced cyclic electron transfer around PSI in winter-stressed needles as indicated by 4-fold faster reduction kinetics of P700+. The differential functional stability of PSII and PSI was accompanied by a 3.7-fold higher intersystem electron pool size, and a 5-fold increase in the stromal electron pool available for P700+ reduction. There was also a strong reduction of the QB band in the thermoluminescence glow curve and markedly slower Q-A re-oxidation in needles of winter pine, indicating an inhibition of electron transfer between QA and QB. The data presented indicate that the plastoquinone pool is largely reduced in winter pine, and that this reduced state is likely to be of metabolic rather than photochemical origin. The retention of PSI photochemistry, and the suggested metabolic reduction of the plastoquinone pool in winter stressed needles of Scots pine are discussed in terms of the need for enhanced photoprotection of the needles during the winter and the role of metabolically supplied energy for the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in evergreens.

  9. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  10. Recovery plan for Scots pine blister rust caused by Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. & Schwein.) G. Winter and Peridermium pini (Pers.) Lév. [syn. C. asclepiadeum (Willd.) Fr., Endocronartium pini (Pers.) Y. Hiratsuka

    Treesearch

    Brian W. Geils; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Pauline Spaine; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Charles G. Shaw; James Walla; Russ Bulluck; Laura Redmond; Kent. Smith

    2009-01-01

    The sexually reproducing form of Scots pine blister rust, C. flaccidum, completes its life cycle alternating between pines of the subgenus Pinus and seed-plants of various families. Scots pine blister rust is also caused by a form of the rust that spreads directly from pine to pine and is named, Peridermium pini...

  11. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  12. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  13. Radiation exposure in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident caused oxidative stress and genetic effects in Scots pine populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Polina Yu.; Geras'Kin, Stanislav A.; Kazakova, Elizaveta A.

    2017-02-01

    Even 30 years after the Chernobyl accident, biological effects of irradiation are observed in the chronically exposed Scots pine populations. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates above 50 mGy•yr-1 caused oxidative stress and led to the increase of antioxidants concentrations in these populations. Genetic variability was examined for 6 enzymes and 14 enzymatic loci of 6 Scots pine populations. Dose rates over 10 mGy•yr-1 caused the increased frequency of mutations and changes in genetic structure of Scots pine populations. However, the same dose rates had no effect on enzymatic activities. The results indicate that even relatively low dose rates of radiation can be considered as an ecological factor which should be taken into account for ecological management and radiation protection of biota species.

  14. Radiation exposure in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident caused oxidative stress and genetic effects in Scots pine populations.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Polina Yu; Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Kazakova, Elizaveta A

    2017-02-22

    Even 30 years after the Chernobyl accident, biological effects of irradiation are observed in the chronically exposed Scots pine populations. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates above 50 mGy∙yr(-1) caused oxidative stress and led to the increase of antioxidants concentrations in these populations. Genetic variability was examined for 6 enzymes and 14 enzymatic loci of 6 Scots pine populations. Dose rates over 10 mGy∙yr(-1) caused the increased frequency of mutations and changes in genetic structure of Scots pine populations. However, the same dose rates had no effect on enzymatic activities. The results indicate that even relatively low dose rates of radiation can be considered as an ecological factor which should be taken into account for ecological management and radiation protection of biota species.

  15. Radiation exposure in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident caused oxidative stress and genetic effects in Scots pine populations

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Polina Yu.; Geras’kin, Stanislav A.; Kazakova, Elizaveta A.

    2017-01-01

    Even 30 years after the Chernobyl accident, biological effects of irradiation are observed in the chronically exposed Scots pine populations. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates above 50 mGy∙yr−1 caused oxidative stress and led to the increase of antioxidants concentrations in these populations. Genetic variability was examined for 6 enzymes and 14 enzymatic loci of 6 Scots pine populations. Dose rates over 10 mGy∙yr−1 caused the increased frequency of mutations and changes in genetic structure of Scots pine populations. However, the same dose rates had no effect on enzymatic activities. The results indicate that even relatively low dose rates of radiation can be considered as an ecological factor which should be taken into account for ecological management and radiation protection of biota species. PMID:28223696

  16. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  17. Above-Ground Dimensions and Acclimation Explain Variation in Drought Mortality of Scots Pine Seedlings from Various Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical part of the life cycle, thus seedling survival might be even more important for forest persistence under recent and future climate change. Scots pine forests have been disproportionally more affected by climate change triggered forest-dieback. Nevertheless, some Scots pine provenances might prove resilient to future drought events because of the species’ large distributional range, genetic diversity, and adaptation potential. However, there is a lack of knowledge on provenance-specific survival under severe drought events and on how acclimation alters survival rates in Scots pine seedlings. We therefore conducted two drought-induced mortality experiments with potted Scots pine seedlings in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, 760 three-year-old seedlings from 12 different provenances of the south-western distribution range were subjected to the same treatment followed by the mortality experiment in 2014. In the second experiment, we addressed the question of whether acclimation to re-occurring drought stress events and to elevated temperature might decrease mortality rates. Thus, 139 four-year-old seedlings from France, Germany, and Poland were subjected to different temperature regimes (2012–2014) and drought treatments (2013–2014) before the mortality experiment in 2015. Provenances clearly differed in their hazard of drought-induced mortality, which was only partly related to the climate of their origin. Drought acclimation decreased the hazard of drought-induced mortality. Above-ground dry weight and height were the main determinants for the hazard of mortality, i.e., heavier and taller seedlings were more prone to mortality. Consequently, Scots pine seedlings exhibit a considerable provenance-specific acclimation potential against drought mortality and the selection of suitable provenances might thus facilitate seedling establishment and the persistence of Scots pine forest. PMID:27458477

  18. Impact of summer drought on isoprenoid emissions and carbon sink of three Scots pine provenances

    PubMed Central

    Lüpke, M.; Leuchner, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Menzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances cover broad ecological amplitudes. In a greenhouse study, we investigated the impact of drought stress and rewetting on gas exchange for three provenances (Italy: Emilia Romagna; Spain: Alto Ebro; Germany: East-German lowlands) of 2-year old Scots pine seedlings. CO2, water vapour and isoprenoid exchange of stressed and control trees were quantified with a four-chamber dynamic-enclosure system in the controlled environment of a climate chamber. The three provenances showed distinct isoprenoid emission patterns and were classified into a non-Δ3-carene, with either high α-/β-pinene or β-myrcene fraction, and a Δ3-carene dominated type. Isoprenoid emission rates, net-photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced during summer drought stress and significantly recovered after rewetting. A seasonal increase of isoprenoid emission rates towards autumn was observed for all control groups. Compared with the German provenance, the Spanish and Italian provenances revealed higher isoprenoid emission rates and more plastic responses to drought stress and seasonal development, which points to a local adaptation to climate. As a result of drought, net carbon uptake and transpiration of trees was reduced, but recovered after rewetting. We conclude from our study that Scots pine isoprenoid emission is more variable than expected and sensitive to drought periods, likely impacting regional air chemistry. Thus, a provenance-specific emission assessment accounting for reduced emission during prolonged (summer) drought is recommend for setting up biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories used in air quality models. PMID:27591438

  19. Polyamine metabolism during exponential growth transition in Scots pine embryogenic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Vuosku, Jaana; Suorsa, Marja; Ruottinen, Maria; Sutela, Suvi; Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sarjala, Tytti; Neubauer, Peter; Häggman, Hely

    2012-10-01

    Polyamine (PA) metabolism was studied in liquid cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) embryogenic cells. The focus of the study was on the metabolic changes at the interphase between the initial lag phase and the exponential growth phase. PA concentrations fluctuated in the liquid cultures as follows. Putrescine (Put) concentrations increased, whereas spermidine (Spd) concentrations decreased in both free and soluble conjugated PA fractions. The concentrations of free and soluble conjugated spermine (Spm) remained low, and small amounts of excreted PAs were also found in the culture medium. The minor production of secondary metabolites reflected the undifferentiated stage of the embryogenic cell culture. Put was produced via the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway. Futhermore, the gene expression data suggested that the accumulation of Put was caused neither by an increase in Put biosynthesis nor by a decrease in Put catabolism, but resulted mainly from the decrease in the biosynthesis of Spd and Spm. Put seemed to play an important role in cell proliferation in Scots pine embryogenic cells, but the low pH of the culture medium could also, at least partially, be the reason for the accumulation of endogenous Put. High Spd concentrations at the initiation of the culture, when cells were exposed to stress and cell death, suggested that Spd may act not only as a protector against stress but also as a growth suppressor, when proliferative growth is not promoted. All in all, Scots pine embryogenic cell culture was proved to be a favourable experimental platform to study PA metabolism and, furthermore, the developed system may also be beneficial in experiments where, e.g., the effect of specific stressors on PA metabolism is addressed.

  20. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine-binding proteins in germinating seeds from Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Valentina; Cramer, Rainer; Krynytskyy, Hryhoriy; Gout, Ivan; Gout, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in angiosperms has been implicated in various physiological processes, including seed development and germination. In conifers, the role of tyrosine phosphorylation and the mechanisms of its regulation are yet to be investigated. In this study, we examined the profile of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in Scots pine seeds at different stages of germination. We detected extensive protein tyrosine phosphorylation in extracts from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dormant seeds. In addition, the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation was found to change significantly during seed germination, especially at earlier stages of post-imbibition which coincides with the initiation of cell division, and during the period of intensive elongation of hypocotyls. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of phosphotyrosine signaling, we employed affinity purification and mass spectrometry for the identification of pTyr-binding proteins from the extracts of Scots pine seedlings. Using this approach, we purified two proteins of 10 and 43 kDa, which interacted specifically with pTyr-Sepharose and were identified by mass spectrometry as P. sylvestris defensin 1 (PsDef1) and aldose 1-epimerase (EC:5.1.3.3), respectively. Additionally, we demonstrated that both endogenous and recombinant PsDef1 specifically interact with pTyr-Sepharose, but not Tyr-beads. As the affinity purification approach did not reveal the presence of proteins with known pTyr binding domains (SH2, PTB and C2), we suggest that plants may have evolved a different mode of pTyr recognition, which yet remains to be uncovered.

  1. Impact of summer drought on isoprenoid emissions and carbon sink of three Scots pine provenances.

    PubMed

    Lüpke, M; Leuchner, M; Steinbrecher, R; Menzel, A

    2016-11-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances cover broad ecological amplitudes. In a greenhouse study, we investigated the impact of drought stress and rewetting on gas exchange for three provenances (Italy: Emilia Romagna; Spain: Alto Ebro; Germany: East-German lowlands) of 2-year old Scots pine seedlings. CO2, water vapour and isoprenoid exchange of stressed and control trees were quantified with a four-chamber dynamic-enclosure system in the controlled environment of a climate chamber. The three provenances showed distinct isoprenoid emission patterns and were classified into a non-Δ(3)-carene, with either high α-/β-pinene or β-myrcene fraction, and a Δ(3)-carene dominated type. Isoprenoid emission rates, net-photosynthesis and transpiration were reduced during summer drought stress and significantly recovered after rewetting. A seasonal increase of isoprenoid emission rates towards autumn was observed for all control groups. Compared with the German provenance, the Spanish and Italian provenances revealed higher isoprenoid emission rates and more plastic responses to drought stress and seasonal development, which points to a local adaptation to climate. As a result of drought, net carbon uptake and transpiration of trees was reduced, but recovered after rewetting. We conclude from our study that Scots pine isoprenoid emission is more variable than expected and sensitive to drought periods, likely impacting regional air chemistry. Thus, a provenance-specific emission assessment accounting for reduced emission during prolonged (summer) drought is recommend for setting up biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories used in air quality models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals - lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed.

  3. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals – lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

  4. Linking increasing drought stress to Scots pine mortality and bark beetle infestations.

    PubMed

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Wermelinger, Beat; Bigler, Christof; Bürgi, Matthias; Carron, Mathias; Forster, Beat; Gimmi, Urs; Rigling, Andreas

    2007-03-21

    In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied. In our study, we correlated time series of drought indices from long-term climate stations, 11-year mortality trends from a long-term research plot, and mortality probabilities modeled from tree rings (as an indicator of tree vitality) with documented occurrences of various bark beetle species and a buprestid beetle, using regional Forest Service reports from 1902 to 2003 and advisory cases of the Swiss Forest Protection Service (SFPS) from 1984 to 2005. We compared the historical findings with measured beetle emergence from a 4-year tree felling and breeding chamber experiment. The documented beetle-related pine mortality cases increased dramatically in the 1990s, both in the forest reports and the advisory cases. The incidents of beetle-related pine mortality correlated positively with spring and summer temperature, and with the tree-ring based mortality index, but not with the drought index. The number of advisory cases, on the other hand, correlated slightly with summer drought index and temperature, but very highly with tree-ring-based mortality index. The tree-ring-based mortality index and observed tree mortality increased in years following drought. This was confirmed by the beetle emergences from felled trees. Following dry summers, more than twice as many trees were colonized by beetles than following wet summers. We conclude that increased temperatures in the Swiss Rhone Valley have likely weakened Scots pines and favored phloeophagous beetle population growth. Beetles contributed to the increased pine mortality following summer drought. Among the factors not addressed in this study, changed forest use

  5. Fire severity, residuals and soil legacies affect regeneration of Scots pine in the Southern Alps.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Stanchi, Silvia; Marinari, Giulia; Ascoli, Davide; Zanini, Ermanno; Motta, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Regeneration of non fire-adapted conifers following crown fires on the European Alps is often delayed or unsuccessful. Fire may limit establishment by eliminating seed trees, altering soil properties, or modifying microsite and soil conditions via disturbance legacies. However, the effect of soil legacies on post-fire establishment has rarely been discussed. We analyzed the abundance of Scots pine regeneration in a 257 ha wildfire in an inner-alpine forest. Our aims were (1) to model fire intensity at the soil surface and topsoil heating along a gradient of increasing fire severities; (2) to assess the differences in soil properties along the fire severity gradient; (3) to model the effect of disturbance and soil legacies on the density of pine seedlings. We reconstructed fire behavior and soil heating with the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), tested the effect of fire severity on soils by nonparametric distributional tests, and modeled seedling density as a function of site, disturbance and soil legacies by fitting a GLM following a variable selection procedure. Topsoil heating differed markedly between the moderate and high severity fires, reaching temperatures high enough to strongly and permanently alter soil properties only in the latter. High fire severity resulted in decreased soil consistency and wet aggregate stability. Burned soils had lower organic matter and cations than those unburned. Pine seedlings favored low-fertility, eroded, and chemically poor sites. Establishment was facilitated by the presence of coarse woody debris, but hampered by increasing distance from the seed source. These results suggest that in dry, inner-alpine valleys, fire residuals and soil legacies interact in determining the success of Scots pine re-establishment. High severity fire can promote favorable soil conditions, but distance from the seed source and high evaporation rates of bare soils must be mitigated in order to ensure a successful restoration. Copyright

  6. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  7. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Florian, C.; Oberhuber, W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. PMID:21974742

  8. Radial diffusion, vertical transport, and refixation of labeled bicarbonate in scots pine stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. D.; Tarvainen, L.; Wallin, G.

    2016-12-01

    The CO2 produced by a respiring stem provides an index of metabolic activity in the stem and a quantitative estimate of an important component of the forest carbon budget. Production of CO2 by a given stem volume is lost by three competing processes. First, some diffuses radially outward through the bark. Second, some is dissolved and vertically transported upward out of the control volume by the xylem stream. Third, some is refixed by photosynthesis under the bark. The relative balance among these pathways was quantified in 17-m Scots pine trees by 13C-bicarbonate labeling of the xylem stream and monitoring of the 13CO2 in the xylem water, along with continuous monitoring of the radial diffusive flux at four canopy heights and in transpiration from leaves. Most of the label diffused out radially, as 13CO2, immediately above the labeling site, over about a week. The pulse was weakly and briefly detected 4 m above that height. Further up the stem it was not detected at all. We detected significant refixation of CO2 in the stems at all heights above 4 m, where the bark becomes papery and thin, but the label was so weak at this height that refixation had little influence on the pulse chase. We conclude that the vertical flux is negligible in Scots pine, but that the refixation flux must be accounted for in estimates of whole-stem CO2 efflux.

  9. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134).

  10. Climate warming will reduce growth and survival of Scots pine except in the far north.

    PubMed

    Reich, P B; Oleksyn, J

    2008-06-01

    Tree growth and survival were assessed in 283 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) originating from a broad geographic range and grown at 90 common-garden experimental sites across Europe, and in 101 populations grown at 14 sites in North America. Growth and survival were analysed in response to climatic transfer distance, the difference in mean annual temperature (MAT) between the site and the population origin. Differences among populations at each site, and across sites for regional groups of populations, were related to climate transfer distance, but in opposite ways in the northern vs. southern parts of the species range. Climate transfers equivalent to warming by 1-4 degrees C markedly increased the survival of populations in northern Europe (>or= 62 degrees N, < 2 degrees C MAT) and modestly increased height growth >or= 57 degrees N but decreased survival at < 62 degrees N and modestly decreased height growth at < 54 degrees N latitude in Europe. Thus, even modest climate warming will likely influence Scots pine survival and growth, but in distinct ways in different parts of the species range.

  11. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils.

  12. Chemical composition of needles and cambial activity of stems of Scots pine trees affected by air pollutants in Polish forests

    Treesearch

    Wojciech Dmuchowski; Ewa U. Kurczynska; Wieslaw Wloch

    1998-01-01

    The impact of environmental pollution is defined for the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and cambial activity in the tree stems in Polish forests. The research investigated 20-year-old trees growing in two areas in significantly different levels of pollution. The highly polluted area was located near the Warsaw...

  13. Impregnation of Scots pine and beech with tannin solutions: effect of viscosity and wood anatomy in wood infiltration.

    PubMed

    Tondi, G; Thevenon, M F; Mies, B; Standfest, G; Petutschnigg, A; Wieland, S

    The impregnation process of Scots pine and beech samples with tannin solutions was investigated. The two materials involved in the process (impregnation solution and wood samples) are studied in depth. Viscosity of mimosa tannin solutions and the anatomical aspect of beech and Scots pine were analysed and correlated. The viscosity of tannin solutions presents a non-newtonian behaviour when its pH level increases, and in the case of addition of hexamine as a hardener, the crosslinking of the flavonoids turns out to be of great importance. During the impregnation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the liquid and solid uptakes were monitored while taking into consideration the different conditions of the impregnation process. This method allowed to identify the best conditions needed in order to get a successful preservative uptake for each wooden substrate. The penetration mechanism within the wood of both species was revealed with the aid of a microscopic analysis. Scots pine is impregnated through the tracheids in the longitudinal direction and through parenchyma rays in the radial direction, whereas in beech, the penetration occurs almost completely through longitudinal vessels.

  14. Viability and seasonal distribution patterns of Scots pine pollen in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, P.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination ability and airborne counts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pollen were studied during the spring of 1993 at Turku in southern Finland (60 degrees 32' N, 22 degrees 28' E) and at Utsjoki in northern Finland (69 degrees 45' N, 27 degrees 01' E). Pollen waas trapped from the beginning of May to the end of June in a high-volume air sampler. Germination tests were performed to determine the in vitro pollen viability of the trapped pollen. Airborne pine pollen counts were obtained from a continuously operating Burkard trap located near each high-volume sampler. When male flowering began, phenological observations were carried out on pollen grains collected in rotored samplers located in pine and spruce stands and open fields near Turku and Utsjoki. In southern Finland, the peak period of pine pollen production was short, lasting for only 3 days, but it accounted for about 80% of the total germinating pine pollen yield for the year. The peak count was on May 20, with over 2000 germinating pollen grains per cubic meter of air. Pollen germination rates of up to 70% were obtained during the week preceding the local pollen peak, and rates reached almost 90% on the peak day. Pollen viability remained at 45 to 65% for 1 week after the peak. There was no significant difference between the pollen counts for day and night, indicating that during the main pollen season, the pollen source was close to Turku. Before the local pollen peak, the counts of living pine pollen were low, indicating that pine pollen transported over long distances was of little ecological importance in 1993 in the Turku area. In northern Finland, the first pollen grains were caught on July 4, and the peak day was July 13. However, no viable pollen was observed during this period, indicating that there was little gene drift from southern to northern Finland in 1993.

  15. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  16. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jarosław; van Doorn, Natalie S

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks.

  17. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  18. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Daniel; Weiland, Fredrik; Hedman, Henry; Stenberg, Martin; Öhrman, Olov; Lestander, Torbjörn A; Bergsten, Urban; Öhman, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to explore the potential for gasifying Scots pine stump-root biomass (SRB). Washed thin roots, coarse roots, stump heartwood and stump sapwood were characterized (solid wood, milling and powder characteristics) before and during industrial processing. Non-slagging gasification of the SRB fuels and a reference stem wood was successful, and the gasification parameters (synthesis gas and bottom ash characteristics) were similar. However, the heartwood fuel had high levels of extractives (≈19%) compared to the other fuels (2-8%) and thereby ≈16% higher energy contents but caused disturbances during milling, storage, feeding and gasification. SRB fuels could be sorted automatically according to their extractives and moisture contents using near-infrared spectroscopy, and their amounts and quality in forests can be predicted using routinely collected stand data, biomass functions and drill core analyses. Thus, SRB gasification has great potential and the proposed characterizations exploit it.

  20. Stored water use and transpiration in Scots pine: a modeling analysis with ANAFORE.

    PubMed

    Verbeeck, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Nadezhdina, Nadja; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Deckmyn, Gaby; Meiresonne, Linda; Lemeur, Raoul; Cermák, Jan; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Janssens, Ivan A

    2007-12-01

    We estimated daily use of stored water by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in a temperate climate with the ANAFORE model (ANAlysis of FORest Ecosystems) and compared the simulation results with sap flow measurements. The original model was expanded with a dynamic water flow and storage model that simulates sap flow dynamics in an individual tree. ANAFORE was able to accurately simulate diurnal patterns of measured sap flow under microclimatic conditions that differ from those of the calibration period. Strong relationships were found between stored water use and several tree characteristics (diameter at breast height, sapwood area, leaf area), but not with tree height. Relative to transpiration, stored water use varied over time (between < 1% and 44% of daily transpiration). On days when transpiration was high, trees were more dependent on stored water, indicating that the contribution of internal water to transpiration is not a constant in the water budget of trees.

  1. Canopy Defoliation has More Impact on Carbohydrate Availability than on Hydraulic Function in Declining Scots Pine Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyatos, R.; Aguadé, D.; Gómez, M.; Mencuccini, M.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.

    2013-12-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with depletion of carbohydrate reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at its dry limit. Are defoliated pines hydraulically impaired compared to non-defoliated pines? Moreover, how do defoliated pines cope with potentially lethal droughts, as compared to non-defoliated pines in the same population? In order to address these questions, we measured the seasonal dynamics of sap flow and needle water potentials (2010-2012), hydraulic function and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) (2012) in healthy and defoliated pines in the Prades mountains (NE Spain). The summer drought was mild in 2010, intense in 2012 and extremely long in 2011. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but they were more sensitive to summer drought (Figure 1). This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, which could not be explained by differences in branch vulnerability to embolism across defoliation classes. Accordingly, the native loss of xylem conductivity in branches, measured in 2012, remained similar across defoliation classes and reached >65% at the peak of the drought. However, a steeper vulnerability curve was observed for root xylem of defoliated pines. Xylem diameter variations (2011-2012) will be used to further investigate possible differences in the aboveground/belowground partitioning of hydraulic resistance across defoliation classes. NSC levels varied across tree organs (leaves>branches>roots>trunk) and strongly declined with drought. Defoliated pines displayed reduced NSC levels throughout the study period, despite enhanced water transport capacity and increased gas exchange rates during spring. Overall, the defoliated vs. healthy status seems to be more associated to differences in carbohydrate storage and dynamics than to hydraulic differences per se. However, starch conversion to soluble sugars during

  2. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Grüning, Maren M.; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; l-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy. PMID:28638396

  3. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Maren M; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; L-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic (15)N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  4. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Taipale, R.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J.

    2015-10-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentration profiles and the surface layer profile method connected to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In total fluxes that differed significantly from zero on a monthly basis were observed for 13 out of 27 measured masses. Monoterpenes had the highest net emission in all seasons and statistically significant positive fluxes were detected from March until October. Other important compounds emitted were methanol, ethanol+formic acid, acetone and isoprene+methylbutenol. Oxygenated VOCs showed also deposition fluxes that were statistically different from zero. Isoprene+methylbutenol and monoterpene fluxes followed well the traditional isoprene algorithm and the hybrid algorithm, respectively. Emission potentials of monoterpenes were largest in late spring and autumn which was possibly driven by growth processes and decaying of soil litter, respectively. Conversely, largest emission potentials of isoprene+methylbutenol were found in July. Thus, we concluded that most of the emissions of m/z 69 at the site consisted of isoprene that originated from broadleaved trees. Methanol had deposition fluxes especially before sunrise. This can be connected to water films on surfaces. Based on this assumption, we were able to build an empirical algorithm for bi-directional methanol exchange that described both emission term and deposition term. Methanol emissions were highest in May and June and deposition level increased towards autumn, probably as a result of increasing relative humidity levels leading to

  5. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Taipale, R.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots pine dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentration profiles and the surface layer profile method connected to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In total fluxes that differed significantly from zero on a monthly basis were observed for 14 out 27 measured masses. Monoterpenes had the highest net emission in all seasons and statistically significant positive fluxes were detected from March until November. Other important compounds emitted were methanol, ethanol/formic acid, acetone and isoprene/MBO. Oxygenated VOCs showed also deposition fluxes that were statistically different from zero. Isoprene/methylbutenol and monoterpene fluxes followed well the traditional isoprene algorithm and the hybrid algorithm, respectively. Emission potentials of monoterpenes were largest in late spring and fall which was possibly driven by growth processes and decaying of soil litter, respectively. Conversely, largest emission potentials of isoprene/methylbutenol were found in July. Thus, we concluded that most of the emissions of m/z 69 at the site consisted of isoprene that originated from broadleaved trees. Methanol had deposition fluxes especially before sunrise. This can be connected to water films on surfaces. Based on this assumption, we were able to build an empirical algorithm for bi-directional methanol exchange that described both emission term and deposition term. Methanol emissions were highest in May and June and deposition level increased towards fall, probably as a result of increasing relative humidity levels leading to predominance of

  6. The effects of soil and air temperature on CO2 exchange and net biomass accumulation in Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Rasilo, Terhi; Villemot, Julie; Ilvesniemi, Hannu

    2012-06-01

    Soil temperature is proposed to affect the photosynthetic rate and carbon allocation in boreal trees through sink limitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on CO(2) exchange, biomass partitioning and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of boreal tree species. We measured carbon allocation, above- and below-ground CO(2) exchange and the species composition of associated ECM fungi in the rhizosphere of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies K.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings grown in soil maintained at 7-12, 12-15 and 16-22 °C. We found increased root biomass and photosynthetic rate at higher soil temperatures, but simultaneously with photosynthesis rate, higher temperature generally increased soil respiration as well as shoot, and root and rhizosphere respiration. The net CO(2) exchange and seedling biomass did not increase significantly with increasing temperature due to a concomitant increase in carbon assimilation and respiration rates. The 2-month-long growth period in different soil temperatures did not alter the ECM fungi species composition and the below-ground carbon sink strength did not seem to be directly related to ECM biomass and species composition in any of the tree species. Ectomycorrhizal species composition and number of mycorrhiza did not explain the CO(2) exchange results at different temperatures.

  7. [Postglacial migration and phenogeography of populations of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northeast of the Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Vidiakin, A I; Sannikov, S N; Petrova, I V; Sannikova, N S

    2014-01-01

    The history, distribution routes, and phenogeographic structure of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northeast of the Russian Plain were studied on the basis of paleogeographic data and results of our own phenotypic and allozyme-genetic studies. It is assumed that, after the maximum Dnieper glaciation, P. sylvestris populations could successfully distribute to the northwest and north from the refugia of the South and Middle Urals as a result of seed dispersal by Belaya, Ufa, Chusovaya rivers (in Holocene, by Severnaya Dvina, Mezen', and Pechora rivers). On the basis of the hypothesis of "migration complexes" and the theory of hydrochory for coniferous species, a scheme of formation of a population structure of the Scots pine in the northeast of the Russian Plain is proposed.

  8. Height growth of different European Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances in a heavily polluted and a control environment.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of height measurements and degree of needle injury on five-year-old plants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing near a phosphate fertiliser plant that emits SO(2) and fluorides. The populations of Scots pine represented in this experiment originate from 11 countries and were substantially differentiated in height growth and extent of needle necroses. Those populations which grew most rapidly were found to be the most sensitive to pollutant injury. The least productive provenances from the north of the range (Sweden, USSR) are at the same time characterized by lowest decline in height growth, lowest mortality and least extensive necroses. It is proposed that gene banks be established for the best genotypes likely to be eliminated in the heavily polluted conditions of Poland today.

  9. Twenty-two year results of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenance test in North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Cunningham; David F. Van Haverbeke

    1991-01-01

    A provenance test of 49 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from eastern Europe, Russia, and Siberia was established in two plantations in north-central North Dakota. After 22 years, trees from seed sources within the region bounded by 20° to 57° east longitude and 50° to 58° north latitude were taller, and larger in diameter, and had denser crown and...

  10. Water availability influences morphology, mycorrhizal associations, PSII efficiency and polyamine metabolism at early growth phase of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Vuosku, Jaana; Läärä, Esa; Saarinen, Markku; Heiskanen, Juha; Häggman, Hely; Sarjala, Tytti

    2015-03-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is adapted to various soil types with diverse water availabilities. However, Scots pine seedlings are vulnerable to abiotic stress during the early growth, when they may be exposed to both dry and wet conditions. Here, we focused on the above and below ground coping strategies of Scots pine seedlings under controlled wet, optimal and dry soil conditions by investigating morphological traits including seedling biomass, number of root tips, proportion of mycorrhizal root tips and brown needles. In addition, we studied metabolic and physiological responses including gene expression involved in biosynthesis and catabolism of polyamines (PA), PSII efficiency and the expression of the catalase (CAT) late-embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione synthetase (GS) genes. We found that seedlings invested in shoots by maintaining stable shoot water content and high PSII efficiency under drought stress. Free and soluble conjugated putrescine (Put) accumulated in needles under drought stress, suggesting the role of Put in protection of photosynthesizing tissues. However, the expression of the PA biosynthesis genes, arginine decarboxylase (ADC), spermidine synthase (SPDS) and thermospermine synthase (ACL5) was not affected under drought stress whereas catabolizing genes diamino oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were down-regulated in shoots. The morphology of the roots was affected by peat water content. Furthermore, both drought stress and water excess restricted the seedling ability to sustain a symbiotic relationship. The consistent pattern of endogenous PAs seems to be advantageous to the Scots pine seedlings also under stress conditions.

  11. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and <0.5% - on the soil / soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  12. Growth responses of Scots pine to climatic factors on reclaimed oil shale mined land.

    PubMed

    Metslaid, Sandra; Stanturf, John A; Hordo, Maris; Korjus, Henn; Laarmann, Diana; Kiviste, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Afforestation on reclaimed mining areas has high ecological and economic importance. However, ecosystems established on post-mining substrate can become vulnerable due to climate variability. We used tree-ring data and dendrochronological techniques to study the relationship between climate variables and annual growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on reclaimed open cast oil shale mining areas in Northeast Estonia. Chronologies for trees of different age classes (50, 40, 30) were developed. Pearson's correlation analysis between radial growth indices and monthly climate variables revealed that precipitation in June-July and higher mean temperatures in spring season enhanced radial growth of pine plantations, while higher than average temperatures in summer months inhibited wood production. Sensitivity of radial increment to climatic factors on post-mining soils was not homogenous among the studied populations. Older trees growing on more developed soils were more sensitive to precipitation deficit in summer, while growth indices of two other stand groups (young and middle-aged) were highly correlated to temperature. High mean temperatures in August were negatively related to annual wood production in all trees, while trees in the youngest stands benefited from warmer temperatures in January. As a response to thinning, mean annual basal area increment increased up to 50 %. By managing tree competition in the closed-canopy stands, through the thinning activities, tree sensitivity and response to climate could be manipulated.

  13. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

  14. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  15. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  16. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  17. Morphological and physiological responses of Scots pine fine roots to water supply in a dry climatic region in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Ivano; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Frey, Beat; Rigling, Andreas; Landolt, Werner; Zimmermann, Stephan; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from drought and elevated temperatures, resulting in a higher mortality rate of trees than the mean mortality rate in Switzerland. We investigated the responses of fine roots (standing crop, morphological and physiological features) to water supply in a Scots pine forest in the Rhone valley. Before irrigation started in 2003, low- and high-productivity Scots pine trees were selected based on their crown transparency. The fine root standing crop measured in spring from 2003 to 2005 was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. However, irrigation significantly enhanced the fine root standing crop during the vegetation period when values from spring were compared with values from fall in 2005. Irrigation slightly increased specific root length but decreased root tissue density. Fine root O2-consumption capacity decreased slightly in response to the irrigation treatment. Using ingrowth cores to observe the responses of newly produced fine roots, irrigation had a significantly positive effect on the length of fine roots, but there were no differences between the low- and high-productivity trees. In contrast to the weak response of fine roots to irrigation, the aboveground parts responded positively to irrigation with more dense crowns. The lack of a marked response of the fine root biomass to irrigation in the low- and high-productivity trees suggests that fine roots have a high priority for within-tree carbon allocation.

  18. Scots pine bark, topsoil and pedofauna as indicators of transport pollutions in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Marko-Worłowska, Maria; Chrzan, Anna; Łaciak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the motorway on pollution was evaluated by determining chosen heavy metals and acid reaction (pH) in the pine bark, in forest and meadow topsoil. The content of these environmental contaminants was determined in the topsoil and in the bark of around 40 year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing right next to the soil analyzed. The pollutants were examined at localities situated around 5, 200, 1500 m away from the motorway. To evaluate influence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and the topsoil pH on pedofauna, five meadows localities situated 1, 20, 40, 150, 1550 m away from the motorway were examined. It was detected that in the forest habitats analyzed the bark was characterized by considerably higher acidity (pH 3.14-3.88) than the topsoil of the pines analyzed (pH 5.45-7.22). Except of Cd at locality 200 m and Cu at 1500 m from motorway, the higher concentration of heavy metals was noted in topsoil. In the meadow soil of the locality 150 m from the motorway the highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were detected. The greatest diversity of the meso and macrofauna and trophic relations the most resembling natural were detected in the area furthest away from the motorway, where the content of the heavy metals was the lowest. The lowest density and diversity of meso- and macrofauna were detected in the area situated 40 m, where the concentration of heavy metals was higher than at 1, 20 and 1550 m from the motorway situated localities.

  19. Climatic factors and reindeer grazing -- the effects on soil carbon dynamics in subarctic boreal pine forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems, affecting plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil carbon dynamics. In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we investigated how the reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest combined with climate (air temperature and precipitation) affects soil temperature, soil water content, and ultimately the CO2 efflux from forest soils. The study was carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013 and 2014, where 2013 was an extremely dry year (specially the summer), and the year 2014 was a "normal" year in means of precipitations. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. We established the experiment as a split plot experiment with 2 blocks and 5 sub-plots per treatment that were divided into grazed and non-grazed parts, separated with a fence. The sample plots are located along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from reindeer already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. Our study showed that in subarctic mature pine forests, soil temperatures were higher, and soil water content was fluctuating more on grazed areas compared to non-grazed areas in both years. In both years, the soil water content on the grazed area was highest in June. The situation changed somewhere in the second half of July when the moisture content in the non-grazed area was higher. We found

  20. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: a Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O(3)) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O(3) concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O(3) can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels.

  1. Influence of Scots pine encroachment into alpine grassland in the quality and stability of soil organic matter aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Carlos; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Benito, Marta; José Fernández, María; Rubio, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Ecotone areas are dynamic zones potentially suitable for detecting ecosystem sensitivity to climate change effects. Climate change scenarios proposed by IPCC predict a temperature increase in Mediterranean areas with the consequent altitudinal advance of Scots pine treeline (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the extent of grassland-shrubland areas. Therefore, variations in physical, chemical and biological properties of soils due to plant dynamics are expected. We present a study located in the grassland-forest ecotone of Scots pine on a Mediterranean mountain in Central Spain, considering three different vegetation types: high mountain grassland-shrubland, shrubland-Scots pine high mountain forest and Scots pine mountain forest. We worked on the hypothesis that different plant species compositions influence both the size distribution and aggregate protection of the organic carbon (C), as a result of the different quality of C inputs to the soil from different vegetation types. To test this assumption, topsoil samples were firstly separated into four aggregate fractions (6-2 mm, 2-0.250 mm, 0.250-0.053 mm and < 0.053 mm) by dry sieving; secondly, free light fraction was isolated from intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM) in a soil/water suspension by centrifuging and decanting the supernatants; and thirdly, different iPOM (coarse iPOM and fine iPOM) and mineral associated soil organic C were released from each remaining aggregate fraction by sonication at 300 J ml-1 and further quantified by wet sieving. We expect differences between light fraction, different iPOM and mineral associated soil organic C from the different aggregates fractions obtained among vegetation types as a result of different quality and quantity organic matter inputs to the soil. Thus, we will be able to predict (i) the evolution of protected soil organic matter with the encroachment of Scots pine on Mediterranean mountains due to climate change effects, (ii) the rate of macroaggregate

  2. Winter drought impairs xylem phenology, anatomy and growth in Mediterranean Scots pine forests.

    PubMed

    Camarero, J J; Guada, G; Sánchez-Salguero, R; Cervantes, E

    2016-12-01

    Continental Mediterranean forests face drought but also cold spells and both climate extremes can impair the resilience capacity of these forests. Climate warming could amplify the negative effects of cold spells by inducing premature dehardening. Here we capitalize on a winter drought-induced dieback triggered by a cold spell which occurred in December 2001 affecting Scots pine forests in eastern Spain. We assessed post-dieback recovery by quantifying and comparing radial growth and xylem anatomy of non-declining (ND, crown cover >50%) and declining (D, crown cover ≤50%) trees in two sites (VP, Villarroya de los Pinares; TO, Torrijas). We also characterized xylogenesis in both sites and aboveground productivity in site VP. Dieback caused legacy effects since needle loss, a 60% reduction in litter fall and radial-growth decline characterized D-trees 3 years after dieback symptoms started appearing in spring 2002. D-trees formed collapsed tracheids in the 2002-ring, particularly in the most affected VP site where xylogenesis differences between ND and D trees were most noticeable. The lower growth rates of D-trees were caused by a shorter duration of their major xylogenesis phases. In site VP the radial-enlargement and wall-thickening of tracheids were significantly reduced in D-trees as compared to ND-trees because these xylogenesis phases tended to start earlier and end later in ND-trees. Gompertz models fitted to tracheid production predicted that maximum growth rates occurred 11-12 days earlier in ND than in D-trees. The formation of radially-enlarging tracheids was enhanced by longer days in both study sites and also by wetter conditions in the driest TO site, but xylogenesis sensitivity to climate was reduced in D-trees. Winter-drought dieback impairs xylem anatomy and phenology, aboveground productivity, xylogenesis and growth in Mediterranean Scots pine populations. Affected stands show a costly post-dieback recovery challenging their resilience ability

  3. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine under two fertilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2015-07-01

    Survival and functioning of mycorrhizal associations at low temperatures are not known well. In an earlier study, ectomycorrhizas did not affect the frost hardiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots, but here we studied whether differential nutrient availability would change the result and additionally, alter frost hardiness aboveground. The aim in this experiment was to compare the frost hardiness of roots and needles of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings raised using two fertilization treatments and two cold-hardening regimes. The fertilization treatments were low (LF) and high (HF) application of a complete nutrient solution. Three hundred mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were cultivated in growth chambers in four blocks for 16 weeks. For the first 9 weeks, the seedlings grew in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) with low fertilization and then they were raised for 3 weeks in LDHT with either low or high fertilization. After this, half of the plants in each treatment combination remained in LDHT, and half were transferred to short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimatize. The frost hardiness of the roots and needles was assessed using controlled freezing tests followed by electrolyte leakage tests (REL). Mycorrhizal roots were slightly more frost hardy than non-mycorrhizal roots, but only in the growing-season conditions (LDHT) in low-nutrient treatment. In LDHT and LF, the frost hardiness of the non-mycorrhizal roots was about -9 °C, and that of the non-mycorrhizal HF roots and the mycorrhizal roots in both fertilization levels was about -11 °C. However, no difference was found in the roots within the SDLT regime, and in needles, there was no difference between mycorrhizal and fertilization treatments. The frost hardiness of needles increased by SDLT treatment, being -8.5 and -14.1 °C in LDHT and SDLT, respectively. The dry mass of roots, stems, and needles was lower in LF than in

  4. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  5. One tissue, two fates: different roles of megagametophyte cells during Scots pine embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vuosku, Jaana; Sarjala, Tytti; Jokela, Anne; Sutela, Suvi; Sääskilahti, Mira; Suorsa, Marja; Läärä, Esa; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed, embryos grow and develop within the corrosion cavity of the megagametophyte, a maternally derived haploid tissue, which houses the majority of the storage reserves of the seed. In the present study, histochemical methods and quantification of the expression levels of the programmed cell death (PCD) and DNA repair processes related genes (MCA, TAT-D, RAD51, KU80, and LIG) were used to investigate the physiological events occurring in the megagametophyte tissue during embryo development. It was found that the megagametophyte was viable from the early phases of embryo development until the early germination of mature seeds. However, the megagametophyte cells in the narrow embryo surrounding region (ESR) were destroyed by cell death with morphologically necrotic features. Their cell wall, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope broke down with the release of cell debris and nucleic acids into the corrosion cavity. The occurrence of necrotic-like cell death in gymnosperm embryogenesis provides a favourable model for the study of developmental cell death with necrotic-like morphology and suggests that the mechanism underlying necrotic cell death is evolutionary conserved. PMID:19246593

  6. Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) grown at elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Antti; Peltola, Heli; Ryyppö, Aija; Sauvala, Kari; Laitinen, Kaisa; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2003-09-01

    Impacts of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on wood properties of 15-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown under conditions of low nitrogen supply were investigated in open-top chambers. The treatments consisted of (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] (AT+AC), (ii) ambient temperature and elevated [CO2] (AT+EC), (iii) elevated temperature and ambient [CO2] (ET+AC) and (iv) elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] (ET+EC). Wood properties analyzed for the years 1992-1994 included ring width, early- and latewood width and their proportions, intra-ring wood density (minimum, maximum and mean, as well as early- and latewood densities), mean fiber length and chemical composition of the wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and acetone extractive concentration). Absolute radial growth over the 3-year period was 54% greater in AT+EC trees and 30 and 25% greater in ET+AC and ET+EC trees, respectively, than in AT+AC trees. Neither elevated temperature nor elevated [CO2] had a statistically significant effect on ring width, early- and latewood widths or their proportions. Both latewood density and maximum intra-ring density were increased by elevated [CO2], whereas fiber length was increased by elevated temperature. Hemicellulose concentration decreased and lignin concentration increased significantly in response to elevated temperature. There were no statistically significant interaction effects of elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] on the wood properties, except on earlywood density.

  7. Fine-scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium in a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian C; Genney, David R; Alexander, Ian J

    2014-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelium is a key component of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, yet we know little regarding the fine-scale diversity and distribution of mycelium in ECM fungal communities. We collected four 20 × 20 × 2-cm(3) (800-cm(3)) slices of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil and divided each into 100 2 × 2 × 2-cm(3) (8-cm(3)) cubes. The presence of mycelium of ECM fungi was determined using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach. As expected, many more ECM fungi were detected as mycelium than as ectomycorrhizas in a cube or slice. More surprisingly, up to one-quarter of the 43 species previously detected as ectomycorrhizas over an area of 400 m(2) could be detected in a single 8-cm(3) cube, and up to three-quarters in a single 800-cm(3) slice. ECM mycelium frequency decreased markedly with depth and there were distinct 'hotspots' of mycelium in the moss/F1 layer. Our data demonstrate a high diversity of ECM mycelium in a small (8-cm(3) ) volume of substrate, and indicate that the spatial scale at which ECM species are distributed as mycelium may be very different from the spatial scale at which they are distributed as tips.

  8. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs.

  9. Environmental and developmental effects on the biosynthesis of UV-B screening pigments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Florian; Seidlitz, Harald K; Obermaier, Josef; Sandermann, Heinrich; Heller, Werner

    2006-08-01

    The major UV-B screening pigments of the epidermal layer of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles are flavonol 3-o-glycosides (F3Gs) esterified with hydroxycinnamic acids at positions 3" and 6". Acylation is the last step in biosynthesis and is catalysed by position-specific hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (3" and 6"HCT). The UV-B dependence of these enzyme activities was studied in primary needles of Scots pine seedlings grown under different UV-B conditions in environmentally controlled sun simulators. 6"HCT activity was induced upon UV-B irradiation while 3"HCT activity was not induced but showed high constitutive values. To investigate the biosynthesis of diacylated F3Gs during needle development under natural conditions, the HCT activities and metabolite contents were analysed in needles of field-grown mature pine trees. Accumulation of diacylated compounds as well as of 6"HCT activity occurred transiently in the first year of needle development only. In contrast, 3"HCT activity exhibited broad maxima in two consecutive years during needle growth. The data suggest that acylated F3Gs are first formed as soluble compounds which are then translocated into the cell wall to be bound by their hydroxycinnamoyl residues.

  10. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia I.; Preston, Caroline M.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-03-01

    In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13C-MAS NMR), and the aromatic carbon fraction (BC and potentially interfering constituents like tannins) of unburned and burned forest floor. Fire reduced the mass of the forest floor by 60%, stocks of inorganic elements (Si, Al, Fe, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Mn) by 30-50%, and of OC, nitrogen, and sulfur by 40-50%. In contrast to typical findings from temperate forests, unburned OC consisted mainly of (di-)O-alkyl (polysaccharides) and few aromatic structures, probably due to dominant input of lichen biomass. Fire converted OC into alkyl and aromatic structures, the latter consisting of heterocyclic macromolecules and small clusters of condensed carbon. The small cluster size explained the small BC concentrations determined using a degradative molecular marker method. Fire increased BC stocks (16 g kg-1 OC) by 40% which translates into a net-conversion rate of 0.7% (0.35% of net primary production) unburned OC to BC. Here, however, BC was not a major fraction of soil OC pool in unburned or burned forest floor, either due to rapid in situ degradation or relocation.

  11. Relationship of aluminium and calcium to net CO2 exchange among diverse Scots pine provenances under pollution stress in Poland.

    PubMed

    Reich, P B; Oleksyn, J; Tjoelker, M G

    1994-02-01

    Light-saturated net photosynthesis (Asat), dark respiration (RD), and foliar nutrient content of eight European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances were measured at experimental sites in western Poland. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in 1984 at two sites with similar soils in areas of contrasting air pollution. One site was near a point source of SO2 and other pollutants, and another 12 km to the southeast in an area free of acute air pollution was treated as a control. The eight provenances were from a large north-tosouth latitudinal range (60 to 43° N). At the heavily polluted site Scots pine trees exhibited lower growth rates and crown dieback and deformation. Soil pH, Ca and Mg were at least 10 times lower, and Al 10 times higher at the polluted than the control site. In 1991, concentrations of Al, P, Ca, S, Mn, Fe, and Zn in oneyear old Scots pine foliage were higher and Mg lower at the polluted than control site. At both sites foliar Mg levels were within the range considered deficient (≤0.6 mg g(-1)), and at the polluted site, Al concentrations were very high (670 to 880 μg g(-1)). In all provenances, RD of one-year-old needles was higher (by 22% on average) and Asat was lower (by 37% on average) at the polluted than the control site. The ratio of Asat: RD was half as great in all provenances at the polluted (4 to 6) than control site (8 to 11). Provenances of southern origin had greater increases in RD and water-use efficiency at the polluted site than other provenances. Within the polluted site alone, or across both sites, Asat in Scots pine was negatively correlated to the Al: Ca ratio (p<0.001, r=-0.93). Across sites RD increased with needle N and Al (multiple regression, p<0.001). The data suggest that at the polluted site there is excessive soil Al and deficient Mg availability, low needle Mg and high Al concentrations and high Al: Ca ratios, and that these have resulted in reduced photosynthetic capacity and increased respiration.

  12. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Zha, Tianshan; Li, Chunyi; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Wang, Kai-Yun; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (E) and CO2 flux (Fc ) in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc ), and decoupling coefficient (Ω), showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (δ). The maximum mean daily values (24-h average) for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2) s(-1), -11.18 µmol m(-2) s(-1), 6.27 mm s(-1), and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2) s(-1), -4.61 µmol m(-2) s(-1), 3.3 mm s(-1), and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O)(-1) and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O)(-1). Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  14. Controls of Evapotranspiration and CO2 Fluxes from Scots Pine by Surface Conductance and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Tianshan; Li, Chunyi; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Wang, Kai-Yun; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (E) and CO2 flux (Fc) in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc, surface conductance (gc), and decoupling coefficient (Ω), showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (δ). The maximum mean daily values (24-h average) for E, Fc, gc, and Ω were 1.78 mmol m−2 s−1, −11.18 µmol m−2 s−1, 6.27 mm s−1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m−2 s−1, −4.61 µmol m−2 s−1, 3.3 mm s−1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc. Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc, while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc. Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O)−1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O)−1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition. PMID:23894401

  15. Scots pine responses to elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration: growth and wood properties.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Antti; Peltola, Heli; Ryyppö, Aija; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    Growth and wood properties of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were studied for 6 years in 16 closed chambers providing a factorial combination of two temperature regimes (ambient and elevated) and two carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient and twice ambient). The elevation of temperature corresponded to the predicted effect at the site of a doubling in atmospheric [CO2]. Annual height and radial growth and wood properties were analyzed during 1997-2002. Physical wood properties analyzed included early- and latewood widths and their proportions, intra-ring wood densities, early- and latewood density and mean fiber length. Chemical wood properties analyzed included concentrations of acetone-soluble extractives, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. There were no significant treatment effects on height growth during the 6-year study. Elevated [CO2] increased ring width by 66 and 47% at ambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. At ambient [CO2], elevated temperature increased ring width by 19%. Increased ring width in response to elevated [CO2] resulted from increases in both early- and latewood width; however, there was no effect of the treatments on early- and latewood proportions. Mean wood density, earlywood density and fiber length increased in response to elevated temperature. The chemical composition of wood was affected by elevated [CO2], which reduced the cellulose concentration, and by elevated temperature, which reduced the concentration of acetone-soluble extractives. Thus, over the 6-year period, radial growth was significantly increased by elevated [CO2], and some wood properties were significantly affected by elevated temperature or elevated [CO2], or both, indicating that climate change may affect the material properties of wood.

  16. Trait-specific responses of Scots pine to irrigation on a short vs long time scale.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Eilmann, Britta; Buchmann, Nina; Rigling, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    In xeric environments, an increase in drought is related to reduced forest productivity and to enhanced mortality. However, predictions of future forest development remain difficult as the mechanisms underlying the responses of mature trees to long-term variations in water availability are not well understood. Here, we aimed to compare the adjustments in radial growth and morphological needle and shoot traits of mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing along open water channels with those of control trees growing under naturally dry conditions at three sites in Valais, an inner-Alpine dry valley of Switzerland. The trees growing along two channels had been irrigated since germination (>70 years), whereas those along another previously drained channel had been irrigated only from 2010 to 2012, when the channel was re-established, and could thus be used to quantify the short-term effects of re-irrigation. Linear mixed models revealed that needle and shoot lengths as well as early- and late-wood basal area increments (BAIs) were most responsive to short-term and long-term irrigation. However, the magnitude of the response to the short-term irrigation exceeded that of the long-term irrigation. An extreme drought during the first half of 2011 led to an immediate decrease in the needle length, needle width, and early- and late-wood BAIs of the control trees, whereas the shoot length and needle numbers of control trees reacted with a 1-year delay to the extreme drought, as the shoots were responding to water availability of previous year's summer. Such negative responses to dry climatic conditions were even found in irrigated trees at one of our sites, which might be linked to tree growth becoming more sensitive to drought with increasing tree height and leaf area. In order to improve predictions of future forest development, long-term studies are necessary that consider lagged responses and adjustment processes of trees to changes in water availability.

  17. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, H.; Steppe, K.; Nadezhdina, N.; de Beeck, M. Op; Deckmyn, G.; Meiresonne, L.; Lemeur, R.; Čermák, J.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2007-08-01

    Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and - storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May-18 October). Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD) storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night. Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content deficit.

  18. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  19. Modelling short-term variability in carbon and water exchange in a temperate Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, M. H.; Kruijt, B. J.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation - atmosphere carbon and water exchange at one particular site can strongly vary from year to year, and understanding this interannual variability in carbon and water exchange (IAVcw) is a critical factor in projecting future ecosystem changes. However, the mechanisms driving this IAVcw are not well understood. We used data on carbon and water fluxes from a multi-year Eddy Covariance study (1997-2009) in a Dutch Scots pine forest and forced a process-based ecosystem model (LPJ-GUESS) with local data to, firstly, test whether the model can explain IAVcw and seasonal carbon and water exchange from direct environmental factors only. Initial model runs showed low correlations with estimated annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), while monthly and daily fluxes showed high correlations. The model underestimated GPP and AET during winter and drought events. Secondly, we adapted the temperature inhibition function of photosynthesis to account for the observation that at this particular site, trees continue to assimilate at very low atmospheric temperatures (up to daily averages of -10 °C), resulting in a net carbon sink in winter. While we were able to improve daily and monthly simulations during winter by lowering the modelled minimum temperature threshold for photosynthesis, this did not increase explained IAVcw at the site. Thirdly, we implemented three alternative hypotheses concerning water uptake by plants in order to test which one best corresponds with the data. In particular, we analyse the effects during the 2003 heatwave. These simulations revealed a strong sensitivity of the modelled fluxes during dry and warm conditions, but no single formulation was consistently superior in reproducing the data for all time scales and the overall model-data match for IAVcw could not be improved. Most probably access to deep soil water leads to higher AET and GPP simulated during the heat wave of 2003. We conclude that

  20. Modelling short-term variability in carbon and water exchange in a temperate Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, M. H.; Kruijt, B. J.; Hickler, T.; Kabat, P.

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation-atmosphere carbon and water exchange at one particular site can strongly vary from year to year, and understanding this interannual variability in carbon and water exchange (IAVcw) is a critical factor in projecting future ecosystem changes. However, the mechanisms driving this IAVcw are not well understood. We used data on carbon and water fluxes from a multi-year eddy covariance study (1997-2009) in a Dutch Scots pine forest and forced a process-based ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator; LPJ-GUESS) with local data to, firstly, test whether the model can explain IAVcw and seasonal carbon and water exchange from direct environmental factors only. Initial model runs showed low correlations with estimated annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), while monthly and daily fluxes showed high correlations. The model underestimated GPP and AET during winter and drought events. Secondly, we adapted the temperature inhibition function of photosynthesis to account for the observation that at this particular site, trees continue to assimilate at very low atmospheric temperatures (up to daily averages of -10 °C), resulting in a net carbon sink in winter. While we were able to improve daily and monthly simulations during winter by lowering the modelled minimum temperature threshold for photosynthesis, this did not increase explained IAVcw at the site. Thirdly, we implemented three alternative hypotheses concerning water uptake by plants in order to test which one best corresponds with the data. In particular, we analyse the effects during the 2003 heatwave. These simulations revealed a strong sensitivity of the modelled fluxes during dry and warm conditions, but no single formulation was consistently superior in reproducing the data for all timescales and the overall model-data match for IAVcw could not be improved. Most probably access to deep soil water leads to higher AET and GPP simulated

  1. Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

  2. Trace element contamination differentiates the natural population of Scots pine: evidence from DNA microsatellites and needle morphology.

    PubMed

    Chudzińska, Ewa; Celiński, Konrad; Pawlaczyk, Ewa M; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Diatta, Jean B

    2016-11-01

    The Scots pine is often used in the biomonitoring of forests. Studies on the chemical composition plus variability of its needles morphological structure allow for an assessment of the state of environmental pollution. However, in their natural populations, the response of individual trees to stress differs. This study reports on the influence of long-term soil contamination with trace elements on the morphology of the needles, its possible relation to the differentiation of the genetic pool, and their implications for biomonitoring. In the natural and self-renewable pine stand growing near the point polluter (zinc smelter, Upper Silesia, Poland), two categories of trees are observed with respect to their health status: pollution-tolerant (T) and pollution-sensitive (S). A detailed analysis of the trace element content of the needles reveals that the concentration of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu in the needles is significantly higher in S as compared to T individuals. The metal accumulation pattern decidedly follows the sequence Pb > Cd > Cu > Zn. An analysis of the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the needles reveals that sensitive trees showed an FA index ten times higher in comparison to tolerant ones. Moreover, the high differences between these S and T tree groups are also observed in the basic genetic diversity parameters investigated by an analysis of DNA simple sequence repeats (SSR). The concentration of trace elements in pine needles, distinct in sensitive and tolerant trees and in connection with their morphological and genetic characteristics, may reflect an adaptation process. The level of Mg and Fe content in the needles could be a physiological-toxicological index for evaluating trace element "lethality" expressed as Mg and Fe mineral-survival strategies. The example of differences described in this Scots pine population should be taken into consideration in ecotoxicological research to better interpret the obtained results.

  3. Are N and S deposition altering the mineral composition of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles in Finland?

    PubMed

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Sulkava, Mika; Raitio, Hannu; Hollmén, Jaakko

    2005-11-01

    Data from a large-scale foliar survey were used to calculate the extent to which N and S deposition determined the mineral composition of Scots pine and Norway spruce needles in Finland. Foliar data were available from 367 needle samples collected on 36 plots sampled almost annually between 1987 and 2000. A literature study of controlled experiments revealed that acidifying deposition mediates increasing N and S concentrations, and decreasing Mg:N and Ca:Al ratios in the needles. When this fingerprint for N and S elevated deposition on tree foliage was observed simultaneously with increased N and S inputs, it was considered sufficient evidence for assuming that acidifying deposition had altered the mineral composition of tree needles on that plot in the given year. Evidence for deposition-induced changes in the mineral composition of tree foliage was calculated on the basis of a simple frequency model. In the late eighties the evidence was found on 43% of the Norway spruce and 27% of Scots pine plots. The proportion of changed needle mineral composition decreased to below 8% for both species in the late nineties.

  4. Variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for evaluation of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Topaçoğlu, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common and important forest tree species in Turkey due to usefulness of its wood to many commercial uses. This species is classified as one of the economically important tree species for Turkish Forestry in the "National Tree Breeding and Seed Production Program". The objective of the present study was to investigate variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine and to evaluate variation in cone and seed characters within and among clones and grafts. The results showed that maximum CV among the clones was found for SWe (21.95), FS (16.99) and CWe (16.88). According to the results of SAS, variation between the clones is averaged at 19.2% and variation within the clones is averaged at 24.4 %. Variation between the clones ranged from 3.6% (SW) to 34.5% (TC) and variation within the clones ranged from 12.3% (SW) to 38.1% (WL). For CW, AL, AW, WW and TC, genetic variation among clones was higher than within clones. When the results of study like compared with results obtained from natural populations, it was seen that genetic variability in seed orchard which was subjected to study was quite low. This case may have dangerous results for the future of forests.

  5. Impact of climate anomalies on CO2 and H2O fluxes of a temperate Scots pine forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Bert; Neirynck, Johan; Janssens, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Climate anomalies can have a severe impact on the exchange of CO2 and H2O of forest ecosystems with the atmosphere. Previous studies have revealed that drought events and heat waves can significantly reduce carbon uptake and water use of forests and even lower leaf area if the drought period is persistent. Consequently, these effects can be a cause of the year to year variation in the carbon and water balance of forest ecosystems. This study focuses on the effect of climate anomalies on total stand scale evapotranspiration, gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, soil respiration and net ecosystem exchange of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest. The study site is located 20 km NE of Antwerp, near Brasschaat (Belgium) and consists of an 80-year-old even aged Scots pine stand, which belongs to a larger mixed coniferous/deciduous forest and is part of the ICP-II and Fluxnet/CarboEurope-IP networks since 1997. This analysis is based on a 13 year long eddy covariance dataset of ecosystem H2O and CO2 fluxes together with half hourly recorded temperature, VPD, precipitation and global radiation. Water stress is indentified by using continuous measurements of soil water content. In addition to climate anomalies we also looked at the effect of high ozone events which can significantly reduce carbon uptake of forest ecosystems.

  6. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  7. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  8. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  9. Long-term DOC-leaching from a temperate Scots pine forest (Brasschaat, Belgium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, B.; Neirynck, J.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    The carbon and water balance of terrestrial ecosystems are tightly coupled. Part of the assimilated carbon is leached from the ecosystem as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These DOC-fluxes from the ecosystem are highly uncertain and are not incorporated in most process-based models. Therefore the focus of this study is to determine the drivers of the interannual and seasonal variability of the DOC-leaching. The study site is located 20km NE of Antwerp, near Brasschaat (Belgium) and consists of an 80-year-old even aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, which belongs to a larger mixed coniferous/deciduous forest and it is part of the ICP-II and Fluxnet/CarboEurope-IP networks since 1997. We simulated the different components of the water balance (transpiration, soil evaporation canopy evaporation, soil water content, runoff and leaching) with a combination of field measurements (sap flow, eddy covariance, TDR's) and the ORCHIDEE model. DOC concentrations were measured monthly in the trough fall and at four depths in the soil from the year 2000 onwards. Here we report estimates of DOC-leaching for a six year period (2000-2006) and assess its importance in the total carbon balance of the ecosystem. Results indicate that on average 10% of yearly NEE (as measured with eddy covariance measurements) is lost as DOC in the soil. We further looked at the drivers responsible for seasonal and interannual variation of the DOC-leaching. Logically, water leaching is the main driver of the DOC-leaching, for both the seasonal and the interannual variability. The remaining variation in the DOC leaching is affected by soil temperature and pH. DOC concentrations are highest in the upper soil layer and gradually decrease with depth. This could be explained by part of the DOC being respired as CO2 and part being retained in the soil matrix by Al and Fe-oxides adsorption. Future climate scenarios predict drier summer periods and more precipitation during the winter for the north

  10. Estimating needle litterfall in Scots pine based on photosynthesis and stand structural development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťupek, Boris; Kulmala, Liisa; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2014-05-01

    Needle leaf litter modelled with constant foliar biomass turnover rates or with constant proportion of gross primary production (GPP) may underestimate the climate change driven impacts on ecosystem carbon balance. Changing climate may have adverse effects e.g. on the timing of the needle leaf development and shedding quantity, which means litter-induced variation may become more pronounced. In this study, we investigated whether the meteorological conditions, GPP, and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) can be used to predict more precisely trends and inter-annual variation of needle litterfall. Mutual dependence of these factors would imply mechanistic linkages between precise estimation of leaf litter and precise estimates of GPP, which is driven byfAPAR. The fAPAR depends on the quantity of active foliage in canopy that depends on carbon allocation to the foliage. The needle litterfall, needle cohort counts, and basic tree measurements were conducted between 1992 and 2012 on 7 Scots pine stands across Finland. Meteorological conditions for each stand were available from the nearest weather station. The GPP was estimated with a semi-empirical ecosystem model calibrated to Finnish environment given meteorological conditions and fAPAR as inputs. The fAPAR depended on the modelled foliage and measured litterfall. Litterfall was estimated as a difference between two fAPAR estimates. First based on allometric foliage models and second based on allometric foliage models scaled annually with the needle growth model. We tested our predictions against data from two FLUXNET eddy covariance sites Hyytiälä and Sodankylä located in southern and northern Finland. We found that the non-functional longevity of the needle lifespan (sum of the period when GPP is close to zero) was strongly correlated with the mean annual GPP level, and could be used for estimating the mean number of the needle cohorts. The inter-annual variation of the number of

  11. AmeriFlux CA-Ojp Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Jack Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Ojp Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, Mature Jack Pine. Site Description - 53.91634° N, 104.69203° W, elavation of 579.27 m, BOREAS 1994, BERMS climate measurements began Mar. 1997 and flux measurements Aug. 1999

  12. Tree rings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  13. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  14. A hydrological tracer study of water uptake depth in a Scots pine forest under two different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Plamboeck, A H; Grip, H; Nygren, U

    1999-05-01

    Little is known about the vertical distribution of water uptake by trees under different water supply regimes, the subject of this study, conducted in a Scots pine stand on sandy loam in northern Sweden. The objective was to determine the water uptake distribution in pines under two different water regimes, desiccation (no precipitation) and irrigation (2 mm day(-1) in July and 1 mm day(-1) in August), and to relate the uptake to water content, root and soil texture distributions. The natural (18)O gradient in soil water was exploited, in combination with two added tracers, (2)H at 10 cm and (3)H at 20 cm depth. Extraction of xylem sap and water from the soil profile then enabled evaluation of relative water uptake from four different soil depths (humus layer, 0-10, 10-25 and 25-55 cm) in each of two 50-m(2) plots per treatment. In addition, water content, root biomass and soil texture were determined. There were differences in vertical water uptake distribution between treatments. In July, the pines at the irrigated and desiccated plots took up 50% and 30%, respectively, of their water from the upper layers, down to 25 cm depth. In August, the pines on the irrigated plots took up a greater proportion of their water from layers below 25 cm deep than they did in July. In a linear regression, the mean hydraulic conductivity for each mineral soil horizon explained a large part of the variation in relative water uptake. No systematic variation in the residual water uptake correlated to the root distribution. It was therefore concluded that the distribution of water uptake by the pines at Åheden was not a function of root density in the mineral soil, but was largely determined by the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Combined effects of ozone and nitrogen on secondary compounds, amino acids, and aphid performance in Scots pine

    SciTech Connect

    Kainulainen, P.; Holopainen, J.K.; Holopainen, T.

    2000-02-01

    Combined effects of O{sub 3} and N supply on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in two separate growth chamber experiments exposing seedlings to 0, 0.075, 0.15, and 0.3 {micro}L/L of O{sub 3} during 8 h/d, 5 d/wk for a period of 5 wk. Seedlings were fertilized with low, medium, and high levels of N. Ozone and N availability affected concentrations of several primary and secondary metabolites. More changes on metabolites were detected in Exp. 1 (with seedlings ceasing their annual growth) than in Exp. 2 (with seedlings actively growing). Overall, high O{sub 3} exposure levels significantly decreased concentrations of monoterpenes and increased concentrations of resin acids. Concentrations of total phenolics were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. Mostly lower concentrations of monoterpenes and resin acids were found at a medium N-fertilization level than at low and high N-fertilization levels, while total phenolic concentration decreased by enhanced N availability. In Exp. 1, significantly elevated concentrations of free amino acids were found at O{sub 3} concentration of 0.3 {micro}L/L. Nitrogen availability did not have remarkable effects on amino acid concentrations. In Exp. 1, both {sub 3} and N had a significant effect on the MRGR of the aphid Schizolachnus pineti. In Exp. 2, the weight of the females and nymphs and the total number of reproduced nymphs were significantly affected by O{sub 3} and N. Only a few interaction effects were found, suggesting that the N supply does not significantly modify O{sub 3}-induced effects on studied primary and secondary compounds and aphid performance in Scots pine seedlings.

  16. Tree stem diameter variations and transpiration in Scots pine: an analysis using a dynamic sap flow model.

    PubMed

    Perämäki, M; Nikinmaa, E; Sevanto, S; Ilvesniemi, H; Siivola, E; Hari, P; Vesala, T

    2001-08-01

    A dynamic model for simulating water flow in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree was developed. The model is based on the cohesion theory and the assumption that fluctuating water tension driven by transpiration, together with the elasticity of wood tissue, causes variations in the diameter of a tree stem and branches. The change in xylem diameter can be linked to water tension in accordance with Hookeâ s law. The model was tested against field measurements of the diurnal xylem diameter change at different heights in a 37-year-old Scots pine at Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61 degrees 51' N, 24 degrees 17' E, 181 m a.s.l.). Shoot transpiration and soil water potential were input data for the model. The biomechanical and hydraulic properties of wood and fine root hydraulic conductance were estimated from simulated and measured stem diameter changes during the course of 1 day. The estimated parameters attained values similar to literature values. The ratios of estimated parameters to literature values ranged from 0.5 to 0.9. The model predictions (stem diameters at several heights) were in close agreement with the measurements for a period of 6 days. The time lag between changes in transpiration rate and in sap flow rate at the base of the tree was about half an hour. The analysis showed that 40% of the resistance between the soil and the top of the tree was located in the rhizosphere. Modeling the water tension gradient and consequent woody diameter changes offer a convenient means of studying the link between wood hydraulic conductivity and control of transpiration.

  17. Last-century forest productivity in a managed dry-edge Scots pine population: the two sides of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Laura; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Zavala, Miguel A; Julio Camarero, J; Hartig, Florian

    2017-09-25

    Climate change in the Mediterranean, associated with warmer temperatures and more frequent droughts, is expected to impact forest productivity and the functioning of forests ecosystems as carbon reservoirs in the region. Climate warming can positively affect forest growth by extending the growing season, whereas increasing summer drought generally reduces forest productivity and may cause growth decline, trigger dieback, hamper regeneration and increase mortality. Forest management could potentially counteract such negative effects by reducing stand density and thereby competition for water. The effectiveness of such interventions, however, has so far mostly been evaluated for short time periods at the tree and stand levels, which limits our confidence regarding the efficacy of thinning interventions over longer time scales under the complex interplay between climate, stand structure and forest management. In this study, we use a century-long historical dataset to assess the effects of climate and management on forest productivity and regeneration. We consider rear-edge Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations covering continental and Mediterranean conditions along an altitudinal gradient in Central Spain. We use linear mixed-effects models to disentangle the effects of altitude, climate, and stand volume on forest growth and ingrowth (recruitment and young trees'growth). We find that warming tends to benefit these tree populations - warmer winter temperature has a significant positive effect on both forest growth and ingrowth - and the effect is more pronounced at low elevations. However, drought conditions severely reduce growth and ingrowth, in particular when competition (stand volume) is high. We conclude that summer droughts are the main threat to Scots pine populations in the region, and that a reduction of stand volume can partially mitigate the negative impacts of more arid conditions. Mitigation and adaptation measures could therefore manage stand

  18. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Analysis of Wind-induced Air Pressure Fluctuations and Topsoil Gas Concentrations within a Scots Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, M.; Laemmel, T.; Maier, M.; Schindler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of small, wind-induced pressure fluctuations on soil gas transport, known as the pressure pumping effect, has attracted great interest over recent years. However, results for the quantification of the effect from field experiments are ambiguous, and there is still need for further in-situ quantification of the variables associated with this effect such as amplitudes and frequencies of pressure fluctuations. Airflow measurements above and below the canopy of a Scots pine forest and high-precision relative pressure measurements were conducted in the sub-canopy space as well as in the soil over a measurement period of 16 weeks. A newly developed gas measurement system was used to investigate the effect of the pressure fluctuations on topsoil gas concentrations. The gas measurement system uses helium as a tracer gas, which is injected into the soil. Then, the helium concentrations up to the topsoil are measured. Data analysis was based on 30 min intervals. Results show that pressure fluctuations occurring below the Scot pine forest canopy and in the soil were strongly dependent on mean wind speed at canopy height. Mean amplitudes of wind-induced pressure fluctuations reached values up to 10 Pa and had periods of 20 s to 50 s. While mean amplitudes of pressure fluctuations significantly increased with increasing wind speed, mean periods significantly decreased. A coefficient describing the strength of the pressure pumping was developed. It is a measure for the half-hourly intensity of pressure fluctuations and describes the mean change in pressure per second. It showed a quadratic relation to mean wind speed at canopy top and reached values up to 0.2 Pa s-1. Empirical modelling of helium concentration based on the measurements from a field campaign demonstrated that the pressure pumping coefficient is an important predictor for changes in the topsoil helium concentration, and thus, an important factor for soil gas transport.

  20. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  1. Constraining key hydraulic parameters of Scots Pine through sapflow data assimilation along a climatic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Poyatos, R.; Williams, M.

    2012-04-01

    In order to model the water balance of a forest ecosystem and predict its response to environmental changes, the response of tree transpiration to environmental conditions needs to be simulated. The plant hydraulic system can be conceptualised as a series of hydraulic resistances. The flow of water between any two locations of this system is proportional to the hydraulic conductivity and the water potential gradient linking them. The different components of the plant hydraulic system can change during drought as a result of varying stomatal conductance, xylem hydraulics and the regulation of leaf and root area. However, within this soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), physical processes of water flow are better understood than plant hydraulics. For example, the effects of leaf microclimate on stomatal regulation of transpiration are not well understood. Moreover, little is known about how key hydraulic traits vary seasonally or as a function of environmental conditions. Within corresponding models, empirical parameters are introduced as surrogates for a range of complex and/or unknown mechanisms. Data assimilation (DA) methodology has shown to be a useful technique for model parameter estimation in various disciplines of the geosciences. However, few studies have applied DA to constrain parameter values within the SPAC in forest transpiration models. DA could prove to be particularly useful in quantifying these parameters, which are often not directly measurable. Sapflow data are highly appropriate for this purpose, as they are the measurable end-product of water transport through the SPAC in response to environmental conditions. Accordingly, these data provide temporally highly resolved, direct constraints on associated key parameters within models. In this study, we assimilated sapflow data from three different Scots Pine sites - following a climatic gradient from the southern dry limit of its distribution (southern Catalunya, Spain) up to the northern

  2. Tree-ring growth of Scots pine, Common beech and Pedunculate oak under future climate in northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Scharnweber, Tobias; Schröder, Christian; Lennartz, Bernd; Bauwe, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Tree growth depends, among other factors, largely on the prevailing climatic conditions. Therefore, tree growth patterns are to be expected under climate change. Here, we analyze the tree-ring growth response of three major European tree species to projected future climate across a climatic (mostly precipitation) gradient in northeastern Germany. We used monthly data for temperature, precipitation, and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) over multiple time scales (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months) to construct models of tree-ring growth for Scots pine (Pinus syl- vestris L.) at three pure stands, and for Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at three mature mixed stands. The regression models were derived using a two-step approach based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) to extract potentially well explaining variables followed by ordinary least squares regression (OLSR) to consolidate the models to the least number of variables while retaining high explanatory power. The stability of the models was tested with a comprehensive calibration-verification scheme. All models were successfully verified with R2s ranging from 0.21 for the western pine stand to 0.62 for the beech stand in the east. For growth prediction, climate data forecasted until 2100 by the regional climate model WETTREG2010 based on the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenario was used. For beech and oak, growth rates will likely decrease until the end of the 21st century. For pine, modeled growth trends vary and range from a slight growth increase to a weak decrease in growth rates depending on the position along the climatic gradient. The climatic gradient across the study area will possibly affect the future growth of oak with larger growth reductions towards the drier east. For beech, site-specific adaptations seem to override the influence of the climatic gradient. We conclude that in Northeastern

  3. Long term effects of forest fires to soil C content and soil CO_{2} efflux in hemiboreal Scots pine forests of Estonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Metslaid, Marek; Orumaa, Argo; Parro, Kristi; Jõgiste, Kalev; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Egle

    2016-04-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon (C) cycle. Especially the soil organic matter pool in boreal forests is an important C storage with a long C turnover time, but fire frequencies that are expected to increase with changing climate, can change that. We compared the initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbances in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) stands with different time since fire. The study areas are located in hemiboreal vegetation zone, in northwestern Estonia, in Vihterpalu. Six areas (with extensive fires 200 ha and more) were chosen for study: fire in a year 1837, 1940, 1951, 1982, 1997, and 2008. In all areas we are dealing with stand replacing fires where all (or almost all) of the stand was destroyed by fire. On every area we established three permanent sample plots. Soil respiration was measured manually from all sample plots (measuring interval of two - three weeks). Manual chamber measurements are performed on 5 collars (north - south orientated and the distance between collars is 5 m) at each sample plot from May till November 2015. To characterize the soil C and N content and fine root biomass at the sites, 5 soil cores (0.5 m long and 0.05 m in diameter) were taken from each sample plot. Our results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C content in the top soil layer, but not in the humus layer and in mineral soil layers. Soil respiration showed similar chronological response to the time since the forest fire indicating that substantial proportion of the respiration was originating from the very top of the soil. Soil respiration values were lowest on the area where the fire was in a year 2008 and the respiration values followed also seasonal pattern being highest in August and lowest in May and November. The CO2 effluxes were lowest on newly burned area through

  4. The use of plants as regular food in ancient subarctic economies: a case study based on Sami use of Scots pine innerbark.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingela; Östlund, Lars; Zackrisson, Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study combines ethnological, historical, and dendroecological data from areas north of the Arctic Circle to analyze cultural aspects of Sami use of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark as regular food. Bark was peeled in June when trees were at the peak of sapping, leaving a strip of undamaged cambium so the tree survived. As a result, it is possible to date bark-peeling episodes using dendrochronology. The paper argues that the use of Scots pine inner bark reflects Sami religious beliefs, ethical concerns, and concepts of time, all expressed in the process of peeling the bark. A well-developed terminology and a set of specially designed tools reveal the technology involved in bark peeling. Consistent patterns with respect to the direction and size of peeling scars found across the region demonstrate common values and standards. Peeling direction patterns and ceremonial meals relating to bark probably reflect ritual practices connected to the sun deity, Biejvve.

  5. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-05-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  7. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  8. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  9. Distinct effects of water use efficiency increase on growth in Scots pine and sessile oak in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez-Merino, Emilia; Matiu, Michael; Heinrich, Ingo; Helle, Gerhard; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the main drivers of species distribution in the Mediterranean Basin, which will be exacerbated by climate change. The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Ca) has been related to enhanced tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). However, in the Mediterranean Basin this 'fertilizing' effect should compensate the potential drought-induced growth reduction to maintain forest productivity at a comparable level. This is particularly relevant for temperate species reaching their southern distribution limits and/or the limits of their climatic niche in this region. We investigated tree growth and physiological responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) stands located at their southern distribution limits using annually resolved tree-ring width and δ13C chronologies for the period 1960-2012. The selected stands were sampled in Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Wood cores were extracted at each site and tree-ring width and δ13C were measured. Basal area increment (BAI) was calculated as a surrogate of secondary growth and 13C discrimination (Δ), leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and iWUE were estimated from δ13C values. The temporal trends of BAI, Δ, Ci and iWUE, as well as in climatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration derived from CRU TS3.23 dataset) were calculated per site for the study period. Our specific objectives were (i) to test if rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and changes in climate may have induced shifts in tree growth and ecophysiological proxies; (ii) to determine whether and how changes in iWUE are related to radial growth rates; and (iii) to assess site-specific physiological adjustments to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the studied period. Preliminary results showed a generalized increase in Ci, and consequently in iWUE, at all study sites. Scots pine stands displayed a

  10. Impacts of regional climatic fluctuations on radial growth of Siberian and Scots pine at Mukhrino mire (central-western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Guillet, Sébastien; Calliari, Baptiste; Corona, Christophe; Edvardsson, Johannes; Stoffel, Markus; Bragazza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Ring width (TRW) chronologies from Siberian (Pinus sibirica) and Scots (Pinus sylvestris) pine trees were sampled at Mukhrino - a large mire complex in central-western Siberia - to evaluate the impacts of hydroclimatic variability on tree growth over the last three centuries. For this purpose, we compared climate-growth correlation profiles from trees growing on peat soils with those growing on adjacent mineral soils. Tree growth at both peat and mineral soils was positively correlated to air temperature during the vegetation period. This finding can be explained by (i) the positive influence of temperature on plant physiological processes (i.e. growth control) during the growing season and (ii) the indirect impact of air temperatures on water table fluctuations. We observe also a strong link between TRW and the winter Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), especially in Siberian pine, reflecting the isolating effect of snow and limited freezing damage in roots. Significant negative relations were, by contrast, observed between bog TRW chronologies and hydroclimatic indices during spring and summer; they are considered an expression of the negative impacts of high water levels and moist peat soils on root development. Some unusually old bog pines - exhibiting >500 growth rings - apparently colonized the site at the beginning of the Little Ice Age, and therefore seem to confirm that (i) peat conditions may have been drier in Siberia than in most other regions of western Europe during this period. At the same time, the bog trees also point to (ii) their strong dependence on surface conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  12. A comparison of the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a reclaimed oil shale post-mining area and in a Calluna site in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Mandre, Malle; Klõseiko, Jaan; Pärn, Henn

    2010-07-01

    The growth of Scots pine and its suitability for afforestation of post-mining landscapes in Northeast Estonia were assessed in comparative analytical studies by using morphological parameters and mineral nutrition characteristics. The growth and nutrient uptake of Scots pine growing on post-mining substrate were compared with the characteristics of pines of the same age (22-23 years) in a Calluna forest site type predominant in North Estonia in similar climatic zone. Results of the analyses of soil upper layers showed that the concentration of N and P in soil did not differ between the opencast spoil and Calluna site, but significantly higher pH of soil and concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were found in mine spoil. The concentrations of K and Mg in needles were significantly higher in the post-mining area, but the concentrations of N, P, and Ca did not differ significantly. Comparison of the needle nutrient concentration with the standard for optimum concentrations revealed P deficit in the post-mining area and P and K deficit in the Calluna site. Scots pine formed longer and thinner needles and shoots in the post-mining substrate than in the Calluna site. It was assumed that in the post-mining area the growth of pines is predominantly dependent on K and Ca concentrations in their tissues as the biomass of needles was strongly correlated with the K/Ca ratio, whereas the biomass in the Calluna site was correlated with the N/P ratio. The height and diameter of trees were significantly larger in the post-mining area.

  13. Soil respiration shifts as drought-induced tree substitution advances from Scots pine to Holm oak forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Josep; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Poyatos, Rafael; Janssens, Ivan A.; Lloret, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    There is more and more evidences that the current global warming trend and the increase of frequency and intensity of drought events during the last decades in the Northern hemisphere are currently producing an increment of drought-induced forest die-off events, being the Mediterranean region one of the most affected areas. This drought-induced mortality could lead in a vegetation shift with unpredicted consequences in carbon pools, where soils are the most determinant factor in this carbon balance as they contain over two-thirds of carbon on forest ecosystems. There are several uncertainties related on the interaction between soil, environmental conditions and vegetation shifts that could modify their capability to be net carbon sinks or sources in a warming context. We studied soil respiration and its heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (Ra) (split in fine roots [Rr] and mycorrhizal respiration [Rs]) components in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are suffering from drought-induced die-off and replaced by Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) as the dominant tree species. Soil respiration fluxes and its fractions were measured every two weeks during one year at four stages of the substitution process (non defoliated pines [NDP], defoliated pines [DFP], dead pines [DP] and Holm oak [HO]), using the mesh exclusion method. The aims were (i) to describe soil respiration fluxes in a drought-induced secondary successional process, (ii) to test whether the changes in vegetation affected soil respiration fluxes and (iii) to determine the influence of environmental and abiotic variables on the different soil respiration fractions. Total soil respiration was 10.10±6.17 TC ha-1 y-1, RH represented the 67% of the total, Ra represented the 34% of the total, and Rr and Rs were the 22 and 12%, respectively. Significant differences were found in total soil respiration and RH between NDP and HO, being lower in HO than in NDP (34% in total and 48% in RH). No

  14. Above-ground biomass and structure of pristine Siberian Scots pine forests as controlled by competition and fire.

    PubMed

    Wirth, C; Schulze, E-D; Schulze, W; von Stünzner-Karbe, D; Ziegler, W; Miljukova, I M; Sogatchev, A; Varlagin, A B; Panvyorov, M; Grigoriev, S; Kusnetzova, W; Siry, M; Hardes, G; Zimmermann, R; Vygodskaya, N N

    1999-10-01

    The study presents a data set of above-ground biomass (AGB), structure, spacing and fire regime, for 24 stands of pristine Siberian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests with lichens (n = 20) or Vaccinium/mosses (n = 4) as ground cover, along four chronosequences. The stands of the "lichen" site type (LT) were stratified into three chronosequences according to stand density and fire history. Allometric equations were established from 90 sample trees for stem, coarse branch, fine branch, twig and needle biomass. The LT stands exhibited a low but sustained biomass accumulation until a stand age of 383 years. AGB reached only 6-10 kgdw m(-2) after 200 years depending on stand density and fire history compared to 20 kgdw m(-2) in the "Vaccinium" type (VT) stands. Leaf area index (LAI) in the LT stands remained at 0.5-1.5 and crown cover was 30-60%, whereas LAI reached 2.5 and crown cover was >100% in the VT stands. Although nearest-neighbour analyses suggested the existence of density-dependent mortality, fire impact turned out to have a much stronger effect on density dynamics. Fire scar dating and calculation of mean and initial fire return intervals revealed that within the LT stands differences in structure and biomass were related to the severity of fire regimes, which in turn was related to the degree of landscape fragmentation by wetlands. Self-thinning analysis was used to define the local carrying capacity for biomass. A series of undisturbed LT stands was used to characterise the upper self-thinning boundary. Stands that had experienced a moderate fire regime were positioned well below the self-thinning boundary in a distinct fire-thinning band of reduced major axis regression slope -0.26. We discuss how this downward shift resulted from alternating phases of density reduction by fire and subsequent regrowth. We conclude that biomass in Siberian Scots pine forests is strongly influenced by fire and that climate change will affect ecosystem

  15. Nitrogen fertilizer factory effects on the amino acid and nitrogen content in the needles of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kupsinskiene, E

    2001-12-04

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the site at a 0.5-km distance from the factory and the site at a 17-km distance from the factory--with the site closest to the factory showing the highest concentrations of protein (119%), total arginine (166%), total other amino acids (depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 119 and 149%), free arginine (771%), other free amino acids (glutamic acid, threonine, serine, lysine--depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 162 and 234%), also the longest needles, widest diameter, largest surface area, and heaviest dry weight (respectively, 133, 110, 136, and 169%). The gradient of nitrogen concentration in the needles was assessed on the selected plots over the period of 1995-2000, with the highest concentration (depending on year, 119 to 153%) documented in the site located 0.5 km from the factory. Significant correlations were determined between the total amino acid contents (r = 0.448 -0.939, p < 0.05), some free amino acid (arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, threonine, and serine) contents (r = 0.418 - 0.975, p < 0.05), and air pollutant concentration at the sites, the distance between the sites and the factory, and characteristics of the needles. No correlation was found between free or total arginine content and defoliation or retention of the needles. In conclusion, it was revealed that elevated mean monthly concentration of ammonia (26 microg m(-3)) near the nitrogen fertilizer factory caused changes in nitrogen metabolism, especially increasing (nearly eight times

  16. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    SciTech Connect

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B. )

    1991-02-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect.

  17. The history of mercury pollution near the Spolana chlor-alkali plant (Neratovice, Czech Republic) as recorded by Scots pine tree rings and other bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šimeček, Martin; Shanley, James B; Rohovec, Jan; Hojdová, Maria; Houška, Jakub

    2017-05-15

    We assessed >100years of mercury (Hg) pollution recorded in the tree rings of Scots Pine near a Czech chlor-alkali plant operating since 1941. Hg concentrations in tree rings increased with the launching of plant operations and decreased when Hg emissions decreased in 1975 due to an upgrade in production technology. Similar to traditional bioindicators of pollution such as pine needles, bark and forest floor humus, Hg concentrations in Scots Pine boles decreased with distance from the plant. Mean Hg in pine bole in the 1940s ranged from 32.5μg/kg Hg at a distance of 0.5km from the plant to 5.4μg/kg at a distance of >4.7km, where tree ring Hg was the same as at a reference site, and other bioindicators also suggest that the effect of the plant was no longer discernible. Tree ring Hg concentrations decreased by 8-29μg/kg since the 1940s at all study sites including the reference site. The lack of exact correspondence between changes at the plant and tree ring Hg indicated some smearing of the signal due to lateral translocation of Hg from sapwood to heartwood. Bole Hg concentrations reflected local and regional atmospheric Hg concentrations, and not Hg wet deposition.

  18. Fungal succession in relation to volatile organic compounds emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce leaf litter-decomposing fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, Valery; Tyszkiewicz, Zofia; Pirożnikow, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Leaf litter fungi are partly responsible for decomposition of dead material, nutrient mobilization and gas fluxes in forest ecosystems. It can be assumed that microbial destruction of dead plant materials is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available on both the composition of fungal VOCs and their producers whose community can be changed at different stages of litter decomposition. The fungal community succession was investigated in a litter bag experiment with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle litter. The succession process can be divided into a several stages controlled mostly by changes in litter quality. At the very first stages of decomposition the needle litter was colonized by ascomycetes which can use readily available carbohydrates. At the later stages, the predominance of Trichoderma sp., the known producers of cellulolytic enzymes, was documented. To investigate the fungi-derived VOCs, eight fungi species were isolated. As a result of gas chromatographic analyses, as many as 75C2sbnd C15 fungal volatile compounds were identified. Most components detected in emissions were very reactive substances: the principal groups of VOCs were formed by monoterpenes, carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alcohols. It was found that production of VOCs by fungi is species specific: only 10 metabolites were emitted into the gas phase by all eight species. The reported data confirm that the leave litter decomposition is important source of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  19. Balancing the risks of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation: a twig scale analysis in declining Scots pine

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Ruiz, José M.; Poyatos, Rafael; Martinez‐Vilalta, Jordi; Meir, Patrick; Cochard, Hervé; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding physiological processes involved in drought‐induced mortality is important for predicting the future of forests and for modelling the carbon and water cycles. Recent research has highlighted the variable risks of carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in drought‐exposed trees. However, little is known about the specific responses of leaves and supporting twigs, despite their critical role in balancing carbon acquisition and water loss. Comparing healthy (non‐defoliated) and unhealthy (defoliated) Scots pine at the same site, we measured the physiological variables involved in regulating carbon and water resources. Defoliated trees showed different responses to summer drought compared with non‐defoliated trees. Defoliated trees maintained gas exchange while non‐defoliated trees reduced photosynthesis and transpiration during the drought period. At the branch scale, very few differences were observed in non‐structural carbohydrate concentrations between health classes. However, defoliated trees tended to have lower water potentials and smaller hydraulic safety margins. While non‐defoliated trees showed a typical response to drought for an isohydric species, the physiology appears to be driven in defoliated trees by the need to maintain carbon resources in twigs. These responses put defoliated trees at higher risk of branch hydraulic failure and help explain the interaction between carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in dying trees. PMID:25997464

  20. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Kløve, B.

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D sandy sediment profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modelling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover) and timing (thickness of the unsaturated zone) of groundwater recharge. Scots pine canopy was parameterized to leaf area index (LAI) using forestry inventory data. Uncertainty in the parameters controlling sediment hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration (ET) was carried over from the Monte Carlo runs to the final recharge estimates. Different mechanisms for lake, soil, and snow evaporation and transpiration were used in the model set-up. Finally, the model output was validated with independent recharge estimates using the water table fluctuation (WTF) method and baseflow estimation. The results indicated that LAI is important in controlling total recharge amount. Soil evaporation (SE) compensated for transpiration for areas with low LAI values, which may be significant in optimal management of forestry and recharge. Different forest management scenarios tested with the model showed differences in annual recharge of up to 100 mm. The uncertainty in recharge estimates arising from the simulation parameters was lower than the interannual variation caused by climate conditions. It proved important to take unsaturated thickness and vegetation cover into account when estimating spatially and temporally distributed recharge in sandy unconfined aquifers.

  1. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  2. Ozone uptake and effects on transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in Scots pine. [Pinus sylvestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Skaerby, L.; Troeng, E.; Bostroem, C.

    1987-09-01

    Ozone uptake, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration were studied in the field by using an open gas exchange system in a 20-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). A current shoot was treated with ozone concentrations ranging from 120 to 400 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ during one month. During daytime there was a linear relationship between ozone concentration and ozone uptake, and the deposition rate varied between 0.05 and 0.13 cm x s/sup -1/. Ozone at the highest concentrations seemed to decrease transpiration somewhat during daytime. At night, ozone was taken up only at the highest concentration. Both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased at night when ozone concentration was 250..mu..g x m/sup -3/ and higher. There was no significant influence on the net photosynthetic performance during exposure to ozone. Dark respiration, however, increased throughout the experimental period, and the accumulated respiration was about 60% higher for the ozone-exposed shoot at the end of the experiment.

  3. Carbon reserves and canopy defoliation determine the recovery of Scots pine 4 yr after a drought episode.

    PubMed

    Galiano, L; Martínez-Vilalta, J; Lloret, F

    2011-05-01

    • Severe drought may increase physiological stress on long-lived woody vegetation, occasionally leading to mortality of overstory trees. Little is known about the factors determining tree survival and subsequent recovery after drought. • We used structural equation modeling to analyse the recovery of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees 4 yr after an extreme drought episode occurred in 2004-2005 in north-east Spain. Measured variables included the amount of green foliage, carbon reserves in the stem, mistletoe (Viscum album) infection, needle physiological performance and stem radial growth before, during and after the drought event. • The amount of green leaves and the levels of carbon reserves were related to the impact of drought on radial growth, and mutually correlated. However, our most likely path model indicated that current depletion of carbon reserves was a result of reduced photosynthetic tissue. This relationship potentially constitutes a feedback limiting tree recovery. In addition, mistletoe infection reduced leaf nitrogen content, negatively affecting growth. Finally, successive surveys in 2009-2010 showed a direct association between carbon reserves depletion and drought-induced mortality. • Severe drought events may induce long-term physiological disorders associated with canopy defoliation and depletion of carbon reserves, leading to prolonged recovery of surviving individuals and, eventually, to delayed tree death. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  5. Did the ambient ozone affect stem increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on territories under regional pollution load? Step III of Lithuanian studies.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Augustaitiene, Ingrida; Cinga, Gintautas; Mazeika, Juozapas; Deltuvas, Romualdas; Juknys, Romualdas; Vitas, Adomas

    2007-03-21

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks, where since 1994-95 Integrated Monitoring Stations have been operating. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient ozone (O3) can have a negative impact on pine tree stem growth under field conditions where O3 exposure is below phytotoxic levels.

  6. Increase of apatite dissolution rate by Scots pine roots associated or not with Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp in open-system flow microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Uroz, Stéphane; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Tosheva, Zornitza; Kies, Antoine

    2013-04-01

    The release of nutritive elements through apatite dissolution represents the main source of phosphorus, calcium, and several micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Cu) for organisms in non-fertilized forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify, for the first time, the dissolution rate of apatite grains by tree roots that were or were not associated with a mineral weathering bacterial strain, and by various acids known to be produced by tree roots and soil bacterial strains in open-system flow microcosms. In addition, we explored whether the mobilization of trace elements (including rare earth elements) upon apatite dissolution was affected by the presence of trees and associated microorganisms. The dissolution rate of apatite by Scots pine plants that were or were not inoculated with the strain Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp, and by inorganic (nitric) and organic (citric, oxalic and gluconic) acids at pH 5.5, 4.8, 3.8, 3.5, 3.0, and 2.0 was monitored in two controlled experiments: "plant-bacteria interaction" and "inorganic and organic acids". Analyses of the outlet solutions in the "plant-bacteria interaction" experiment showed that Scots pine roots and B. glathei PML1(12)Rp produced protons and organic acids such as gluconate, oxalate, acetate, and lactate. The weathering budget calculation revealed that Scots pines (with or without PML1(12)Rp) significantly increased (factor > 10) the release of Ca, P, As, Sr, Zn, U, Y, and rare earth elements such as Ce, La, Nd from apatite, compared to control abiotic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed traces of apatite dissolution in contact of roots. Most dissolved elements were taken up by Scots pine roots, i.e., approximately 50% of Ca, 70% of P, 30% of As, 70% of Sr, 90% of Zn, and 100% of U, Y, and rare earth elements. Interestingly, no significant additional effect due to the bacterial strain PML1(12)Rp on apatite dissolution and Scots pine nutrition and growth was observed. The "inorganic

  7. Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-09-01

    The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO4) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO4 exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO4 exposures.

  8. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    PubMed

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  9. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  10. Glacial vicariance in Eurasia: mitochondrial DNA evidence from Scots pine for a complex heritage involving genetically distinct refugia at mid-northern latitudes and in Asia Minor

    PubMed Central

    Naydenov, Krassimir; Senneville, Sauphie; Beaulieu, Jean; Tremblay, Francine; Bousquet, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Background At the last glacial maximum, Fennoscandia was covered by an ice sheet while the tundra occupied most of the rest of northern Eurasia. More or less disjunct refugial populations of plants were dispersed in southern Europe, often trapped between mountain ranges and seas. Genetic and paleobotanical evidences indicate that these populations have contributed much to Holocene recolonization of more northern latitudes. Less supportive evidence has been found for the existence of glacial populations located closer to the ice margin. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a nordic conifer with a wide natural range covering much of Eurasia. Fractures in its extant genetic structure might be indicative of glacial vicariance and how different refugia contributed to the current distribution at the continental level. The population structure of Scots pine was investigated on much of its Eurasian natural range using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms. Results A novel polymorphic region of the Scots pine mitochondrial genome has been identified, the intron 1 of nad7, with three variants caused by insertions-deletions. From 986 trees distributed among 54 populations, four distinct multi-locus mitochondrial haplotypes (mitotypes) were detected based on the three nad7 intron 1 haplotypes and two previously reported size variants for nad1 intron B/C. Population differentiation was high (GST = 0.657) and the distribution of the mitotypes was geographically highly structured, suggesting at least four genetically distinct ancestral lineages. A cosmopolitan lineage was widely distributed in much of Europe throughout eastern Asia. A previously reported lineage limited to the Iberian Peninsula was confirmed. A new geographically restricted lineage was found confined to Asia Minor. A new lineage was restricted to more northern latitudes in northeastern Europe and the Baltic region. Conclusion The contribution of the various ancestral lineages to the current

  11. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  12. Climate-diameter growth relationships of black spruce and jack pine trees in boreal Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nirmal; Sharma, Mahadev

    2013-02-01

    To predict the long-term effects of climate change - global warming and changes in precipitation - on the diameter (radial) growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) trees in boreal Ontario, we modified an existing diameter growth model to include climate variables. Diameter chronologies of 927 jack pine and 1173 black spruce trees, growing in the area from 47°N to 50°N and 80°W to 92°W, were used to develop diameter growth models in a nonlinear mixed-effects approach. Our results showed that the variables long-term average of mean growing season temperature, precipitation during wettest quarter, and total precipitation during growing season were significant (alpha = 0.05) in explaining variation in diameter growth of the sample trees. Model results indicated that higher temperatures during the growing season would increase the diameter growth of jack pine trees, but decrease that of black spruce trees. More precipitation during the wettest quarter would favor the diameter growth of both species. On the other hand, a wetter growing season, which may decrease radiation inputs, increase nutrient leaching, and reduce the decomposition rate, would reduce the diameter growth of both species. Moreover, our results indicated that future (2041-2070) diameter growth rate may differ from current (1971-2000) growth rates for both species, with conditions being more favorable for jack pine than black spruce trees. Expected future changes in the growth rate of boreal trees need to be considered in forest management decisions. We recommend that knowledge of climate-growth relationships, as represented by models, be combined with learning from adaptive management to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with forest management decisions.

  13. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens).

    PubMed

    Sterck, Frank J; Zweifel, Roman; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Chowdhury, Qumruzzaman

    2008-04-01

    Leaf specific conductivity (LSC; the ratio of stem conductivity (K(P)) to leaf area (A(L))), a measure of the hydraulic capacity of the stem to supply leaves with water, varies with soil water content. Empirical evidence for LSC responses to drought is ambiguous, because previously published results were subject to many confounding factors. We tested how LSC of similar-sized trees of the same population, under similar climatic conditions, responds to persistently wet or dry soil. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) trees were compared between a dry site and a wet site in the Valais, an inner alpine valley in Switzerland. Soil water strongly influenced A(L) and K(P) and the plant components affecting K(P), such as conduit radius, conduit density and functional sapwood area. Trees at the dry site had lower LSC than trees with the same stem diameter at the wet site. Low LSC in trees at the dry site was associated with a smaller functional sapwood area and narrower conduits, resulting in a stronger reduction in K(P) than in A(L). These observations support the hypothesis that trees maintain a homeostatic water pressure gradient. An alternative hypothesis is that relatively high investments in leaves compared with sapwood contribute to carbon gain over an entire season by enabling rapid whole-plant photosynthesis during periods of high water availability (e.g., in spring, after rain events and during morning hours when leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit is small). Dynamic data and a hydraulic plant growth model are needed to test how investments in leaves versus sapwood and roots contribute to transpiration and to maximizing carbon gain throughout entire growth seasons.

  14. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Kløve, B.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D soil profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modeling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover) and timing (depth of the unsaturated zone) of groundwater recharge. Scots pine canopy was parameterized to leaf area index (LAI) using forestry inventory data. Uncertainty in the parameters controlling soil hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration was carried over from the Monte Carlo runs to the final recharge estimates. Different mechanisms for lake, soil, and snow evaporation and transpiration were used in the model set-up. Finally, the model output was validated with independent recharge estimates using the water table fluctuation method and baseflow estimation. The results indicated that LAI is important in controlling total recharge amount, and the modeling approach successfully reduced model uncertainty by allocating the LAI parameter spatially in the model. Soil evaporation compensated for transpiration for areas with low LAI values, which may be significant in optimal management of forestry and recharge. Different forest management scenarios tested with the model showed differences in annual recharge of up to 100 mm. The uncertainty in recharge estimates arising from the simulation parameters was lower than the interannual variation caused by climate conditions. It proved important to take unsaturated depth and vegetation cover into account when estimating spatially and temporally distributed recharge in sandy unconfined aquifers.

  15. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting stemflow variability in downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Although stemflow is only a small portion of rainfall, it may represent an important local input of water and nutrients at the plant stem. Previous studies have shown that stemflow has a significant influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Stemflow volume is affected by many biotic factors as species, age, branch or bark characteristics. Moreover, the seasonality of the rainfall regime in Mediterranean areas, which includes both frontal rainfall events and short convective storms, can add complexity to the rainfall-stemflow relationship. This work investigates stemflow dynamics and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on stemflow rates in two Mediterranean stands during the leafed period - from May to October. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). The monitoring design of each plot consists of 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets, bulk rainfall measured in a nearby clearing and meteorological conditions above the canopies. All data were recorded at 5 min interval. Biometric characteristics of the measured trees were also measured. The analysis of 39 rainfall events (65% smaller than 10 mm) shows that stemflow accounted for less than 1% of the bulk rainfall in both stands. Results also show that, on average, the rainfall amount required for the start of the stemflow and the time delay between the beginning of the precipitation and the start of stemflow are higher in the Downy oak forest. As suggested by stemflow funneling ratios, these differences might be linked to the canopy structure and bark water storage capacity of the trees, indicating that during low magnitude events, oaks have more difficulty to reach storage capacity. The role of other biotic and abiotic parameters on stemflow variability in both stands is still under investigation.

  16. Growth, respiration and nitrogen content in needles of Scots pine exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in the field.

    PubMed

    Kellomäki, S; Wang, K Y

    1998-01-01

    Single Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, aged 30 years, were grown in open-top chambers and exposed to two atmospheric concentrations of ozone (O3; ambient and elevation) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as single variables or in combination for 3 years (1994-1996). Needle growth, respiration and nitrogen content were measured simultaneously over the period of needle expansion. Compared to ambient treatment (33 nmol mol(-1) O3 and 350 micromol mol(-1) CO2) doubled ambient O3 (69 nmol mol(-1)) significantly reduced the specific growth rates (SGRs) of the needles in the early stage of needle expansion and needle nitrogen concentration (N1) in the late stage, but increased apparent respiration rates (ARRs) in the late stage. Doubled ambient CO2 (about 650 micromol mol(-1)) significantly increased maximum SGR but reduced ARR and N1 in the late stage of needle expansion. The changes in ARR induced by the different treatments may be associated with treatment-induced changes in needle growth, metabolic activities and turnover of nitrogenous compounds. When ARR was partitioned into its two functional components, growth and maintenance respiration, the results showed that neither doubled ambient O3 nor doubled ambient CO2 influenced the growth respiration coefficients (Rg). However, doubled ambient O3 significantly increased the maintenance respiration coefficients (Rm) regardless of the needle development stage, while doubled ambient CO2 significantly reduced Rm only in the late stage of needle expansion. The increase in Rm under doubled ambient O3 conditions appeared to be related to an increase in metabolic activities, whereas the decrease in Rm under doubled ambient CO2 conditions may be attributed to the reduced N1 and turnover rate of nitrogenous compounds per unit. The combination of elevated O3 and CO2 had very similar effects on growth, respiration and N1 to doubled ambient O3 alone, but the interactive mechanism of the two gases is still not clear.

  17. Response of soil organic layer characteristics to different amounts of logging residue in a Scots pine thinning stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Tamminen, Pekka; Kukkola, Mikko

    2010-05-01

    Since there is an increasing demand for production of bioenergy, forest management using logging residue from both clear-cutting and thinning stands is becoming more common. Therefore there is a need of information how this whole-tree harvest, as compared to the traditional stem-only harvest, changes forest soil characteristics in long-term. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of logging residue removal on soil microbial processes related to C and N cycling and on two major groups of plant secondary compounds, phenolic compounds and terpenes. These two groups of compounds were of interest since logging residue contains the highest proportion of most of these compounds. In addition, certain phenolic compounds and terpenes have been shown to regulate N transformations in forests soils. The study site was a young Scots pine stand in central Finland. It was thinned and four different amounts of logging residue, consisting of needles and tree branches, were distributed around a tree: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of fresh logging residue on a circle (diameter 2.5 m) around a tree. Samples were taken from the organic layer (F+H) four years after the treatment. Two highest amounts of logging residue increased both C and net N mineralization and glucose-induced respiration, but the amount of logging residue did not affect microbial biomass C or N. There were not any large differences between the treatments in the concentrations of mono, sesqui-, di- or triterpenes, although some terpenes showed an increase with the highest amount of residues. Amount of logging residue did not clearly affect the concentrations of volatile monoterpenes in soil atmosphere.

  18. Regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition drive variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with native Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, S; Woodward, S; Alexander, I J; Taylor, A F S

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi commonly associate with the roots of forest trees where they enhance nutrient and water uptake, promote seedling establishment and have an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Predicting the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental change is an important step to maintaining forest productivity in the future. These predictions are currently limited by an incomplete understanding of the relative significance of environmental drivers in determining the community composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi at large spatial scales. To identify patterns of community composition in ECM fungi along regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition in Scotland, fungal communities were analysed from 15 seminatural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests. Fungal taxa were identified by sequencing of the ITS rDNA region using fungal-specific primers. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to assess the significance of 16 climatic, pollutant and edaphic variables on community composition. Vector fitting showed that there was a strong influence of rainfall and soil moisture on community composition at the species level, and a smaller impact of temperature on the abundance of ectomycorrhizal exploration types. Nitrogen deposition was also found to be important in determining community composition, but only when the forest experiencing the highest deposition (9.8 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) was included in the analysis. This finding supports previously published critical load estimates for ectomycorrhizal fungi of 5-10 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This work demonstrates that both climate and nitrogen deposition can drive gradients of fungal community composition at a regional scale.

  19. Purification and Characterization of NADP+-Linked Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Scots Pine1

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Jesús; Gallardo, Fernando; Suárez, Maria F.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    1998-01-01

    NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-IDH; EC 1.1.1.42) is involved in the supply of 2-oxoglutarate for ammonia assimilation and glutamate synthesis in higher plants through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle. Only one NADP+-IDH form of cytosolic localization was detected in green cotyledons of pine (Pinus spp.) seedlings. The pine enzyme was purified and exhibited molecular and kinetic properties similar to those described for NADP+-IDH from angiosperm, with a higher catalytic efficiency (105 m−1 s−1) than the deduced efficiencies for GS and GOGAT in higher plants. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against pine NADP+-IDH and used to assess protein expression in the seedlings. Steady-state levels of NADP+-IDH were coordinated with GS during seed germination and were associated with GS/GOGAT enzymes during chloroplast biogenesis, suggesting that NADP+-IDH is involved in the provision of carbon skeletons for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules. However, a noncoordinated pattern of NADP+-IDH and GS/GOGAT was observed in advanced stages of cotyledon development and in the hypocotyl. A detailed analysis in hypocotyl sections revealed that NADP+-IDH abundance was inversely correlated with the presence of GS, GOGAT, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase but was associated with the differentiation of the organ. These results cannot be explained by the accepted role of the enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and strongly suggest that NADP+-IDH may have other, as-yet-unknown, biological functions. PMID:9765548

  20. Processes, dynamics and modelling of radiocaesium cycling in a chronosequence of Chernobyl-contaminated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations.

    PubMed

    Goor, François; Thiry, Yves

    2004-06-05

    In a large forested area affected by the Chernobyl radioactive fallout, especially in CIS, the lasting recycling of radiocaesium (137Cs) by the trees is a source of long-term contamination of woody products. The quantitative description of the 137Cs dynamics in contaminated forest is a prerequisite to predictive modelling and further management of such territories. Three even-aged mono-specific Scots pine stands (17, 37 and 57 years old) were selected in a contaminated woodland in southeastern Belarus to constitute an adequate chronosequence. We determined the potassium and radiocaesium annual fluxes involved in the biological cycling in each stand using a well-documented calculation methodology. Qualitatively, 137Cs was shown to be rapidly recycled in trees through the same pathways as K and to redistribute similarly between the tree components. Compared to K, a higher fraction of 137Cs, corresponding to about the half of the annual uptake, is immobilised in perennial organs. With tree development, trunk wood and bark become prevailing sinks for 137Cs since they represent an increasing pool of biomass. In the pine chronosequence, the current root absorption, respectively, mobilizes 0.53, 0.32 and 0.31% year(-1) of the total 137Cs pool in soil. Variations in the 137Cs uptake do not reflect differences in the 137Cs balance between stands. In the two older stands, 51 and 71% of the current tree contamination are related to earlier accumulation subsequent to the initial fallout interception and recycling. The soil is the dominant source of long-term tree contamination. A simple modelling based on the measured 137Cs fluxes indicates that, for young stands, radioactive decay-corrected contamination would stabilize after reaching a maximum of 25 years after the 137Cs deposition. Stemwood presents a maximum of 15 years after the deposition and decrease afterwards mainly through radioactive decay. In the older stands, the decontamination is constant without local maximum

  1. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p < 0.05) or with the increasing concentration of SO2 (r = -0.573; p < 0.05); for 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the bark (r = -0.534; p < 0.05). Along the OR transect, in both the current-year and 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing SO2 (respectively, r = -0.773; p < 0.01; r = -0.486; p < 0.05); an opposite relation was true for sesquiterpenes (respectively, r = -0.751; p < 0.01; r = 0.785; p < 0.01). The view was different along the NFF transect. For current-year needles, the percentage of monoterpenes was decreasing with the increasing NH3 (r = -0.669; p < 0.01); while the percentage of sesquiterpenes or oxysesquiterpenes was increasing with the increasing NH3 (respectively, r = 0.540; p < 0.05 and r = 0.688; p < 0.01). For each transect, cluster analysis of the percentages of components of essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Eastern and Northern Europe: Spatiotemporal patterns, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles were sampled to determine levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles at industrial, urban and background sites in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). Spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were investigated and principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine spatial patterns, potential sources and transport of PCDD/Fs. Levels of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were generally greatest near to industrial sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (lower bound (LB)): 6 ng kg(-1) - 190 ng kg(-1)) compared to urban and background sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (LB): 0.90 ng kg(-1) - 20 ng kg(-1)). Using metal contamination in pine needles helped to detect spatial patterns and separate local thermal sources of PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ(13) C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ(13) C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ(13) C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Abundances of red fox and pine marten in relation to the composition of boreal forest landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kurki, S; Nikula, A; Helle, P; Lindén, H

    1998-11-01

    The effects of human-caused fragmentation of boreal forest on the abundance of red fox Vulpes vulpes L. and pine marten Martes martes L. were studied by combining the Finnish wildlife-triangle snow-track data (1990-94) with land-use and forest resources data employing the GIS. Two study areas (each 45 000 km(2) ) located in northern and southern Finland were selected for the investigation. The extent of landscape that best explained predator abundance (tracks per 10 km 24 h(-1) ) was the same (about 100 km(2) ) in both species and study areas. The decreasing proportion of older forest and the increasing proportions of young forest and agricultural land in the landscape positively affected track density of red fox. The relationship between agricultural land and fox abundance, however, was characterized by a convex curve peaking at 20-30% of agricultural land. With the habitat classification used, landscape composition explained 26% and 11% of the spatial variation in fox abundance in the northern and southern study area, respectively. The relationship between landscape composition and pine marten abundance was not as clear as in that of red fox. Landscape composition explained 10% and 6% of spatial variation in pine marten abundance in the northern and southern study area, respectively. In both areas a positive impact occurred with the increasing proposition of young forest in the landscape, but in the northern area the negative effect of increasing proportion of agricultural land was dominant. The abundances of red fox and pine marten were not negatively correlated, indicating that competition or intraguild predation by red fox do not determine abundance of pine marten on a landscape scale. A general increase in predation pressure by generalist predators in fragmented forest landscapes has been an intensively discussed conservation problem during recent years. We conclude that the red fox is a species potentially able to cause elevated predation pressure in boreal

  5. Fire Impact on Surface Fuels and Carbon Emissions in Scots pine Logged Sites of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zhila, S. V.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due great amounts of logging slash, which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population. Both legal and illegal logging are also increasing rapidly in many forest areas of Siberia. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on logged vs. unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region in 2009-2012 as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Dead down woody fuels are significantly less at unburned/logged area of dry southern regions compared to more humid northern regions. Fuel consumption was typically less in spring fires than during summer fires. Fire-caused carbon emissions on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration is less at logged areas compared to undisturbed forest. After fire soil respiration decreases both at logged and unlogged areas. arbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  6. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Evidence that the negative relationship between seed mass and relative growth rate is not physiological but linked to species identity: a within-family analysis of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Reich, Peter B; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Guerrero, Juan D

    2008-07-01

    Seed mass and relative growth rate (RGR) are important determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seedling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relationship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well established, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within and among maternal plant lines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). To assess the effects of seed mass and maternal origin on RGR, individual seeds from two seed crops (years 2004 and 2005) of ten maternal plants growing under nursery conditions were weighed and then germinated. Seed mass was strongly determined by maternal plant, and seedling mass was largely determined by seed mass, with a positive correlation between these variables both across and within maternal plants. In contrast, RGR was weakly related to seed mass, with no consistent pattern in the sign of the relationship. It is well known that species differ in RGR and that RGR is related to seed mass across species. Lack of consistent evidence for this relationship within maternal lines, and for Scots pine overall, suggests that the relationship is not directly causal, but reflects consistent evolutionary covariation in these two physiologically independent traits.

  8. Effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on mating success in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Torimaru, T; Wennström, U; Lindgren, D; Wang, X-R

    2012-03-01

    Quantifying the effect of pollen dispersal and flowering traits on mating success is essential for understanding evolutionary responses to changing environments and establishing strategies for forest tree breeding. This study examined, quantitatively, the effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on the mating success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), utilizing a well-mapped Scots pine seed orchard. Paternity analysis of 1021 seeds sampled from 87 trees representing 28 clones showed that 53% of the seeds had at least one potential pollen parent within the orchard. Pronounced variation in paternal contribution was observed among clones. Variations in pollen production explained up to 78% of the variation in mating success, which was 11.2 times greater for clones producing the largest amount of pollen than for clones producing the least pollen. Mating success also varied with intertree distance and direction, which explained up to 28% of the variance. Fertilization between neighboring trees 2.3 m apart was 2.4 times more frequent than between trees 4.6 m apart, and up to 12.4 times higher for trees downwind of the presumed prevailing wind direction than for upwind trees. The effective number of pollen donors recorded in the seed orchard (12.2) was smaller than the theoretical expectation (19.7). Based on the empirical observations, a mating model that best describes the gene dispersal pattern in clonal seed orchards was constructed.

  9. The HartX-synthesis: An experimental approach to water and carbon exchange of a Scots pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhofer, Ch.; Gay, L. W.; Granier, A.; Joss, U.; Kessler, A.; Köstner, B.; Siegwolf, R.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Vogt, R.

    1996-03-01

    In May 1992 during the interdisciplinary measurement campaign HartX (Hartheim eXperiment), several independent estimates of stand water vapor flux were compared at a 12-m high Scots pine ( Pinus silvestris) plantation on a flat fluvial terrace of the Rhine close to Freiburg, Germany. Weather during the HartX period was characterized by ten consecutive clear days with exceptionally high input of available energy for this time of year and with a slowly shifting diurnal pattern in atmospheric variables like vapor pressure deficit. Methods utilized to quantify components of stand water flux included porometry measurements on understory graminoid leaves and on pine needles and three different techniques for determining individual tree xylem sap flow. Micrometeorological methods included eddy covariance and eddy covariance energy balance techniques with six independent systems on two towers separated by 40 m. Additionally, Bowen ratio energy balance estimates of water flux were conducted and measurements of the gradients in water vapor, CO2, and trace gases within and above the stand were carried out with an additional, portable 30 m high telescoping mast. Biologically-based estimates of overstory transpiration were obtained by up-scaling tree sap flow rates to stand level via cumulative sapwood area. Tree transpiration contributed between 2.2 and 2.6 mm/day to ET for a tree leaf area index (LAI) of 2.8. The pine stand had an understory dominated by sedge and grass species with overall average LAI of 1.5. Mechanistic canopy gas exchange models that quantify both water vapor and CO2 exchange were applied to both understory and tree needle ecosystem compartments. Thus, the transpiration by graminoid species was estimated at approximately 20% of total stand ET. The modelled estimates for understory contribution to stand water flux compared well with micrometeorologically-based determinations. Maximum carbon gain was estimated from the canopy models at approximately 425 mmol

  10. Influence of Climatic Type of Year on Beech and Scots Pine Eustress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Chikalanov, Alexandre; van Bodegom, Peter; Kattge, Jens; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The present study deals with the relationships of climate types and the periods with low radial stem growth of black pine and beech locations in Europe. The identification of climatic types (CT) and eustress caused CT, their relative participation in the period of 1901-2009 by locations, the manifestation of main adverse type, led periodically to reduction of tree ring width, as well as the comparison of obtained types by precipitations and the SPI classes were the subjects of investigation. The analyses demonstrated that despite the local differences, the stress impact of dry and wet years, especially if they are accompanied by the cold or hot regimes, is well expressed. The successive changes of climate types at least two years before the eustress year are also relevant. The application of climatic types to study the relationship with trees eustress is more applicable when there are no large deviations in temperatures or precipitations by years and locations. The demonstrated holistic analyses are applicable for the forest areas monitoring and management. Key words Pinus sylvestris L., Fagus sylvatica L., climatic type, SPI, eustress, SPPAM application, SPI

  11. Evolutionary aspects of functional and pseudogene members of the phytochrome gene family in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    García-Gil, Maria Rosario

    2008-08-01

    According to the neutral theory of evolution, mutation and genetic drift are the only forces that shape unconstrained, neutral, gene evolution. Thus, pseudogenes (which often evolve neutrally) provide opportunities to obtain direct estimates of mutation rates that are not biased by selection, and gene families comprising functional and pseudogene members provide useful material for both estimating neutral mutation rates and identifying sites that appear to be under positive or negative selection pressures. Conifers could be very useful for such analyses since they have large and complex genomes. There is evidence that pseudogenes make significant contributions to the size and complexity of gene families in pines, although few studies have examined the composition and evolution of gene families in conifers. In this work, I examine the complexity and rates of mutation of the phytochrome gene family in Pinus sylvestris and show that it includes not only functional genes but also pseudogenes. As expected, the functional PHYO does not appear to have evolved neutrally, while phytochrome pseudogenes show signs of unconstrained evolution.

  12. Influence of wind-induced air pressure fluctuations on topsoil gas concentrations within a Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Manuel; Laemmel, Thomas; Maier, Martin; Schindler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Commonly it is assumed that soil gas transport is dominated by molecular diffusion. Few recent studies indicate that the atmosphere above the soil triggers non-diffusive gas transport processes in the soil, which can enhance soil gas transport and therefore soil gas efflux significantly. During high wind speed conditions, the so called pressure pumping effect has been observed: the enhancement of soil gas transport through dynamic changes in the air pressure field above the soil. However, the amplitudes and frequencies of the air pressure fluctuations responsible for pressure pumping are still uncertain. Moreover, an in situ observation of the pressure pumping effect is still missing. To investigate the pressure pumping effect, airflow measurements above and below the canopy of a Scots pine forest and high-precision relative air pressure measurements were conducted in the below-canopy space and in the soil over a measurement period of 16 weeks. To monitor the soil gas transport, a newly developed gas measurement system was used. The gas measurement system continuously injects helium as a tracer gas into the soil until a diffusive steady state is reached. With the steady state concentration profile of the tracer gas, it is possible to inversely model the gas diffusion coefficient profile of the soil. If the gas diffusion coefficient profile differed from steady state, we deduced that the soil gas transport is not only diffusive, but also influenced by non-diffusive processes. Results show that the occurrence of small air pressure fluctuations is strongly dependent on the mean above-canopy wind speed. The wind-induced air pressure fluctuations have mean amplitudes up to 10 Pa and lie in the frequency range 0.01-0.1 Hz. To describe the pumping motion of the air pressure field, the pressure pumping coefficient (PPC) was defined as the mean change in pressure per second. The PPC shows a clear quadratic dependence on mean above-canopy wind speed. Empirical modelling of

  13. The Intracellular Scots Pine Shoot Symbiont Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 Aggregates around the Host Nucleus and Encodes Eukaryote-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne J.; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Halonen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endophytes are microbes that inhabit plant tissues without any apparent signs of infection, often fundamentally altering plant phenotypes. While endophytes are typically studied in plant roots, where they colonize the apoplast or dead cells, Methylobacterium extorquens strain DSM13060 is a facultatively intracellular symbiont of the meristematic cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot tips. The bacterium promotes host growth and development without the production of known plant growth-stimulating factors. Our objective was to examine intracellular colonization by M. extorquens DSM13060 of Scots pine and sequence its genome to identify novel molecular mechanisms potentially involved in intracellular colonization and plant growth promotion. Reporter construct analysis of known growth promotion genes demonstrated that these were only weakly active inside the plant or not expressed at all. We found that bacterial cells accumulate near the nucleus in intact, living pine cells, pointing to host nuclear processes as the target of the symbiont’s activity. Genome analysis identified a set of eukaryote-like functions that are common as effectors in intracellular bacterial pathogens, supporting the notion of intracellular bacterial activity. These include ankyrin repeats, transcription factors, and host-defense silencing functions and may be secreted by a recently imported type IV secretion system. Potential factors involved in host growth include three copies of phospholipase A2, an enzyme that is rare in bacteria but implicated in a range of plant cellular processes, and proteins putatively involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. Our results describe a novel endophytic niche and create a foundation for postgenomic studies of a symbiosis with potential applications in forestry and agriculture. PMID:25805725

  14. [Changes in phenolic acids during maturation and lignification of Scots pine xylem].

    PubMed

    Antonova, G F; Varaksina, T N; Zheleznichenko, T V; Stasova, V V

    2012-01-01

    The content and fractional composition of alcohol soluble phenolic acids (PhA) in cells with different degree maturation and lignification in the course of early and late timber formation in the pine (Pinus sylvestris) during vegetation were studied. Phenolic compounds (PhC), extracted by 80% ethanol, were divided into free and bound fractions of PhA. In turn, the esters and ethers were isolated from bound PhA. The contents of all substances were calculated per dry weight and per cell. Considerable differences have been found to exist in both the contents and the composition of the fractions PhA on successive stages oftracheid maturation of early and late xylem. Early timber tracheids at all secondary wall thickening steps contained PhC less and free PhA more than late timber tracheids. Throughout early timber tracheid maturation, the pool of free PhA per cell declined at the beginning oflignification and then increased gradually while that of bound PhA decreased. The maturation of late timber trecheids were accompanied by the rise of free PhA pool and the diminution of bound PhA pool. In the composition of bound PhA, the ethers were always dominant, and the amount of that in early timber cells was less than in late timber cells. The cells of early xylem at all steps of maturation contained more of ester. The sum total of free hydroxycinnamic acids, precursors of monolignols, gradually decreased during early xylem lignification as the result of the reduction of the pools of p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and synapic acids, while that of their ester rised. In the course of late xylem lignification, the pools of free p-coumaric, ferulic and, especially, synapic acids increased. Simultaneously, the amount of ferulic acid ester and synapic acid ether increased too. According to the data, lignin biosynthesis in early xylem and late xylem occurs with different dynamics and the structure of lignins of two xylem types might be different too.

  15. AmeriFlux CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover

    DOE Data Explorer

    Margolis, Hank A. [Université Laval

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover. Site Description - The ground is gently rolling with a weak slope (<5%). In mesic areas (designated as well to moderately well drained areas, according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey, 1983)), the soil is a ferro-humic to humic podzol covered by an organic layer having an average depth of 26 cm (Fig. 1). In humid areas, the soil is organic (imperfectly to poorly drained) with an average organic layer of 125 cm. Mesic areas accounted for approximately 75% of the total surface area of the footprint and humid areas accounted for 25%. Full-time continuous measurements eneded in 2011. Intermittent measurements are on-going as resources permit.

  16. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  17. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on needle growth, respiration and carbohydrate status in field-grown Scots pines during the needle expansion period.

    PubMed

    Zha, T; Ryyppö, A; Wang, K Y; Kellomäki, S

    2001-11-01

    We determined effects of long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature on growth, respiration and carbohydrate concentration in needles of field-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees during the needle expansion period. Sixteen 20-year-old Scots pine trees were individually enclosed in closed-top, environmentally controlled chambers for 4 years in one of four environments: ambient conditions (CON); elevated [CO2] (EC); elevated temperature (ET); and a combination of both (EC + ET). Needle growth, carbohydrate concentration and dark respiration were measured at 3-day intervals throughout the needle expansion period. Dark respiration was partitioned into growth and maintenance components by regressing specific respiration rate against specific growth rate. In all treatments, growth, carbohydrate concentration and daily dark respiration rates of needles followed a similar seasonal pattern throughout the needle expansion period. Treatments EC, ET and EC + ET increased individual needle area and dry weight compared with the CON treatment. Carbohydrate concentrations in needles were increased by EC, but reduced by ET and EC + ET. Daily respiration rates increased slightly in the early stage of needle expansion and decreased gradually in the late stage when needles were exposed to EC, but increased consistently throughout the growing period when needles were exposed to ET or EC + ET. Partitioning of respiration into its two functional components showed that the growth respiration coefficient was unaffected by the treatments, whereas maintenance respiration was reduced by EC but increased by ET and EC + ET. Maintenance respiration was more sensitive to elevated temperature than growth respiration. We conclude that the difference in respiration rates between expanding and expanded needles should be taken into account when estimating the respiratory responses of needles to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

  18. The role of below-ground competition during early stages of secondary succession: the case of 3-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in an abandoned grassland.

    PubMed

    Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Coll, Lluis; Balandier, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    In abandoned or extensively managed grasslands, the mechanisms involved in pioneer tree species success are not fully explained. Resource competition among plants and microclimate modifications have been emphasised as possible mechanisms to explain variation of survivorship and growth. In this study, we evaluated a number of mechanisms that may lead to successful survival and growth of seedlings of a pioneer tree species (Pinus sylvestris) in a grass-dominated grassland. Three-year-old Scots pines were planted in an extensively managed grassland of the French Massif Central and for 2 years were either maintained in bare soil or subjected to aerial and below-ground interactions induced by grass vegetation. Soil temperatures were slightly higher in bare soil than under the grass vegetation, but not to an extent explaining pine growth differences. The tall grass canopy reduced light transmission by 77% at ground level and by 20% in the upper part of Scots pine seedlings. Grass vegetation presence also significantly decreased soil volumetric water content (Hv) and soil nitrate in spring and in summer. In these conditions, the average tree height was reduced by 5% compared to trees grown in bare soil, and plant biomass was reduced by 85%. Scots pine intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g), measured by leaf gas-exchange, increased when Hv decreased owing to a rapid decline of stomatal conductance (g). This result was also confirmed by delta 13C analyses of needles. A summer 15N labelling of seedlings and grass vegetation confirmed the higher NO3 capture capacity of grass vegetation in comparison with Scots pine seedlings. Our results provide evidence that the seedlings' success was linked to tolerance of below-ground resource depletion (particularly water) induced by grass vegetation based on morphological and physiological plasticity as well as to resource conservation.

  19. Snow ablation modeling at the stand scale in a boreal jack pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. P.; Davis, R. E.; Jordan, R.; Li, X.; Woodcock, C.; Ni, W.; McKenzie, J. C.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology and the remote sensing signatures of the boreal ecosystem. This study is part of the Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) of central Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba. Forested environments provide unique problems for snow cover process modeling due to the complex interactions among snow, energy transfer, and trees. These problems are approached by coupling a modified snow process model with a model of radiative interactions with forest canopies. Additionally, a tree well model describes the influence of individual trees on snow distribution on the ground. The snow process and energy budget model calculates energy exchange at the snow surface, in-pack snow processes, melting and liquid water flow, heat conduction, and vapor diffusion. The surface radiation model provides input on the radiation receipt at the snow surface for model runs in the jack pine forest. Field data consisted of measured meteorological parameters above and within the canopy, spatial variability of snow properties, and variations of incoming solar irradiance beneath the forest canopy. Results show that the area beneath tree canopies accumulated 60% of the snow accumulated in forest openings. Peak solar irradiance on the snow cover was less than one half that measured above the canopy. Model runs are compared between the open and the forested sites and show the open area ablating four days before areas beneath the canopy and eight days before forest openings and compare favorably with measured data. Physically based modeling of snow ablation was successful at the forested site and nearby open area.

  20. The radial increment and stemwood element concentrations of Scots pine in the area influenced by the Narva power plants in Northeast Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ots, Katri; Reisner, Vaike

    2007-07-01

    In the northeastern part of Estonia, near the town of Narva, there are two large oil shale fueled power plants, Baltic PP and Estonian PP. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are fly ash, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides. The radial increment was measured and concentrations of Ca and Cu were estimated in the stemwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from four sites in the influence area of the Narva power plants. Increment cores were taken also from two sites in an unpolluted area located 112 and 120 km northwest from the Estonian PP. The stands selected for investigation were similar as to their edaphic conditions and forest survey indicators (75- to 80-year-old (Oxalis-) Myrtillus-type pine stands of 0.7-0.8 density and of quality class II). The strongest effect of air pollution on radial increment was observed on the sampling site in the direction of dominating winds at a distance of 22 km to northeast from the Estonian PP. Using the annual rings, the core samples were divided into five-year sections (1945-1949; 1950-1954 etc.). The concentration of Ca increased and that of Cu decreased from the youngest, outermost annual rings towards the centre of the stem. High concentrations of Ca and Cu in stemwood in 1970-1974 may be due to the launching of the Estonian PP in 1969 in addition to the Baltic PP, which has operated since 1959.

  1. Acetone and monoterpene emissions from the boreal forest in northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Robert; de Serves, Claes

    Acetone is a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere which, by its photolysis, can play an important role in photochemical reactions in the free troposphere. This paper investigates the biogenic source of acetone from Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce ( Picea abies) in the Scandinavian boreal zone. Branch emission measurements of acetone, monoterpenes, and isoprene were made with an all-Teflon flow-through branch chamber from five specimens of Scots pine at three sites in Sweden and Finland, and from one specimen of Norway spruce at one site in Sweden. Acetone samples were taken with SepPak™ DNPH cartridges, monoterpenes with Tenax TA, and isoprene with 3 l electropolished canisters. Acetone was found to dominate the carbonyl emission of both Scots pine and Norway spruce, as large as the monoterpene emissions and for Norway spruce, as the isoprene emission. The average standard emission rate (30°C) and average β-coefficient for the temperature correlation for 5 specimens of Scots pine were 870 ng C gdw -1 h -1 (gdw=gram dry weight) and 0.12, respectively. For the monoterpenes the values were 900 ng C gdw -1 h -1 and 0.12, respectively. The standard emission rate (30°C) for acetone from Norway spruce was 265 ng C gdw -1 h -1, but the sparsity of data, along with the unusual weather conditions at the time of the measurements, precludes the establishment of a summertime best estimate emission factor.

  2. Long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has no significant effects on growth or secondary compounds of outdoor-grown Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Turtola, Satu; Sallas, Leena; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kainulainen, Pirjo

    2006-11-01

    The effects of long-term enhanced UV-B radiation on growth and secondary compounds of two conifer species were studied in an outdoor experiment. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings were exposed for two growing seasons and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings for three growing seasons to supplemental UV-B radiation, corresponding to a 30% increase in ambient UV-B radiation. The experiment also included appropriate controls for ambient and increased UV-A radiation. Enhanced UV-B did not affect the growth of the conifer seedlings. In addition, neither the concentrations of terpenes and phenolics in the needles nor the concentrations of terpenes in the wood were affected. However, in the UV-A control treatment the concentrations of diterpenes in the wood of Scots pine decreased significantly compared to the ambient control. Apparently, a small increase in UV-B radiation has no significant effects on the secondary compounds and growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings.

  3. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    PubMed Central

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1–3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013–2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration. PMID:24982664

  4. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    PubMed

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  5. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  7. Soil surface CO2 flux increases with successional time in a fire scar chronosequence of Canadian boreal jack pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. R.; Kaduk, J. D.; Balzter, H.; Wooster, M. J.; Mottram, G. N.; Hartley, G.; Lynham, T. J.; Studens, J.; Curry, J.; Stocks, B. J.

    2010-05-01

    To fully understand the carbon (C) cycle impacts of forest fires, both C emissions during the fire and post-disturbance fluxes need to be considered. The latter are dominated by soil surface CO2 flux (Fs), which is still subject to large uncertainties. Fire is generally regarded as the most important factor influencing succession in the boreal forest biome and fire dependant species such as jack pine are widespread. In May 2007, we took concurrent Fs and soil temperature (Ts) measurements in boreal jack pine fire scars aged between 0 and 59 years since fire. To allow comparisons between scars, we adjusted Fs for Ts (FsT) using a Q10 of 2. Mean FsT ranged from 0.56 (± 0.30 sd) to 1.94 (± 0.74 sd) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Our results indicate a difference in mean FsT between recently burned (4 to 8 days post fire) and non-burned mature (59 years since fire) forest (P < 0.001), though no difference was detected between recently burned (4 to 8 days post fire) and non-burned young (16 years since fire) forest (P = 0.785). There was a difference in mean FsT between previously young (16 years since fire) and intermediate aged (32 years since fire) scars that were both subject to fire in 2007 (P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in mean FsT between mature (59 years since fire) and intermediate aged (32 years since fire) scars that were both subjected to fire in 2007 (P = 0.226). Furthermore, there was no difference in mean FsT between mature (59 years since fire) and young scars (16 years since fire) that were both subjected to fire in 2007 (P = 0.186). There was an increase in FsT with time since fire for the chronosequence 0, 16 and 59 years post fire (P < 0.001). Our results lead us to hypothesise that the autotrophic:heterotrophic soil respiration ratio increases over post-fire successional time in boreal jack pine systems, though this should be explored in future research. The results of this study contribute to a better quantitative understanding of Fs in boreal

  8. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  9. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term (137)Cs and (90)Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Colle, Claude; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav; Van Hees, May; Hurtevent, Pierre; Kashparov, Valery

    2009-12-01

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more (137)Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more (90)Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the (137)Cs and 2.52% of the (90)Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the (90)Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the (137)Cs. A preferential (90)Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up (137)Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of (90)Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum (90)Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current (90)Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside.

  10. Cavitation induced by a surfactant leads to a transient release of water stress and subsequent 'run away' embolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hölttä, Teemu; Juurola, Eija; Lindfors, Lauri; Porcar-Castell, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation decreases the hydraulic conductance of the xylem and has, therefore, detrimental effects on plant water balance. However, cavitation is also hypothesized to relieve water stress temporarily by releasing water from embolizing conduits to the transpiration stream. Stomatal closure in response to decreasing water potentials in order to avoid excessive cavitation has been well documented in numerous previous studies. However, it has remained unclear whether the stomata sense cavitation events themselves or whether they act in response to a decrease in leaf water potential to a level at which cavitation is initiated. The effects of massive cavitation on leaf water potential, transpiration, and stomatal behaviour were studied by feeding a surfactant into the transpiration stream of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. The stomatal response to cavitation in connection with the capacitive effect was also studied. A major transient increase in leaf water potential was found due to cavitation in the seedlings. As cavitation was induced by lowering the surface tension, the two mechanisms could be uncoupled, as the usual relation between xylem water potential and the onset of cavitation did not hold. Our results indicate that the seedlings responded more to leaf water potential and less to cavitation itself, as stomatal closure was insufficient to prevent the seedlings from being driven to 'run-away' cavitation in a manner of hours.

  11. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings – impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  12. Influence of growth on reproductive traits and its effect on fertility and gene diversity in a clonal seed orchard of scots pine, Pinus Sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Dutkuner, I; Bilir, N; Ulusan, D

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out in a clonal seed orchard of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), to determine the difference and interaction for reproductive and growth characters among clones and its impact on fertility variation and gene diversity Numbers of female and male strobili, and height and diameter at breast height were studied on six grafts chosen randomly in each of the 27 clones for the purpose. One-way analysis of variance revealed large differences in both reproductive and growth characters among clones. The differences were higher in growth characters than in reproductive traits. There was significant phenotypic correlation among growth and reproductive characters. So, growth characters had a greater effect on male and female fertility Estimates of total fertility variation (Sibling coefficient = 1.012), status number (26.8) and relative gene diversity (0.981) were computed. Fertility variation among clones was low, which caused a high relative population size (99% of census number). The positive phenotypic correlation between growth and reproductive characters showed that enhanced growth rate could be effective in improving fertility and gene diversity of seed orchard crop. The results of the study have implications in breeding and selection of plus tree and populations, establishment and thinning of seed orchards of the species.

  13. A retrospective, dual-isotope approach reveals individual predispositions to winter-drought induced tree dieback in the southernmost distribution limit of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Jordi; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Carulla, David; Aguilera, Mònica; Ortiz, Araceli; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-08-01

    Winter-drought induced forest diebacks in the low-latitude margins of species' distribution ranges can provide new insights into the mechanisms (carbon starvation, hydraulic failure) underlying contrasting tree reactions. We analysed a winter-drought induced dieback at the Scots pine's southern edge through a dual-isotope approach (Δ(13) C and δ(18) O in tree-ring cellulose). We hypothesized that a differential long-term performance, mediated by the interaction between CO(2) and climate, determined the fates of individuals during dieback. Declining trees showed a stronger coupling between climate, growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) than non-declining individuals that was noticeable for 25 years prior to dieback. The rising stomatal control of water losses with time in declining trees, indicated by negative Δ(13) C-δ(18) O relationships, was likely associated with their native aptitude to grow more and take up more water (suggested by larger tracheid lumen widths) than non-declining trees and, therefore, to exhibit a greater cavitation risk. Freeze-thaw episodes occurring in winter 2001 unveiled such physiological differences by triggering dieback in those trees more vulnerable to hydraulic failure. Thus, WUEi tightly modulated growth responses to long-term warming in declining trees, indicating that co-occurring individuals were differentially predisposed to winter-drought mortality. These different performances were unconnected to the depletion of stored carbohydrates.

  14. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research.

  15. Evidences on the Ability of Mycorrhizal Genus Piloderma to Use Organic Nitrogen and Deliver It to Scots Pine

    PubMed Central

    Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Bäcklund, Kirsi; Hari, Pertti; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis has been proposed to link plant photosynthesis and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition through the production of fungal enzymes which promote SOM degradation and nitrogen (N) uptake. However, laboratory and field evidence for the existence of these processes are rare. Piloderma sp., a common ECM genus in boreal forest soil, was chosen as model mycorrhiza for this study. The abundance of Piloderma sp. was studied in root tips and soil over one growing season and in winter. Protease production was measured from ectomycorrhiza and soil solution in the field and pure fungal cultures. We also tested the effect of Piloderma olivaceum on host plant organic N nutrition in the laboratory. The results showed that Piloderma sp. was highly abundant in the field and produced extracellular proteases, which correlated positively with the gross primary production, temperature and soil respiration. In the laboratory, Piloderma olivaceum could improve the ability of Pinus sylvestris L. to utilize N from extragenous proteins. We suggest that ECM fungi, although potentially retaining N in their hyphae, are important in forest C and N cycling due to their ability to access proteinaeous N. As Piloderma sp. abundance appeared to be seasonally highly variable, recycling of fungal-bound N after hyphal death may therefore be of primary importance for the N cycling in boreal ecosystems. PMID:26132469

  16. Impacts of changing climate on the productivity of Norway spruce dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine and birch in relation to water availability in southern and northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Yun; Väisänen, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    A process-based ecosystem model was used to assess the impacts of changing climate on net photosynthesis and total stem wood growth in relation to water availability in two unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) dominant stands with a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula sp.). The mixed stands were grown over a 100-year rotation (2000-99) in southern and northern Finland with initial species shares of 50, 25 and 25% for Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch, respectively. In addition, pure Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch stands were used as a comparison to identify whether species' response is different in mixed and pure stands. Soil type and moisture conditions (moderate drought) were expected to be the same at the beginning of the simulations irrespective of site location. Regardless of tree species, both annual net canopy photosynthesis (P(nc)) and total stem wood growth (V(s)) were, on average, lower on the southern site under the changing climate compared with the current climate (difference increasing toward the end of the rotation); the opposite was the case for the northern site. Regarding the stand water budget, evapotranspiration (E(T)) was higher under the changing climate regardless of site location. Transpiration and evaporation from the canopy affected water depletion the most. Norway spruce and birch accounted for most of the water depletion in mixed stands on both sites regardless of climatic condition. The annual soil water deficit (W(d)) was higher on the southern site under the changing climate. On the northern site, the situation was the opposite. According to our results, the growth of pure Norway spruce stands in southern Finland could be even lower than the growth of Norway spruce in mixed stands under the changing climate. The opposite was found for pure Scots pine and birch stands due to lower water depletion. This indicates that in the future the management should be properly adapted to climate change in order to

  17. Measuring and modelling the intra-day variability of the 13CO2 & 12CO2 vertical soil profile production in a Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longdoz, Bernard; Goffin, Stéphanie; Parent, Florian; Plain, Caroline; Epron, Daniel; Wylock, Christophe; Haut, Benoit; Aubinet, Marc; Maier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Vertical profile of CO2 production (Ps) and transport, as well as their isotopic discrimination (13CO2/12CO2) should be considered to improve the soil CO2 efflux (Fs) mechanistic understanding and especially its short-term temporal variations. In this context, we propose a new methodology able to measure continuously and simultaneously Fs, the vertical soil CO2 concentration ([CO2]) profile and their respective isotopic signature (δFs and δCO2) [1]. The Ps of the different soil layers and their isotopic signature (δPs) can then be determined from these measurements by an approach considering diffusion as the only gas transport. A field campaign was conducted with this device at the Scots Pine Hartheim forest (Germany). The results [2] show (i) a Ps dependence on local temperature specific for each layer, (ii) an enrichment of δPs with soil drought, (iii) Fs and [CO2] large intra-day fluctuations non explained by the soil temperature and moisture. These fluctuations can be generated by other processes creating Ps and/or transport variability. To investigate about the nature of these processes, some sensitivity analyses have been performed with a soil CO2 model simulating both production and transport. The impacts of the introduction of advection, dispersion and phloem pressure concentration wave (through dependence of Ps on vapour pressure deficit) on intra-day Fs and [CO2] variations have been quantified. We conclude that these variations are significantly better represented when the phloem pressure wave expression is included in the simulations. The study of the processes related to CO2 production seems to be a better option than an investigation about transport to explain the intra-day Fs variability.

  18. Explaining the inter-annual variability in the ecosystem fluxes of the Brasschaat Scots pine forest: 20 years of eddy flux and pollution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Joanna; Roland, Marilyn; Janssens, Ivan; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Because of their ecological and recreational value, the health of forest ecosystems and their response to global change and pollution are of high importance. At a number of EuroFlux and ICOS ecosystem sites in Europe - as the Brasschaat forest site - the measurements of ecosystem fluxes of carbon and other gases are combined with vertical profiles of air pollution within the framework of the ICP-Forest monitoring program. The Brasschaat forest is dominated by 80-year old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.), and has a total area of about 150 ha. It is situated near an urban area in the Campine region of Flanders, Belgium and is characterized by a mean annual temperature of 9.8 °C and an annual rainfall of 830 mm. In this contribution we report on a long-term analysis (1996-2016) of the ecosystem carbon and water fluxes, the energy exchanges and the pollutant concentrations (ozone, NOx, NH3, SO2). Particular interest goes to the inter-annual variation of the carbon fluxes and the carbon allocation patterns. The impact of the long-term (aggregated) and the short-term variability in both the meteorological drivers and in the main tropospheric pollutants on the carbon fluxes is examined, as well as their mutual interactive effects and their potential memory effect. The effect of variability in the drivers during the phenological phases (seasonality) on the inter-annual variability of the fluxes is also examined. Basic statistical techniques as well as spectral analyses and data mining techniques are being used.

  19. Characterisation of the initial degradation stage of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood after attack by brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana.

    PubMed

    Irbe, Ilze; Andersone, Ingeborga; Andersons, Bruno; Noldt, Guna; Dizhbite, Tatiana; Kurnosova, Nina; Nuopponen, Mari; Stewart, Derek

    2011-07-01

    In our study, early period degradation (10 days) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) was followed at the wood chemical composition and ultrastructure-level, and highlighted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An advanced decay period of 50 days was chosen for comparison of the degradation dynamics. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) analyses of lignin distribution in wood cells revealed that the linkages of lignin and polysaccharides were already disrupted in the early period of fungal attack. An increase in the lignin absorption A(280) value from 0.24 (control) to 0.44 in decayed wood was attributed to its oxidative modification which has been proposed to be generated by Fenton reaction derived ROS. The wood weight loss in the initial degradation period was 2%, whilst cellulose and lignin content decreased by 6.7% and 1%, respectively. Lignin methoxyl (-OCH3) content decreased from 15.1% (control) to 14.2% in decayed wood. Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy corroborated the moderate loss in the hemicellulose and lignin degradation accompanying degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and spin trapping confirmed the generation of ROS, such as hydroxyl radicals (HO∙), in the early wood degradation period. Our results showed that irreversible changes in wood structure started immediately after wood colonisation by fungal hyphae and the results generated here will assist in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of wood biodegradation by brown-rot fungi with the ultimate aim of developing novel wood protection methods.

  20. Impact of emission from oil shale fueled power plants on the growth and foliar elemental concentrations of Scots pine in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ots, Katri

    2003-07-01

    To study the impact of air pollution on the growth and elemental composition of conifers, 5 sample plots were established at different distances and directions from the Estonian Power Plant (Northeast Estonia) in 1999-2000. The selected stands were 75-80(85)-yr-old parts (0.05 ha) of (Oxalis)-Myrtillus site type forest of 0.7-0.8 density. The soils of all sample plots were Gleyic Podzols (Lkg) on sands. The several times higher Ca concentration in the humus horizon of the sample plot NE from the Estonian PP is caused by the prevailing westerly and southerly winds which carry more pollutants NE from the power plant than to SSW. To ascertain the effect of power plants on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), the length growth of the needles and shoots formed in 1997-2000, dry weight of 100 needles, and density of needles on the shoots were measured. As compared to the control, the strongest inhibition of growth was revealed in the sample plots situated 22 km north-east and 17 km south-west from the Estonian Power Plant. As compared to control, the needles of trees growing on sample plots closer to the power plant showed higher contents of Ca, S and Zn. The content of Mg in needles increased with distance from the pollution source. Current year needles had higher contents of Cu and Zn than older needles. Today the amounts of fly ash emitted from Narva power plants are fallen. Long-term fly ash emission has caused changes in the measurements of morphological parameters and chemical composition of needles.

  1. Patterns of structural and defense investments in fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) across a strong temperature and latitudinal gradient in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Żytkowiak, Roma; Karolewski, Piotr; Mucha, Joanna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence. We assessed patterns of root construction based on various root morphological, biochemical and defense traits including root diameter, specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), C:N ratio, phenolic compounds, and number of phellem layers across up to 10 root orders in diverse populations of Scots pine along a 2000-km climatic gradient in Europe. Our results showed that different root traits are related to mean annual temperature (MAT) and expressed a pattern of higher root diameter and lower SRL and RTD in northern sites with lower MAT. Among absorptive roots, we observed a gradual decline in chemical defenses (phenolic compounds) with decreasing MAT. In contrast, decreasing MAT resulted in an increase of structural protection (number of phellem layers) in transport fine roots. This indicated that absorptive roots with high capacity for nutrient uptake, and transport roots with low uptake capacity, were characterized by distinct and contrasting trade-offs. Our observations suggest that diminishing structural and chemical investments into the more distal, absorptive roots in colder climates is consistent with building roots of higher absorptive capacity. At the same time, roots that play a more prominent role in transport of nutrients and water within the root system saw an increase in structural investment, which can increase persistence and reduce long-term costs associated with their frequent

  2. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO2.

  3. Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  4. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  5. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  6. Determinants of woody species richness in Scot pine and beech forests: climate, forest patch size and forest structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevan, Helena; Lloret, Francisco; Vayreda, Jordi; Terradas, Jaume

    2007-05-01

    We analysed patterns of woody species richness in Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica forests in Catalonia (NE Spain) from forestry inventory databank in relation to climate and landscape structure. Both types of forests are found within the same climatic range, although they have been managed following somewhat different goals. Overall, woody species richness significantly increased when conditions get closer to the Mediterranean ones, with milder temperatures. Differences between the two types of forests arose when comparing the relationship between richness and forest patch size. Woody species richness increased in pine forests with patch size, while the opposite trend was observed in beech forests. This pattern is explained by the different behaviour of structural canopy properties, since leaf area index and canopy cover showed a steeper increase with increasing forest patch size in Fagus forests than in Pinus ones. Accordingly, richness decreased with canopy cover in Fagus plots, but not in Pinus ones. We suggest that these differences would be related to management history, which may have enhanced the preservation of beech stands in larger forest landscape units.

  7. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr-1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  8. Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

    2012-05-01

    Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ∼51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  10. Oxygen-18 and deuterium spatio-temporal variability in throughfall and stemflow in Scots pine and Downy oaks forests under Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Sánchez-Costa, Elisenda; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall partitioning processes can be better understood complementing classical hydrometric techniques with water isotopes. Oxygen-18 and deuterium can be used to shed some light on mechanisms of rainfall evaporation from the canopies, and their relationship with canopy and meteorological variables that are not completely understood. Several mechanisms have been described to explain the differences between event-scale bulk rainfall and throughfall isotopic compositions (i.e. evaporation, selective storage, exchange with ambient vapor, residual moisture), and their relation to factors like the amount of water held in the forest canopy, rainfall intensity, time interval between rainfall events, or meteorological conditions. However, there are much fewer studies examining the spatio-temporal variability of isotopic composition in both throughfall and stemflow along rainfall events. This study aims to characterize the water stable isotopes spatio-temporal variability in throughfall and stemflow in a Downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E), under Mediterranean climate conditions. The isotopic sampling design of each stand consisted of one automatic sampler to sample the temporal variability of throughfall signature every 5 mm of rainfall, 10 throughfall collectors distributed within the stand to sample the spatial variability and 4 stemflow collectors. Bulk rainfall was collected with automatic samplers and bulk collectors in two open areas near each forest plot. At each stand isotopic sampling was combined with hydrometric measurements that consisted of 20 tipping buckets to measure throughfall spatial variability and 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping buckets to measure stemflow depth. Moreover, rainfall depth was measured in the open areas and meteorological variables in two towers located above canopies. The study started on May 2015 and is still in

  11. Carbon assimilation and nitrogen in needles of fertilized and unfertilized field-grown Scots pine at natural and elevated concentrations of CO2.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, K; Luomala, E M; Kellomäki, S; Vapaavuori, E

    2000-07-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on carbon assimilation and needle biochemistry of fertilized and unfertilized 25-30-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were studied in a branch bag experiment set up in a naturally regenerated stand. In each tree, one branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with ambient [CO2] (360 micromol mol(-1)), a second branch was enclosed in a bag supplied with elevated [CO2] (680 micromol(-1)) and a control branch was left unbagged. The CO2 treatments were applied from April 15 to September 15, starting in 1993 for unfertilized trees and in 1994 for fertilized trees, which were treated with N in June 1994. Net photosynthesis, amount and activity of Rubisco, N, starch, C:N ratio and SLA of needles were measured during the growing season of 1995. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates of 1-year-old and current-year shoots measured at ambient [CO2] were not affected by growth [CO2] or N fertilization. Elevated [CO2] reduced the amount and activity of Rubisco, and the relative proportion of Rubisco to soluble proteins and N in needles of unfertilized trees. Elevated [CO2] also reduced the chlorophyll concentration (fresh weight basis) of needles of unfertilized trees. Soluble protein concentration of needles was not affected by growth [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] decreased the Rubisco:chlorophyll ratio in unfertilized and fertilized trees. Starch concentration was significantly increased at elevated [CO2] only in 1-year-old needles of fertilized trees. Elevated [CO2] reduced needle N concentration on a dry weight or structural basis (dry weight minus starch) in unfertilized trees, resulting in an increase in needle C:N ratio. Fertilization had no effect on soluble protein, chlorophyll, Rubisco or N concentration of needles. The decrease in the relative proportions of Rubisco and N concentration in needles of unfertilized trees at elevated [CO2] indicates reallocation of N resources away from Rubisco to nonphotosynthetic

  12. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  13. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex

    PubMed Central

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and in stands from the current zone of contact containing morphological hybrids. Cluster analyses were used to identify genetic discontinuities among groups of populations. A canonical analysis was also conducted to detect putative associations among cytoplasmic DNA variation, tree morphology, and site ecological features. MtDNA introgression was extensive and asymmetric: it was detected in P. banksiana populations from the hybrid zone and from allopatric areas, but not in P. contorta populations. Very weak cpDNA introgression was observed, and only in P. banksiana populations. The mtDNA introgression pattern indicated that central Canada was first colonized by migrants from a P. contorta glacial population located west of the Rocky Mountains, before being replaced by P. banksiana migrating westward during the Holocene. In contrast, extensive pollen gene flow would have erased the cpDNA traces of this ancient presence of P. contorta. Additional evidence for this process was provided by the results of canonical analysis, which indicated that the current cpDNA background of trees reflected recent pollen gene flow from the surrounding dominant species rather than historical events that took place during the postglacial colonization. PMID:22957188

  14. Intra-seasonal dynamics in metabolic processes of 13C/12C and 18O/16O in components of Scots pine twigs from southern Siberia interpreted with a conceptual framework based on the Carbon Metabolism Oscillatory Model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbon isotope data from conifer trees play an important role in research on the boreal forest carbon reservoir in the global carbon cycle. Carbon isotopes are routinely used to study interactions between the environment and tree growth. Moreover, carbon isotopes became an essential tool for the evaluation of carbon assimilation and transport from needles into reserve pools, as well as the allocation of stored assimilates within a tree. The successful application and interpretation of carbon isotopes rely on the coherence of isotopic fractionation modeling. This study employs a new Carbon Metabolism Oscillatory Model (CMOM) to interpret the experimental data sets on metabolic seasonal dynamics of 13C/12 C and 18O/16O ratios measured in twig components of Scots pine growing in southern Siberia (Russia). Results The dynamics of carbon isotopic variables were studied in components of Pinus sylvestris L. in light and in dark chambers during the vegetation period from 14 June to 28 July 2006. At the beginning of this period water-soluble organic matter, mostly labile sugars (including sucrose as the main component) and newly formed bulk needle material, displayed relatively “light” δ13C values (depletion in 13 C). Then, 13 C content increased again with noticeable “depletion” events in the middle of the growth period. A gradual 13 C accumulation took place in the second half of the vegetation period. Similar effects were observed both in the light and in the dark with some temporal shifts. Environmental factors did not influence the δ13C values. A gradual 12C-depletion effect was noticed in needles of the previous year. The δ13C values of sucrose and proteins from needle biomass altered independently from each other in the light chamber. A distinct negative correlation between δ13C and δ18O values was revealed for all studied variables. Conclusions The abrupt 13C depletion recorded by all tested trees for the period from June to July

  15. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  16. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-21

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  17. Accumulative response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to heavy metals enhanced by Pb-Zn ore mining and processing plants: Explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. Therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr in washed and unwashed needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) growing in a contaminated area. We collected needles of Scots pine and leaves of silver birch in an area around a sedimentation pond and metallurgic plant processing Pb and Zn ores near Olkusz, Poland. Concentrations of heavy metals, which have been linked with exposure to emissions, were determined from foliar samples collected at 33 sites. These sites were established at various distances (0.5-3.6 km) from the pond and metallurgic plant so as to identify the predominant accumulative response of plants. Spatial gradients for Pb and Zn were calculated using an ordinary kriging interpolation algorithm. A spatial pattern was identified by a GIS method to visualize maps over the Pb-Zn ore mining area. The accumulation of Zn (R(2) = 0.74, p < 0.05) and Pb (R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.01) in plant tissues correlated with soil concentrations. This tendency was not found in the case of Cu, Cd and Cr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. H2O and CO2 fluxes at the floor of a boreal pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Liisa; Launiainen, Samuli; Pumpanen, Jukka; Lankreijer, Harry; Lindroth, Anders; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo

    2008-04-01

    We measured H2O and CO2 fluxes at a boreal forest floor using eddy covariance (EC) and chamber methods. Maximum evapotranspiration measured with EC ranged from 1.5 to 2.0mmol m-2 s-1 while chamber estimates depended substantially on the location and the vegetation inside the chamber. The daytime net CO2 exchange measured with EC (0-2μmol m-2 s-1) was of the same order as measured with the chambers. The nocturnal net CO2 exchange measured with the chambers ranged from 4 to 7μmol m-2 s-1 and with EC from ~4 to ~5μmol m-2 s-1 when turbulent mixing below the canopy was sufficient and the measurements were reliable. We studied gross photosynthesis by measuring the light response curves of the most common forest floor species and found the saturated rates of photosynthesis (Pmax) to range from 0.008 (mosses) to 0.184μmol g-1 s-1 (blueberry). The estimated gross photosynthesis at the study site based on average leaf masses and the light response curves of individual plant species was 2-3μmol m-2 s-1. At the same time, we measured a whole community with another chamber and found maximum gross photosynthesis rates from 4 to 7μmol m-2 s-1.

  19. Singular and interactive effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire in sub-boreal pine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Amato, A.W.; Fraver, S.; Palik, B.J.; Bradford, J.B.; Patty, L.

    2011-01-01

    The role of disturbance in structuring vegetation is widely recognized; however, we are only beginning to understand the effects of multiple interacting disturbances on ecosystem recovery and development. Of particular interest is the impact of post-disturbance management interventions, particularly in light of the global controversy surrounding the effects of salvage logging on forest ecosystem recovery. Studies of salvage logging impacts have focused on the effects of post-disturbance salvage logging within the context of a single natural disturbance event. There have been no formal evaluations of how these effects may differ when followed in short sequence by a second, high severity natural disturbance. To evaluate the impact of this management practice within the context of multiple disturbances, we examined the structural and woody plant community responses of sub-boreal Pinus banksiana systems to a rapid sequence of disturbances. Specifically, we compared responses to Blowdown (B), Fire (F), Blowdown-Fire, and Blowdown-Salvage-Fire (BSF) and compared these to undisturbed control (C) stands. Comparisons between BF and BSF indicated that the primary effect of salvage logging was a decrease in the abundance of structural legacies, such as downed woody debris and snags. Both of these compound disturbance sequences (BF and BSF), resulted in similar woody plant communities, largely dominated by Populus tremuloides; however, there was greater homogeneity in community composition in salvage logged areas. Areas experiencing solely fire (F stands) were dominated by P. banksiana regeneration, and blowdown areas (B stands) were largely characterized by regeneration from shade tolerant conifer species. Our results suggest that salvage logging impacts on woody plant communities are diminished when followed by a second high severity disturbance; however, impacts on structural legacies persist. Provisions for the retention of snags, downed logs, and surviving trees as part

  20. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers.

  1. Biotic stress accelerates formation of climate-relevant aerosols in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joutsensaari, J.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Korhonen, H.; Arola, A.; Blande, J. D.; Heijari, J.; Kivimäenpää, M.; Mikkonen, S.; Hao, L.; Miettinen, P.; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P.; Faiola, C. L.; Laaksonen, A.; Holopainen, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Boreal forests are a major source of climate-relevant biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and will be greatly influenced by increasing temperature. Global warming is predicted to not only increase emissions of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation directly but also induce large-scale insect outbreaks, which significantly increase emissions of reactive BVOCs. Thus, climate change factors could substantially accelerate the formation of biogenic SOAs in the troposphere. In this study, we have combined results from field and laboratory experiments, satellite observations and global-scale modelling in order to evaluate the effects of insect herbivory and large-scale outbreaks on SOA formation and the Earth's climate. Field measurements demonstrated 11-fold and 20-fold increases in monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions respectively from damaged trees during a pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) outbreak in eastern Finland. Laboratory chamber experiments showed that feeding by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) increased VOC emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings by 10-50 fold, resulting in 200-1000-fold increases in SOA masses formed via ozonolysis. The influence of insect damage on aerosol concentrations in boreal forests was studied with a global chemical transport model GLOMAP and MODIS satellite observations. Global-scale modelling was performed using a 10-fold increase in monoterpene emission rates and assuming 10 % of the boreal forest area was experiencing outbreak. Results showed a clear increase in total particulate mass (local max. 480 %) and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (45 %). Satellite observations indicated a 2-fold increase in aerosol optical depth over western Canada's pine forests in August during a bark beetle outbreak. These results suggest that more frequent insect outbreaks in a warming climate could result in substantial increase in biogenic SOA formation in the boreal zone and, thus

  2. Biotic stress accelerates formation of climate-relevant aerosols in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joutsensaari, J.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Korhonen, H.; Arola, A.; Blande, J. D.; Heijari, J.; Kivimäenpää, M.; Mikkonen, S.; Hao, L.; Miettinen, P.; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P.; Faiola, C. L.; Laaksonen, A.; Holopainen, J. K.

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests are a major source of climate-relevant biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and will be greatly influenced by increasing temperature. Global warming is predicted to increase emissions of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from vegetation directly, but will also induce large-scale insect outbreaks, which significantly increase emissions of reactive BVOC. Thus, climate change factors could substantially accelerate the formation of biogenic SOA in the troposphere. In this study, we have combined results from field and laboratory experiments, satellite observations and global scale modelling in order to evaluate the effects of insect herbivory and large-scale outbreaks on SOA formation and the Earth's climate. Field measurements demonstrated 11-fold and 20-fold increases in monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions, respectively, from damaged trees during a pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) outbreak in eastern Finland. Laboratory chamber experiments showed that feeding by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) increased VOC emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings by 10-50 fold resulting in 200-1000 fold increases in SOA masses formed via ozonolysis. The influence of insect damage on aerosol concentrations in boreal forests was studied with a global chemical transport model GLOMAP and MODIS satellite observations. Global scale modelling was performed using a 10-fold increase in monoterpene emission rates and assuming 10% of the boreal forest area was experiencing outbreak. Results showed a clear increase in total particulate mass (local max. 480%) and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (45%). Satellite observations indicated a two-fold increase in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over western Canada's pine forests in August during a bark beetle outbreak. These results suggest that more frequent insect outbreaks in a warming climate could result in substantial increase in biogenic SOA formation in the boreal zone and, thus

  3. Scots pine needles macronutrient (N, P, K, CA, MG, and S) supply at different reclaimed mine soil substrates--as an indicator of the stability of developed forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Haus, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    A main objective of restoration and afforestation at post-mining sites is establishing a long-term sustainable ecosystem which depends on adaptations of tree species and which in turn depends on the soil nutrient flux. The nutrient concentration (nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, and sulfur (S)) of Scots pine needles was investigated in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) located at the following post-mining sites: a sand mine pit, spoil heap from a lignite mine, spoil heap from a S mine, and a carbonaceous spoil heap from an underground coal mine. The control plots were arranged on natural forest sites adjacent to the post-mining sites. A higher level of foliar nutrients was noted in the carbonaceous RMS, while lower levels were found in RMS on the spoil heap following lignite mining. The characteristics of the substrate were found to exert greater effect than mineral fertilization (performed at the onset of reclamation) on the tree stand characteristics, needle length and foliar nutrient concentration. While the soils and trees were most deficient in N, negative symptoms have not been noted to this date in tree stands at reclaimed mine sites. Trophic ratings were recommended based on statistical correlations and groupings between N and P contents in needles and needles length (mean length of 300 needles) while nutrient ratings were recommended from statistical differences and groupings of the RMS substrates.

  4. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  5. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; Steven E. McKeand; Eric J. Jokela; Robert B. Rummer; Les Groom; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2013-01-01

    The southern pines (yellow or hard pines, Genus Pinus Sub-genus Pinus Section Pinus Subsection Australes) occupy an immense land-base in the southeastern region of the United States (Little and Critchfield, 1969). In addition, they are planted and managed for wood production on millions of hectares worldwide including China, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia. The...

  6. Ground-fire effects on the composition of dissolved and total organic matter in forest floor and soil solutions from Scots pine forests in Germany: new insights from solid state 13C NMR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näthe, Kerstin; Michalzik, Beate; Levia, Delphis; Steffens, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Fires represent an ecosystem disturbance and are recognized to seriously pertubate the nutrient budgets of forested ecosystems. While the effects of fires on chemical, biological, and physical soil properties have been intensively studied, especially in Mediterranean areas and North America, few investigations examined the effects of fire-induced alterations in the water-bound fluxes and the chemical composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, POC, DN, PN). The exclusion of the particulate organic matter fraction (0.45 μm < POM < 500 μm) potentially results in misleading inferences and budgeting gaps when studying the effects of fires on nutrient and energy fluxes. To our best knowledge, this is the first known study to present fire-induced changes on the composition of dissolved and total organic matter (DOM, TOM) in forest floor (FF) and soil solutions (A, B horizon) from Scots pine forests in Germany. In relation to control sites, we test the effects of low-severity fires on: (1) the composition of DOM and TOM in forest floor and soil solutions; and (2) the translocated amount of particulate in relation to DOC and DN into the subsoil. The project aims to uncover the mechanisms of water-bound organic matter transport along an ecosystem profile and its compositional changes following a fire disturbance. Forest floor and soil solutions were fortnightly sampled from March to December 2014 on fire-manipulated and control plots in a Scots pine forest in Central Germany. Shortly after the experimental duff fire in April 2014 pooled solutions samples were taken for solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize DOM (filtered solution < 0.8μm pore size) and TOM in unfiltered solutions. Independent from fire manipulation, the composition of TOM was generally less aromatic (aromaticity index [%] according to Hatcher et al., 1981) with values between 18 (FF) - 25% (B horizon) than the DOM fraction with 23 (FF) - 27% (B horizon). For DOM

  7. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  8. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Derek W; Venette, Robert C; Maddox, Mitchell P; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death.

  9. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Venette, Robert C.; Maddox, Mitchell P.; Aukema, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death. PMID:28472047

  10. Predicting the decline in daily maximum transpiration rate of two pine stands during drought based on constant minimum leaf water potential and plant hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Duursma, R A; Kolari, P; Perämäki, M; Nikinmaa, E; Hari, P; Delzon, S; Loustau, D; Ilvesniemi, H; Pumpanen, J; Mäkelä, A

    2008-02-01

    The effect of drought on forest water use is often estimated with models, but comprehensive models require many parameters, and simple models may not be sufficiently flexible. Many tree species, Pinus species in particular, have been shown to maintain a constant minimum leaf water potential above the critical threshold for xylem embolism during drought. In such cases, prediction of the relative decline in daily maximum transpiration rate with decreasing soil water content is relatively straightforward. We constructed a soil-plant water flow model assuming constant plant conductance and daily minimum leaf water potential, but variable conductance from soil to root. We tested this model against independent data from two sites: automatic shoot chamber data and sap flow measurements from a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand; and sap flow measurements from a maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stand. To focus on soil limitations to water uptake, we expressed daily maximum transpiration rate relative to the rate that would be obtained in wet soil with similar environmental variables. The comparison was successful, although the maritime pine stand showed carry-over effects of the drought that we could not explain. For the boreal Scots pine stand, daily maximum transpiration was best predicted by water content of soil deeper than 5 cm. A sensitivity analysis revealed that model predictions were relatively insensitive to the minimum leaf water potential, which can be accounted for by the importance of soil resistance of drying soil. We conclude that a model with constant plant conductance and minimum leaf water potential can accurately predict the decline in daily maximum transpiration rate during drought for these two pine stands, and that including further detail about plant compartments would add little predictive power, except in predicting recovery from severe drought.

  11. A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

  12. Magnitudes and seasonal patterns of energy, water, and carbon exchanges at a boreal young jack pine forest in the BOREAS northern study area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Lafleur, Peter M.; Joiner, David W.; Bartlett, Paul A.; Costello, Andrew M.; Jelinski, Dennis E.; Ryan, Michael G.

    1997-12-01

    Seasonal patterns of the energy balance of a young jack pine site near Thompson, Manitoba, in the summer of 1994 are reported. The experiment was part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and it ran from May 24 to September 19. The average tree density was 4.4 trees m-2, but there was substantial spatial variation associated with three primary vegetation patterns: dense cover of short trees, sparse cover of tall trees, and a mixture of short and tall trees. The frequency distribution of tree heights was bimodal with peaks at 1 and 2 m and a range from 0.3 to 5.7 m. The average tree height was 2.3 m. The daily average photosynthetically active radiation albedo was conservative, varying from 0.054 under clear-sky conditions to 0.051 under cloudy skies. The shortwave albedo was 0.136 under clear-sky conditions and decreased by 1% following rain; the presence of smoke over the site increased it by 1%. Heat storage in the soil, trees, and air was an important component of the energy balance throughout the season with soil heat flux comprising the bulk of the total storage. On the average, for the whole experimental period, the sensible heat flux was approximately twice the latent heat flux (Bowen ratio ≈2). The average daily energy balance closure varied from 85% before day-of-year (DOY) 200 to 95% after DOY 200. As a result of problems with the measurement of the net CO2 flux above the canopy under stable nighttime conditions, all nighttime values were modeled. The typical diurnal pattern of net CO2 flux shows maximum uptake by the surface in the morning and a gradual decrease through the afternoon. For the whole field season of 118 days, the site fixed 224 g m-2 of carbon.

  13. Soil moisture sensitivity of autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration in boreal xeric pine and mesic spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťupek, Boris; Launiainen, Samuli; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Heikkinen, Jukka; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Litter decomposition rates of the most process based soil carbon models affected by environmental conditions are linked with soil heterotrophic CO2 emissions and serve for estimating soil carbon sequestration; thus due to the mass balance equation the variation in measured litter inputs and measured heterotrophic soil CO2 effluxes should indicate soil carbon stock changes, needed by soil carbon management for mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, if sensitivity functions of the applied model suit to the environmental conditions e.g. soil temperature and moisture. We evaluated the response forms of autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration to soil temperature and moisture in four boreal forest sites of the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) by a soil trenching experiment during year 2015 in southern Finland. As expected both autotrophic and heterotrophic forest floor respiration components were primarily controlled by soil temperature and exponential regression models generally explained more than 90% of the variance. Soil moisture regression models on average explained less than 10% of the variance and the response forms varied between Gaussian for the autotrophic forest floor respiration component and linear for the heterotrophic forest floor respiration component. Although the percentage of explained variance of soil heterotrophic respiration by the soil moisture was small, the observed reduction of CO2 emissions with higher moisture levels suggested that soil moisture response of soil carbon models not accounting for the reduction due to excessive moisture should be re-evaluated in order to estimate right levels of soil carbon stock changes. Our further study will include evaluation of process based soil carbon models by the annual heterotrophic respiration and soil carbon stocks.

  14. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  15. Spatial variations in the molecular diversity of dissolved organic matter in water moving through a boreal forest in eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Jun’ichiro; Ohashi, Mizue; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Sugiyama, Yuko; Piirainen, Sirpa; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Fujitake, Nobuhide; Yamase, Keitaro; Ohte, Nobuhito; Moritani, Mina; Hara, Miyako; Finér, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) strongly affects water quality within boreal forest ecosystems. However, how the quality of DOM itself changes spatially is not well understood. In this study, to examine how the diversity of DOM molecules varies in water moving through a boreal forest, the number of DOM molecules in different water samples, i.e., rainwater, throughfall, soil water, groundwater, and stream water was determined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands in eastern Finland during May and June 2010. The number of molecular compounds identified by FT-ICR MS (molecular diversity) ranged from 865 to 2,194, revealing large DOM molecular diversity in the water samples. Additionally, some of the molecular compounds were shared between different water samples. The DOM molecular diversity linearly correlated with the number of low-biodegradable molecules, such as, lignin-like molecules (lignins), but not with dissolved organic carbon concentration. The number of lignins shared between different sampling locations was larger than that of any other biomolecular class. Our results suggest that low-biodegradable molecules, especially lignins, regulate spatial variations in DOM molecular diversity in boreal forests. PMID:28186141

  16. Origin of monoterpene emissions from boreal tree species: Determination of de novo and pool emissions by 13CO2 labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, J.; Ghirardo, A.; Koch, K.; Taipale, R.; Zimmer, I.; Schnitzler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forests emit a large amount of monoterpenes into the atmosphere. Traditionally these emissions are assumed to originate as evaporation from large storage pools. Thus their diurnal cycle would depend mostly on temperature. However, there is indication that a significant part of the monoterpene emission would originate directly from de novo synthesis. By applying 13CO2 fumigation and analyzing the isotope fractions with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and classical GC-MS we studied the origin of monoterpene emissions from some major Eurasian boreal and alpine tree species. We determined the fractions originating from de novo biosynthesis and from large internal monoterpene storages for three coniferous tree species with specialized monoterpene storage structures and one dicotyledon species without such structures. The emission from dicotyledon species Betula pendula originated solely from the de novo synthesis. The origin of the emissions from coniferous species was mixed with varying fraction originating from de novo synthesis (Pinus sylvestris 58%, Picea abies 33.5%, Larix decidua 9.8%) and the rest from large internal monoterpene storage pools. Application of the observed fractions of emission originating from de novo synthesis and large storage pools in a hybrid emission algorithm resulted in a better description of ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest stand.

  17. Oxygenated VOC and monoterpene emissions from a boreal coniferous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Kajos, M. K.; Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rinne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Compared with terpenoids, emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal ecosystems have been poorly characterized. We measured ecosystem scale emissions of three oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and monoterpenes from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during the summers 2006-2008. The measurements were conducted using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The contribution of the three oxygenated compounds to the measured total emissions was 40-60 %. The highest oxygenated VOC emissions were those of methanol, comprising 20-30 % of the total, followed by acetone with a share of 10-20 %. The acetaldehyde emissions were 5-10 % of the total. This emission composition will be compared with that obtained from shoot enclosure measurements. Methanol showed deposition during some periods although its overall flux was towards the atmosphere. The monoterpene emissions had a light dependent component, suggesting that part of the emissions originated directly from monoterpene biosynthesis. Diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations in the emissions, along with temperature and light dependencies, will be discussed.

  18. Monitoring the broadleaf fraction and canopy cover of boreal forests using spectral invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhatalo, Kalle M.; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    A recent method based on the spectral invariants theory to retrieve physically-based information on forest properties from remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery was tested in a southern boreal setting in central Finland. An atmospherically corrected Hyperion image and ground measurements from 66 forest stands were used. First, the novel concept of transformed green leaf single scattering spectral albedos was tested against leaf (needle) albedo measurements on Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch from the study area. We found the transformed Beaked hazel albedo applied in previous studies could be used as reference also for the boreal tree species. Second, we derived a newly suggested spectrally invariant variable, the directional area scattering factor (DASF), to estimate the broadleaf fraction of forest stands. Based on our results, DASF seems highly promising as a potential new hyperspectral satellite product for change monitoring of broadleaf fraction over different vegetation zones. Finally, we plotted our results in the spectral invariants space, and suggest a new interpretation for the reference-dependent structural parameter pR. We propose this parameter is an indicator of canopy cover and suffers less from saturation problems than vegetation indices.

  19. Estimation of autotrophic soil respiration in a boreal forest using three different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-04-01

    It is generally challenging to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The reason for these difficulties is connected with the intimate interaction of the key processes in soil. Root-associated microbes practically colonize the whole soil volume while decomposition processes occur in the same matrix. Therefore, autotrophic and heterotrophic processes cannot be separated in natural systems. However, there are several methods that can be used to better understand the dynamics of these two. A classical method is called 'trenching' where a trench is dug around a known volume of soil and the roots entering the soil are cut from the living trees thus blocking the C flow from them. The second way to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration relies on the difference in the isotopic signature (13C) of plant-derived or decomposition-derived CO2. The third way to separate the sources is to study the differences in the short- and long-term temperature dependencies in CO2 soil emissions. This is possible especially in boreal forests where the biological activity has a strong seasonal cycle. We compared these three methods in an experiment conducted in a southern boreal middle-aged Scots pine stand in Finland. Our data provides a unique possibility to critically evaluate current methods for estimating autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The knowledge is needed to study further plant physiology and plant-microbe interactions in soil.

  20. Snowpack concentrations and estimated fluxes of volatile organic compounds in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, H.; Pumpanen, J.; Hakola, H.; Vesala, T.; Rasmus, S.; Bäck, J.

    2012-06-01

    Soil provides an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to atmosphere, but in boreal forests these fluxes and their seasonal variations have not been characterized in detail. Especially wintertime fluxes are almost completely unstudied. In this study, we measured the VOC concentrations inside the snowpack in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest in southern Finland, using adsorbent tubes and air samplers installed permanently in the snow profile. Based on the VOC concentrations at three heights inside the snowpack, we estimated the fluxes of these gases. We measured 20 VOCs from the snowpack, monoterpenes being the most abundant group with concentrations varying from 0.11 to 16 μg m-3. Sesquiterpenes and oxygen-containing monoterpenes were also detected. Inside the pristine snowpack, the concentrations of terpenoids decreased from soil surface towards the surface of the snow, suggesting soil as the source for terpenoids. Forest damages (i.e. broken treetops and branches, fallen trees) resulting from heavy snow loading during the measurement period increased the terpenoid concentrations dramatically, especially in the upper part of the snowpack. The results show that soil processes are active and efficient VOC sources also during winter, and that natural or human disturbance can increase forest floor VOC concentrations substantially. Our results stress the importance of soil as a source of VOCs during the season when other biological sources, such as plants, have lower activity.

  1. Snowpack concentrations and estimated fluxes of volatile organic compounds in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, H.; Pumpanen, J.; Hakola, H.; Vesala, T.; Rasmus, S.; Bäck, J.

    2012-01-01

    Soil forms an important source for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but in boreal forests these fluxes and their seasonal variations have not been characterized in detail, especially wintertime fluxes, which are almost completely unstudied. In this study, we measured the VOC concentrations inside a snowpack in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest in southern Finland, using adsorbent tubes and air samplers installed permanently in the snow profile. Based on the VOC concentrations at three heights inside the snowpack, we estimated the fluxes of these gases. We measured 20 VOCs from the snowpack, monoterpenes being the most abundant group with concentrations varying from 0.11 to 16 μg m-3. Sesquiterpenes and oxygen-containing monoterpenes were also detected. Inside the pristine snowpack, the concentrations of terpenoids decreased from the soil surface towards the snow surface, suggesting soil as being the source for terpenoids. Forest damages resulting from heavy snow loading during the measurement period increased the terpenoid concentrations dramatically, especially in the upper part of the snowpack. The results show that soil processes are also active and efficient VOC sources during winter and that natural or human disturbance can increase forest floor VOC concentrations substantially. Our results stress the importance of soil as a source of VOCs during the season when other biological sources, basically plants, have lower activity.

  2. Light-induced diurnal pattern of methane exchange in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, Elin; Crill, Patrick; Mölder, Meelis; Vestin, Patrik; Lindroth, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests represents one third of the Earth's forested land surface area and is a net sink of methane and an important component of the atmospheric methane budget. Methane is oxidized in well-aerated forest soils whereas ponds and bog soils are sources of methane. Besides the microbial processes in the soil also forest vegetation might contribute to methane exchange. Due to a recent finding of methane consumption by boreal plants that correlated with photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), we investigate the impact of PAR on soil methane exchange at vegetated plots on the forest floor. The study site, Norunda in central Sweden, is a 120 years old boreal forest stand, dominated by Scots pine and Norway spruce. We used continuous chamber measurements in combination with a high precision laser gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research), to measure the methane exchange at four different plots in July-November 2009, and April-June 2010. The ground vegetation consisted almost entirely of mosses and blueberry-shrubs. Two of the plots acted as stable sinks of methane whereas the other two plots shifted from sinks to sources during very wet periods. The preliminary results show a clear diurnal pattern of the methane exchange during the growing season, which cannot be explained by temperature. The highest consumption occurs at high PAR levels. The amplitude of the diurnal methane exchange during the growing season is in the order of 10 μmol m-2 h-1. This indicates that besides methane oxidation by methanotrophs in the soil there is an additional removal of methane at soil level by a process related to ground vegetation.

  3. Nitrogen and carbon reallocation in fungal mycelia during decomposition of boreal forest litter.

    PubMed

    Boberg, Johanna B; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Ekblad, Alf; Lindahl, Björn D

    2014-01-01

    Boreal forests are characterized by spatially heterogeneous soils with low N availability. The decomposition of coniferous litter in these systems is primarily performed by basidiomycete fungi, which often form large mycelia with a well-developed capacity to reallocate resources spatially- an advantageous trait in heterogeneous environments. In axenic microcosm systems we tested whether fungi increase their biomass production by reallocating N between Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) needles at different stages of decomposition. We estimated fungal biomass production by analysing the accumulation of the fungal cell wall compound chitin. Monospecific systems were compared with systems with interspecific interactions. We found that the fungi reallocated assimilated N and mycelial growth away from well-degraded litter towards fresh litter components. This redistribution was accompanied by reduced decomposition of older litter. Interconnection of substrates increased over-all fungal C use efficiency (i.e. the allocation of assimilated C to biomass rather than respiration), presumably by enabling fungal translocation of growth-limiting N to litter with higher C quality. Fungal connection between different substrates also restricted N-mineralization and production of dissolved organic N, suggesting that litter saprotrophs in boreal forest ecosystems primarily act to redistribute rather than release N. This spatial integration of different resource qualities was hindered by interspecific interactions, in which litters of contrasting quality were colonised by two different basidiomycete species. The experiments provide a detailed picture of how resource reallocation in two decomposer fungi leads to a more efficient utilisation of spatially separated resources under N-limitation. From an ecosystem point of view, such economic fungal behaviour could potentially contribute to organic matter accumulation in the litter layers of boreal forests.

  4. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and

  5. Effect of Copper Sulfate and Lead Acetate on Infection of Pines with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M. C.; Winter, R. E. K.; Bolla, R. I.

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of 3-year-old Scots, white, and Austrian pine seedlings with copper sulfate or lead acetate significantly affected energy homeostasis and oleoresin production in the seedlings but did not induce wilting of the seedlings. Inoculation of copper sulfate-treated or lead acetate-treated white, Scots, and Austrian pine seedlings with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1, caused a significant increase in oleoresin production, stressed energy homeostasis, and induced rapid wilting of the seedlings. Scots pine lost tolerance and Austrian pine lost resistance to VPSt-1 after the seedlings were treated with either copper sulfate or lead acetate. These results suggest that environmental pollution may significantly affect susceptibility of pines to B. xylophilus and may have a role in establishment of this nematode in uninfested areas. PMID:19287570

  6. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduction decreased in SAR-treated white pine seedlings inoculated with VPSt-1. SAR-treated Austrian pine seedlings were resistant to VPSt-1, but SAR-treated Scots pine seedlings lost tolerance to VPSt-1 and wilted 50-60 days after inoculation. PMID:19290259

  7. Effects of wild fires on the emissions of reactive gases from boreal and subarctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang-Turpeinen, Huizhong; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2017-04-01

    Wild fire has long-term effects on the ecosystem and biological processes of boreal forest, and the frequency of wild fires is increasing as a consequence of climate change. Boreal forests lie largely on permafrost area, and the increase in fire frequency or intensity will affect the depth of the active layer on top of permafrost. The thawing of permafrost soils and increase in the active layer depth could induce significant reactive trace gas emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrous acid (HONO) are closely associated with air chemistry in the troposphere. They react easily with ozone, hydroxyl radicals, and the reaction products may condense into aerosol particles or affect the growth of atmospheric aerosols which act as cloud condensation nuclei. Forests, and in particular permafrost soils, could be potentially large sources of BVOCs and HONO, because of the large amount of decomposing litter and soil organic matter. However, the forest soil BVOC emissions are poorly known, in contrast to BVOCs emitted from branch and canopy levels in boreal forests. The production rates of HONO in various soils are also poorly known. We studied BVOC and HONO fluxes from boreal forest soils and the effects of wild fires and the time since the last fire on them. We measured BVOCs emissions in west Siberia larch forest stands on permafrost soil in a fire chronosequence where the last forest fires had occurred 2, 24, and more than 100 years ago. HONO emissions in northern boreal subarctic Scots pine forest stands in Eastern Lapland in Finland in a fire chronosequence where the last fires had occurred 7, 47, 72 and 157 years ago. BVOC flux measurements were carried out by drawing air samples from chamber headspace into a steel adsorbent tube containing Tenax TA and carbopack B. The sampling tubes were analyzed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Soil samples were measured for HONO flux in laboratory with LOPAP (Long path absorption photometer

  8. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Petäjä, T.; Rinne, J.; Bäck, J.; Boy, M.; Dal Maso, M.; Hakala, J.; Kajos, M.; Keronen, P.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Aaltonen, H.; Paatero, J.; Vesala, T.; Hakola, H.; Levula, J.; Pohja, T.; Herrmann, F.; Auld, J.; Mesarchaki, E.; Song, W.; Yassaa, N.; Nölscher, A.; Johnson, A. M.; Custer, T.; Sinha, V.; Thieser, J.; Pouvesle, N.; Taraborrelli, D.; Tang, M. J.; Bozem, H.; Hosaynali-Beygi, Z.; Axinte, R.; Oswald, R.; Novelli, A.; Kubistin, D.; Hens, K.; Javed, U.; Trawny, K.; Breitenberger, C.; Hidalgo, P. J.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Ouwersloot, H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Vogel, A.; Beck, M.; Bayerle, A.; Kampf, C. J.; Bertelmann, M.; Köllner, F.; Hoffmann, T.; Valverde, J.; González, D.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Kulmala, M.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12 July-12 August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce); mixed forest (Birch and conifers); and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen); indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO), urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2) and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes). None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  9. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Crowley, J.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Petäjä, T.; Rinne, J.; Bäck, J.; Boy, M.; Dal Maso, M.; Hakala, J.; Kajos, M.; Keronen, P.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Aaltonen, H.; Paatero, J.; Vesala, T.; Hakola, H.; Levula, J.; Pohja, T.; Herrmann, F.; Auld, J.; Mesarchaki, E.; Song, W.; Yassaa, N.; Nölscher, A.; Johnson, A. M.; Custer, T.; Sinha, V.; Thieser, J.; Pouvesle, N.; Taraborrelli, D.; Tang, M. J.; Bozem, H.; Hosaynali-Beygi, Z.; Axinte, R.; Oswald, R.; Novelli, A.; Kubistin, D.; Hens, K.; Javed, U.; Trawny, K.; Breitenberger, C.; Hidalgo, P. J.; Ebben, C. J.; Geiger, F. M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.; Vogel, A.; Beck, M.; Bayerle, A.; Kampf, C. J.; Bertelmann, M.; Köllner, F.; Hoffmann, T.; Valverde, J.; González, D.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Kulmala, M.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12 July-12 August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce); mixed forest (Birch and conifers); and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen); indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO), urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2) and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes). None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  10. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2012-04-01

    This submission describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation) in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12th July-12th August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce); mixed forest (Birch and conifers); and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen); indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO), urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2) and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes). None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  11. Disrupted trophic interactions affect recruitment of boreal deciduous and coniferous trees in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Pedersen, Simen; Elbakidze, Marine

    2017-01-23

    Loss of large carnivore populations may lead to increased population densities of large herbivores, and subsequent cascading effects on the composition, structure, and function of ecosystems. Using a macroecological approach based on studies in multiple boreal forest landscapes in the Baltic Sea region and Russia, we tested the hypothesis that disrupted trophic interactions among large carnivores and large herbivores affect the recruitment of both ecologically and economically valuable tree species. We measured damage levels on young trees and large herbivore density in 10 local landscapes representing a gradient from extinct to extant populations of both large carnivores and large herbivores. We also tested the alternative hypothesis that forest management intensity is correlated to reduced recruitment of these tree species. At the macroecological scale there was an inverse relationship between the number of large carnivores and large herbivores. This coincided with a steep gradient in browsing damage on the ecologically important aspen, rowan and sallow as hosts for specialized species, as well as the economically important Scots pine. In one landscape hunting had replaced the presence of carnivores. Mean damage levels of these four tree species were correlated with large herbivore abundance, but not with forest management intensity. We discuss the pros and cons of this macroecological approach, as well as the challenge of governing and managing trophic interactions at multiple scales.

  12. Seasonal courses revealed that boreal trees emit methane even during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Pihlatie, Mari; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forests are considered to be a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) due to predominant soil deposition of CH4 from the atmosphere. However, plants are known to contribute to the CH4 exchange with the atmosphere. Fluxes of CH4 have been mostly studied on herbaceous plants, whereas investigations on trees, particularly boreal tree species, are sporadic. Therefore we determined CH4 fluxes from common boreal tree species: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula). The objectives were to investigate whether these tree species contribute to CH4 exchange with the atmosphere, particularly in winter, how soil water content affects these fluxes, and how trees contribute to overall forest CH4 fluxes. The measurements were performed on mature trees in the boreal forest surrounding the SMEAR II station in Finland. Fluxes of CH4 at stem and forest floor level were simultaneously measured over the whole year (from June 2014 until May 2015) using static chamber systems and quantified by gas chromatographic analyses. Our results show that the trees mostly emitted CH4 in the summer. Birch was the strongest emitter of CH4(9.5 μg CH4 m-2stem area h-1, medians) among the tree species studied, particularly under high soil volumetric water content (0.92 ± 0.01 m3 m-3). Similarly, the forest floor released CH4 into the atmosphere (37 μg CH4 m-2 soil area h-1). Under low soil water content (0.37 ± 0.02 m3 m-3), the flux rates from stems of birch and pine decreased but remained mostly positive (i.e. emissions), whereas forest floor reversed to sink for CH4 (-44 μg CH4 m-2 h-1). In contrast, spruce CH4 emissions increased with decreasing soil water content up to 0.55 μg CH4 m-2 h-1. In general, the emission rates of all the tree species decreased from September/October onwards. In the winter, the tree fluxes remained low, but slightly positive, and increased again in the spring. The CH4 fluxes were modulated by soil water

  13. Current photosynthate fuels the nitrogen response of soil CO2 flux in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, John; Peichl, Matthias; Tarvainen, Lasse; Näsholm, Torgny; Öquist, Mats; Linder, Sune

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen addition frequently reduces CO2 efflux from forest soils, but it has been unclear whether the effect is on fluxes of current photosynthate belowground or the oxidation of substrate to CO2. Pulse-chase and girdling experiments have shown that current photosynthate can be a major substrate for soil CO2 efflux, but these methods are unwieldy for describing seasonal patterns. In the current study, we placed transparent chambers on the soil surface beneath a forest canopy and measured the seasonal CO2 flux over three growing seasons (2012-2014) in a boreal Scots pine forest under repeated, heavy nitrogen (N) addition (50-100 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Net CO2 fluxes were measured every half hour using a unique system comprised of four large (each 20.3 m2 surface area) chambers, two each on the nitrogen treatment and the control. Base respiration rates (R0) and temperature sensitivity (Q10) were derived from nonlinear fits to the flux data. The Q10 was similar with or without N addition, but the nitrogen additions nearly halved the R0 values. Treatment differences in R0 appeared in May or June, peaked in July and August, and disappeared again in November. This pattern is consistent with the seasonality of photosynthesis at our boreal site. We estimated efflux in the absence of new photosynthate by extrapolating the May and November parameterization throughout the year. These extrapolations agreed with independent estimates through the winter snowpack and with the results of previous tracer and girdling experiments, supporting the contention that new photosynthate accounts for the nitrogen-induced reduction in CO2 efflux. Soil organic matter accumulated in the N addition treatment at a rate that quantitatively matched the reduction in CO2 efflux. We therefore conclude that the reduced CO2 efflux following N addition is due to a decrease in the oxidation of new photosynthate, whereas its delivery belowground remains unaltered.

  14. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  15. Annual fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in boreal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forests covering almost one-third of the global forest area are considered to be a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas produced in soils. The forest ecosystems exchange of N2O has so far been calculated based on N2O flux measurements at the soil-atmosphere interface excluding other possible natural sources of N2O. Scarce studies revealed that trees can emit N2O; however, only under conditions with high N2O production in the soil due to e.g. fertilisation or flooding treatment. Unfortunately, information about the N2O exchange of mature trees under natural field conditions is almost non-existent. We determined N2O fluxes from common boreal tree species: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and downy and silver birch (Betula pubescens, B. pendula). We aimed to investigate (1) whether these tree species exchange N2O with the atmosphere, (2) whether these fluxes show seasonal cycle, (3) how the tree N2O fluxes contribute to the forest floor N2O exchange, and (4) whether soil water content affects the N2O exchange of trees. The measurements were performed on mature trees in the boreal forest around the SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä in southern Finland. Fluxes of N2O at stem and forest floor level were simultaneously measured from June 2014 until May 2015 using static chamber systems and quantified by gas chromatography. All trees studied emitted N2O from their stems during the vegetation season. The emission rates of all tree species decreased from October onwards. In winter, the tree fluxes remained low (mostly weak uptake by birch and pine, weak uptake or emission by spruce) and increased again in March. The forest floor mostly emitted N2O during the whole year without significant seasonal variation. At the annual scale, all species studied were sources of N2O. Spruce was the strongest emitter of N2O with total emission of 0.91 mg N2O m-2 stem area and 2.4 g N2O ha-1 ground area per year, followed by pine

  16. Intra-annual variability of anatomical structure and δ13C values within tree rings of spruce and pine in alpine, temperate and boreal Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vaganov, Eugene A.; Skomarkova, Marina V.; Knohl, Alexander; Brand, Willi A.; Roscher, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Tree-ring width, wood density, anatomical structure and 13C/12C ratios expressed as δ13C-values of whole wood of Picea abies were investigated for trees growing in closed canopy forest stands. Samples were collected from the alpine Renon site in North Italy, the lowland Hainich site in Central Germany and the boreal Flakaliden site in North Sweden. In addition, Pinus cembra was studied at the alpine site and Pinus sylvestris at the boreal site. The density profiles of tree rings were measured using the DENDRO-2003 densitometer, δ13C was measured using high-resolution laser-ablation-combustion-gas chromatography-infra-red mass spectrometry and anatomical characteristics of tree rings (tracheid diameter, cell-wall thickness, cell-wall area and cell-lumen area) were measured using an image analyzer. Based on long-term statistics, climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit, explained <20% of the variation in tree-ring width and wood density over consecutive years, while 29–58% of the variation in tree-ring width were explained by autocorrelation between tree rings. An intensive study of tree rings between 1999 and 2003 revealed that tree ring width and δ13C-values of whole wood were significantly correlated with length of the growing season, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The δ13C-values were not correlated with precipitation or temperature. A highly significant correlation was also found between δ13C of the early wood of one year and the late wood of the previous year, indicating a carry-over effect of the growing conditions of the previous season on current wood production. This latter effect may explain the high autocorrelation of long-term tree-ring statistics. The pattern, however, was complex, showing stepwise decreases as well as stepwise increases in the δ13C between late wood and early wood. The results are interpreted in the context of the biochemistry of wood formation and its linkage

  17. Intra-annual variability of anatomical structure and delta(13)C values within tree rings of spruce and pine in alpine, temperate and boreal Europe.

    PubMed

    Vaganov, Eugene A; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Skomarkova, Marina V; Knohl, Alexander; Brand, Willi A; Roscher, Christiane

    2009-10-01

    Tree-ring width, wood density, anatomical structure and (13)C/(12)C ratios expressed as delta(13)C-values of whole wood of Picea abies were investigated for trees growing in closed canopy forest stands. Samples were collected from the alpine Renon site in North Italy, the lowland Hainich site in Central Germany and the boreal Flakaliden site in North Sweden. In addition, Pinus cembra was studied at the alpine site and Pinus sylvestris at the boreal site. The density profiles of tree rings were measured using the DENDRO-2003 densitometer, delta(13)C was measured using high-resolution laser-ablation-combustion-gas chromatography-infra-red mass spectrometry and anatomical characteristics of tree rings (tracheid diameter, cell-wall thickness, cell-wall area and cell-lumen area) were measured using an image analyzer. Based on long-term statistics, climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit, explained <20% of the variation in tree-ring width and wood density over consecutive years, while 29-58% of the variation in tree-ring width were explained by autocorrelation between tree rings. An intensive study of tree rings between 1999 and 2003 revealed that tree ring width and delta(13)C-values of whole wood were significantly correlated with length of the growing season, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The delta(13)C-values were not correlated with precipitation or temperature. A highly significant correlation was also found between delta(13)C of the early wood of one year and the late wood of the previous year, indicating a carry-over effect of the growing conditions of the previous season on current wood production. This latter effect may explain the high autocorrelation of long-term tree-ring statistics. The pattern, however, was complex, showing stepwise decreases as well as stepwise increases in the delta(13)C between late wood and early wood. The results are interpreted in the context of the biochemistry

  18. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  19. Drought responses of a normally well-watered boreal forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevanto, S.; Hölttä, T.; Kolari, P.; Launiainen, S.; Pumpanen, J.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Vesala, T.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the boreal zone water is seldom a limiting factor for plant activity. Springtime snowmelt reloads soil water reservoirs and during the short summer the amount of precipitation is usually enough to keep the ecosystem moist. In Finland, for example, the three summer months (June, July and August) account for more than 30% of the annual precipitation (700 mm/year). We have carried out ecosystem-scale atmosphere-biosphere exchange measurements at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland since 1996. The station is surrounded by a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, which was sown after prescribed burning in 1962. The measurement set up includes an eddy-covariance system for measuring CO2, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes, soil water content measurements by the TDR-system, theta probes and equi-tensiometers, radiation measurements above and inside the canopy as well as automated chamber measurements for soil respiration and shoot-scale photosynthesis. We also measure sap flow in the trees using the Granier method and water tension inside the xylem using stem diameter variation measurements. This set-up allows also estimation of the variation in the stem hydraulic conductivity as well as stem water storage capacity. During the 11 years of measurements there has been three summers when soil water content has limited activity of the ecosystem: 1999, 2002 and 2006. In this study we compared the ecosystem responses of the dry summers to the long term averages of our site and evaluated the conditions when ecosystems-scale effects on the carbon fluxes start occur. We also studied the effects of drought on different components of ecosystem respiration and the water transport and storage capacity of the pine trees. Interestingly, drought did not reduce stem or shoot respiration significantly but the first rainfall event after the drought increased soil respiration more than photosynthesis turning the ecosystem from a sink to a source of carbon.

  20. Quantification of effects of season and nitrogen supply on tree below-ground carbon transfer to ectomycorrhizal fungi and other soil organisms in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Mona N; Briones, Maria J I; Keel, Sonja G; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Campbell, Catherine; Midwood, Andrew J; Thornton, Barry; Hurry, Vaughan; Linder, Sune; Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter

    2010-07-01

    *The flux of carbon from tree photosynthesis through roots to ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and other soil organisms is assumed to vary with season and with edaphic factors such as nitrogen availability, but these effects have not been quantified directly in the field. *To address this deficiency, we conducted high temporal-resolution tracing of (13)C from canopy photosynthesis to different groups of soil organisms in a young boreal Pinus sylvestris forest. *There was a 500% higher below-ground allocation of plant C in the late (August) season compared with the early season (June). Labelled C was primarily found in fungal fatty acid biomarkers (and rarely in bacterial biomarkers), and in Collembola, but not in Acari and Enchytraeidae. The production of sporocarps of ECM fungi was totally dependent on allocation of recent photosynthate in the late season. There was no short-term (2 wk) effect of additions of N to the soil, but after 1 yr, there was a 60% reduction of below-ground C allocation to soil biota. *Thus, organisms in forest soils, and their roles in ecosystem functions, appear highly sensitive to plant physiological responses to two major aspects of global change: changes in seasonal weather patterns and N eutrophication.

  1. Semiochemical disruption of the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Peter De Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott

    2004-01-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine in North America. We evaluated blends of semiochemical disruptants, which included nonhost volatiles and verbenone, for their ability to disrupt attraction of T. piniperda to traps baited with the attractant α-pinene and to Scots...

  2. Effects of a Severe Drought on a Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevanto, S.; Launiainen, S.; Höltta, T.; Kolari, P.; Pumpanen, J.; Korhonen, J. F.; Duursma, R.; Vesala, T.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2008-12-01

    Water is seldom a limiting factor for plant activity in the boreal zone. Melting snow in the spring loads soil water reservoirs and during the short summertime the amount of precipitation usually is enough to prevent the ecosystems from drought. In Finland, for example, the three summer months (June, July and August) account for more than 30% of the annual precipitation (700 mm/year). Summer 2006 was exceptionally dry in Southern Finland. In June and July precipitation was < 40% of the long term average of this time, which resulted in limited soil water availability for the plants. We have carried out ecosystem-scale atmosphere-biosphere exchange measurements at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland since year 1996. The station is surrounded by a homogenous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, which was sown after prescribed burning in 1962. The measurement set up includes an eddy-covariance system for measuring CO2, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes, soil water content measurements by the TDR-system, theta probes and equitensiometers, radiation measurements above and inside the canopy as well as automated chamber measurements for soil respiration and shoot-scale photosynthesis. We also measured sap flow in the trees using the Granier method and water tension inside the xylem using stem diameter variation measurements. The set-up of the sensors also allowed estimation of the variation in the stem hydraulic conductivity. Summer 2006 was the first time in the 11-year-data set, when soil water availability clearly reduced photosynthesis in the ecosystem scale. The drought also reduced respiration, but the reduction was not enough to keep the ecosystem from changing to a carbon source during the drought period. In normal conditions the ecosystem is a clear sink of carbon in summertime. In this study we compared the ecosystem responses of summer 2006 to the long term averages of our site and evaluated the conditions when the plants start reducing

  3. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  4. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity. PMID:27254100

  5. Diplodia Tip Blight and Canker of Pines (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    The fungus Diplodia pinea can cause serious damage to Austrian, ponderosa, red, Scots, mugo, jack, and white pine. Although it is considered a weak pathogen, it may successfully attack and kill trees. It may be more serious on trees growing out of their natural range or stressed by adverse climatic conditions or air pollution. Infection can occur as a result of hail...

  6. N cycling and the composition of terpenes and tannins in boreal forest soils: Effects of logging residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Kukkola, Mikko; Tamminen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence available that certain terpenes and tannins may mediate substantial changes in nitrogen cycling processes in boreal forest soils. Terpenes and tannins are two important groups of plant secondary metabolites: Terpenes are hydrocarbons having different number of isoprene-derived units and tannins are complex polyphenolic compounds able to interact with proteins. Logging residues, consisting of fresh tree tops and branches with needles contain large amounts of terpenes and tannins. Currently there is increasing demand for forest biomass for bioenergy production. Therefore, harvesting of logging residues has become more common from both clear-cutting and thinning stands, instead of conventional stem-only harvest where logging residues are retained on the site. Our aim was to determine how logging residues affect soil N cycling processes in Scots pine and Norway spruce thinning stands in long-term, and how these processes are related to the composition of terpenes and tannins in the soil. Samples were taken from the humus layer of pine and spruce experiments which had been thinned 4-to-19 years before; in the thinning different amounts of logging residues had been distributed on the plots. Logging residues had only little effect on soil microbial biomass N or C. However, in several sites logging residues increased the rate of net N mineralization and the ratios net N mineralization/ C mineralization and net N mineralization/microbial biomass N, and these positive effects were very long-lasting. Logging residues also changed the composition of different terpenes and condensed tannins in soil. In general, with regard to the processes and ratios indicating N availability, stem-only harvest seems to be more favorable than whole-tree harvest. The results from long-term field experiments will be discussed in relation to the effects of different terpenes and tannins, observed in short-term laboratory experiments, on N cycling processes.

  7. Contribution of Soil Surface CO2 Efflux to Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Flux: Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinisto, S. M.; Kellomaki, S.

    2001-05-01

    The aims of the study are to assess the contribution of measured soil surface CO2 efflux to boreal forest net ecosystem flux and to test whether modeled component fluxes such as leaf and surface soil fluxes are consistent with the net flux measured from a tower over a forest stand. Net ecosystem flux was measured continuously in a boreal Scots pine forest in eastern Finland (62° 52'N, 30° 49'E) during the growing period in 2000. Height and diameter of trees in this 50-year-old stand ranged from 10 to 13 m and from 9 to 12 cm, respectively, for 80 % of trees. Eddy-flux measurements were made at the top of a 32-m tower, about 20 m above the canopy. Wind velocity and virtual temperature were measured with a three-axis sonic anemometer. CO2 fluctuations at 32 m were continuously monitored with a CO2 analyzer. Raw data were sampled at 10 Hz and 1/2 hr fluxes calculated. Soil surface CO2 efflux was measured on the top of a feather moss or lichen cover with an IRGA and four automated open dynamic chambers, each equipped with a PAR sensor and air temperature probe. Chambers of 19 cm diameter were made of transparent PMMA. Measurements were made twice per hr, lasting 1 min each. Periods considered in this study included both early and late season conditions, since data from the automated soil surface efflux measurements were available from May to June as well as from August to September. In this study, we aim to compare the measured soil surface CO2 efflux with simultaneously measured net ecosystem flux. The performance of the automated chambers will be tested by comparing with simultaneous measurements from a dark closed static chamber at the same site. A simple regression model, using soil surface temperature as an independent variable, will be built using the static dark chamber data from the previous years. A rough correction for the carbon uptake of moss will be made. This model could be validated later with automated measurements. To investigate further the

  8. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  9. Peatland pines as a proxy for water table fluctuations: disentangling tree growth, hydrology and possible human influence.

    PubMed

    Smiljanić, Marko; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Läänelaid, Alar; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Stajić, Branko; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronological investigations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on Männikjärve peatland in central Estonia showed that annual tree growth of peatland pines can be used as a proxy for past variations of water table levels. Reconstruction of past water table levels can help us to better understand the dynamics of various ecological processes in peatlands, e.g. the formation of vegetation patterns or carbon and nitrogen cycling. Männikjärve bog has one of the longest water table records in the boreal zone, continuously monitored since 1956. Common uncertainties encountered while working with peatland trees (e.g. narrow, missing and wedging rings) were in our case exacerbated with difficulties related to the instability of the relationship between tree growth and peatland environment. We hypothesized that the instable relationship was mainly due to a significant change of the limiting factor, i.e. the rise of the water table level due to human activity. To test our hypothesis we had to use several novel methods of tree-ring chronology analysis as well as to test explicitly whether undetected missing rings biased our results. Since the hypothesis that the instable relationship between tree growth and environment was caused by a change in limiting factor could not be rejected, we proceeded to find possible significant changes of past water table levels using structural analysis of the tree-ring chronologies. Our main conclusions were that peatland pines can be proxies to water table levels and that there were several shifting periods of high and low water table levels in the past 200 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Some Observations on the Scots Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, James

    1978-01-01

    Sketches the history of the Scots language and the political and social history of Scotland, following with a description of the dialect, including its differences from standard English in phonology and vocabulary, and in the area of sociolinguistics. Some thoughts about the possible future of the dialect are added. (IFS/WGA)

  11. Modeling boreal fire and forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, W. J.; McRae, D. J.; Cantin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The circumpolar boreal forest covers about 1.4 billion ha, representing 1/3 of global forest land. Approximately 2/3 of the boreal forest is located in Eurasia and the remainder in North America. Wildland fires annually burn an estimated 12-20 M ha across the entire boreal region, having a major influence on forest structure and composition. However, fire weather, fire behaviour, and fire ecology differ greatly between the boreal forests in eastern and western hemispheres, which have significant impact on tree survival, post-fire regeneration and forest succession. Every year, wildland fires in Canada and Alaska burn an average of 2-3 M ha, primarily by stand-replacing, high intensity crown fires. By comparison, Russian fires burn about 10-15 M ha annually, primarily by low to moderate intensity surface fires that cause minimal tree mortality. Fire weather conditions in the most fire prone regions of Russia are generally more severe than in similar regions of North America. Finally, the species composition of eastern and western boreal forests is also very different. Russian forests are dominated by larch (30%) and pine (28%) with lower components of spruce (14%) and poplar/birch hardwoods (18%) By contrast, Canadian forests are comprised mainly of spruce (35%), pine (22%), poplar/birch (16%), and fir (9%). All of these factors contribute to the variability in vegetation dynamics occurring within the circumpolar boreal region. This modeling study examines the interactions of fire weather, forest composition, fire behaviour, and fire ecology on forest vegetation dynamics within the boreal region. Similar active fire zones in western Canada and eastern Siberia were used as study sites. Historical weather data were collected for both locations and used to calculate fire weather data, which were used as primary driving variables for the Boreal Fire Effects model (BORFIRE). Fire behaviour was calculated in BORFIRE using data for major tree species at both study sites

  12. Land surface model over forest and lake surfaces in a boreal site - Evaluation of the tiling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique Suñén, A.; Nordbo, A.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Mammarella, I.

    2012-04-01

    Land surface model over forest and lake surfaces in a boreal site - Evaluation of the tiling method Andrea Manrique Suñén1, Annika Nordbo2, Gianpaolo Balsamo1, Anton Beljaars1 and Ivan Mammarella2 1 ECMWF, Reading, UK 2 University of Helsinki, Finland The tiling method is used by many models to represent the surface heterogeneity. Each grid-box is divided into fractions of different types of surface, and an area-weighted average of the energy fluxes is computed to couple with the atmosphere. This method provides a flexible characterisation of land complexity, and separate information of sub grid variables. However, not much assessment of its validity has been carried out. To evaluate results for two contrasting surfaces, the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme for Surface Exchanges has been run offline for the year 2006, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis data over a boreal site in southern Finland for two cases. The first one corresponds to a full coverage of the grid-box by high vegetation, and the second one to a full coverage by a lake. The lake model Flake was incorporated into the system to represent inland water processes. It uses a simple parameterisation which has proved to perform well for numerical weather prediction. The resulting fluxes for both cases have been compared to observational data from two stations situated near each other in a Scots pine forest (Hyytiälä) and in a small boreal lake (Valkea-Kotinen), in southern Finland. The turbulent fluxes at the sites were measured using the Eddy-covariance technique. Net radiation, change in heat storage, wind speed, air temperature, and specific humidity and surface pressure were also available for each site. The diurnal and seasonal cycles of the energy fluxes for these contrasting surfaces have been evaluated, and the different energy partitioning has been explained. In general, the effect of the lake's thermal inertia is well represented by the model. The only shortcoming of the lake model appears to

  13. Host-tree preferences of the pine moth (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and pine beauty moth (Lepidopera: Noctuidae) larvae in relation to needle quality

    Treesearch

    Lidia Sukovata; Andrzej Kolk; Jadwiga Jaroszynska; Urszula Krajewska; Agnieszka Purzynska; Valerii Isidorov

    2003-01-01

    The larvae of Dendrolimus pini L. and Panolis flammea (Den. et Schiff.) usually occur in high numbers on different trees within a stand. Studies that focused on the host tree-preference of these two species were conducted in the Wymiarki Forest District (Poland) in 2001. Sixteen Scots pine trees were selected to estimate the...

  14. Improving the modeling of the seasonal carbon cycle of the boreal forest with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Zaehle, Sönke

    2014-05-01

    The boreal ecosystems are characterized a very strong seasonal cycle and they are very sensitive to the climatic variables. The vegetation's deep wintertime dormancy requires a long recovery time during spring before the plants reach their full photosynthetic capacity. During this recovery time the plants are highly susceptible the night frosts. The transition period is different during spring and autumn for the evergreen plants. During spring there is plenty of light, but cold air temperatures inhibit the photosynthesis. The plants therefore experience to high stress levels, as they need to protect their photosynthetic apparatus from intense light. In autumn the air temperature and light level decrease more concurrently. To have a realistic presentation of the carbon cycle in boreal forests it is important to have these characteristics properly modeled, so that also the implications of changing seasonality under climate change can be more reliably predicted. In this study, we focus on the CO2 exchange of a Scots pine forest Sodankylä located in Finnish Lapland, 100 km north from the Arctic Circle. Micrometeorological flux measurements provide information about the exchanges of carbon, energy and water between atmosphere and vegetation. To complement these fluxes, we use dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements, which is an optical measurement and tracks the development of the photosynthetic capacity. These two approaches combined together are very useful when we want to improve the modeling of the forest's CO2 exchange. We used two models that describe the photosynthesis with the biochemical model of Farquhar et al. The FMI-CANOPY is a canopy level model that is feasible to use in parameter estimation. We used the CF measurements of Fv/Fm, that is a measure of the maximum photosynthetic capacity, to include a seasonal development in the base rate of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) in FMI-CANOPY. The simulation results matched the

  15. Ground vegetation reduces forest floor net CH4 uptake in a boreal upland forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Ryhti, Kira; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Boreal upland forests are considered as an important sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) due to CH4 oxidizing microbes in the soil. Recent studies have reported significant CH4 emissions from trees in both upland and wetland forests, however, contribution of ground vegetation to the net CH4 exchange has not been assessed. As the processes and process drivers of the CH4 emissions from vegetation are still poorly understood, partitioning the CH4 exchange in forest ecosystems to soil, ground vegetation and trees is a way to improve our understanding of the CH4 cycling processes in forest ecosystems. We measured the forest floor CH4 exchange at a Scots pine dominated boreal upland forest in Southern Finland (SMEAR II station) during the growing season 2015. The forest floor consisted of mostly shrubs of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and forest floor mosses (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, and Dicranum polysetum). We measured the CH4 fluxes using transparent chambers under three vegetation treatments: normal vegetation (normal), shrubs only (shrubs), and non-vegetated (cut), and under three soil trenching treatments: control, 50 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs excluded), and 1 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs, and microbes excluded). Forest floor acted as a sink of CH4 in all the vegetation and trenching treatments. Presence of ground layer vegetation significantly reduced the forest floor CH4 uptake, whereas soil trenching did not affect the CH4 exchange. Over the period of May - October 2015, the mean forest floor CH4 fluxes were -53.7 (± 3.1 SE), -96.7 (± 3.7), and -91.4 (± 4.3) μg CH4 m2 h-1 from normal, shrubs and cut treatments, respectively. The presence of ground vegetation hence nearly halved the forest floor CH4 uptake compared to the shrubs only and cut treatments. As the largest difference between normal and shrubs treatments were the absence of mosses, our

  16. Projected dynamics of abiotic risks in boreal forest ecosystems (SRES A1B, B1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, O.; Ahrends, B.; Doering, C.; Sogachev, A.

    2009-04-01

    The ongoing climate change causes an increasing frequency of weather extremes (Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can result in wide area damage events (drought, windthrows/breaks) within boreal forest ecosystem. The damage effects, however, depend not only on the strength of a driving force itself (e.g. wind speed) but also on combinations of effecting agents and forest structure. Thus, the present study investigates the projected future developments of abiotic risks in different boreal forests during the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. Climate scenario data of coupled ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled by the regional climate model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of 0.2° x 0.2°, using daily time- steps. With these input data the small-scale modelling with coupled process based sub-models (Jansen et al., 2008) was carried out e.g. for Solling region, (Germany) calculating the water and energy balance of forest ecosystems with modified BROOK 90 (Ahrends et al., 2009) and wind loading on trees with 3D ABL model SCADIS (Panferov and Sogachev, 2008). Norway spruce and Scots pine of various ages were chosen as typical tree species for boreal forest ecosystems and cambisols, podzolic cambisols and stagnosols as typical soil types. The risks of drought and windthrow/breaks for a certain forest stand result from daily combinations of soil water characteristics, static and gust wind loads and soil texture. Damaged stands show higher vulnerability and thus - positive feedback to climate forcing (Vygodskaya et al., 2008). Therefore differences of microclimatological conditions in the remaining stand after changes in forest structure (Radler et al, 2008) were taken into account. Modell output was aggregated to 30-years periods and compared to "present conditions" of 1981-2010. The results show an increment of drought risks towards 2100 caused by changes in precipitation pattern and increase of mean air temperature, whereas the A1B scenario is

  17. Concentrations and flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in boreal forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäki, Mari; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) impact soil processes as VOCs transmit signals between roots and rhizosphere (Ditengou et al., 2015), VOCs can regulate microbial activity (Asensio et al., 2012), and VOCs can also promote root growth (Hung et al., 2012). Belowground concentrations of VOCs have not been measured in situ and for this reason, knowledge of how different soil organisms such as roots, rhizosphere and decomposers contribute to VOC production is limited. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify VOC fluxes and concentrations of different horizons from boreal forest soil. The VOC concentrations and fluxes were measured from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland from 21th of April to 2nd of December in 2016. VOC fluxes were measured using dynamic (flow-through) chambers from five soil collars placed on five different locations. VOC concentrations were also measured in each location from four different soil horizons with the measurement depth 1-107 cm. VOCs were collected from underground gas collectors into the Tenax-Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes using portable pumps ( 100 ml min-1). The VOC concentrations and fluxes of isoprene, 11 monoterpenes, 13 sesquiterpenes and different oxygenated VOCs were measured. Sample tubes were analyzed using thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Soil temperature and soil water content were continuously monitored for each soil horizon. Our preliminary results show that the primary source of VOCs is organic soil layer and the contribution of mineral soil to the VOC formation is minor. VOC fluxes and concentrations were dominated by monoterpenes such as α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, and Δ3-carene. Monoterpene concentration is almost 10-fold in organic soil compared to the deeper soil layers. However, the highest VOC fluxes on the soil surface were measured in October, whereas the monoterpene concentrations in organic soil were highest in July

  18. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  19. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  20. Relating Radar Backscatter to Boreal Forest Canopy Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan

    1995-01-01

    During the first intensive field campaign for the Boreal Ecosystem Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) in August of 1993, AIRSAR data were acquired over the entire BOREAS study area. On of the objectives of the AIRSAR deployment was to examine the sensitivity of the radar signal to vegetation type and biomass distribution in the boreal forest and to develop algorithms for inferring vegetation parameters. During the experiment a set of ground measurements were also made to support the AIRSAR data analysis. The dominant stands in the study area consist of black spruce, young jack pine, old jack pine, and aspen. These stands represent a wide range of biomass and canopy architectural variations which can be distinguished in SAR images.

  1. Molecular identification of Phytoplasmas infecting diseased pine trees in the UNESCO-protected Curonian Spit of Lithuania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although mainly known as pathogens that affect angiosperms, phytoplasmas have recently been detected in diseased coniferous plants. In 2008-2014, we observed, in the Curonian Spit of western Lithuania and in forests of southern Lithuania (Varena district), diseased trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest...

  2. Uptake and recycling of lead by boreal forest plants: Quantitative estimates from a site in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2005-05-01

    As a consequence of deposition of atmospheric pollution, the lead concentration in the mor layer (the organic horizon) of remote boreal forest soils in Sweden is raised far above natural levels. How the mor will respond to decreased atmospheric pollution is not well known and is dependent on future deposition rates, downward migration losses and upward fluxes in the soil profile. Plants may contribute to the upward flux of lead by 'pumping' lead back to the mor surface through root uptake and subsequent litter fall. We use lead concentration and stable isotope ( 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) measurements of forest vegetation to quantify plant uptake rates from the soil and direct from the atmosphere at two sites in northern Sweden; an undisturbed mature forest and a disturbed site with Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) growing on a recently exposed mineral soil (C-horizon) containing a minimum of atmospherically derived pollution lead. Analyses of forest mosses from a herbarium collection (spanning the last ˜100 yr) and soil matrix samples suggest that the atmospheric lead deposited on plants and soil has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of 1.15, while lead derived from local soil minerals has an average ratio of ˜1.47. Since the biomass of trees and field layer shrubs has an average 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of ˜1.25, this indicates that 70% ± 10% of the inventory of 1 ± 0.8 mg Pb m -2 stored in plants in the mature forest originates from pollution. Needles, bark and apical stemwood of the pine growing on the disturbed soil, show lower 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios (as low as 1.21) than the roots and basal stemwood (having ratios > 1.36), which indicate that plants are able to incorporate lead directly from the atmosphere (˜50% of the total tree uptake). By partitioning the total uptake of lead into uptake from the atmosphere and different soil layers using an isotopic mixing model, we estimate that ˜0.03 ± 0.01, 0.02 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.01 mg Pb m -2 yr -1 (mean ± SD), is taken up

  3. Greater carbon allocation to mycorrhizal fungi reduces tree nitrogen uptake in a boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Inselsbacher, Erich; Stangl, Zsofia; Oren, Ram; Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The central role that ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses play in the structure and function of boreal forests pivots around the common assumption that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are exchanged at rates favorable for plant growth. However, this may not always be the case. It has been hypothesized that the benefits mycorrhizal fungi convey to their host plants strongly depends upon the availability of C and N, both of which are rapidly changing as a result of intensified human land use and climate change. Using large-scale shading and N addition treatments, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of changes in C and N supply on the transfer of N in intact EM associations with -15 yr. old Scots pine trees. To assess the dynamics of N transfer in EM symbioses, we added trace amounts of highly enriched 5NO3(-) label to the EM-dominated mor-layer and followed the fate of the 15N label in tree foliage, fungal chitin on EM root tips, and EM sporocarps. Despite no change in leaf biomass, shading resulted in reduced tree C uptake, ca. 40% lower fungal biomass on EM root tips, and greater 15N label in tree foliage compared to unshaded control plots, where more 15N label was found in fungal biomass on EM colonized root tips. Short-term addition of N shifted the incorporation of 15N label from EM fungi to tree foliage, despite no significant changes in below-ground tree C allocation to EM fungi. Contrary to the common assumption that C and N are exchanged at rates favorable for plant growth, our results show for the first time that under N-limited conditions greater C allocation to EM fungi in the field results in reduced, not increased, N transfer to host trees. Moreover, given the ubiquitous nature of mycorrhizal symbioses, our results stress the need to incorporate mycorrhizal dynamics into process-based ecosystem models to better predict forest C and N cycles in light of global climate change.

  4. Direct Measurements of Leaf Level CH4 and CO2 Exchange in a Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, P.; Lindroth, A.; Vestin, P.; Båth, A.

    2008-12-01

    Reports of aerobic CH4 sources from leaves and litter of a variety of forests and plant functional types have added a potential mystery to our understanding of CH4 dynamics especially if these sources contribute enough to have a significant impact on the global budget. We have made direct measurements of leaf level CH4 and CO2 exchange using a quartz branch cuvette in a boreal forest in Norunda, Sweden since August of this year. The cuvette was temperature controlled and was designed to close for 5 minutes every 30 minutes. Air was circulated to a Los Gatos CH4/CO2 infrared absorption laser spectrometer. Air and cuvette temperatures, PAR and UV radiation (Kipp and Zonen, CUV4; spectral range 300-380 nm) were measured at the branch chamber. The study was made in the Norunda 100 years old stand consisting of a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) , Birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The cuvette was moved between trees at roughly 5 day intervals. A null empty cuvette period was included in the rotation. The initial data show the expected CO2 uptake correlated with incident PAR and low rates of emission at night. However, there was no clear pattern of emissions detectable in the CH4. We estimate that we should be able to resolve a change of 0.5 ppbv CH4 min- 1 with our analytical setup. Both the daytime (1000-1600) and nighttime (2200-0400) averages were less than our detection. Even on very sunny days with high PAR and UV flux values, no consistent pattern was detectable. The lack of a distinct signal may be due to the fact that the past month has been very rainy, it is late in the growth season at these latitudes and sun angles are increasing quickly. The trees were at the northern edge of a clearing and we were also measuring mid height (2-3 m) leaves and branches of young trees. The branch cuvette design can also be optimized to improve its sensitivity.

  5. Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

    2004-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots.

  6. AmeriFlux CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

    DOE Data Explorer

    Margolis, Hank A. [Université Laval

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce. Site Description - 49.69247° N / 74.34204° W, elevation of 387 mm, 90 - 100 yr old Black Spruce, Jack Pine, feather moss

  7. Longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer; Donald W. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Abstract:This report describes the longleaf pine forest type and the characteristics of both tree and forest that can affect management decisions.Longleaf pine is highly adaptable to a range of management goals and silvicultural systems.Management options and appropriate silvicultural methods for the regeneration and management of this species are...

  8. Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    William Dent Sterrett

    1920-01-01

    Jack pine is a very frugal tree in its climatic and soil requirements. The northern limit of its natural range is within 14 degrees of the Arctic Circle and the southern is marked by the southern shores of Lake Michigan. No other North American pine grows naturally so far north and all the others grow farther south. It develops commercial stands and reproduces itself...

  9. SCoT: a Python toolbox for EEG source connectivity.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Martin; Brunner, Clemens; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of brain connectivity has become an important research tool in neuroscience. Connectivity can be estimated between cortical sources reconstructed from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Such analysis often relies on trial averaging to obtain reliable results. However, some applications such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) require single-trial estimation methods. In this paper, we present SCoT-a source connectivity toolbox for Python. This toolbox implements routines for blind source decomposition and connectivity estimation with the MVARICA approach. Additionally, a novel extension called CSPVARICA is available for labeled data. SCoT estimates connectivity from various spectral measures relying on vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Optionally, these VAR models can be regularized to facilitate ill posed applications such as single-trial fitting. We demonstrate basic usage of SCoT on motor imagery (MI) data. Furthermore, we show simulation results of utilizing SCoT for feature extraction in a BCI application. These results indicate that CSPVARICA and correct regularization can significantly improve MI classification. While SCoT was mainly designed for application in BCIs, it contains useful tools for other areas of neuroscience. SCoT is a software package that (1) brings combined source decomposition and connectivtiy estimation to the open Python platform, and (2) offers tools for single-trial connectivity estimation. The source code is released under the MIT license and is available online at github.com/SCoT-dev/SCoT.

  10. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  11. Evidence that longer needle retention of spruce and pine populations at high elevations and high latitudes is largely a phenotypic response.

    PubMed

    Reich, P B; Oleksyn, J; Modrzynski, J; Tjoelker, M G

    1996-07-01

    There is abundant evidence that evergreen conifers living at high elevations or at high latitudes have longer-lived needles than trees of the same species living elsewhere. This pattern is likely caused by the influence of low temperature in combination with related factors such as a short growing season and low nutrient availability. Because it is not known to what degree such patterns result from phenotypic versus genotypic variation, we evaluated needle longevity for common-garden-grown lowland populations of European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of wide latitudinal origin and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) of wide elevational origin. Nine-year-old trees of 16 Scots pine populations ranging in origin from 47 degrees to 60 degrees N were studied in Kórnik, Poland (52 degrees N) and 18-year-old trees of 18 Norway spruce populations ranging in origin from 670 to 1235 m elevation in southwestern Poland were studied near Morawina, Poland (51 degrees N, 180 m elevation). There was no tendency in either species for populations from northern or high elevation origins to retain needles longer than other populations. All of the Scots pine populations had between 2.5 to 3.0 needle age cohorts and all of the Norway spruce populations had between 6.4 and 7.2 needle age cohorts. Thus, extended needle retention in Scots pine and Norway spruce populations in low-temperature habitats at high elevations and high latitudes appears to be largely an environmentally regulated phenotypic acclimation.

  12. The late Quaternary history of lodgepole and jack pines

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1985-01-01

    Lodgepole and jack pines (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud, and Pinus banksiana Lamb.), components of the North American boreal forest, have pioneering roles after major disturbances such as fire or glaciation. These species are closely related and hybridize in western Canada, but their fossil records and contemporary variation...

  13. The haggis tolerance test in Scots and Sassenachs.

    PubMed

    Fraser, A G; Rees, A; Matthews, S; Williams, G T

    To find out if the Scottish national dish, haggis, contributes to the high incidence of coronary heart disease in Scotland the lipaemic effect of a meal of 200 g of haggis was measured in six Scottish and 10 Sassenach men. The Scots had higher fasting cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and a lower proportion of high density lipoprotein cholesterol than the Sassenachs. Four subjects were found to have hyperlipoproteinaemia, which had been unrecognised previously. Serum cholesterol concentrations did not change after haggis was eaten (mean dose 2.6 g/kg body weight). Serum concentrations of triglycerides increased by 51% at 90 minutes in the Sassenachs but were unaltered in the Scots. There were no serious adverse effects. This study shows that Scots have higher lipid concentrations than Sassenachs but seem to be resistant to the lipaemic effect of haggis. The haggis tolerance test may be useful in Sassenachs.

  14. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x

  15. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Disturbances (fire and grazing by reindeer) and soil methane fluxes -- case studies from the subarctic boreal forest of Finish Lapland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    In aerobic, well-drained environments such as boreal upland forest soils, methane (CH4) is oxidized by microbes, resulting into the soils acting as a sink of atmospheric CH4. The emission of CH4 is controlled primarily by soil moisture and temperature, but also by the availability of organic carbon. Forest fires are one of the predominant natural disturbances in subarctic boreal forests that strongly influence soil moisture and soil temperature values and carbon dynamics of the soils. At the same time also the effect of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) grazing on soil moisture and temperature regimes in the lichen-dominated Arctic ecosystems has been found to be considerable. By removing the lichen carpet and damaging the secondary vegetation mat, reindeer make patches of bare soil common, and these factors in combination with trampling allow for soil to warm up faster, reach higher temperatures, and reduce the soil moisture content. We studied the effect of reindeer grazing and forest fire on fluxes of CH4 in northern boreal subarctic Scots pine forest stands. The study areas are in eastern Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve, Finland (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E). The sites are situated north of the Arctic Circle, near to the northern timberline at an average of 300 m altitude. For studing the effect of fire we have established sample areas (with three replicate plots in each) in a chronosequence of 4 age classes (2 to 152 years since the last fire). The fire chronosequence consisted of four types of areas with different time since the last forest fire: i) 5 years, ii) 45 years, iii) 70 years and iv) 155 years after fire. For studing the effect of reindeer grazing (comparison of grazed and non-grazed areas) we have established the study areas (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) along the borderline between Finland and Russia. The ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the

  17. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  18. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  19. Climatic dipoles drive two principal modes of North American boreal bird irruption.

    PubMed

    Strong, Courtenay; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Betancourt, Julio L; Koenig, Walter D

    2015-05-26

    Pine Siskins exemplify normally boreal seed-eating birds that can be sparse or absent across entire regions of North America in one year and then appear in large numbers the next. These dramatic avian "irruptions" are thought to stem from intermittent but broadly synchronous seed production (masting) in one year and meager seed crops in the next. A prevalent hypothesis is that widespread masting in the boreal forest at high latitudes is driven primarily by favorable climate during the two to three consecutive years required to initiate and mature seed crops in most conifers. Seed production is expensive for trees and is much reduced in the years following masting, driving boreal birds to search elsewhere for food and overwintering habitat. Despite this plausible logic, prior efforts to discover climate-irruption relationships have been inconclusive. Here, analysis of more than 2 million Pine Siskin observations from Project FeederWatch, a citizen science program, reveals two principal irruption modes (North-South and West-East), both of which are correlated with climate variability. The North-South irruption mode is, in part, influenced by winter harshness, but the predominant climate drivers of both modes manifest in the warm season as continental-scale pairs of oppositely signed precipitation and temperature anomalies (i.e., dipoles). The climate dipoles juxtapose favorable and unfavorable conditions for seed production and wintering habitat, motivating a push-pull paradigm to explain irruptions of Pine Siskins and possibly other boreal bird populations in North America.

  20. Tree species partition N uptake by soil depth in boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Moore, J D; Ouimet, R; Marty, C

    2014-05-01

    It is recognized that the coexistence of herbaceous species in N-depleted habitats can be facilitated by N partitioning; however, the existence of such a phenomenon for trees has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we show from both foliage and soil 15N natural abundance values and from a 12-year in situ 15N addition experiment, that black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), two widespread species of the Canadian boreal forest, take up N at different depths. While black spruce takes up N from the organic soil, jack pine acquires it deeper within the highly N-depleted mineral soil. Systematic difference in foliar 15N natural abundance between the two species across seven sites distributed throughout the eastern Canadian boreal forest shows that N spatial partitioning is a widespread phenomenon. Distinct relationships between delta15N and N concentration in leaves of both species further emphasize their difference in N acquisition strategies. This result suggests that such complementary mechanisms of N acquisition could facilitate tree species coexistence in such N-depleted habitats and could contribute to the positive biodiversity-productivity relationship recently revealed for the eastern Canadian boreal forest, where jack pine is present. It also has implications for forest management and provides new insights to interpret boreal forest regeneration following natural or anthropogenic perturbations.

  1. Climatic dipoles drive two principal modes of North American boreal bird irruption

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Courtenay; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Betancourt, Julio L.; Koenig, Walter D.

    2015-01-01

    Pine Siskins exemplify normally boreal seed-eating birds that can be sparse or absent across entire regions of North America in one year and then appear in large numbers the next. These dramatic avian “irruptions” are thought to stem from intermittent but broadly synchronous seed production (masting) in one year and meager seed crops in the next. A prevalent hypothesis is that widespread masting in the boreal forest at high latitudes is driven primarily by favorable climate during the two to three consecutive years required to initiate and mature seed crops in most conifers. Seed production is expensive for trees and is much reduced in the years following masting, driving boreal birds to search elsewhere for food and overwintering habitat. Despite this plausible logic, prior efforts to discover climate-irruption relationships have been inconclusive. Here, analysis of more than 2 million Pine Siskin observations from Project FeederWatch, a citizen science program, reveals two principal irruption modes (North-South and West-East), both of which are correlated with climate variability. The North-South irruption mode is, in part, influenced by winter harshness, but the predominant climate drivers of both modes manifest in the warm season as continental-scale pairs of oppositely signed precipitation and temperature anomalies (i.e., dipoles). The climate dipoles juxtapose favorable and unfavorable conditions for seed production and wintering habitat, motivating a push-pull paradigm to explain irruptions of Pine Siskins and possibly other boreal bird populations in North America. PMID:25964328

  2. Increased nitrogen availability counteracts climatic change feedback from increased temperature on boreal forest soil organic matter degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhagen, Bjorn; Nilsson, Mats; Oquist, Mats; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Sparrman, Tobias; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2014-05-01

    Over the last century, the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have increased dramatically, greatly exceeding pre-industrial levels that had prevailed for the preceding 420 000 years. At the same time the annual anthropogenic contribution to the global terrestrial nitrogen cycle has increased and currently exceeds natural inputs. Both temperature and nitrogen levels have profound effects on the global carbon cycle including the rate of organic matter decomposition, which is the most important biogeochemical process that returns CO2 to the atmosphere. Here we show for the first time that increasing the availability of nitrogen not only directly affects the rate of organic matter decomposition but also significantly affects its temperature dependence. We incubated litter and soil organic matter from a long-term (40 years) nitrogen fertilization experiment in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) forest at different temperatures and determined the temperature dependence of the decomposition of the sample's organic matter in each case. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of the decomposition of fresh plant litter but strongly reduced that for humus soil organic matter. The Q10 response of the 0-3 cm soil layer decreased from 2.5±0.35 to an average of 1.9±0.21 over all nitrogen treatments, and from 2.2±0.19 to 1.6±0.16 in response to the most intense nitrogen fertilization treatment in the 4-7 cm soil layer. Long-term nitrogen additions also significantly affected the organic chemical composition (as determined by 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy) of the soil organic matter. These changes in chemical composition contributed significantly (p<0.05) to the reduced Q10 response. These new insights into the relationship between nitrogen availability and the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition will be important for understanding and predicting how increases in global temperature and rising anthropogenic

  3. X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS/deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.; Idir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    SCOTS is a high precision slope measurement technology based on deflectometry. Light pattern on a LCD display illuminates the test surface and its reflected image is used to calculate the surface slope. SCOTS provides a high dynamic range full field measurement of the optics without null optics required. We report SCOTS tests on X-ray mirrors to nm and even sub nm level with precise calibration of the test system. A LCD screen with dots/check board pattern was aligned into the system at the test mirror position to calibrate camera imaging distortion in-situ. System errors were further eliminated by testing and subtracting a reference flat which was also aligned at the same position as the test mirror. A virtual reference based on the ideal shape of the test surface was calculated and subtracted from the test raw data. This makes the test a `virtual null' test. Two X-ray mirrors were tested with SCOTS. 0.1μrad (rms) slope precision and sub nm (rms) surface accuracy were achieved.

  4. Determination of isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene oxidation products in boreal forest aerosols from Hyytiälä, Finland: diel variations and possible link with particle formation events.

    PubMed

    Kourtchev, I; Ruuskanen, T M; Keronen, P; Sogacheva, L; Dal Maso, M; Reissell, A; Chi, X; Vermeylen, R; Kulmala, M; Maenhaut, W; Claeys, M

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene, are photo-oxidized in the atmosphere to non-volatile species resulting in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The goal of this study was to examine time trends and diel variations of oxidation products of isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene in order to investigate whether they are linked with meteorological parameters or trace gases. Separate day-night aerosol samples (PM(1)) were collected in a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during 28 July-11 August 2005 and analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, inorganic trace gases (SO(2), CO, NO(x), and O(3)), meteorological parameters, and the particle number concentration were monitored. The median total concentration of terpenoic acids (i.e., pinic acid, norpinic acid, and two novel compounds, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 2-hydroxy-4-isopropyladipic acid) was 65 ng m(-3), while that of isoprene oxidation products (i.e., 2-methyltetrols and C(5) alkene triols) was 17.2 ng m(-3). The 2-methyltetrols exhibited day/night variations with maxima during day-time, while alpha-/beta-pinene oxidation products did not show any diel variation. The sampling period was marked by a relatively high condensation sink, caused by pre-existing aerosol particles, and no nucleation events. In general, the concentration trends of the SOA compounds reflected those of the inorganic trace gases, meteorological parameters, and condensation sink. Both the isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene SOA products were strongly influenced by SO(2), which is consistent with earlier reports that acidity plays a role in SOA formation. The results support previous proposals that oxygenated VOCs contribute to particle growth processes above boreal forest.

  5. Effect of acid rain on pine needles as food for capercaillie in winter.

    PubMed

    Spidsø, T K; Korsmo, H

    1993-07-01

    The effects of long-range air pollution on the chemical composition of needles of Scots pinePinus sylvestris and consequences for capercaillieTetrao urogallus feeding on the needles were studied. Samples of pine needles from localities receiving different amounts of acid rain were taken in early March. Concentrations of N and P were highest in needles from the most acidified areas, and N concentration was 35% higher in the most heavily polluted area than in the least polluted. Secondary chemicals decreased significantly with increasing acidification. Concentrations of Cd in pine needles were closely correlated with the acid deposition levels, with highest concentrations in the most polluted area. Al concentration also increased with increasing acidification. These results provide evidence that acid rain increases the nutritive value of pine needles through a fertilizing effect. Enhanced levels of certain metals are considered too low to be directly toxic to capercaillie. However, behavioural anomalies cannot be excluded.

  6. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    PubMed

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  7. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    PubMed

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die.

  8. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J. Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M. Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  9. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  10. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  11. Interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Methylobacterium affects nutrient uptake and growth of pine seedlings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Sutela, Suvi; Ardanov, Pavlo; Suorsa, Marja; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-09-01

    Tissues of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) contain several endophytic microorganisms of which Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 is a dominant species throughout the year. Similar to other endophytic bacteria, M. extorquens is able to colonize host plant tissues without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to endophytic bacteria, plants associate simultaneously with a diverse set of microorganisms. Furthermore, plant-colonizing microorganisms interact with each other in a species- or strain-specific manner. Several studies on beneficial microorganisms interacting with plants have been carried out, but few deal with interactions between different symbiotic organisms and specifically, how these interactions affect the growth and development of the host plant. Our aim was to study how the pine endophyte M. extorquens DSM13060 affects pine seedlings and how the co-inoculation with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi [Suillus variegatus (SV) or Pisolithus tinctorius (PT)] alters the response of Scots pine. We determined the growth, polyamine and nutrient contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings in vitro. Our results show that M. extorquens is able to improve the growth of seedlings at the same level as the ECM fungi SV and PT do. The effect of co-inoculation using different symbiotic organisms was seen in terms of changes in growth and nutrient uptake. Inoculation using M. extorquens together with ECM fungi improved the growth of the host plant even more than single ECM inoculation. Symbiotic organisms also had a strong effect on the potassium content of the seedling. The results indicate that interaction between endophyte and ECM fungus is species dependent, leading to increased or decreased nutrient content and growth of pine seedlings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  13. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  14. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  15. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes. PMID:23236159

  16. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Chapin, F Stuart

    2012-12-26

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes.

  17. Influence of Forest-Cover Types on Spring Thaw Timing in the Southern Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, H. F.; Helgason, W.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest of the world's biomes covering about 11% of its terrestrial surface and accounting for about 18% of its total terrestrial carbon pool. The timing of spring thaw, resulting in a lengthening or shortening of the growing season, has a strong influence on boreal forest productivity and associated carbon dioxide exchange with the atmosphere. A study of the influence of forest-cover type upon spring-thaw timing in the southern Canadian boreal forest has been undertaken using 18 years of soil temperature measurements at depths of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm. Soil was considered to be thawing during days of consistent near-zero soil temperature (daily mean of -0.5 to 0.5 °C and standard deviation of near zero). We compared the temporal pattern (first and last day) of soil thaw at three mature forest stands: trembling aspen, black spruce, and jack pine located in central Saskatchewan (~54°N, ~105°W). The soil freezing depth was deepest at the jack pine site (>100 cm) and shallowest at the black spruce site (<50 cm during most years). The mean last day of thaw at the 5-cm depth was earliest for the aspen site followed by jack pine and black spruce, respectively, with approximately 4 days difference among sites. Deeper in the soil profile, the trend of soil thaw remained in the same order, however, with much larger differences among sites: jack pine thawed 16 days later than aspen and black spruce thawed 18 days later than jack pine. Our analysis will relate the observed site differences in thaw timing to differences in site (soil and canopy) characteristics. Developing an improved understanding of the factors influencing the inter-annual and inter-site variability of soil thaw at these sites is required to appropriately characterize the ecological and hydrological responses of these sites to projected climate change.

  18. Chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in relation to heavy metal concentrations in soil water from boreal peatlands after clear-cut harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiikkilä, O.; Nieminen, T.; Starr, M.; Ukonmaanaho, L.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal peatlands form an important terrestrial carbon reserve and are a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to surface waters, particularly when disturbed through forestry practices such as draining or timber harvesting. Heavy metals show a strong affinity to organic matter and so, along with DOM, heavy metals can be mobilized and transported from the soil to surface waters and sediments where they may become toxic to aquatic organisms and pass up the food chain. The complexation of heavy metals with DOM can be expected to be related and determined by the chemical characteristics of DOM and oxidation/reducing conditions in the peat. We extracted interstitial water from peat samples and determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and Al, Cu, Zn and Fe in various fractions of DOM isolated by adsorption properties (XAD-8 fractionation) and molecular-weight (ultrafiltration). The peat samples were taken from 0-30 and 30-50 cm depth in drained peatland catchments two years after whole-tree or stem-only clear-cut harvesting (Scots pine or Norway spruce) had been carried out. The samples from the upper layer had been subject to alternating saturation/aeration conditions while the deeper layer had been continuously under the water table. The fractionation of DOC and DON according to both adsorption properties and molecular-weight fractions clearly differed between the upper and lower peat layers. While the hydrophobic acid fraction contained proportionally more DOC and DON than the hydrophilic acid fraction in the upper peat layer the results were vice versa in the lower peat layer. High-molecular-weight compounds (> 100 kDa) were proportionally more abundant in the upper and low-molecular-weight compounds (< 1 kDa) in the lower peat layer. These differences are assumed to reflect differences in the aerobic/ anaerobic conditions and degree of decomposition between the two layers. The concentrations of Zn, Al

  19. Southern Pine Beetle Competitors

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When southern pine beetles mass attack a living pine tree, if colonization is successful the tree dies and its phloem becomes immediately available to a complex of other bark beetles and long-horned beetles, all of which, in order to reproduce, compete for the new resource. In southern pines the phloem-inhabiting guild is composed of the southern pine beetle...

  20. Seeding and planting pines

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Willard; L. Max Schmollinger

    1989-01-01

    Pines that occur naturally in parts of the region, as well as those that do not, have been introduced throughout. Pines usually produce greater volumes of wood faster than hardwoods, but in many parts of the region there is no market for pine stumpage or logs. Aside from wood production, pines are established for Christmas trees, windbreaks, landscaping, erosion...

  1. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  2. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Treesearch

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  3. Nine Years of Irrigation Cause Vegetation and Fine Root Shifts in a Water-Limited Pine Forest

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Claude; Steffen, Jan; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Hajdas, Irka; Brunner, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C) measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling. PMID:24802642

  4. Nine years of irrigation cause vegetation and fine root shifts in a water-limited pine forest.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Claude; Steffen, Jan; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Hajdas, Irka; Brunner, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C) measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling.

  5. Climate as a driver of continent-wide irruptions in boreal seed-eating birds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, C.; Zuckerberg, B.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal seed-eating birds regularly breed and overwinter throughout Canada and Alaska, but every few years these species demonstrate impressive irruptive migrations out of the boreal forest and into more southerly regions. It is thought that irruptive migrations are inversely dependent on a circumboreally synchronized pattern of seed crop fluctuations in boreal trees; seed-eating boreal birds stay in the north when food is plentiful, but sojourn south when food is scarce. Because both seed production and bird irruptions are characterized by periodicity ranging from biennial to decadal cycles, there is a strong possibility that these ecological phenomena are driven by climate variability. Using over twenty years of data from Project FeederWatch (a national citizen science project), we found that 'super irruptions' are correlated with continent-wide irruptive events in pine siskin population, and that these irruptions are associated with multi-decadal climate variability of Pacific origin. We also investigate how climate variability may influence the distribution of boreal bird species across different regions of North America during winter, and evaluate results in the context of limited banding data to assess possible geographic pathways of irruptions.

  6. Pine embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Tillman-Sutela, Eila; Kauppi, Anneli; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism that controls normal growth and development as well as many defence responses. At present, research on PCD in different plant species is actively carried out due to the possibilities offered by modern methods in molecular biology and the increasing amount of genome data. The pine seed provides a favourable model for PCD because it represents an interesting inheritance of seed tissues as well as an anatomically well-described embryogenesis during which several tissues die via morphologically different PCD processes. PMID:19826239

  7. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba; Canadian Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  8. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.

  9. Journeying into the Anthropocene - Scots pine and eastern hemlock over the next 400 years

    Treesearch

    Duncan Stone

    2014-01-01

    Our native trees are much loved and valued components of our forests and fields, towns and cities. For a host of reasons - conservation, landscape, shade, and their sheer visual glory, we want our trees to grow big and old. But it takes time - often several centuries - from planting a tree to the desired outcome. This means that we need to choose trees today, which can...

  10. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  11. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  12. Formosan subterranean termite resistance to heat treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce

    Treesearch

    W. Ramsay Smith; Andreas O. Rapp; Christian Welzbacher; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south (Figure 1) and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various...

  13. Stilbenes as constitutive and induced protection compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    Treesearch

    Anni Harju; Martti Venalainen

    2012-01-01

    The goals of our studies are to describe the natural variation in the concentration of constitutive heartwood extractives; estimate the genetic parameters related to heartwood characteristics; determine whether there is a genetic connection between constitutive and inducible production of stilbenes; and, together with technical experts, to develop fast and...

  14. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  15. Climatic Changes in the East-European Forest-Steppe and Effects on Scots Pine Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, S. M.; Chendev, Yu. G.; Lupo, A. R.; Hubbart, J. A.; Timashchuk, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change during the 20th and early 21st centuries in the transitional zone between forests and grasslands at the center of the East-European Plain (Voronezh oblast) was determined by examining climate trends and variability using tree ring radial increment data as representative of productivity. An increase in atmospheric moisture for the warm period of the year (May-September) since 1890s, and mean annual temperatures since the 1950s was identified. During the same time period, there was a marked increase in amplitude of the annual variations for temperature and precipitation. Study results revealed trends, variability in the climatic indices, and corresponding radial wood increment for the regional stands of Pinus sylvestris L. These fluctuations are consistent with 10-12-years Schwabe-Wolf, 22-years Hale, and the 32-36-years Bruckner Solar Cycles. There was an additional relationship found between high-frequency (short-period) climate fluctuations, lasting for about three years, and 70-90-years fluctuations of the moisture regime in the study region corresponding to longer cycles. The results of this study can help guide management decisions in the study region and elsewhere, especially where climate change induced alterations to the state and productivity of forest ecosystems and associated natural resource commodities are of growing concern.

  16. Impacts of predicted climate change on recruitment at the geographical limits of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Matías, Luis; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are having a significant impact on the distribution of plant species, with effects particularly evident at range limits. We assessed the capacity of Pinus sylvestris L. populations at northernmost and southernmost limits of the distribution to cope with projected changes in climate. We investigated responses including seed germination and early seedling growth and survival, using seeds from northernmost (Kevo, Finland) and southernmost (Granada, Spain) populations. Seeds were grown under current climate conditions in each area and under temperatures increased by 5 °C, with changes in precipitation of +30% or -30% with reference to current values at northern and southern limits, respectively, in a fully factorial controlled-conditions experimental design. Increased temperatures reduced germination time and enhanced biomass gain at both range edges but reduced survival at the southern range edge. Higher precipitation also increased survival and biomass but only under a southern climate. Seeds from the southern origin emerged faster, produced bigger seedlings, allocated higher biomass to roots, and survived better than northern ones. These results indicate that recruitment will be reduced at the southernmost range of the species, whereas it will be enhanced at the northern limit, and that the southern seed sources are better adapted to survive under drier conditions. However, future climate will impose a trade-off between seedling growth and survival probabilities. At the southern range edge, higher growth may render individuals more susceptible to mortality where greater aboveground biomass results in greater water loss through evapotranspiration.

  17. Climate signals derived from cell anatomy of Scots pine in NE Germany.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Heinrich, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Helle, Gerhard; Liñán, Isabel Dorado; Heinken, Thilo

    2013-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies of Pinus sylvestris L. from latitudinal and altitudinal limits of the species distribution have been widely used for climate reconstructions, but there are many sites within the temperate climate zone, as is the case in northeastern Germany, at which there is little evidence of a clear climate signal in the chronologies. In this study, we developed long chronologies of several cell structure variables (e.g., average lumen area and cell wall thickness) from P. sylvestris growing in northeastern Germany and investigated the influence of climate on ring widths and cell structure variables. We found significant correlations between cell structure variables and temperature, and between tree-ring width and relative humidity and vapor pressure, respectively, enabling the development of robust reconstructions from temperate sites that have not yet been realized. Moreover, it has been shown that it may not be necessary to detrend chronologies of cell structure variables and thus low-frequency climate signals may be retrieved from longer cell structure chronologies. The relatively extensive resource of archaeological material of P. sylvestris covering approximately the last millennium may now be useful for climate reconstructions in northeastern Germany and other sites in the temperate climate zone.

  18. Scarp within Chasma Boreale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This HiRISE image is of the north polar layered deposits (PLD) and underlying units exposed along the margins of Chasma Boreale. Chasma Boreale is the largest trough in the north PLD, thought to have formed due to outflow of water from underneath the polar cap, or due to winds blowing off the polar cap, or a combination of both. At the top and left of the image, the bright area with uniform striping is the gently sloping surface of the PLD. In the middle of the image this surface drops off in a steeper scarp, or cliff. At the top of this cliff we see the bright PLD in a side view, or cross-section. From these two perspectives of the PLD it is evident that the PLD are a stack of roughly horizontal layers. The gently sloping top surface cuts through the vertical sequence of layers at a low angle, apparently stretching the layers out horizontally and thus revealing details of the brightness and texture of individual layers. The surface of the PLD on the scarp is also criss-crossed by fine scale fractures. The layers of the PLD are probably composed of differing proportions of ice and dust, believed to be related to the climate conditions at the time they were deposited. In this way, sequences of polar layers are records of past climates on Mars, as ice cores from terrestrial ice sheets hold evidence of past climates on Earth. Further down the scarp in the center of the image the bright layers give way suddenly to a much darker section where a few layers are visible intermittently amongst aprons of dark material. The darkest material, with a smooth surface suggestive of loose grains, is thought to be sandy because similar exposures elsewhere show it to be formed into dunes by the wind. An intermediate-toned material also appears to form aprons draped over layers in the scarp, but its surface contains lobate structures that appear hardened into place and its edges are more abrupt in places, suggesting it may contain some ice or other cementing agent that makes it

  19. Scarp within Chasma Boreale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This HiRISE image is of the north polar layered deposits (PLD) and underlying units exposed along the margins of Chasma Boreale. Chasma Boreale is the largest trough in the north PLD, thought to have formed due to outflow of water from underneath the polar cap, or due to winds blowing off the polar cap, or a combination of both. At the top and left of the image, the bright area with uniform striping is the gently sloping surface of the PLD. In the middle of the image this surface drops off in a steeper scarp, or cliff. At the top of this cliff we see the bright PLD in a side view, or cross-section. From these two perspectives of the PLD it is evident that the PLD are a stack of roughly horizontal layers. The gently sloping top surface cuts through the vertical sequence of layers at a low angle, apparently stretching the layers out horizontally and thus revealing details of the brightness and texture of individual layers. The surface of the PLD on the scarp is also criss-crossed by fine scale fractures. The layers of the PLD are probably composed of differing proportions of ice and dust, believed to be related to the climate conditions at the time they were deposited. In this way, sequences of polar layers are records of past climates on Mars, as ice cores from terrestrial ice sheets hold evidence of past climates on Earth. Further down the scarp in the center of the image the bright layers give way suddenly to a much darker section where a few layers are visible intermittently amongst aprons of dark material. The darkest material, with a smooth surface suggestive of loose grains, is thought to be sandy because similar exposures elsewhere show it to be formed into dunes by the wind. An intermediate-toned material also appears to form aprons draped over layers in the scarp, but its surface contains lobate structures that appear hardened into place and its edges are more abrupt in places, suggesting it may contain some ice or other cementing agent that makes it

  20. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils.

  1. Limber Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Jane E. Taylor; Robert L. Mathiason

    1999-01-01

    Limber pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum (A. Nelson ex Rydberg) Coulter & Nelson) is a damaging parasite of limber pine (Pinus flexilis James), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.), Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey). Limber pine dwarf mistletoe occurs in the Rocky...

  2. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  4. Separation of biogenic and biomass burning submicron aerosol from a boreal forest in Hyytiälä, Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, A.; Russell, L.; Äijälä, M.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Song, W.; Williams, J.

    2012-04-01

    campaign are compared with gas-phase biogenic and inorganic aerosol precursors to elucidate controlling factors on SOA formation in the Scots pine forest of Hyytiälä, Finland. Back trajectory analyses indicate that the submicron aerosol was greatly influenced by emissions from Russian wildfires which impacted Hyytiälä in late July and early August. Factor analysis of organic functional groups (FTIR) and organic mass fragments (AMS) provides new insight into organic particle composition as characterized by the two independent methods. PMF analysis of FTIR spectra resulted in clear separation of biogenic and biomass burning organic aerosol, while separation of the AMS data was more complicated and resulted in incomplete separation. PMF analysis on the AMS data generated a biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) factor with a clear diurnal cycle; however, the highly oxidized biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) factor may not be entirely separated from other highly oxidized factors. Factor analysis on both FTIR and AMS datasets indicates over 60% of the organic aerosol in Hyytiälä comes from biogenic sources. Other separation techniques, including clustering and regression are investigated, and chemical comparisons of BOA and BBOA factors are explored. [1] Bond et al. (2004). J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14. [2] Seinfeld and Pandis (2006). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 43-46. [3] Hallquist et al. (2009). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5155-5236. [4] Carlton et al., (2010). Environ. Sci. & Tech., 44, 3376-3380. [5] Paatero & Tapper (1994). Environmetrics, 5, 111-126. [6] Takahama et al., (2011). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6367-6389.

  5. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  6. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  7. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  8. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  9. Ecology of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) occupies the broadest natural range of all the southern pines, and is found across a diverse range of geography, soils, topography, and habitats. Individual shortleaf trees achieve their best developmnet on deep, well-drained soils of the Upper Coastal Plain, but shortleaf pine communities are most prominent in the Ouachita...

  10. Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Patrick J. Barry

    1982-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) is one of pine's most destructive insect enemies in the Southern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Because populations build rapidly to outbreak proportions and large numbers of trees are killed, this insect generates considerable concern among managers of southern pine forests. The beetle...

  11. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  12. Pine Tortoise Scale

    Treesearch

    Harvey J. MacAloney

    1961-01-01

    The pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella numismaticum (P. & M.)) is a soft scale that periodically causes a noticeable amount of mortality of hard pines. Although it was not described until 1920, when it was found on Scotch pine, in northern Wisconsin, there is evidence that it had caused injury much earlier in a number of localities in this and other States. Scale...

  13. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  14. Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): Human cDNA cloning, human chromosomal mapping to 5p13, and mutation detection in a SCOT-deficient patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.2.8.3.5) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single {approximately}3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes {much_gt} fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency. 45 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): human cDNA cloning, human chromosomal mapping to 5p13, and mutation detection in a SCOT-deficient patient.

    PubMed Central

    Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Fukao, T.; Song, X. Q.; Duncan, A. M.; Chen, H. S.; Robert, M. F.; Pérez-Cerdá, C.; Ugarte, M.; Chartrand, C.; Vobecky, S.; Kondo, N.; Mitchell, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.2.8.3.5) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single approximately 3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes >> fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:8751852

  16. Ericoid Roots and Mycospheres Govern Plant-Specific Bacterial Communities in Boreal Forest Humus.

    PubMed

    Timonen, Sari; Sinkko, Hanna; Sun, Hui; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Kiheri, Heikki; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-12-26

    In this study, the bacterial populations of roots and mycospheres of the boreal pine forest ericoid plants, heather (Calluna vulgaris), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), were studied by qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS). All bacterial communities of mycosphere soils differed from soils uncolonized by mycorrhizal mycelia. Colonization by mycorrhizal hyphae increased the total number of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene copies in the humus but decreased the number of different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Nevertheless, ericoid roots and mycospheres supported numerous OTUs not present in uncolonized humus. Bacterial communities in bilberry mycospheres were surprisingly similar to those in pine mycospheres but not to bacterial communities in heather and lingonberry mycospheres. In contrast, bacterial communities of ericoid roots were more similar to each other than to those of pine roots. In all sample types, the relative abundances of bacterial sequences belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were higher than the sequences belonging to other classes. Soil samples contained more Actinobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Opitutae, and Planctomycetia, whereas Armatimonadia, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia were more common to roots. All mycosphere soils and roots harbored bacteria unique to that particular habitat. Our study suggests that the habitation by ericoid plants increases the overall bacterial diversity of boreal forest soils.

  17. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    the stand growth, nutrient availability, and CO2 efflux. Potassium was the main limiting factor for the forest growth. This indicates that management aiming at decreasing heterotrophic CO2 efflux by raising the ground water table will decrease the forest growth. From the C balance perspective the growth rate of the tree stand becomes essential. Modelling approach enables a search for an optimal management schedule for producing timber in situation when there is a price given for release of C. Ditch network maintenance by ditch cleaning becomes profitable if: i) the initial drainage is very poor, ii) the availability of the critical nutrient is sufficient, iii) during prolonged rainy conditions, and iv) the tree stand is Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated and v) in a phase where most of the extra yield is allocated into sawlogs. The simulator and its holistic approach has been successfully implemented in both tropical pulpwood plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia and in Finnish boreal forests.

  18. Ice sheets promote speciation in boreal birds.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-09-22

    The premise that Pleistocene ice ages played an important role in generating present-day species diversity has been challenged by genetic data indicating that most of the youngest terrestrial species on Earth coalesced long before major glacial advances. However, study has been biased towards faunas distributed at low latitudes that were not directly fragmented by advancing ice sheets. Using mitochondrial sequence divergence and a molecular clock, we compared the coalescence times of pairs of avian species belonging to superspecies complexes from the high-latitude boreal forest with those of sub-boreal and tropical avifaunas of the New World. Remarkably, all coalescence events in boreal superspecies date to the Pleistocene, providing direct evidence that speciation was commonly initiated during recent glacial periods. A pattern of endemism in boreal superspecies plausibly links the timing of divergence to the fragmentation of the boreal forest by ice sheets during the Mid- and Late Pleistocene. In contrast to the boreal superspecies, only 56% of sub-boreal and 46% of tropical superspecies members coalesced during the Pleistocene, suggesting that avifaunas directly fragmented by ice sheets experienced rapid rates of diversification, whereas those distributed farther south were affected to a lesser extent. One explanation for the absence of pre-Pleistocene superspecies in boreal avifaunas is that strong selection pressures operated in boreal refugia, causing superspecies members to achieve ecological differentiation at an accelerated rate.

  19. Ice sheets promote speciation in boreal birds.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Jason T.; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-01-01

    The premise that Pleistocene ice ages played an important role in generating present-day species diversity has been challenged by genetic data indicating that most of the youngest terrestrial species on Earth coalesced long before major glacial advances. However, study has been biased towards faunas distributed at low latitudes that were not directly fragmented by advancing ice sheets. Using mitochondrial sequence divergence and a molecular clock, we compared the coalescence times of pairs of avian species belonging to superspecies complexes from the high-latitude boreal forest with those of sub-boreal and tropical avifaunas of the New World. Remarkably, all coalescence events in boreal superspecies date to the Pleistocene, providing direct evidence that speciation was commonly initiated during recent glacial periods. A pattern of endemism in boreal superspecies plausibly links the timing of divergence to the fragmentation of the boreal forest by ice sheets during the Mid- and Late Pleistocene. In contrast to the boreal superspecies, only 56% of sub-boreal and 46% of tropical superspecies members coalesced during the Pleistocene, suggesting that avifaunas directly fragmented by ice sheets experienced rapid rates of diversification, whereas those distributed farther south were affected to a lesser extent. One explanation for the absence of pre-Pleistocene superspecies in boreal avifaunas is that strong selection pressures operated in boreal refugia, causing superspecies members to achieve ecological differentiation at an accelerated rate. PMID:15347509

  20. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    PubMed

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  1. Winter Surface Simulations in Boreal Forests Using the Canadian Land Surface Scheme: Tests of Improved Surface Parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, P. A.; Mackay, M. D.; Verseghy, D. L.

    2004-05-01

    Boreal forest is the Earth's second largest biome, covering approximately 11 percent of the land surface. Its location, below the tree line in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, makes it especially sensitive to climatic shifts. It is also a potential source of significant feedbacks to the climate system through changes in surface albedo, snow cover, water availability and organic soil climate. Until recently, such processes in the boreal forest have not been well modelled by land surface schemes. Previous versions of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) were tested extensively in boreal forests, and version 3.0, completed in 2003, contains a number of improvements. Canopy conductance now varies with vegetation type, improvements to the treatment of snow processes and snow density in particular have been added, organic soils are now represented, and different surface types within a grid-cell can be represented as patches in a mosaic. The performance of CLASS version 2.7, the previous operational version, and CLASS 3.0, are evaluated using field measurements. Results are presented for off-line simulations in Canadian boreal forests from autumn through spring. The field sites, mature aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands, are located in central Saskatchewan, and were instrumented as part of the BERMS (Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites) study. Exchanges of energy and water are examined, with a focus on the simulation of the snow pack and snow processes.

  2. AmeriFlux CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF1 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977.. Site Description - Regenerated jack pine (Pinus banksiana) following fire in 1977; canopy height 6 m and LAI = 2.8. Some black spruce understory developing. Trees tend to be clumpy, with some clear spaces that can be easily walked thorugh, and other areas are thick. Fire killed coarse woody debris on the ground, that is soft and decomposing. Very few perched trunks. Understory are short shrubs such as Vaccinium and Arctostaphylus uva-ursi.

  3. Hydrologic Modeling of Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the hydrologic response, including vegetation water use, of two test regions within the Boreal-Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region in the Canadian boreal forest, one north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, and the other near Thompson, Manitoba. Fluxes of moisture and heat were studied using a spatially distributed hydrology soil-vegetation-model (DHSVM).

  4. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  5. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  6. The boreal forest as a cultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Edward A; Miyanishi, Kiyoko

    2012-02-01

    Because of its generally low density of humans and few settlements, the circumpolar boreal forest is often viewed as an untouched wilderness. However, archeological evidence indicates that humans have inhabited the region since the continental glaciers disappeared 8,000-12,000 years ago. This paper discusses the ecological impacts that humans have had on the boreal forest ecosystem through their activities in prehistoric, historic, and recent times and argues that the boreal forest has always been a cultural landscape with a gradient of impacts both spatially and temporally. These activities include hunting, trapping, herding, agriculture, forestry, hydroelectric dam projects, oil and natural gas development, and mining. In prehistoric times, human impacts would generally have been more temporary and spatially localized. However, the megafaunal extinctions coincident with arrival of humans were very significant ecological impacts. In historic times, the spread of Europeans and their exploitation of the boreal's natural resources as well as agricultural expansion has altered the composition and continuity of the boreal forest ecosystem in North America, Fennoscandia, and Asia. Particularly over the last century, these impacts have increased significantly (e.g., some hydroelectric dams and tar sands developments that have altered and destroyed vast areas of the boreal forest). Although the atmospheric changes and resulting climatic changes due to human activities are causing the most significant changes to the high-latitude boreal forest ecosystem, any discussion of these impacts are beyond the limits of this paper and therefore are not included.

  7. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  8. Diplodia Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    The fungus Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx is most damaging to plantings of both exotic and native pine species in the United States. The fungus is seldom found in natural pine stands. Diplodia pinea kills current-year shoots, major branches, and ultimately entire trees. The effects of this disease are most severe in landscape, windbreak, and park plantings in the Central...

  9. Longleaf pine seedling production

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects and pathogens, and produces quality solid-wood products, but regeneration of the species has been difficult. Natural regeneration is feasible only on a small portion of the area considered to be longleaf pine type. Therefore, artificial regeneration must become a reliable means of regenerating the...

  10. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  11. Western Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Clarence J. Jr. DeMars; Bruce H. Roettgering

    1982-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages and vigor classes that are 6 inches (15 cm) or larger in diameter, including apparently healthy trees. Group killing of trees is common in dense, overstocked stands of pure, even-aged, young sawtimber (fig. 1), but also occurs among...

  12. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  13. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  14. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  15. Lower Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA Transferase (SCOT) and ATP Citrate Lyase In Pancreatic Islets of A Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: Knockdown of SCOT Inhibits Insulin Release In Rat Insulinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Noaman M.; Longacre, Melissa J.; Seed Ahmed, Mohammed; Kendrick, Mindy A.; Gu, Harvest; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Fukao, Toshiyuki; MacDonald, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of coenzyme-A from acetoacetyl-CoA to succinate to form acetoacetate and succinyl-CoA. mRNAs of SCOT and ATP citrate lyase were decreased 55% and 58% and enzyme activities were decreased >70% in pancreatic islets of the GK rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. INS-1 832/13 cells were transfected with shRNAs targeting SCOT mRNA to generate cell lines with reduced SCOT activity. Two cell lines with > 70% knockdown of SCOT activity showed > 70% reduction in glucose- or methyl succinate-plus-β-hydroxybutyrate-stimulated insulin release. Less inhibition of insulin release was observed with two cell lines with less knockdown of SCOT. Previous studies showed knockdown of ATP citrate lyase in INS-1 832/13 cells does not lower insulin release. The results further support work which suggests mitochondrial pathways involving SCOT that supply acetoacetate for export to the cytosol are important for insulin secretion. PMID:20460097

  16. Silvical characteristics of Jeffrey pine

    Treesearch

    William E. Hallin

    1957-01-01

    The most noteworthy feature of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. ) is its similarity in appearance and behavior to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.), a much more widespread and better known species. At one time Jeffrey pine was considered to be a variety of ponderosa pine, and lumber markets make no...

  17. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  18. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    Susan V. Kossuth; J.L. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also called cedar pine, Walter pine, or bottom white pine, is a medium-sized tree that grows in limited numbers in swamps, river valleys, on hummocks, and along river banks of the southern Coastal Plain. Its wood is brittle, close-grained, nondurable, and is of limited commercial importance.

  19. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Diurnal Gas Exchange of NAS Boreal Forest Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie; Dang, Qinglai

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. The purpose of the BOREAS TE-09 study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower); and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. The gas exchange data of the BOREAS NSA were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young jack pine, old jack pine, old aspen, lowland old black spruce, and upland black spruce. These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. Studies of microwave scattering and canopy architecture for boreal forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, G. Lance; Gogineni, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    Our primary objectives during the last year have been to develop a helicopter-borne radar system for measuring microwave backscatter from vegetation and to use this system to study the characteristics of backscatter from the boreal forest. Our research is aimed at refining the current microwave models and using these improvements for more accurate interpretation of SAR data. SAR data are very useful for monitoring the boreal forest region because of the microwave signal's ability to penetrate clouds and to see at night. Meeting these objectives involves several stages of development. The first stage is the design and implementation of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar system with the capability of measuring backscatter at three frequencies and four polarizations at each frequency. These requirements necessitate a twelve-channel radar system. Using three frequencies is advantageous because it allows us to look at different parts of the canopy. For instance, the lower frequency signal penetrates deeper into the canopy and allows us to see the ground while the high frequency signal is scattered more by the leaves and needles and typically does not penetrate to the floor of the forest. We designed the radar starting with the antenna system. We then developed the intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) sections of the radar. Also, the need to collect data from twelve channels during each flight line presented a complex data acquisition problem that we solved by using a high-speed data acquisition board. After construction, the radar was tested at the lab. We performed extensive testing of the IF and RF systems of the radar during this time. Once we were satisfied with the operation of the radar it was shipped to Canada for use in the second intensive field campaign (IFC-2) from July 16 - August 8, 1994. During IFC-2, we collected backscatter data over the experimental sites in the southern study area (SSA). Additionally, we used a ground

  1. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Badmaeva, Natalya K; Sandanov, Denis V

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii), sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year) over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  2. Are ectomycorrhizal fungi alleviating or aggravating nitrogen limitation of tree growth in boreal forests?

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter; Franklin, Oskar; Metcalfe, Daniel; Keel, Sonja G; Campbell, Catherine; Hurry, Vaughan; Linder, Sune; Högberg, Mona N

    2013-04-01

    Symbioses between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi are thought to enhance plant uptake of nutrients through a favourable exchange for photosynthates. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are considered to play this vital role for trees in nitrogen (N)-limited boreal forests. We followed symbiotic carbon (C)-N exchange in a large-scale boreal pine forest experiment by tracing (13) CO(2) absorbed through tree photosynthesis and (15) N injected into a soil layer in which ectomycorrhizal fungi dominate the microbial community. We detected little (15) N in tree canopies, but high levels in soil microbes and in mycorrhizal root tips, illustrating effective soil N immobilization, especially in late summer, when tree belowground C allocation was high. Additions of N fertilizer to the soil before labelling shifted the incorporation of (15) N from soil microbes and root tips to tree foliage. These results were tested in a model for C-N exchange between trees and mycorrhizal fungi, suggesting that ectomycorrhizal fungi transfer small fractions of absorbed N to trees under N-limited conditions, but larger fractions if more N is available. We suggest that greater allocation of C from trees to ectomycorrhizal fungi increases N retention in soil mycelium, driving boreal forests towards more severe N limitation at low N supply. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Growth Decline Linked to Warming-Induced Water Limitation in Hemi-Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A.; Badmaeva, Natalya K.; Sandanov, Denis V.

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii), sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year) over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies. PMID:22916142

  4. Boreal forest health and global change.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions.

  5. Carbon balance of the Alaskan boreal forest

    Treesearch

    John Yarie; Tim Hammond

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the carbon balance in a broad forest region like the Alaskan boreal forest requires the development of a number of important environmental (state factors) classes to allow for the development of carbon balance estimates.

  6. Strange, incredible and impossible things: the early anthropology of Reginald Scot.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-06-01

    Reginald Scot has been acclaimed as an early rationalist for his critical consideration of witchcraft in 1584. At the same time, the Discoverie of Witchcraft appears organized much as later classic anthropological monographs. This article considers whether his methods and writing might indeed correspond to what we recognise as the procedures of medical or psychiatric anthropology.

  7. Teaching English as a Friendly Language: Lessons from the SCOTS Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendy; Corbett, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the interactional spoken data contained in the Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (SCOTS) to investigate "friendly" language and shows how its principles can inform a model of language for learners of English as a second or foreign language. Pragmatic markers used in local speech varieties are in danger of being neglected in an…

  8. Teaching English as a Friendly Language: Lessons from the SCOTS Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendy; Corbett, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the interactional spoken data contained in the Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (SCOTS) to investigate "friendly" language and shows how its principles can inform a model of language for learners of English as a second or foreign language. Pragmatic markers used in local speech varieties are in danger of being neglected in an…

  9. Scottish Classroom Voices: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning Scots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoba, Jo Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Research in multilingual classrooms demonstrates education as a key site within which social and linguistic values are shaped. This study extends such research by investigating language use in a Scottish primary classroom. Scots is widely spoken throughout Scotland, figuring in a 2003 Scottish Parliament report as one of two indigenous heritage…

  10. Reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest - influences on the soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Egle; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems , which have many effects on plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil C dynamics. Earlier, the role of reindeer grazing in ground vegetation dynamics and in soil carbon (C) dynamics has been mostly investigated in open tundra heaths. The objectives of this study were to examine if and how the reindeer grazing (and the possible temperature changes in soil caused by heavy grazing) is affecting the soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux from the soil, C storage in soil, microbial biomass in the soil). In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we have assessed the changes occurring in above- and belowground biomasses, and soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux, soil C content, soil microbial biomass C) among areas grazed and ungrazed by reindeer. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. The sample plots located in the Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) are situated along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. To characterize the stands we have established circular sample plots on areas with a radius of 11.28 m, where different tree characteristics were measured (diameter at 1.3 m, height, height of a tree, crown height, crown diameter, stand age, etc.). On every sample plot

  11. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  12. Integrated Ray Tracing (IRT) simulation of SCOTS measurement of GMT fast steering mirror surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji Nyeong; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Graves, Logan; Su, Peng; Huang, Run; Kim, Dae Wook

    2015-09-01

    The Software Configurable Optical Testing System (SCOTS) is one of the newest testing methods for large mirror surfaces. The Integrated Ray Tracing (IRT) technique can be applicable to the SCOTS simulation by performing non-sequential ray tracing from the screen to the camera detector in the real scale. Therefore, the radiometry of distorted pattern images are numerically estimated by the IRT simulation module. In this study, we construct an IRT SCOTS simulation model for the Fast Steering Mirror Prototype (FSMP) surface of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMT FSMP is an off-axis ellipsoidal concave mirror that is 1064 mm in diameter and has PV 3.1 mm in aspheric departure. The surface error requirement is less than 20 nm rms. The screen is modeled as an array of 1366 by 768 screen pixels of 0.227 mm in pitch size. The screen is considered as a Lambertian scattering surface. The screen and the camera are positioned around 4390 mm away from the mirror and separated by around 132 mm from each other. The light source are scanning lines and sinusoidal patterns generated by 616,050 rays per one screen pixel. Of the initially generated rays, 0.22 % are received by the camera's detector and contribute to form distorted pattern images. These images are converted to the slope and height maps of the mirror surface. The final result for the height difference between input surface and reconstructed surface was 14.14 nm rms. Additionally, the simulated mirror pattern image was compared with the real SCOTS test for the GMT FSMP. This study shows applicability of using the IRT model to SCOTS simulation with nanometer level numerical accuracy.

  13. Genetic variability and structure of Quercus brantii assessed by ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Leila; Rahmani, Mohammad-Shafie; Shabanian, Naghi; Badakhshan, Hedieh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-11-15

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) is one of the most important woody species of the Zagros forests in Iran. Three molecular marker techniques: start codon targeted (SCoT), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were compared for fingerprinting of 125 individuals of this species collected from different geographical locations of north-west of Iran. A total of 233 bands were amplified by 18 ISSR primers, of which 224 (96.10%) were polymorphic, and 126 polymorphic bands (97.65%) were observed in 129 bands amplified by 10 IRAP primers. Besides, 118 bands were observed for all 10 SCoT primers, of which 113 were polymorphic (95.71%). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers was 0.30, 0.32 and 0.38, respectively, and this revealed that SCoT markers were more informative than IRAP and ISSR for the assessment of diversity among individuals. Based on the three different molecular types, cluster analysis revealed that 125 individuals taken for the analysis can be divided into three distinct clusters. The Jaccard's genetic similarity based on the combined data ranged from 0.23 to 0.76. These results suggest that efficiency of SCoT, IRAP and ISSR markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of individuals. All molecular marker types revealed a low genetic differentiation among populations, indicating the possibility of gene flow between the studied populations. These results have an important implication for Persian oak (Q. brantii) germplasm characterization, improvement, and conservation.

  14. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure

    PubMed Central

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G.; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity. PMID:26919456

  15. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    PubMed

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  16. Insufficient Chilling Effects Vary among Boreal Tree Species and Chilling Duration

    PubMed Central

    Man, Rongzhou; Lu, Pengxin; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient chilling resulting from rising winter temperatures associated with climate warming has been an area of particular interest in boreal and temperate regions where a period of cool temperatures in fall and winter is required to break plant dormancy. In this study, we examined the budburst and growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud.) seedlings subjected to typical northern Ontario, Canada, spring conditions in climate chambers after different exposures to natural chilling. Results indicate that chilling requirements (cumulative weighted chilling hours) differed substantially among the seven species, ranging from 300 to 500 h for spruce seedlings to more than 1100 h for trembling aspen and lodgepole pine. Only spruce seedlings had fulfilled their chilling requirements before December 31, whereas the other species continued chilling well into March and April. Species with lower chilling requirements needed more heat accumulation for budburst and vice versa. Insufficient chilling delayed budburst but only extremely restricted chilling hours (<400) resulted in abnormal budburst and growth, including reduced needle and shoot expansion, early budburst in lower crowns, and erratic budburst on lower stems and roots. Effects, however, depended on both the species’ chilling requirements and the chilling–heat relationship. Among the seven tree species examined, trembling aspen is most likely to be affected by reduced chilling accumulation possible under future climate scenarios, followed by balsam poplar, white birch, lodgepole pine, and jack pine. Black and white spruce are least likely to be affected by changes in chilling hours. PMID:28861091

  17. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids export to boreal first order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Finér, Leena; Laurén, Ari; Launiainen, Samuli; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Starr, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Clear-cutting has been observed to generally increase leaching and element exports to adjacent watercourses. Most studies on the effects of clear-cutting on nutrient export in north European boreal forests have been short-term and were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s when forestry practices were different from those of today. Nowadays clear-cut areas are smaller, soil preparation methods are lighter (less soil disturbance), and buffer zones are left along watercourses. Several hundred thousand hectares of forests are clear-cut and soils are scarified before regeneration operations in Fennoscandia, but little is known of the long-term impacts of the current methods on the surface water quality. We studied the long-term (14 years) effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on runoff (mm) and the export of total nitrogen (total N), total organic nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), total phosphorus (total P), phosphate (PO4-P), total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended solids (SS) in two paired-catchments in Eastern Finland. In accordance with current forest management guidelines, clear cutting (stem-only removal) were carried out on 34% (C34) and 12% (C12) of the area of the treated catchments, scarification carried out after 2 years and planting with Scots pine seedlings after 3 years. Buffer zones were left between the clear-cut areas and the catchment outlet stream. In the case of the C34 catchment, clear-cutting increased annual runoff and exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS. Annual runoff increased by 4 - 102 mm (1-30%). The annual exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS increased by at most 0.36 (72%), 0.35 (76%), 0.15 (1056%), 0.002 (35%) and 2.0 (715%) kg/ha, respectively. For the C12 catchment, annual runoff did not change and only exports of PO4-P and SS increased. Annual export of PO4-P increased by at maximum 0.007 kg/ha (69%) and that of SS by at maximum 0.55 kg/ha (271%). Clear-cutting induced increases in runoff and

  18. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  19. New foliage growth is a significant, unaccounted source for volatiles in boreal evergreen forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Bäck, J.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests are based on the assumption that foliage has a steady emission potential over its lifetime, and that emissions are mainly modified by short-term variations in light and temperature. However, in many field studies this has been challenged, and high emissions and atmospheric concentrations have been measured during periods of low biological activity, such as in springtime. We conducted measurements during three years, using an online gas-exchange monitoring system to observe volatile organic emissions from a mature (1 year-old) and a growing Scots pine shoot. The emission rates of organic vapors from vegetative buds of Scots pine during the dehardening and rapid shoot growth stages were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from mature foliage; this difference decreased and finally disappeared when the new shoot was maturing in late summer. On average, the springtime monoterpene emission rate of the bud was about 500 times higher than that of the mature needles; during the most intensive needle elongation period, the monoterpene emission rate of the growing needles was 3.5 higher than that of the mature needles, and in September the monoterpene emission rate of the same years' needles was even lower (50%) than that of the previous years' needles. For other measured compounds (methanol, acetone and methylbutenol) the values were of the same order of magnitude, except before bud break in spring, when the emission rates of buds for those compounds were on average about 20-30 times higher than that of mature needles. During spring and early summer the buds and growing shoots are a strong source of several VOCs, and if they are not accounted for in emission modeling a significant proportion of the emissions - from a few percent to even half of the annual cumulative emissions - will remain concealed. The diurnal emission pattern of growing shoots differed from the diurnal cycle in temperature as

  20. Multi-Sensor Characterization of the Boreal Forest: Initial Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reith, Ernest; Roberts, Dar A.; Prentiss, Dylan

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented in an initial apriori knowledge approach toward using complementary multi-sensor multi-temporal imagery in characterizing vegetated landscapes over a site in the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were segmented using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and binary decision tree approaches. Individual date/sensor land cover maps had overall accuracies between 55.0% - 69.8%. The best eight land cover layers from all dates and sensors correctly characterized 79.3% of the cover types. An overlay approach was used to create a final land cover map. An overall accuracy of 71.3% was achieved in this multi-sensor approach, a 1.5% improvement over our most accurate single scene technique, but 8% less than the original input. Black spruce was evaluated to be particularly undermapped in the final map possibly because it was also contained within jack pine and muskeg land coverages.