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Sample records for boris kruglikov valentin

  1. Valentine 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 February 2006 Happy Valentine's Day from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team!

    This somewhat heart-shaped, eroded and partially-filled crater is located near the southeast wall of Columbus Crater in the Mare Sirenum region of Mars. North is toward the bottom/lower left.

    Location near: 29.9oS, 165.2oW Image width: 400 meter scale bar = 1,312 feet Illumination from: lower right Season: Southern Autumn

  2. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Introducing Boris Ioffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshkenbein, B. V.

    I am honored to present Boris Lazarevich Ioffe to the readers of the Ioffe Festschrift, which is being published on the occasion of his 75-th birthday. First, some basic biographical data. Boris Ioffe was born in Moscow on July 6, 1926, into a Jewish family. His father was a famous medical doctor, a urologist, and his mother was a librarian. During the second World War, Ioffe's father was the head of a large military hospital, and for some time, Boris worked in a hospital too…

  4. Martian Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a heart-shaped hill surrounded by cracked terrain within a depression in far northwestern Arabia Terra, near the Cydonia region of Mars. Happy St. Valentine's Day from the MGS MOC team!

    Location near: 39.1oN, 358.1oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  5. Why is Boris Algorithm So Good?

    SciTech Connect

    et al, Hong Qin

    2013-03-03

    Due to its excellent long term accuracy, the Boris algorithm is the de facto standard for advancing a charged particle. Despite its popularity, up to now there has been no convincing explanation why the Boris algorithm has this advantageous feature. In this letter, we provide an answer to this question. We show that the Boris algorithm conserves phase space volume, even though it is not symplectic. The global bound on energy error typically associated with symplectic algorithms still holds for the Boris algorithm, making it an effective algorithm for the multi-scale dynamics of plasmas.

  6. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  7. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  8. Streaming the Boris Pusher: a CUDA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Paulo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis O.

    2009-01-22

    We demonstrate an implementation of the Boris Particle Pusher Algorithm using CUDA-enabled processors. A simplified PIC code is used as a reference for the pusher and several tests are shown. The deployment time from a developer point of view is also evaluated. Results show that CUDA is a good tool for significant code acceleration with minimal code impact and minimal effort for the developer.

  9. Environmental Assessment, Valentine Military Operations Area, Texax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    rock squirrel), D, G, M Family Geomyidae Thomomys bottae (Botta’s pocket gopher ), D, G, M Geomys arenarius (desert pocket gopher ), D, R (rare...PaDDogeomys castanops (yellow-faced pocket gopher ), D, G, R Family Heteromyidae Perognathus flavus (silky pocket mouse), D, G (common) Perognathus hispidus...111-4 Soil Types of the Valentine MOA .............. ........ 19 111-5 Major Vegetative Regions of the Trans-Pecos .......... ... 26 111-6 Map of the

  10. Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) suppresses apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Mengdie; Song, Yongfei; Ren, Juan; Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Identifying oncogenes that promote cancer cell proliferation or survival is critical for treatment of colorectal cancer. The Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) is frequently expressed in most types of cancer, but rarely in normal tissues. Aberrantly expressed BORIS relates to colorectal cancer, but its function in colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. In addition, previous studies indicated the significance of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in cancer cells. However, none of them investigated its function. Herein, we investigated the functions of BORIS in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and the role of cytoplasm-localized BORIS in colorectal cancer. BORIS expression correlated with colorectal cancer proliferation. BORIS overexpression promoted colorectal cancer cell growth, whereas BORIS knockdown suppressed cell proliferation. Sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was inversely correlated with BORIS expression. These data suggest that BORIS functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer. BORIS silencing induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, whereas BORIS supplementation inhibited apoptosis induced by BORIS short interfering RNA (siRNA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 5-FU. Introduction of BORIS-ZFdel showed that cytoplasmic localization of BORIS inhibited apoptosis but not ROS production. Our study highlights the anti-apoptotic function of BORIS in colorectal cancer. PMID:28098226

  11. BORIS/CTCFL is an RNA-binding protein that associates with polysomes.

    PubMed

    Ogunkolade, Babatunji W; Jones, Tania A; Aarum, Johan; Szary, Jaroslaw; Owen, Nicholas; Ottaviani, Diego; Mumin, Muhammad A; Patel, Shyam; Pieri, Christopher A; Silver, Andrew R; Sheer, Denise

    2013-11-26

    BORIS (CTCFL), a paralogue of the multifunctional and ubiquitously expressed transcription factor CTCF, is best known for its role in transcriptional regulation. In the nucleus, BORIS is particularly enriched in the nucleolus, a crucial compartment for ribosomal RNA and RNA metabolism. However, little is known about cytoplasmic BORIS, which represents the major pool of BORIS protein. We show, firstly, that BORIS has a putative nuclear export signal in the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, BORIS associates with mRNA in both neural stem cells and young neurons. The majority of the BORIS-associated transcripts are different in the two cell types. Finally, by using polysome profiling we show that BORIS is associated with actively translating ribosomes. We have demonstrated the RNA binding properties of cellular BORIS and its association with actively translating ribosomes. We suggest that BORIS is involved in gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  12. MS Boris Morukov at work aboard Atlantis during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    STS106-E-5003 (8 September 2000) --- Cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, mission specialist representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, begins to organize affairs during Flight Day 1 onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  13. Absinthe, epileptic seizures and Valentin Magnan.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    2009-03-01

    Absinthe is an alcoholic liquor containing extracts from the wormwood plant. It was widely consumed in France in the late nineteenth century. Its production was banned in 1915, partly because it was thought to cause neurological disturbances, including mental changes and epileptic seizures. Modern knowledge of an acceptable content of the convulsant alpha-thujone in absinthe has allowed the lifting of the production bans, and called into question the experimental work of Valentin Magnan in the 1870s, which formed the scientific background to the campaign against absinthe. An examination of Magnan's published investigations suggests that his science was very adequate by the standards of his time, and that he had shown that an alcohol-soluble component of wormwood did produce lapses of consciousness, myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic convulsions in animals. Whether that component, presumably thujone, was present at convulsant concentrations in some of the available absinthes of Magnan's time cannot now be known.

  14. Expression of the cancer-testis antigen BORIS correlates with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Zubair; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Kita, Georgia-Xanthi; Farrar, Dawn; Seddon, Ian; Corr, John; Klenova, Elena

    2014-02-01

    BORIS, a paralogue of the transcription factor CTCF, is a member of the cancer-testis antigen (CT) family. BORIS is normally present at high levels in the testis; however it is aberrantly expressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines. The main objectives of this study were to investigate BORIS expression together with sub-cellular localization in both prostate cell lines and tumor tissues, and assess correlations between BORIS and clinical/pathological characteristics. We examined BORIS mRNA expression, protein levels and cellular localization in a panel of human prostate tissues, cancer and benign, together with a panel prostate cell lines. We also compared BORIS levels and localization with clinical/pathological characteristics in prostate tumors. BORIS was detected in all inspected prostate cancer cell lines and tumors, but was absent in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased levels of BORIS protein positively correlated with Gleason score, T-stage and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in prostate tumors. The relationship between BORIS and AR was further highlighted in prostate cell lines by the ability of ectopically expressed BORIS to activate the endogenous AR mRNA and protein. BORIS localization in the nucleus plus cytoplasm was also associated with higher BORIS levels and Gleason score. Detection of BORIS in prostate tumors suggests potential applications of BORIS as a biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis, as an immunotherapy target and, potentially, a prognostic marker of more aggressive prostate cancer. The ability of BORIS to activate the AR gene indicates BORIS involvement in the growth and development of prostate tumors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Widespread expression of BORIS/CTCFL in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tania A; Ogunkolade, Babatunji W; Szary, Jaroslaw; Aarum, Johan; Mumin, Muhammad A; Patel, Shyam; Pieri, Christopher A; Sheer, Denise

    2011-01-01

    BORIS (CTCFL) is the paralog of CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor; NM_006565), a ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein with diverse roles in gene expression and chromatin organisation. BORIS and CTCF have virtually identical zinc finger domains, yet display major differences in their respective C- and N-terminal regions. Unlike CTCF, BORIS expression has been reported only in the testis and certain malignancies, leading to its classification as a "cancer-testis" antigen. However, the expression pattern of BORIS is both a significant and unresolved question in the field of DNA binding proteins. Here, we identify BORIS in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of normal and cancer cells. We compare the localization of CTCF and BORIS in the nucleus and demonstrate enrichment of BORIS within the nucleolus, inside the nucleolin core structure and adjacent to fibrillarin in the dense fibrillar component. In contrast, CTCF is not enriched in the nucleolus. Live imaging of cells transiently transfected with GFP tagged BORIS confirmed the nucleolar accumulation of BORIS. While BORIS transcript levels are low compared to CTCF, its protein levels are readily detectable. These findings show that BORIS expression is more widespread than previously believed, and suggest a role for BORIS in nucleolar function.

  16. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  17. A Cell Cycle Role for the Epigenetic Factor CTCF-L/BORIS

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Lecue, Pilar; Abraira, Cristina; Delgado, M. Dolores; Gandarillas, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    CTCF is a ubiquitous epigenetic regulator that has been proposed as a master keeper of chromatin organisation. CTCF-like, or BORIS, is thought to antagonise CTCF and has been found in normal testis, ovary and a large variety of tumour cells. The cellular function of BORIS remains intriguing although it might be involved in developmental reprogramming of gene expression patterns. We here unravel the expression of CTCF and BORIS proteins throughout human epidermis. While CTCF is widely distributed within the nucleus, BORIS is confined to the nucleolus and other euchromatin domains. Nascent RNA experiments in primary keratinocytes revealed that endogenous BORIS is present in active transcription sites. Interestingly, BORIS also localises to interphase centrosomes suggesting a role in the cell cycle. Blocking the cell cycle at S phase or mitosis, or causing DNA damage, produced a striking accumulation of BORIS. Consistently, ectopic expression of wild type or GFP- BORIS provoked a higher rate of S phase cells as well as genomic instability by mitosis failure. Furthermore, down-regulation of endogenous BORIS by specific shRNAs inhibited both RNA transcription and cell cycle progression. The results altogether suggest a role for BORIS in coordinating S phase events with mitosis. PMID:22724006

  18. Possible prognostic value of BORIS transcript variants ratio in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Novak Kujundžić, Renata; Grbeša, Ivana; Ivkić, Mirko; Krušlin, Božo; Konjevoda, Paško; Gall Trošelj, Koraljka

    2014-07-01

    BORIS is a paralog of a highly conserved, multi-functional chromatin factor CTCF. Unlike CTCF, which has been shown to possess tumor-suppressive properties, BORIS belongs to the "cancer/testis antigen" family normally expressed only in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of tumors. The consequences of BORIS expression, relative abundance of its isoforms, and its role in carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. It activates transcription of hTERT and MYC, genes relevant for laryngeal carcinoma progression. In this study, BORIS expression has been analyzed at the transcriptional level by RT-PCR and protein level by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry in 32 laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent non-tumorous tissue. BORIS was detected in 44 % (14/32) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples, while it was detected only in one normal, tumor-adjacent tissue sample. Tree based survival analysis, using the recursive partitioning algorithm mvpart, extracted the ratio of relative abundance of BORIS transcript variants containing exon 7 (BORIS 7+) and those lacking exon 7 (BORIS 7-) as an independent prognostic factor associated with disease relapse during a 5-year follow-up period. Patients having BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio ≥1 had a higher rate of disease relapse than patients with BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio <1. Hazard ratio for that group, based on Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, was 3.53. This is the first study analyzing expression of BORIS protein and transcript variants in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma relative to its possible prognostic value for recurrence and overall survival.

  19. Testis-specific transcriptional regulators selectively occupy BORIS-bound CTCF target regions in mouse male germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Hinojosa, Samuel; Kang, Sungyun; Lobanenkov, Victor V.; Zentner, Gabriel E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite sharing the same sequence specificity in vitro and in vivo, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and its paralog brother of the regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) are simultaneously expressed in germ cells. Recently, ChIP-seq analysis revealed two classes of CTCF/BORIS-bound regions: single CTCF target sites (1xCTSes) that are bound by CTCF alone (CTCF-only) or double CTCF target sites (2xCTSes) simultaneously bound by CTCF and BORIS (CTCF&BORIS) or BORIS alone (BORIS-only) in germ cells and in BORIS-positive somatic cancer cells. BORIS-bound regions (CTCF&BORIS and BORIS-only sites) are, on average, enriched for RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) binding and histone retention in mature spermatozoa relative to CTCF-only sites, but little else is known about them. We show that subsets of CTCF&BORIS and BORIS-only sites are occupied by several testis-specific transcriptional regulators (TSTRs) and associated with highly expressed germ cell-specific genes and histone retention in mature spermatozoa. We also demonstrate a physical interaction between BORIS and one of the analyzed TSTRs, TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 7-like (TAF7L). Our data suggest that CTCF and BORIS cooperate with additional TSTRs to regulate gene expression in developing male gametes and histone retention in mature spermatozoa, potentially priming certain regions of the genome for rapid activation following fertilization. PMID:28145452

  20. Spitzer Telescope Sends Rose for Valentine Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-12

    A cluster of newborn stars herald their birth in this interstellar Valentine Day commemorative picture obtained with NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. These bright young stars are found in a rosebud-shaped and rose-colored nebulosity known as NGC 7129. The star cluster and its associated nebula are located at a distance of 3300 light-years in the constellation Cepheus. A recent census of the cluster reveals the presence of 130 young stars. The stars formed from a massive cloud of gas and dust that contains enough raw materials to create a thousand Sun-like stars. In a process that astronomers still poorly understand, fragments of this molecular cloud became so cold and dense that they collapsed into stars. Most stars in our Milky Way galaxy are thought to form in such clusters. The Spitzer Space Telescope image was obtained with an infrared array camera that is sensitive to invisible infrared light at wavelengths that are about ten times longer than visible light. In this four-color composite, emission at 3.6 microns is depicted in blue, 4.5 microns in green, 5.8 microns in orange, and 8.0 microns in red. The image covers a region that is about one quarter the size of the full moon. As in any nursery, mayhem reigns. Within the astronomically brief period of a million years, the stars have managed to blow a large, irregular bubble in the molecular cloud that once enveloped them like a cocoon. The rosy pink hue is produced by glowing dust grains on the surface of the bubble being heated by the intense light from the embedded young stars. Upon absorbing ultraviolet and visible-light photons produced by the stars, the surrounding dust grains are heated and re-emit the energy at the longer infrared wavelengths observed by Spitzer. The reddish colors trace the distribution of molecular material thought to be rich in hydrocarbons. The cold molecular cloud outside the bubble is mostly invisible in these images. However, three very young stars near the center of the image are

  1. The prognostic role of BORIS and SOCS3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rongce; Chen, Kefei; Zhou, Jing; He, Jingyang; Liu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Li, Bo; Qin, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Brother of regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) is a DNA-binding protein that is normally expressed in the testes. However, aberrant expression of BORIS is observed in various carcinomas, indicating a malignant role for this protein. Furthermore, abolishment or reduction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression directed by promoter methylation is considered significant in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis. This study aims to investigate BORIS and SOCS3 expression in HCC specimens and assess the prognostic significance of these proteins. BORIS and SOCS3 expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in HCC tissues, along with corresponding paracarcinomatous, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and normal liver tissues. The expression levels of these 2 proteins in HCC were evaluated for their association with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves, the log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. BORIS expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than in normal liver tissues. In contrast, SOCS3 expression was dramatically lower in HCC tissues. BORIS expression was associated with tumor size, differentiation grade, satellite lesions, and recurrence while SOCS3 expression correlated with differentiation grade, vascular invasion, and recurrence. A significant negative correlation between BORIS and SOCS3 was observed. Patients with high BORIS expression and/or low SOCS3 expression had poorer postoperative survival. Patients with both these characteristics had the poorest prognostic outcome. BORIS and SOCS3 are promising as valuable indicators for predicting HCC prognosis. PMID:28328845

  2. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Link, Petra A; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1-sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination.

  3. The evolution of epigenetic regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in amniotes.

    PubMed

    Hore, Timothy A; Deakin, Janine E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2008-08-29

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called "brother of regulator of imprinted sites" (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF.

  4. The Evolution of Epigenetic Regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in Amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Hore, Timothy A.; Deakin, Janine E.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called “brother of regulator of imprinted sites” (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF. PMID:18769711

  5. Influence of Valentine's Day and Halloween on birth timing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2011-10-01

    It is known that cultural representations, in the form of stereotypes, can influence functional health. We predicted that the influence of cultural representations, in the form of salient holidays, would extend to birth timing. On Valentine's Day, which conveys positive symbolism, there was a 3.6% increase in spontaneous births and a 12.1% increase in cesarean births. Whereas, on Halloween, which conveys negative symbolism, there was a 5.3% decrease in spontaneous births and a 16.9% decrease in cesarean births. These effects reached significance at p < .0001, after adjusting for year and day of the week. The sample was based on birth-certificate information for all births in the United States within one week on either side of each holiday across 11 years. The Valentine's-Day window included 1,676,217 births and the Halloween window included 1,809,304 births. Our findings raise the possibility that pregnant women may be able to control the timing of spontaneous births, in contrast to the traditional assumption, and that scheduled births are also influenced by the cultural representations of the two holidays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  7. NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Mexico Soaked from Boris, System 90L

    NASA Image and Video Library

    TRMM satellite data showed that some areas in southwestern Mexico received over 12 inches of rainfall (red) from Boris, while System 90L on the eastern side of Mexico brought similar totals to part...

  8. [Valentin's nerve, its role in the innervation of the chin region. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Cheynet, F; Faissal, A; Gola, R

    1998-06-01

    The mylo-hyoid nerve, a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, gives rise to many motor and sensory branches. Motor branches innervate the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Sensitive branches innervate the submandibular gland and also the skin just under the bony chin. Valentin's nerve, the terminal cutaneous branch of the myo-hyoid nerve (described by Valentin in 1843), can be damaged by horizontal mentoplasty (sliding-mentoplasty). Sensory disorders (hypoesthesia, anesthesia) can occur in case of Valentin's nerve injury without lesions to the mental nerve.

  9. Expression of the Epigenetic factor BORIS (CTCFL) in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    BORIS, or CTCFL, the so called Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites because of the extensive homology in the central DNA binding region of the protein to the related regulator, CTCF, is expressed in early gametogenesis and in multiple cancers but not in differentiated somatic cells. Thus it is a member of the cancer testes antigen group (CTAs). Since BORIS and CTCF target common DNA binding sites, these proteins function on two levels, the first level is their regulation via the methylation context of the DNA target site and the second level is their distinct and different epigenetic associations due to differences in the non-homologous termini of the proteins. The regulation on both of these levels is extensive and complex and the sphere of influence of each of these proteins is associated with vastly different cellular signaling processes. On the level of gene expression, BORIS has three known promoters and multiple spliced mRNAs which adds another level of complexity to this intriguing regulator. BORIS expression is observed in the majority of cancer tissues and cell lines analyzed up to today. The expression profile and essential role of BORIS in cancer make this molecule very attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes what is known about BORIS regarding its expression, structure, and function and then presents some theoretical considerations with respect to its genome wide influence and its potential for use as a vaccine for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22168535

  10. Associations between 'valentine' heart shape, atrial enlargement and cardiomyopathy in cats.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Giglio, Robson F; Berry, Clifford R; Reese, David J; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2015-06-01

    'Valentine' heart shape is a common qualifier used in veterinary radiology to describe a cardiac silhouette with focal enlargement at the level of the base of the heart in feline patients. Anecdotally, this sign has been thought to be related to biatrial enlargement and also to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, to our knowledge, there has been no study performed to assess the association between cardiac chamber enlargement and cardiac disease with the 'valentine'-shaped heart. The aim of this study was to verify the association between the 'valentine' heart shape observed in ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs and the presence of singular or combined cardiac chamber enlargement, and also the presence and type of cardiomyopathy (CM) in cats. A search of the database of the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the University of Florida for cats with a radiology report of thoracic radiographs that contained the words 'valentine' and 'biatrial', and echocardiography performed within 1 week, was undertaken; 41 cases met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two percent of the cats of the study sample had some form of CM. The 'valentine' heart shape was associated with biatrial enlargement in 41% of the patients in our study sample that had some form of CM and just 8% of cases diagnosed with HCM, suggesting that the 'valentine' heart shape has a low association with HCM or biatrial enlargement; however, it should be considered a sign of feline CM.

  11. BORIS up-regulates OCT4 via histone methylation to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuying; Chen, Kefei; Liu, Zhongjian; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Rongce; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiaoqin; He, Jingyang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianguo; Qin, Yang; Li, Bo

    2017-09-10

    Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues. Exogenous overexpression of BORIS promoted CSC-like properties, including self-renewal, chemoresistance, migration and invasion in Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. Conversely, BORIS knockdown suppressed CSC-like properties in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells and inhibited tumorigenicity in SMMC-7721 cells. Moreover, BORIS alteration did not affect the DNA methylation status of the minimal promoter and exon 1 region of OCT4. However, BORIS overexpression enhanced the amount of BORIS bound on the OCT4 promoter and increased H3K4me2, while reducing H3K27me3; BORIS depletion decreased BORIS and H3K4me2 on the OCT4 promoter, while increasing H3K27me3. These results revealed that BORIS is associated with the CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of OCT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals.

  13. Mainstream legitimization of homosexual men through Valentine's Day gift-giving and consumption rituals.

    PubMed

    Newman, P J; Nelson, M R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gay community has received increased attention from marketers through specially-made television commercials, direct mail pieces, and other media messages. However, little research in consumer behavior has examined the potential attitudinal and behavioral differences and similarities between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Specifically, this paper provides an exploratory look at the meaning and practices surrounding the consumer ritual of Valentine's Day from the perspective of homosexual men. Using depth interviews within an interpretative framework, our research suggests similarities exist for the celebration of Valentine's Day between homosexual and heterosexual singles, while differences may exist for the functions of Valentine's Day gift-giving between these groups. Some homosexual couples feel they cannot "legitimately participate" in the dominant rituals associated with the holiday due to oppression by a "heterosexual society". Marketing implications are discussed.

  14. [Severe infection by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: reports of two cases].

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Martín; Pérez, Guadalupe; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Sarkis, Claudia; Romero, Romina; Mastroianni, Alejandra; Casimir, Lidia; Venuta, María E; Gómez Bonduele, Verónica; Bologna, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications. It is essential the suspected diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment and early surgical management to improve the approach of these infections. Epidemiological surveillance should be mantained to detect the frequency of infections caused by these bacteria.

  15. 76 FR 18291 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Boris Mikhailov: Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Boris Mikhailov: Case History... Mikhailov: Case History,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of... Art, New York, New York, from on or about May 26, 2011, until on or about September 5, 2011, and at...

  16. Designing a Fair Test with Valentine Candy To Teach Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Soo; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to design a fair test--a test in which one variable at a time is changed--that will result in the slow melting of a single piece of valentine heart candy in the mouth. Students identified and defined "normal placement" as a control variable and measured melting time to establish baseline data. (WRM)

  17. [Valentine's Day Activities Compiled from Eleven Years of February Issues of Instructor Magazine, 1973-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Valentine's Day activities which include a play, music, poetry, and numerous art and craft projects are presented in this compilation from February issues of "Instructor" magazine. The short and easy projects, suitable for primary and elementary students, use inexpensive and easily found materials such as paper, cloth, yarn, magazine…

  18. Designing a Fair Test with Valentine Candy To Teach Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Soo; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students attempt to design a fair test--a test in which one variable at a time is changed--that will result in the slow melting of a single piece of valentine heart candy in the mouth. Students identified and defined "normal placement" as a control variable and measured melting time to establish baseline data. (WRM)

  19. CTCFL/BORIS Is a Methylation-Independent DNA-Binding Protein That Preferentially Binds to the Paternal H19 Differentially Methylated Region

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuongmai; Cui, Hengmi; Bisht, Kheem S.; Sun, Lunching; Patel, Krish; Lee, Richard S.; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Gius, David

    2009-01-01

    The CTCF paralog BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) is an insulator DNA-binding protein thought to play a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. Under normal physiologic conditions, BORIS is predominantly expressed during embryonic male germ cell development; however, it is also expressed in tumors and tumor cell lines and, as such, has been classified as a cancer-germline or cancer-testis gene. It has been suggested that BORIS may be a pro-proliferative factor, whereas CTCF favors antiproliferation. BORIS and CTCF share similar zinc finger DNA-binding domains and seem to bind to identical target sequences. Thus, one critical question is the mechanism governing the DNA-binding specificity of these two proteins when both are present in tumor cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in HCT116 cells and their hypermethylated variant showed that BORIS binds to methylated DNA sequences, whereas CTCF binds to unmethylated DNA. Electromobility shift assays, using both whole-cell extracts and in vitro translated CTCF and BORIS protein, and methylation-specific ChIP PCR showed that BORIS is a methylation-independent DNA-binding protein. Finally, experiments in murine hybrid cells containing either the maternal or paternal human chromosome 11 showed that BORIS preferentially binds to the methylated paternal H19 differentially methylated region, suggesting a mechanism in which the affinity of CTCF for the unmethylated maternal allele directs the DNA binding of BORIS toward the paternal allele. PMID:18632606

  20. Boris Choubert: The forgotten fit of the circum-Atlantic continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornprobst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Boris Choubert was a strong supporter of Wegener's continental drift theory. In 1935, he published a very accurate fit of the circum-Atlantic continents, which was based on continental edges instead of coastlines; in the same paper, he interpreted the Palaeozoic belts as the result of horizontal movements of the Precambrian blocks; so, he greatly expanded the role of continental drift through time. This original and very prophetic work was almost completely ignored by his contemporaries. Thirty years later (1965), Bullard, Everett and Smith published in turn a similar but more sophisticated fit; they did not acknowledge Choubert's initial work. Bullard's fit was met with immediate and tremendous success. The present paper analyses the reasons why Boris Choubert was frustrated of his pioneering role. This lack of recognition is related to: (1) a great evolution in the geological concepts between 1935 and 1965, and (2) a poor choice of Choubert, regarding the title of his 1935 article.

  1. Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia among the Bori community in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arene, F O; Atu, F N

    1986-10-01

    Night and day blood surveys for filariasis were conducted among inhabitants of Bori Local Government Area in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria between October 1983 and July 1984. Of the 1674 persons examined 47.0% had microfilaraemia. The infections were due to Mansonella perstans only. The prevalence of the infection was higher among males (51.8%) than among females (42.4%), and increased with age in both sexes. Eight persons were found with elephantoid scrotums and all had microfilariae of M. perstans.

  2. BAT3 and SET1A Form a Complex with CTCFL/BORIS To Modulate H3K4 Histone Dimethylation and Gene Expression▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuongmai; Bar-Sela, Gil; Sun, Lunching; Bisht, Kheem S.; Cui, Hengmi; Kohn, Elise; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Gius, David

    2008-01-01

    Chromatin status is characterized in part by covalent posttranslational modifications of histones that regulate chromatin dynamics and direct gene expression. BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) is an insulator DNA-binding protein that is thought to play a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. BORIS is a cancer-germ line gene; these are genes normally present in male germ cells (testis) that are also expressed in cancer cell lines as well as primary tumors. This work identifies SET1A, an H3K4 methyltransferase, and BAT3, a cochaperone recruiter, as binding partners for BORIS, and these proteins bind to the upstream promoter regions of two well-characterized procarcinogenic genes, Myc and BRCA1. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of BAT3, as well as SET1A, decreased Myc and BRCA1 gene expression but did not affect the binding properties of BORIS, but RNAi knockdown of BORIS prevented the assembly of BAT3 and SET1A at the Myc and BRCA1 promoters. Finally, chromatin analysis suggested that BORIS and BAT3 exert their effects on gene expression by recruiting proteins such as SET1A that are linked to changes in H3K4 dimethylation. Thus, we propose that BORIS acts as a platform upon which BAT3 and SET1A assemble and exert effects upon chromatin structure and gene expression. PMID:18765639

  3. A case of epididymitis associated with Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Malini; Chew, Pei Ru

    2012-08-01

    A new pattern of disease caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus is emerging in the UK and worldwide. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is more likely to produce PVL, a pore-forming cytotoxin inducing leucocyte lysis, which often infects young healthy individuals. The worldwide emergence and continually increasing prevalence of community-acquired PVL-MRSA have recently attracted high-profile media attention and prompted concern regarding the transmissibility and virulence. This paper reports a case of genitourinary tract infection associated with PVL-positive community-associated MRSA in an immunocompetent young man.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine toxin skin infection in a medical laboratory technician.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Richard; Pougnet, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    This report exposes the case of a Staphylococcus aureus infection occurring in a microbiology laboratory technician. He was a 52 year-old man without medical history. He presented an abscess on the anterior aspect of the left forearm. Analysis showed that it was a Staphylococcus aureus secreting the Panton-Valentine toxin. The study of the workplace found the frequency of exposure. The study of workstation showed the link between the technician position and the infection. Indeed, this man touched an area where the biocleaning was hard to do. This is the first case of infection with PVL described for a laboratory technician.

  5. Disseminated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Yanik, Keramettin; Paksu, Muhammet S; Sensoy, Gulnar; Aykanat, Alper; Yener, Nazik; Belet, Nursen; Ceyhan, Meltem

    2016-04-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  6. Down-regulation of BORIS/CTCFL efficiently regulates cancer stemness and metastasis in MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cell line by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Garikapati, Koteswara Rao; Patel, Nibedita; Makani, Venkata Krishna Kanth; Cilamkoti, Priyanka; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2017-02-26

    BORIS/CTCFL is a vital nucleotide binding protein expressed during embryogenesis and gametogenesis. BORIS/CTCFL is the paralogue of transcriptional repressor protein CTCF, which is aberrantly expressed in various malignancies and primarily re-expressed in cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanism behind regulation of BORIS in various cancer conditions and tumor metastases is so far not explored in detail. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of BORIS/CTCFL on stemness and metastasis by regulating well-known oncogenes and related signaling pathways. In our study, we have identified a cross-talk between expression of BORIS/CTCFL and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in various processes including ontogenesis, embryogenesis and maintenance of stem cell properties. Upon knockdown of BORIS/CTCFL, we observed an upregulation of Mesenchymal to Epithelial transition markers such as E-cad and downregulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition markers such as N-CAD, Vimentin, SNAIL, etc. This transition was accomplished by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by regulating upstream and downstream Wnt associated proteins including β-catenin, Wnt3a/5a, CD44, MYC etc. We also identified that BMI1, an oncogene belonging to polycomb group expressed positively with levels of BORIS/CTCFL. Our study implicates the role of BORIS/CTCFL in maintenance of stemness and in transition from mesenchymal to epithelial state in MYC amplified neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Effectively controlling BORIS/CTCFL levels can inhibit disease establishment and hence can be considered as a potent target for cancer therapy.

  7. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  8. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Horibe, Ryota; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Mariya, Tasuku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takaya, Akari; Saijo, Hiroshi; Shionoya, Yosuke; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Watanabe, Kazue; Atsuyama, Eri; Toji, Shingo; Hirano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high rate of mortality. Lung cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/ cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play major role in resistance to treatments, recurrence and distant metastasis and eradication of CSCs/CICs is crucial to improve recent therapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are major effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and CTLs recognize antigenic peptides derived from antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we analyzed the potency of a cancer-testis (CT) antigen, brother of the regulator of the imprinted site variant subfamily 6 (BORIS sf6), in lung CSC/CIC immunotherapy. BORIS sf6 mRNA was expressed in lung carcinoma cells (9/19), especially in sphere-cultured lung cancer stem-like cells, and in primary lung carcinoma tissues (4/9) by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining using BORIS sf6-specific antibody revealed that high expression of BORIS sf6 is related to poorer prognosis. CTLs could be induced by using a human leukocyte antigen, (HLA)-A2 restricted antigenic peptide (BORIS C34_24(9)), from all of 3 HLA-A2-positive individuals, and CTL clone cells specific for BORIS C34_24(9) peptide could recognize BORIS sf6-positive, HLA-A2-positive lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that BORIS sf6 is a novel target of lung cancer immunotherapy that might be useful for targeting treatment-resistant lung cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28248963

  9. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Ryota; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Mariya, Tasuku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takaya, Akari; Saijo, Hiroshi; Shionoya, Yosuke; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Watanabe, Kazue; Atsuyama, Eri; Toji, Shingo; Hirano, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high rate of mortality. Lung cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/ cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play major role in resistance to treatments, recurrence and distant metastasis and eradication of CSCs/CICs is crucial to improve recent therapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are major effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and CTLs recognize antigenic peptides derived from antigens that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we analyzed the potency of a cancer-testis (CT) antigen, brother of the regulator of the imprinted site variant subfamily 6 (BORIS sf6), in lung CSC/CIC immunotherapy. BORIS sf6 mRNA was expressed in lung carcinoma cells (9/19), especially in sphere-cultured lung cancer stem-like cells, and in primary lung carcinoma tissues (4/9) by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining using BORIS sf6-specific antibody revealed that high expression of BORIS sf6 is related to poorer prognosis. CTLs could be induced by using a human leukocyte antigen, (HLA)-A2 restricted antigenic peptide (BORIS C34_24(9)), from all of 3 HLA-A2-positive individuals, and CTL clone cells specific for BORIS C34_24(9) peptide could recognize BORIS sf6-positive, HLA-A2-positive lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that BORIS sf6 is a novel target of lung cancer immunotherapy that might be useful for targeting treatment-resistant lung cancer stem-like cells.

  10. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious

    PubMed Central

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including “cold temperature,” “thermoneutral temperature,” and “warm-sensitive” and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  11. Functional Assessment of the Role of BORIS in Ovarian Cancer Using a Novel in Vivo Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    just before fertilization , resulting in excision of the floxed STOP cassette in oocytes), were mated to FVB/N males. Of more than 80 offspring from...indicating that, as anticipated, ectopic expression of BORIS at fertilization was incompatible with proper development. 1c. Generation of control and...will be established by in vitro fertilization , injected with adeno-Cre, and used for tumor collection. Task 3. The goal of the third task is to

  12. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones▿

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, Shannon M.; Heller, Loree C.; Arbuckle, Jesse; Talavera, Monica; Widen, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene carriage were compared among suspected community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (CA-MRSA) and health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. CA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type IV complex, and most were PVL positive. The HA-MRSA isolates carried the SCCmec type II complex and did not harbor the PVL genes. PMID:17192420

  13. Investigations on modern carbon materials in the Boris Kidrič Institute, Vinča

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinković, Slobodan

    1980-03-01

    Modern carbon materials which have been objects of research at the Boris Kidrič Institute, Vinča involve high-performance carbon fibres from PAN precursor, carbon-fibre-reinforced phenolic and epoxy resins, carbon-carbon composites, pyrolytic carbons deposited at 1500-2450 K both pure and containing small amounts of B, Si, P or U, and carbon felt from viscose rayon precursor. Investigations relevant to carbon fibres comprise a study of processes during air oxidation of PAN fibres and an extensive research of low-temperature SO 2-treatment of PAN fibres, which has resulted in a model of the structure stabilization and shows that this stabilization can be successfully applied for the preparation of high-performance carbon fibres. Extensive investigations of codeposition of carbon and small amounts of B, Si, P and U suggest that B, Si and P enter the pyrocarbon lattice substitutionally and produce important changes in properties of the product. B, Si and U act as graphitizing catalysts, the effect being most pronounced for Si. The fabrication technology of the carbon fibres, carbon-fibre-reinforced-plastics and of pyrolytic carbon has been developed on a laboratory scale.

  14. Growth Rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and Its Climatic Background

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993–1996 at bottom and 2006–2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year−1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year−1). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year−1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year−1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from −2.75 to −1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from −6.75 to −5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  15. Global Distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Bes, Michele; Meugnier, Helene; Lina, Gerard; Bozdogan, Bülent; Courvalin, Patrice; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Enright, Mark C.; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type IV or V. PMID:17553275

  16. Investigations of fluvial sediments of the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Matejka, D.Q.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1953-01-01

    This report contains results of observations that were made from the time when a natural constriction was formed in the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebr., to the time when it was widened by high flows. After the constriction was widened, insufficient turbulence was developed to suspend most of the sediment. The report gives information on the amount and characteristics of the sediment that moves as unmeasured load at normal sections of the stream near the constriction and at the measuring sections at the Sparks gaging station. Lateral distributions of depth, velocity, and concentration are shown for the sections where sediment discharge was measured. In addition, vertical distributions of concentration, velocity, and percentage of particles coarser than 0.25 mm are shown for the contracted section. The vertical distributions seem to indicate that the total sediment load of the stream was usually in suspension at the contracted section. Exclusive of the period during the winter when upstream reservoirs. were not flushed, the measured discharge of suspended sediment at the normal sections near the contraction averaged 47 percent and at the Sparks gaging station 41 percent of the measured sediment discharge at the contracted section. Particle sizes of suspended sediment and bed material are tabulated, and some size distributions are plotted. In conformity with bedload theory, the computed particle sizes of the unmeasured load were slightly smaller than the average particle sizes in the samples of bed material.

  17. Functional Assessment of the Role of BORIS in Ovarian Cancer Using a Novel In Vivo Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    injected into fertilized eggs from FVB/N mice, and we are currently awaiting founder mice. iv) we have obtained double conditional knockout mice (Rb, p53...been completed (Fig. 1A) and the construct injected, along with ROSA26 TALENS, into fertilized eggs from FVB/N mice. We are currently waiting for...inject o, the RPCI st to describ females w tion. expression omic stabil BORIS tran gin work on pression, vitro . ll, Ms. Mar has succe ox;p53flox

  18. Red Roses and Gift Chocolates Are Judged More Positively in the U.S. Near Valentine's Day: Evidence of Naturally Occurring Cultural Priming.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Vivian; Pandey, Gayathri; Tabak, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes are not static, but constructed at the moment of the evaluation, incorporating temporary contextual influences. How do meaningful events that naturally occur within a culture, such as a national holiday, shape evaluative judgments of objects related to the holiday? We focused on evaluations of red roses and gift chocolates, which are everyday objects, but also iconic of Valentine's Day in the U.S. We reasoned that if cultural events shape evaluations, then roses and chocolates would be evaluated differently near Valentine's Day. Using a large and diverse U.S. sample, we found that as Valentine's Day neared, evaluations of roses and chocolates (but not a comparison object) were evaluated more positively. Increases in positivity of roses and chocolates covaried with their increased cultural relevance, as quantified by the volume of web search queries involving these terms. These findings provide a demonstration of naturally occurring cultural priming by which the salience of cultural events shape evaluations.

  19. Staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leucocidin as a major virulence factor associated to furuncles.

    PubMed

    Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Sina, Haziz; Scheftel, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Brigitte; Sainte-Marie, Dominique; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Prévost, Gilles; Couppié, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), one of the β-barrel pore-forming staphylococcal leucotoxins, is known to be associated to furuncles and some severe community pneumonia. However, it is still uncertain how many other virulence factors are also associated to furuncles and what the risk factors of furuncles are in immuno-compromised status of patients, especially the HIV (+) patients. In this paper, we use antigen immunoprecipitation and multiplex PCR approach to determine the presence of 19 toxins, 8 adhesion factors and the PFGE profiles associated to furuncles in three independent patient study groups of S. aureus (SA) isolates collected from the Cayenne General Hospital (French Guiana). The patient groups were made of: 16 isolates from HIV (-) patients, 9 from HIV (+) patients suffering from furuncles, and 30 control isolates from patients with diverse secondary infected dermatitis. Our data reveals that the majority (96%) of SA strains isolated from HIV patient-derived furuncles significantly produced PVL (p<10(-7)), whereas only 10% of SA strains produced this toxin in secondary infected dermatosis. A high prevalence of LukE-LukD-producing isolates (56 to 78%) was recorded in patient groups. Genes encoding clumping factor B, collagen- and laminin-binding proteins (clfB, cna, lbp, respectively) were markedly frequent (30 to 55%), without being associated to a specific group. Pulse field gel electrophoresis evidenced 24 overall pulsotypes, whereas the 25 PVL-producing isolates were distributed into 15 non clonal fingerprints. These pulsotypes were not specific PVL-producing isolates. PVL appears to be the major virulence factor associated to furuncles in Europe and in South America regardless of the immune status of the HIV patients.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology Survey of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-positive Isolated from Sanandaj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Abbas; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Shahbazi, Babak; Narenji, Hanar

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains that are Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive cause severe skin and soft tissue infections as well as necrotizing pneumonia. The presence of PVL gene is a marker for methicillin-resistant S. aureus; therefore, survey on prevalence and phylogenetic distribution of PVL is of great importance for public health. The aim of this research was molecular epidemiology survey of S. aureus PVL positive, isolated from two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj. A total of 264 staphylococci isolates were collected from clinical specimens, hospital personnel and hospital environment of two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj, in 2012 (Toohid and Besat). Bacterial cultures and biochemical tests were performed for S. aureus detection. Then, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were used for the determination of prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus PVL, respectively. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05). From 264 staphylococci isolates, 88 (33.33%) were detected as S. aureus. Furthermore, 20 out of 88 (22.72%) strains of S. aureus were PVL positive according to PCR results. Rep-PCR showed six main clusters of S. aureus samples. PVL had similar clonality between different samples. No significant relationship was observed between PVL positive S. aureus and rep-PCR patterns (P = 0.98). These results showed that a clone of S. aureus PVL positive has spread between the community and hospital settings. Therefore, appropriate measures are required to prevent the spread of staphylococci and other bacteria in hospitals.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Bettina; Hussain, Muzaffar; Grundmeier, Matthias; Brück, Michaela; Holzinger, Dirk; Varga, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C.; Proctor, Richard A.; Peters, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The role of the pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in severe necrotizing diseases is debated due to conflicting data from epidemiological studies of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and various murine disease-models. In this study, we used neutrophils isolated from different species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PVL in comparison to other staphylococcal cytolytic components. Furthermore, to study the impact of PVL we expressed it heterologously in a non-virulent staphylococcal species and examined pvl-positive and pvl-negative clinical isolates as well as the strain USA300 and its pvl-negative mutant. We demonstrate that PVL induces rapid activation and cell death in human and rabbit neutrophils, but not in murine or simian cells. By contrast, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a newly identified group of cytolytic staphylococcal components, lack species-specificity. In general, after phagocytosis of bacteria different pvl-positive and pvl-negative staphylococcal strains, expressing a variety of other virulence factors (such as surface proteins), induced cell death in neutrophils, which is most likely associated with the physiological clearing function of these cells. However, the release of PVL by staphylococcal strains caused rapid and premature cell death, which is different from the physiological (and programmed) cell death of neutrophils following phagocytosis and degradation of virulent bacteria. Taken together, our results question the value of infection-models in mice and non-human primates to elucidate the impact of PVL. Our data clearly demonstrate that PVL acts differentially on neutrophils of various species and suggests that PVL has an important cytotoxic role in human neutrophils, which has major implications for the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infections. PMID:20072612

  2. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  3. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  4. MALDI-TOF-MS for rapid detection of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Fadi; Ouchenane, Zoulikha; Smati, Farida; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria are responsible for emerging and life-threatening infections in humans worldwide. Both rapid toxin detection and adapted therapy are essential to limit the morbidity due to such toxins, especially staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Here we describe the use of a mass spectrometry profile generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) followed by ClinProTools 2.0 software analysis to find a reproducible model able to identify PVL in Staphylococcus aureus strains. Eighty-one S. aureus strains were used and tested for the presence of PVL, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and mecA genes. The peak at 4448 mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) was the most relevant peak to differentiate between PVL-producing and non-PVL-producing S. aureus. A model using only this peak had an overall recognition capability of 100% and an overall cross-validation of 77.07%. Prospective evaluation of the model allowed two cases of PVL-producing strains to be detected within a few minutes during the time of care and before polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Our study represents a proof of concept for the use of such rapid technology as a point-of-care method to identify potential lethal toxin quickly. We believe that such a rapid method will be timely to help change the therapeutic strategy and could be used in the future for other pathogens and infectious diseases.

  5. The Origin of Convex Waterfalls Along the Niobrara River by Valentine, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Mason, L. J.; Goble, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Waterfalls on tributaries along a stretch of the Niobrara River east of Valentine, Nebraska have a convex-downstream geometry in the horizontal plane and an arc in the vertical plane. Siltstone forming the cliff face is only slightly indurated and should be easily eroded by stream water. This is not the case as the cliff face on either side of the waterfalls clearly undergoes more rapid erosion than the face of the falls forming a convex geometry. This differential erosion rate includes points where waterfalls occur immediately along the banks of the Niobrara River. At these points, riverbank erosion is clearly more effective upstream and downstream of a waterfall as evidenced by the protrusion of the waterfall face into the river. There appears to be repetitive-cycles of waterfall evolution along the tributaries. The convexity increases until collapse occurs on the face of the falls, headward erosion then occurs, followed by the development of a new convex waterfall. The waterfalls have a more typical geometry (convex upstream) on tributaries in the lower reaches of the Niobrara River, where cliff faces become coarser grained. The tributaries are fed by springs. Several processes interact to form the convex geometry. Freeze/thaw erosion is more effective on either side of the waterfalls. Water enters the face of the falls and wicks into the cliff causing negative pore pressures. Clay coatings on mineral grains appear to play a role in protection from erosion. Algae and lichen growth aids in protecting the face of the falls. Small groundwater flow systems, represented by seepage into the streambed above the falls and discharge to the side of the falls can cause seepage erosion and enhancement of freeze/thaw erosion.

  6. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Kolar, Stacey L.; Müller, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Maria D.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Fan, Xuemo; Beenhouwer, David O.; Town, Terrence; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These “humanized” NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor. PMID:26618545

  7. Paclitaxel-coated balloon for the treatment of drug-eluting stent restenosis: subanalysis results from the Valentines I trial.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joshua P; Stella, Pieter R; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe; Silber, Sigmund; Stahnke, Stefanie; von Strandmann, Rembert Pogge; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) treatment on patients with drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis. In the Valentines I trial, treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis was effective and safe with the second-generation DIOR® PCB. Valentines I prospectively enrolled 250 patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR); 76 patients (30.4%) had restenosis of a previous paclitaxel or limus DES. Patients underwent balloon angioplasty followed by PCB treatment. Clinical outcomes of patients with paclitaxel-eluting DES restenosis (n=34; 41 lesions) and limus-eluting (sirolimus, everolimus and zotarolimus) DES restenosis (n=42; 43 lesions) treated with DIOR® PCB were compared. Baseline characteristics were similar. There were more diffuse lesions >20mm treated in paclitaxel- compared to limus-eluting DES restenosis (50% vs. 26.8%, p=0.032). Number of PCB used per patient (1.08±0.31 overall), mean PCB diameter (2.99±0.42mm overall), mean PCB length (24.4±11.9mm overall), and bailout stenting (2.4% vs. 4.7%) were similar (p=NS). At mean follow-up of 231±43days, major adverse cardiac events was 0% vs. 23.8% in paclitaxel- vs. limus-eluting DES restenosis (p=0.002), driven mainly by less target vessel revascularization (0% vs. 21.4%, p=0.004). Target lesion revascularization was 0% vs. 16.7% for paclitaxel- vs. limus-eluting DES restenosis (p=0.015). In Valentines I, PCB use was more effective in patients with paclitaxel DES restenosis compared to limus DES restenosis, achieving better mid-term clinical outcomes. This suggests the efficacy of localized paclitaxel delivery to overcome paclitaxel resistance but not limus resistance due to different mechanisms of DES failure. © 2014.

  8. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) - an uninvited stowaway aboard a Royal Navy submarine.

    PubMed

    Bourn, S J N; Evans, G; O'Shea, M K

    2013-01-01

    The toxin Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, SA) that destroys leucocytes. PVL-SA predominantly results in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) but may also cause invasive disease, including necrotising pneumonia, which may affect healthy young individuals and has a high mortality. We describe a case of PVL-SA in a submariner who presented at sea and which resulted in a requirement to both alter the submarine's programme and undertake population screening. The case highlights many important issues pertinent to military populations including clinical and public health considerations.

  9. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a case report and review of interim guidelines.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, L N; Lowe, A D

    2008-07-01

    We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. The causative organism was positive for the toxin Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. This resulted in a severe pneumonia requiring a prolonged stay on our intensive care unit. This infection is becoming more common in the United Kingdom. It can cause a far more aggressive illness than the hospital acquired infection with a high mortality if it becomes an invasive infection. The Department of Health has recently produced interim guidelines for its treatment which we have also reviewed.

  10. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Encoding Staphylococcal Phage and Its Naturally PVL-Lacking Variant

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats. PMID:23396328

  11. Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcal aureus infections of the head and neck: case series and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, John; Changez, Huma; Smith, Andrew; Wales, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams.

  12. Molecular Characterization and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin Typing of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Tim; Kearns, Angela M.; James, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Limited comprehensive molecular typing data exist currently for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MSSA) clinical isolates. Characterization of PVL-MSSA isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing in this study showed a genetic similarity to PVL-positive, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (PVL-MRSA) strains, although three novel spa types and a novel MLST (ST1518) were detected. Furthermore, the detection of PVL phages and haplotypes in PVL-MSSA identical to those previously found in PVL-MRSA isolates highlights the role these strains may play as precursors of emerging lineages of clinical significance. PMID:22718937

  13. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  14. Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    AM COMMAND 7’A .- 1 9-19’ 3: -42 FPr- H0 iF rEH TO ;777’-, P. OF ~ Air Forc~e Environmental Planning Division (HQ USAF/CEVP) lXoma S’B69 1260 Air...the width reduces to about three feet. Applying this data to Valentine would show the probability of a focus boom impacting any one spot where the...future research may provide a better understanding I of the relationship between noise and non-auditory ill-health; however, in the interim decisions

  15. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement Supersonic Flight Operations in the Valentine Military Operations Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-04

    FROH HO UI3W CEH TOi 9-l2,’ý LI 1.U of F Air Force 4~4~4a ~ Environmental Planning DiVision 4LW (HQ USAFICE VP) Roam 5969 120 Air pa Nwatqof 6...about three feet. Applying I this data to Valentine would show the probability of a focus boom impacting any one spot where the overpressure is equal...provide a better understanding I of the relationship between noise and non-auditory ill-health; however, in the interim decisions must be based on that data

  16. Characterization of a Novel Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-encoding staphylococcal phage and its naturally PVL-lacking variant.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Moineau, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    A new siphophage (LH1) was isolated from raw milk using a Staphylococcus aureus ST352 host. Its genome (46,048 bp, 57 open reading frames) includes the two genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a virulence factor usually harbored by S. aureus prophages. Nine structural proteins were identified, including a tail protein generated through a +1 frameshift. A phage lytic mutant was isolated, and its analysis revealed the deletion of genes coding for the PVL and an integrase. The deletion likely occurred through recombination between direct repeats.

  17. Discovering the Structure of Nerve Tissue: Part 2: Gabriel Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně.

    PubMed

    Chvátal, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    During the 1830s, the use of improved microscopic techniques together with new histological methods, including tissue fixation, allowed more precise data to be obtained concerning the structure of nerve tissue of animals as well as humans. The present article, based on the translations of original texts never before published, brings together for the first time the discoveries of famous scholars Gustav Valentin, Robert Remak, and Jan Evangelista Purkyně, who made their significant discoveries in the field of neuroscience almost simultaneously and shows how their findings affected each other. In addition, this article also contains digitally remastered and reconstructed figures published in the original works of Valentin, Remak, and Purkyně and they are displayed for the first time in high quality. Although the fundamental discoveries of these famous scholars did not imply the discovery of nerve cells as we know them today, they were certainly a very important basis for further research of many other eminent scholars during the second half of the nineteenth century.

  18. Analysis of the specificity of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and gamma-hemolysin F component binding.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florent; Girardot, Raymonde; Piémont, Yves; Prévost, Gilles; Colin, Didier A

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the binding of F components of the staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins Panton-Valentine leucocidin (LukF-PV) and gamma-hemolysin (HlgB) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined using labeled mutants and flow cytometry. Leukotoxin activity was evaluated by measuring Ca(2+) entry or pore formation using spectrofluorometry or flow cytometry. Although HlgB had no affinity for cells in the absence of an S component, LukF-PV had high affinity for PMNs (dissociation constant [K(d)], 6.2 +/- 1.9 nM; n = 8), monocytes (K(d), 2.8 +/- 0.8 nM; n = 7), and lymphocytes (K(d), 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 7). Specific binding of HlgB was observed only after addition of LukS-PV on PMNs (K(d), 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 4) and monocytes (K(d), 0.84 +/- 0.31 nM; n = 4) or after addition of HlgC on PMNs, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Addition of LukS-PV or HlgC induced a second specific binding of LukF-PV on PMNs. HlgB and LukD competed only with LukF-PV molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. LukF-PV and LukD competed with HlgB in the presence of LukS-PV on PMNs and monocytes. Use of antibodies and comparisons between binding and activity time courses showed that the LukF-PV molecules that bound to target cells before addition of LukS-PV were the only LukF-PV molecules responsible for Ca(2+) entry and pore formation. In contrast, the active HlgB molecules were the HlgB molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. In conclusion, LukF-PV must be linked to LukS-PV and to a binding site of the membrane to have toxin activity.

  19. Analysis of the Specificity of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin and Gamma-Hemolysin F Component Binding▿

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florent; Girardot, Raymonde; Piémont, Yves; Prévost, Gilles; Colin, Didier A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the binding of F components of the staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins Panton-Valentine leucocidin (LukF-PV) and gamma-hemolysin (HlgB) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, and lymphocytes was determined using labeled mutants and flow cytometry. Leukotoxin activity was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ entry or pore formation using spectrofluorometry or flow cytometry. Although HlgB had no affinity for cells in the absence of an S component, LukF-PV had high affinity for PMNs (dissociation constant [Kd], 6.2 ± 1.9 nM; n = 8), monocytes (Kd, 2.8 ± 0.8 nM; n = 7), and lymphocytes (Kd, 1.2 ± 0.2 nM; n = 7). Specific binding of HlgB was observed only after addition of LukS-PV on PMNs (Kd, 1.1 ± 0.2 nM; n = 4) and monocytes (Kd, 0.84 ± 0.31 nM; n = 4) or after addition of HlgC on PMNs, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Addition of LukS-PV or HlgC induced a second specific binding of LukF-PV on PMNs. HlgB and LukD competed only with LukF-PV molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. LukF-PV and LukD competed with HlgB in the presence of LukS-PV on PMNs and monocytes. Use of antibodies and comparisons between binding and activity time courses showed that the LukF-PV molecules that bound to target cells before addition of LukS-PV were the only LukF-PV molecules responsible for Ca2+ entry and pore formation. In contrast, the active HlgB molecules were the HlgB molecules bound after addition of LukS-PV. In conclusion, LukF-PV must be linked to LukS-PV and to a binding site of the membrane to have toxin activity. PMID:18838523

  20. Successful management of Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive necrotising pneumonia and A/H1N12009 influenzavirus coinfection in adult

    PubMed Central

    Riedweg-Moreno, Karena; Wallet, Frederic; Blazejewski, Caroline; Goffard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case of community-acquired necrotising pneumonia due to Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and A/H1N12009 influenzavirus co-infection in a 26-year-old woman. Despite the presence of pejorative prognostic factors, the clinical course of the patient was favourable. PMID:24436283

  1. A Probe-Based Method for Confirmation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and TST Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Seifried, Steven E.; Jinno, Sadao; Perkins, Rosalie; Singh, Seema; Ying, Claire.; Tice, Alan D.; Kim, Wesley; Hayden, Randall T.

    2016-01-01

    Probe-based detection of mecA, lukS/F-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) and tst virulence genes in 435 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus had comparable sensitivity and specificity to end point polymerase chain reaction as a reference standard. PMID:21658873

  2. Comment on “Symplectic integration of magnetic systems”: A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    DOE PAGES

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    One popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1], [2], [3] and [4] is the Boris algorithm. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1] and [5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Moreover, without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of themore » conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11].« less

  3. Comment on “Symplectic integration of magnetic systems”: A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    One popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1], [2], [3] and [4] is the Boris algorithm. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1] and [5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Moreover, without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of the conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11].

  4. Outbreak of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a regional burns unit.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Shelley, O P; Millership, S; Kearns, A

    2010-11-01

    Over a 16 month period, 30 individuals (19 patients, one relative and 10 members of staff) on a regional burns and plastics unit became colonised or infected with a single strain of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MRSA). The strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin, neomycin and gentamicin and belonged to a community-associated MRSA lineage known to be circulating in the UK. The outbreak occurred in four stages, the first being in burns outpatients, the second and third being on the burns unit itself and the final stage on a plastics ward. In spite of closing the affected unit and deep cleaning, including steam cleaning and hydrogen peroxide treatment, the outbreak continued. It was not until staff carriage was fully addressed that the outbreak was controlled.

  5. Combined action of influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Silke; Ehrhardt, Christina; Medina, Eva; Warnking, Kathrin; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Heitmann, Vanessa; Ludwig, Stephan; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is a life-threatening disease that is frequently preceded by influenza infection. The S. aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is most likely causative for necrotizing diseases, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PVL and a possible contribution of influenza virus remain to be elucidated. In this study, we present a model that explains how influenza virus and PVL act together to cause necrotizing pneumonia: an influenza infection activates the lung epithelium to produce chemoattractants for neutrophils. Upon superinfection with PVL-expressing S. aureus, the recruited neutrophils are rapidly killed by PVL, resulting in uncontrolled release of neutrophil proteases that damage the airway epithelium. The host counteracts this pathogen strategy by generating PVL-neutralizing antibodies and by neutralizing the released proteases via protease inhibitors present in the serum. These findings explain why necrotizing infections mainly develop in serum-free spaces (eg, pulmonary alveoli) and open options for new therapeutic approaches.

  6. The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation and Di-1-p-Menthene on the Phytotoxicity of 2,4-D Applications to Black Valentine Bean Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    dimer of beta - pinene ), the dimethylamine salt of (2,4- dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, and the combination of the latter two. Greenhouse- grown bean...plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine) were exposed for various time periods to a mid-ultraviolet light source having a major emission peak at...254 nm. The energy level recorded at plant height was 350 ergs/sq cm/ sec. Plants exposed to this light source for 1 hr had chlorotic, malformed

  7. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Valentine Dam (NJ00297) Delaware River Basin, Branch of the Pequest River, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase 1 Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    B WOODEN STOPLOG (4’xlx2) HOUSE a15 Via T CHANNEL SECTION APPROX. 900’ DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SEEPAGELAKE VALENTINE 15 WOODEN FOOTBRIDGE r(4’xl’xe... FOOTBRIDGE (Wooden Deck) ]HOUSE HOUSE PLAN cufl DATA FROM FIELD INSPECTION 11/9/79 Anderson- Nichols 5 Ca, Inc [U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DIST PHIL ADELPH4IA CORPS

  8. Can Panton Valentine Leukocidin Gene And Clindamycin Susceptibility Serve As Predictors of Community Origin of MRSA From Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?

    PubMed

    Shashindran, Nandita; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Community associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have begun to replace Hospital Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains in hospital settings all over the world. With the epidemiological distinctions between these strains beginning to become ill-defined, the categorisation of a strain as CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA is dependent on molecular methods to detect the presence of SCCmec (Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec) elements. However other markers like the presence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin (pvl) genes or Clindamycin susceptibility may also be associated with community origin of MRSA. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA among MRSA strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to evaluate the usefulness of Panton Valentine Leukocidin and Clindamycin susceptibility as markers of community origin of MRSA. One hundred isolates of MRSA from skin and soft tissue were studied for the presence of SCCmec IV and V genes and Panton valentine leukocidin gene by Polymerase chain reaction. Inducible clindamycin resistance was screened for using the D-test. Fischer's exact test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Eighteen out of 100 MRSA strains were found to be CA-MRSA based on presence of SCCmecV. The proportion of Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene carriage among CA- MRSA as compared to HA-MRSA was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). Among the CA-MRSA strains, 94.4% were found to be susceptible to Clindamycin as against only 13.4% of the HA-MRSA strains (p<0.0001). The odds of an MRSA strain being CA-MRSA if it was both Clindamycin susceptible and PVL gene positive was calculated to be 68.25 (p<0.0001). Both Clindamycin susceptibility and pvl gene carriage were found to be independent predictors of community origin of MRSA, but taken together the association was highly significant.

  9. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Mesrati, I; Saïdani, M; Ennigrou, S; Zouari, B; Ben Redjeb, S

    2010-08-01

    Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) are members of the synergohymenotropic toxin family produced by Staphylococcus aureus and encoded by pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Many reports describe an association between PVL toxin and necrotic lesions involving skin and mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus strains carrying pvl and hlg genes and to investigate a possible relationship between pvl- and hlg-positive S. aureus with specific clinical presentations. Between January 2005 and July 2007, a total of 143 S. aureus strains including 58 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 85 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were screened for pvl and hlg genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. These strains were isolated from 141 patients for whom demographic and clinical data were recorded. Thirty-one (21.7%) and 77 (53.7%) isolates were positive for pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Twenty-one (67.7%) pvl-positive strains were MRSA (P = 0.001). Among pvl-positive strains, 16 (51.6%) were community-acquired. There was a strong association between pvl genes and skin and soft tissue infections, especially abscesses (60% of strains; P = 0.008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus.

  10. [Life-threatening Panton-Valentine leukocidin-associated staphylococcal infections in children. A broad spectrum of clinical presentations].

    PubMed

    Gillet-Vittori, L; Afanetti, M; Dupont, A; Gondon, E; Dupont, D

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a major toxic virulence factor secreted by community-acquired methicillin-sensitive or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA). SA-PVL can be responsible for life-threatening infections in healthy children with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations involving lung, skin, and soft tissues or bones and joints. PVL production should always be considered in severe SA infections. The pediatric medicine community remains poorly informed regarding the therapeutic management of this infection, which should be early and aggressive. Intravenous empiric antibiotics against SA and its toxins must be given with early and sometimes iterative surgical procedures to drain abscesses and to stop bacterial proliferation and necrosis in the tissues. Here, we report the cases of three patients admitted for SA-PVL infections to the pediatric intensive care unit. Initial clinical presentation in the three patients was multifocal osteomyelitis associated with necrotizing pneumonia; severe skin infection with septic shock; and non-necrotic pneumonia with pleural and pericardial effusion. Appropriate treatments resulted in a good outcome in all cases. Following these illustrations, we describe a number of practical key points in the optimal medical and surgical management of severe SA-PVL infections, with a review of the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Viñas, Marina; Conly, John; Francois, Patrice; Aschbacher, Richard; Blanc, Dominique S; Coombs, Geoffrey; Daikos, George; Dhawan, Benu; Empel, Joanna; Etienne, Jerome; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; George Golding Cnisp; Han, Lizhong; Kim, Hong Bin; Köck, Robin; Larsen, Anders; Layer, Franziska; Lo, Janice; Maeda, Tadashi; Mulvey, Michael; Pantosti, Annalisa; Saga, Tomoo; Schrenzel, Jacques; Simor, Andrew; Skov, Robert; Van Rijen, Miranda; Wang, Hui; Zakaria, Zunita; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates reported from 17 countries in the Americas, Europe and, Australia-Asia were analysed. Among a total of 3236 non-duplicate isolates, the lowest susceptibility was observed to erythromycin in all regions. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin showed large variation (25%, 75% and 84% in the Americas, Europe and Australia-Asia, respectively). Two vancomycin-intermediate PVL-positive MRSA isolates were reported, one from Hong Kong and the other from The Netherlands. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid was <1%. Among 1798 MRSA isolates from 13 countries that were tested for the requested 10 non-β-lactam antibiotics, 49.4% were multisusceptible. However, multiresistant isolates (resistant to at least three classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics) were reported from all regions. Sequence type 30 (ST30) was reported worldwide, whereas ST80 and ST93 were exclusive to Europe and Australia, respectively. USA300 and related clones (ST8) are progressively replacing the ST80 clone in several European countries. Eight major clusters were discriminated by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat assay (MLVA), showing a certain geographic specificity. PVL-positive MRSA isolates frequently remain multisusceptible to non-β-lactam agents, but multiresistance is already prevalent in all regions. Surveillance of MRSA susceptibility patterns should be monitored to provide clinicians with the most current information regarding changes in resistance patterns.

  12. Remitting infections due to community-acquired Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in the Milan area.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Sara Giordana; Pagani, Cristina; Longhi, Erika; Di Cristo, Valentina; Di Gregorio, Annamaria; Mancon, Alessandro; Zerbi, Pietro; Gervasoni, Cristina; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Riva, Agostino

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors is Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We describe an outbreak of recurrent cutaneous PVL infections in different members of three family clusters. Molecular investigations were performed to confirm the presence of the mecA and PVL genes and to assign the SCCmec type, sequence type (ST) and clonal relatedness. A strain of PVL-producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was responsible for infection in two related families (A and B), and a third family (C) was infected with PVL-producing methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Molecular investigations revealed the same clone of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA, PVL positive ST8, and SCCmec IV in families A and B and CA-MSSA PVL positive ST15 in family C. S. aureus PVL may give rise to recurrent uncontrolled infections that are difficult to eradicate, and close family contacts are at high risk for transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Delta Hemolysin and Phenol-Soluble Modulins, but Not Alpha Hemolysin or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Induce Mast Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Cuerq, Charlotte; Badiou, Cédric; Bienvenu, Françoise; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Cartier, Régine; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Plesa, Adriana; Le, Vien T. M.; Diep, Binh A.; Lina, Gérard; Dumitrescu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are located at host interfaces, such as the skin, and contribute to the first-line defense against pathogens by releasing soluble mediators, including those that induce itching and scratching behavior. Here, we show that delta-hemolysin (Hld) and phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) PSMα1 and PSMα3, but not alpha-hemolysin (Hla) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), induce dose-dependent tryptase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by the HMC-1 human mast cell line. Using supernatants from isogenic strains, we verified that tryptase and LDH release was Hld- and PSMα-dependent. PSMα1 and Hld production was detected in 65 and 17% of human Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin abscess specimens, respectively, but they were produced in vitro by all clinical isolates. The results suggest that Hld and PSM-α1 produced in vivo during S. aureus skin infections induce the release of mast cell mediators responsible for itching and scratching behavior, which may enhance skin to skin transmission of S. aureus via the hands. As Hld and PSMs are upregulated by accessory gene regulator (agr), their association may contribute to the elective transmission of S. aureus strains with a functional agr system. PMID:28018862

  14. The Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (pvl) in Central Australia, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Hewagama, S; Spelman, T; Woolley, M; McLeod, J; Gordon, D; Einsiedel, L

    2016-08-08

    The Central Australian Indigenous population has a high incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) but little is known about the local molecular epidemiology. Prospective observational study of bacteremic and nasal colonizing S.aureus isolates between June 2006 to June 2010. All isolates underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and testing for the presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (pvl) gene. Invasive isolates (n = 97) were predominantly ST93 (26.6 %) and pvl positive (54.3 %), which was associated with skin and soft tissue infections (OR 4.35, 95 % CI 1.16, 16.31). Non-multiresistant MRSA accounted for 31.9 % of bacteremic samples and showed a trend to being healthcare associated (OR 2.16, 95 % CI 0.86, 5.40). Non-invasive isolates (n = 54) were rarely ST93 (1.9 %) or pvl positive (7.4 %). In Central Australia, ST93 was the dominant S.aureus clone, and was frequently pvl positive and associated with an aggressive clinical phenotype. Whether non-nasal carriage is more important with invasive clones or whether colonization occurs only transiently remains to be elucidated.

  15. [Investigation of the presence of panton-valentin leucocidin (PVL) in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Ozkul, Hilal; Oktem, I M Ali; Gülay, Zeynep

    2007-07-01

    Panton-Valentin leucocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin which causes tissue necrosis by degradating leucocytes and other cell types. PVL has recently become very up to date as it has been shown to be the major virulance factor of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, the presence of PVL was investigated in methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) strains which were isolated from clinical samples between January 2005-May 2006 at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir. Fifty five MRSA and 79 MSSA strains which were isolated from blood, wound and respiratory tract samples were randomly included to the study. The presence of PVL was evaluated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which detects pvl and S. aureus-specific nuc genes. As a result, PVL positivities were detected in two (5%) of 40 MSSA and four (10.3%) of 39 MSSA strains isolated in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. None of the MRSA isolates had pvl gene. Although this cytotoxin was rarely detected among MSSA isolates, it was interesting to note that the prevalence of PVL was twice more in the year 2006 compared to 2005. It was also worth to notify that four of six (66.7%) PVL positive strains had been isolated from the patients of general surgery inpatient or outpatient clinics.

  16. St. Valentine--patron saint of epilepsy: illustrating the semiology of seizures over the course of six centuries.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Gerhard; Kudernatsch, Verena

    2009-01-01

    From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, and Switzerland were systematically analyzed. Irrespective of the age of the work of art, among the 143 pictures of people with possible epilepsy characteristics, there were more males than females from various levels of society. As far as could be interpreted, there were 17 infants, 35 children, 7 adolescents, and 84 adults. With respect to possible seizure semiology, infantile spasms (n=10), atonic seizures (n=13), tonic seizures (n=53), absences (n=2), psychogenic seizures (n=4), and postictal or undefinable states (n=61) were differentiated in a subjective assessment. Despite the fact that from a modern perspective, the 15th to 20th centuries in Europe seemed to be dominated by a rather superstitious attitude toward epilepsy, there is striking accuracy in the detail of the semiology in many of the historic portrayals, and a well-founded knowledge of epilepsy is apparent.

  17. Genetic characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Austria.

    PubMed

    Berktold, Michael; Grif, Katharina; Mäser, Martin; Witte, Wolfgang; Würzner, Reinhard; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2012-10-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (caMRSA) is an emerging pathogen which causes potentially severe infections in young and healthy individuals due to the ability of most strains to produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PVL-positive (PVL(+))-MRSA strains in Western Austria in the period from December 2005 to May 2010 and to characterize the identified PVL(+)-MRSA strains. Six hundred and fifty MRSA strains from Innsbruck Medical University hospital, district hospitals, and general practitioners were investigated for the presence of lukS-lukF gene (encoding for PVL). Antimicrobial resistance testing, SCCmec-, agr-, MLST- and spa-typing, as well as arcA determination were performed on PVL(+)-MRSA. Among 650 MRSA strains collected from various body sites from hospitalized patients and outpatients, 31 strains (4.8 %) were positive for lukS-lukF and thus identified as PVL(+)-MRSA. Agr-1 was the most common agr-type (n = 18, 58.1 %) and SCCmec-IV or variants IVa and IVc were the most common SCCmec types (n = 27, 87.1 %). All tested strains showed in-vitro susceptibility to vancomycin and rifampicin, but resistance against cotrimoxazol (6.4 %), clindamycin (9.7 %), gentamicin (9.7 %), fusidic acid (12.9 %), levofloxacin (12.9 %), and erythromycin (61.3 %) was found. Most lukS-lukF-positive MRSA detected in our survey shared ST8 and t008 and were positive for arcA. The major lukS-lukF-positive MRSA lineage found in our population was ST8, t008 and positive for arcA which is mainly found in the USA. In contrast, ST80 strains were not found as frequently in our region as in many other European countries.

  18. Distinct Bacteriophages Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) among International Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clones Harboring PVL▿

    PubMed Central

    Boakes, E.; Kearns, A. M.; Ganner, M.; Perry, C.; Hill, R. L.; Ellington, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically diverse community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) can harbor a bacteriophage encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) lysogenized into its chromosome (prophage). Six PVL phages (ΦPVL, Φ108PVL, ΦSLT, ΦSa2MW, ΦSa2USA, and ΦSa2958) are known, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PVL genes have been reported. We sought to determine the distribution of lysogenized PVL phages among MRSA strains with PVL (PVL-MRSA strains), the PVL gene sequences, and the chromosomal phage insertion sites in 114 isolates comprising nine clones of PVL-MRSA that were selected for maximal underlying genetic diversity. The six PVL phages were identified by PCR; ΦSa2USA was present in the highest number of different lineages (multilocus sequence type clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC5, CC8, and sequence type 93 [ST93]) (n = 37 isolates). Analysis of 92 isolates confirmed that PVL phages inserted into the same chromosomal insertion locus in CC22, -30, and -80 but in a different locus in isolates of CC1, -5, -8, -59, and -88 and ST93 (and CC22 in two isolates). Within the two different loci, specific attachment motifs were found in all cases, although some limited inter- and intralineage sequence variation occurred. Overall, lineage-specific relationships between the PVL phage, the genes that encode the toxin, and the position at which the phage inserts into the host chromosome were identified. These analyses provide important insights into the microepidemiology of PVL-MRSA, will prove a valuable adjunct in outbreak investigation, and may help predict the emergence of new strains. PMID:21106787

  19. Can Panton Valentine Leukocidin Gene And Clindamycin Susceptibility Serve As Predictors of Community Origin of MRSA From Skin and Soft Tissue Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Shashindran, Nandita; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Community associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have begun to replace Hospital Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains in hospital settings all over the world. With the epidemiological distinctions between these strains beginning to become ill-defined, the categorisation of a strain as CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA is dependent on molecular methods to detect the presence of SCCmec (Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec) elements. However other markers like the presence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin (pvl) genes or Clindamycin susceptibility may also be associated with community origin of MRSA. Aim To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA among MRSA strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to evaluate the usefulness of Panton Valentine Leukocidin and Clindamycin susceptibility as markers of community origin of MRSA. Materials and Methods One hundred isolates of MRSA from skin and soft tissue were studied for the presence of SCCmec IV and V genes and Panton valentine leukocidin gene by Polymerase chain reaction. Inducible clindamycin resistance was screened for using the D-test. Statistical analysis used Fischer’s exact test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant Results Eighteen out of 100 MRSA strains were found to be CA-MRSA based on presence of SCCmecV. The proportion of Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene carriage among CA- MRSA as compared to HA-MRSA was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). Among the CA-MRSA strains, 94.4% were found to be susceptible to Clindamycin as against only 13.4% of the HA-MRSA strains (p<0.0001). The odds of an MRSA strain being CA-MRSA if it was both Clindamycin susceptible and PVL gene positive was calculated to be 68.25 (p<0.0001). Conclusion Both Clindamycin susceptibility and pvl gene carriage were found to be independent predictors of community origin of MRSA, but taken together the association was highly significant. PMID:26894063

  20. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic (800-767 Ma) Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: tectonic evolution of an ancient continental arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Porcher, C. C.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Masquelin, H.; Koester, E.; Conceição, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    The Cerro Bori orthogneisses, crystallized between ca. 800 and 767 Ma, are composed of a sequence of mafic gneisses, with dioritic-gabbroic and dioritic composition tectonically interleaved with a sequence of tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses. These rocks intruded the Chafalote paragneisses (metapelites, semipelites, carbonate and mafic rocks) and they were metamorphosed of high P-T conditions at ca. 676-654 Ma. This paper presents the first major and trace geochemical signatures, as well as Sm and Pb isotopic composition for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, which allow distinguishing three different groups of rocks. Type I rocks are mafic gneisses with tholeiitic affinity, whereas the Type II rocks are tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses with calc-alkaline affinity. The third type is composed of biotite-rich mafic gneisses with potassic and ultrapotassic affinities. All the three types of rocks have negative ℰND values (between -2.12 and -6.67) and old TDM ages (between 1.2 and 2.0 Ga), indicating that the process of crustal assimilation/contamination was an important process, together with fractional crystallization. An continental arc tectonic setting is suggested to this association of rocks between 800 and 767 Ma. This subduction suggests the existence of an ocean between Rio de La Plata and adjacent cratons during the break up of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  1. DNA Methyltransferase 1 and 3B Activate BAG-1 Expression via Recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS and Modulation of Promoter Histone Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lunching; Huang, Lei; Nguyen, Phuongmai; Bisht, Kheem S.; Bar-Sela, Gil; Ho, Allen S.; Bradbury, C. Matthew; Yu, Wenqiang; Cui, Hengmi; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Gius, David

    2009-01-01

    In a previous genomic analysis, using somatic methyltransferase (DNMT) knockout cells, we showed that hypomethylation decreased the expression of as many genes as were observed to increase, suggesting a previously unknown mechanism for epigenetic regulation. To address this idea, the expression of the BAG family genes was used as a model. These genes were used because their expression was decreased in DNMT1−/−, DNMT3B−/−, and double knockout cells and increased in DNMT1-overexpressing and DNMT3B-overexpressing cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the BAG-1 promoter in DNMT1-overexpressing or DNMT3B-overexpressing cells showed a permissive dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 chromatin status associated with DNA-binding of CTCFL/BORIS, as well as increased BAG-1 expression. In contrast, a nonpermissive dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 chromatin status was associated with CTCF DNA-binding and decreased BAG-1 expression in the single and double DNMT knockout cells. BORIS short hairpin RNA knockdown decreased both promoter DNA-binding, as well as BAG-1 expression, and changed the dimethyl-H3-K4/dimethyl-H3-K9 ratio to that characteristic of a nonpermissive chromatin state. These results suggest that DNMT1 and DNMT3B regulate BAG-1 expression via insulator protein DNA-binding and chromatin dynamics by regulating histone dimethylation. PMID:18413740

  2. The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Ivan T

    2006-01-01

    The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life. Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73. His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the

  3. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children in Tripoli-Libya.

    PubMed

    Al-haddad, Omaima H; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA among inpatient children (8.3%, 24 of 289), their mothers (11%, 22 of 200), and healthcare workers (12.4%, 22 of 178) was significantly higher than among outpatient children (2.2%, 2 of 91) (P < 0.05, P < 0.02, and P < 0.006, respectively). Of the examined MRSA isolates (N = 35) 10 (28.6%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Multidrug resistance was found in 24.3% (17 of 70) of MRSA isolates. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive MRSA is not uncommon among inpatient children and their mothers in Tripoli.

  4. [Influence of reaction optimization on the results of PCR amplification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates].

    PubMed

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Dolapçi, Iştar; Tekeli, Alper

    2009-10-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an important virulence determinant of Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding PVL is the most widely used method for determining PVL-positivity. In this study, we used two different primer sets and different annealing temperatures for each set to investigate the effect of optimization of PCR parameters on the amplification results. A total of 321 S. aureus clinical isolates (84.4% methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 76.9% nosocomial) were included to the study. Two different primer sets and two different annealing temperatures were applied for the amplification of PVL gene. For this purpose while luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers and 55 degrees C and 58 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 433 bp region inhabiting the luk-S PV and luk-F PV genes, PVLup and PVLdn primers and 50 degrees C and 48 degrees C annealing temperatures were used to amplify the 1918 bp region inhabiting the same genes. luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers yielded amplicons at 55 degrees C in 50.2% (161/321) and at 58 degrees C in 1.6% (5/321) of the isolates. To discriminate the positive amplicons from the crossly amplified PCR products, restriction endonuclease analysis was performed and it was observed that the five amplicons generated by luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C were cut by BspH1 enzyme as expected for the positive amplicons. None of the isolates yielded amplicons by PVLup and PVLdn primers at 50 degrees C, however, only 1.6% of the isolates yielded amplicons at 48 degrees C. These isolates were the same with the ones that were PVL positive with luk-PV-1 and luk-PV-2 primers at 58 degrees C. These data revealed that only 1.6% of the study isolates were PVL positive. These results showed that inappropriate cycling conditions may lead to false-negative or false-positive results in PVL-gene amplification. Restriction endonuclease or sequence analysis may be used to differentiate

  5. A Valentine from Vesta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-14

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft, is based on a framing camera image that is overlain by a color-coded height representation of topography. This heart-shaped hollow is roughly 10 kilometers 6 miles across at its widest point.

  6. Community acquired Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) positive Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus cerebral abscess in an 11-month old boy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Sahay, Keya M; Hartley, John; Thompson, Dominic; Ratnasinghe, Didi; Hudson, Lee; Hulse, Eleanor; Fellows, Greg

    2014-12-01

    Brain abscess are uncommon childhood infection. Brain abscess caused by Panton-Valentine Leukocidin positive Community acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus have never been reported in the United Kingdom. We report a case of a previously well 11-month old boy of Indian origin who developed a parietal lobe abscess from PVL positive CA-MRSA. This case is one of the few described cases of brain abscess caused by PVL CA-MRSA in children. The unusual (insidious) presentation, the absence of a clear staphylococcal focus and the unexpected finding of a CA-MRSA in this patient highlight the challenges of managing such cases in clinical settings and the potential future risk to public health.

  7. Identification of ORF636 in phage phiSLT carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, acting as an adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Jun; Narita-Yamada, Sachiko; Wakabayashi, Yukari; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    The temperate phage phiSLT of Staphylococcus aureus carries genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Here, we identify ORF636, a constituent of the phage tail tip structure, as a recognition/adhesion protein for a poly(glycerophosphate) chain of lipoteichoic acid on the cell surface of S. aureus. ORF636 bound specifically to S. aureus; it did not bind to any other staphylococcal species or to several gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin associated Staphylococcus aureus infections in London, England: clinical and socio-demographic characterisation, management, burden of disease and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Michael; Kearns, Angela; Cordery, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Routine notification of Staphylococcus aureus producing the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin toxin (PVL-SA) to the North East & Central London Health Protection Unit, a communicable disease control unit covering a population of 2.8 million, identified 115 cases in 2009-2010, including 99 skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 15 severe infections and one asymptomatic colonisation. Most cases occurred in children and young adults, unequally distributed geographically and socio-economically. The majority of infections were community acquired and 60% were caused by methicillin resistant strains. Overall, 27% of cases had previous SSTIs, and 32% had contacts with SSTIs suggestive of PVL-SA albeit these were not confirmed microbiologically. This suggests that characteristics of PVL-SA infection in cases and their families are not recognised as such leading to delay in diagnosis and low case ascertainment. A lack of governance around effective case management may also be contributing to the burden of disease. Further studies are recommended to evaluate key aspects of PVL-SA management including the effectiveness of decolonisation in the elimination of carriage and prevention of local spread.

  9. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Meiji Soe; San, Thida; Aye, Mya Mya; Mya, San; Maw, Win Win; Zan, Khin Nyein; Htut, Wut Hmone Win; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-08-04

    Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes (pvl) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa-VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl-positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl-positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus, a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl-negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw. The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl, as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.

  10. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S.; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S.; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A.; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2014-01-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals. PMID:24567320

  11. A real-time PCR assay to detect the Panton Valentine Leukocidin toxin in staphylococci: screening Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans strains from companion animals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Scott; O'Shea, Kathleen; Morris, Daniel; Robb, Andrew; Morrison, Donald; Rankin, Shelley

    2005-04-25

    Recent reports suggest that methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans are now commonly isolated from dogs. Given the association of a potentially mobile SCCmec type IV element with lysogenic phage-encoded Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains we hypothesized that methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains may also encode PVL toxin genes. Forty S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals were studied. Susceptibility to oxacillin was determined by broth microdilution and all isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the mecA gene. SCCmec typing was performed on 14 isolates. A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of the PVL genes using a SmartCycler. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine whether S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains were homogeneous. Twenty-eight of the 40 isolates (70%) were resistant to oxacillin and 26/28 possessed the mecA gene by PCR. SCCmec IV was identified in seven strains; the other seven isolates were not typable by this technique. All 40 strains were negative for the PVL toxin gene. PFGE showed a heterogeneous population and 13 different profiles were determined. In conclusion, this study showed that PVL toxin genes were not detected in a heterogeneous population of methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi ssp. coagulans strains isolated from companion animals.

  12. Presence of Genes Encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is Not the Primary Determinant of Outcome in Patients with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K.; Ahn, Sun H.; Rude, Thomas H.; Zhang, Yurong; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Ruffin, Felicia; Genter, Fredric C.; Braughton, Kevin R.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Barriere, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the outcome in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is controversial. We genotyped S. aureus isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) enrolled in two registrational multinational clinical trials for the genetic elements carrying pvl and 30 other virulence genes. A total of 287 isolates (173 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 114 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolates) from patients from 127 centers in 34 countries for whom clinical outcomes of cure or failure were available underwent genotyping. Of these, pvl was detected by PCR and its product confirmed in 23 isolates (8.0%) (MRSA, 18/173 isolates [10.4%]; MSSA, 5/114 isolates [4.4%]). The presence of pvl was not associated with a higher risk for clinical failure (4/23 [17.4%] versus 48/264 [18.2%]; P = 1.00) or mortality. These findings persisted after adjustment for multiple potential confounding variables. No significant associations between clinical outcome and (i) presence of any of the 30 other virulence genes tested, (ii) presence of specific bacterial clone, (iii) levels of alpha-hemolysin, or (iv) delta-hemolysin production were identified. This study suggests that neither pvl presence nor in vitro level of alpha-hemolysin production is the primary determinant of outcome among patients with HAP caused by S. aureus. PMID:22205797

  13. Unusually high prevalence of panton-valentine leukocidin genes among methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains carried in the Indonesian population.

    PubMed

    Severin, Juliëtte A; Lestari, Endang Sri; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Melles, Damian C; Pastink, Martijn; Peeters, Justine K; Snijders, Susan V; Hadi, Usman; Duerink, D Offra; van Belkum, Alex; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2008-06-01

    Few data on the molecular characteristics and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from Indonesia are available. The purpose of the present study was to define S. aureus reservoirs in both the Indonesian community and hospital using a collection of 329 nasal carriage isolates obtained during a survey of 3,995 healthy individuals and patients from Java, Indonesia. Only one strain (0.3%) was identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus by mecA gene PCR. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 35 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains (10.6%). Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 329 isolates showed extensive genetic diversity among both PVL-positive and PVL-negative strains. In Surabaya, Indonesia, however, a cluster was identified that was strongly associated with the presence of the PVL locus (P < 0.0001). As determined by high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism, PVL-positive strains occurred throughout all major AFLP clusters (I to IV). Multilocus sequence typing of a subset of isolates showed that most PVL-positive strains belonged to sequence type (ST) 188, while most PVL-negative isolates belonged to ST45. The high prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus strains in certain regions of Indonesia is of concern since these strains may cause severe infections in the community and in hospitals.

  14. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  15. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton–Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Prévost, Gilles; Jover, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton–Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins. PMID:28117704

  16. In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftaroline Fosamil in a Methicillin-Resistant Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Rabbit Pneumonia Model

    PubMed Central

    Hayez, Davy; Da Silva, Sonia; Labrousse, Delphine; Biek, Donald; Badiou, Cedric; Dumitrescu, Oana; Guerard, Pascal; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Piroth, Lionel; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, Francois; Chavanet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP), and common Gram-negative pathogens. This study investigated the in vivo activity of ceftaroline fosamil compared with clindamycin, linezolid, and vancomycin in a severe pneumonia model due to MRSA-producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). A USA300 PVL-positive clone was used to induce pneumonia in rabbits. Infected rabbits were randomly assigned to no treatment or simulated human-equivalent dosing with ceftaroline fosamil, clindamycin, linezolid, or vancomycin. Residual bacterial concentrations in the lungs and spleen were assessed after 48 h of treatment. PVL expression was measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid considerably reduced mortality rates compared with the control, whereas vancomycin did not. Pulmonary and splenic bacterial titers and PVL concentrations were greatly reduced by ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid. Ceftaroline, clindamycin, and linezolid were associated with reduced pulmonary tissue damage based on significantly lower macroscopic scores. Ceftaroline fosamil, clindamycin, and, to a lesser extent, linezolid were efficient in reducing bacterial titers in both the lungs and spleen and decreasing macroscopic scores and PVL production compared with the control. PMID:24395236

  17. Co-detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin encoding genes and cotrimoxazole resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Gabon: implications for HIV-patients’ care

    PubMed Central

    Kraef, Christian; Alabi, Abraham S.; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten; Kremsner, Peter G.; Rossatanga, Elie G.; Mellmann, Alexander; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zanger, Philipp; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This might have an impact on the resistance profile, genetic background and virulence factors of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be endemic for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive S. aureus which can be associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). We compared S. aureus from nasal and pharyngeal swabs from HIV patients (n = 141) and healthy controls (n = 206) in Gabon in 2013, and analyzed determinants of colonization with PVL positive isolates in a cross-sectional study. S. aureus isolates were screened for the presence of selected virulence factors (incl. PVL) and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping. In HIV patients, S. aureus was more frequently detected (36.9 vs. 31.6%) and the isolates were more frequently PVL positive than in healthy controls (42.1 vs. 23.2%). The presence of PVL was associated with cotrimoxazole resistance (OR = 25.1, p < 0.001) and the use of cotrimoxazole was a risk factor for colonization with PVL positive isolates (OR = 2.5, p = 0.06). PVL positive isolates were associated with the multilocus sequence types ST15 (OR = 5.6, p < 0.001) and ST152 (OR = 62.1, p < 0.001). Participants colonized with PVL positive isolates reported more frequently SSTI in the past compared to carriers of PVL negative isolates (OR = 2.7, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the novelty of our study is that cotrimoxazole might increase the risk of SSTI in regions where cotrimoxazole resistance is high and associated with PVL. This finding needs to be confirmed in prospective studies. PMID:25699036

  18. Common skin infection due to Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains in asylum seekers from Eritrea: a genome-based investigation of a suspected outbreak.

    PubMed

    Jaton, L; Pillonel, T; Jaton, K; Dory, E; Prod'hom, G; Blanc, D S; Tissot, F; Bodenmann, P; Greub, G

    2016-08-01

    Since late 2014, multiple cases of abscesses and boils due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) expressing the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) were observed in Eritrean asylum seekers in Lausanne, Switzerland. Strains isolated from infected Eritrean and non-Eritrean patients were compared by whole genome sequencing to determine whether these numerous cases result from an outbreak. The genome of S. aureus PVL-producing strains were sequenced and compared. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients infected by PVL-producing strains were investigated. This work reports 15 cases of infections due to PVL-producing strains affecting mostly asylum seekers (n = 10), people working with refugees and/or exposed to Africans (n = 3). Most infections were due to closely related strains of CC152 (n = 8) and CC15 (n = 3), two distantly related (>34 000 core single nucleotide polymorphisms) clonal complexes. An epidemiological link between the 15 cases could be ruled out by whole genome sequencing (33 to 172 core single nucleotide polymorphisms between the different strains of a given complex). Altogether, these results reflect the probable high incidence of CC15 and CC152 PVL-producing strains in eastern Africa. Clinicians facing unusual skin infections in African refugees (or in any person returning from this region of high endemicity) should consider S. aureus PVL-producer before suspecting rare infections such as leishmaniasis or rickettsiosis. Clinicians should also remember that PVL are frequently expressed by MSSA in some regions of the world and that antibiotics that are efficient on toxin expression, such as clindamycin, represent the best therapeutic option.

  19. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies.

    PubMed

    Tong, Amy; Tong, Steven Y C; Zhang, Yurong; Lamlertthon, Supaporn; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas; Ahn, Sun Hee; Ruffin, Felicia; Llorens, Lily; Tamarana, Ganesh; Biek, Donald; Critchley, Ian; Fowler, Vance G

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the severity of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL presence in both methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of cSSSI (the CANVAS 1 and 2 programs). Isolates from all microbiologically evaluable patients with monomicrobial MRSA or MSSA infections (n = 473) were genotyped by PCR for pvl and underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genes encoding pvl were present in 266/473 (56.2%) isolates. Infections caused by pvl-positive S. aureus were associated with younger patient age, North American acquisition, and presence of major abscesses (P<0.001 for each). Cure rates of patients infected with pvl-positive and pvl-negative S. aureus were similar overall (93.6% versus 92.8%; P = 0.72), and within MRSA-infected (94.5% vs. 93.1%; P = 0.67) and MSSA-infected patients (92.2% vs. 92.7%; P = 1.00). This finding persisted after adjustment for multiple patient characteristics. Outcomes were also similar when USA300 PVL+ and non-USA300 PVL+ infections were compared. The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA.

  20. Rapid Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures by Use of a Lateral Flow Assay Based on Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Elke; Buechler, Joseph; Rejman, John; Stieber, Bettina; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Bandt, Dirk; Burris, Rob; Coombs, Geoffrey; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. Aida; Hughes, Peter; Kearns, Angela; Abós, Sonia Molinos; Pichon, Bruno; Skakni, Leila; Söderquist, Bo; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, which is associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. To develop a rapid phenotypic assay, recombinant PVL F component was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display. These antibodies were spotted on protein microarrays and screened using different lukF-PV preparations and detection antibodies. This led to the identification of the optimal antibody combination that was then used to establish a lateral flow assay. This test was used to detect PVL in S. aureus cultures. The detection limit of the assay with purified native and recombinant antigens was determined to be around 1 ng/ml. Overnight cultures from various solid and liquid media proved suitable for PVL detection. Six hundred strains and clinical isolates from patients from America, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East were tested. Isolates were genotyped in parallel by DNA microarray hybridization for confirmation of PVL status and assignment to clonal complexes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the assay in this trial were 99.7, 98.3, 98.4, and 99.7%, respectively. A total of 302 clinical isolates and reference strains were PVL positive and were assigned to 21 different clonal complexes. In summary, the lateral flow test allows rapid and economical detection of PVL in a routine bacteriology laboratory. As the test utilizes cultures from standard media and does not require sophisticated equipment, it can be easily integrated into a laboratory's workflow and might contribute to timely therapy of PVL-associated infections. PMID:23175260

  1. Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Niveditha Sundar; Ramlal, Shylaja; Urs, Radhika Madan; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-12-01

    Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifically reacted to confirm PVL-S positive strains of S. aureus recovered from clinical samples in Western blot analysis. Similarly all the three MAbs did not show any binding to other tested 14 different pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera and species in Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a simple dot-ELISA method was standardized for the identification of PVL-S toxin containing S. aureus strains. Initially in dot-ELISA, Protein A (Spa) of S. aureus posed background noise problems due to the non-specific binding of antibodies resulting in false positive reactions. With the addition of 10mM diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) along with 5% milk in PBS in the blocking step prevented this non-specific binding of Spa to mouse anti-PVL monoclonal antibodies in dot-ELISA. Once standardized, this simple dot-ELISA was evaluated with nine PVL positive strains recovered from food, environmental and clinical samples and the results were compared with PCR assay for the presence of PVL toxin genes and also with Western blot analysis. A 100% correlation was found between dot-ELISA, PCR assay and Western blot analysis. Collectively our results suggest the newly developed simple dot-ELISA system can be of immense help in providing, rapid detection of the PVL toxin containing S. aureus strains at a relatively low cost and will be a valuable tool for the reliable identification of CA-MRSA.

  2. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  3. Characterisation of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates harbouring mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes from four tertiary care hospitals in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Suata, Ketut; Lestari, Endang S; Wahjono, Hendro; Djamal, Aziz; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; van Belkum, Alex; Laurens, Mitchell; Snijders, Susan V; Willemse-Erix, Diana; Goessens, Wil H; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and clonal distribution of either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus obtained from clinical cultures in Indonesian hospitals. S. aureus isolates from clinical cultures of patients in four tertiary care hospitals in Denpasar, Malang, Padang and Semarang were included. We assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using the Vitek2(®) system, determined the presence of the mecA gene and genes encoding PVL using PCR and analysed the clonal relatedness with Raman spectroscopy. SCCmec typing was performed for all MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for a subset of isolates. In total, 259 S. aureus strains were collected. Of these, 17/259 (6.6%) and 48/259 (18.5%) were MRSA and PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. The prevalence of MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA ranged between 2.5-8.9% and 9.5-29.1%, respectively and depended on geographic origin. PVL-positive MRSA were not detected. Raman spectroscopy of the strains revealed multiple Raman types with two predominant clusters. We also showed possible transmission of a ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III strain and a ST121 PVL-positive MSSA in one of the hospitals. We showed that MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are of clinical importance in Indonesian hospitals. A national surveillance system should be set-up to further monitor this. To reduce the prevalence of MRSA in Indonesian hospitals, a bundle of intervention measures is highly recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. β-Lactams Interfering with PBP1 Induce Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Expression by Triggering sarA and rot Global Regulators of Staphylococcus aureus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Oana; Choudhury, Priya; Boisset, Sandrine; Badiou, Cédric; Bes, Michele; Benito, Yvonne; Wolz, Christiane; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Bowden, Maria Gabriela; Lina, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Previous articles reported that beta-lactam antibiotics increase the expression of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by activating its transcription. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression by determining targets and regulatory pathways possibly implicated in this process. We measured PVL production in the presence of oxacillin (nonselective), imipenem (penicillin-binding protein 1 [PBP1] selective), cefotaxime (PBP2 selective), cefaclore (PBP3 selective), and cefoxitin (PBP4 selective). In vitro, we observed increased PVL production consistent with luk-PV mRNA levels that were 20 to 25 times higher for community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) cultures treated with PBP1-binding oxacillin and imipenem than for cultures treated with other beta-lactams or no antibiotic at all. This effect was also observed in vivo, with increased PVL mRNA levels in lung tissues from CA-MRSA-infected mice treated with imipenem but not cefoxitin. To confirm the involvement of PBP1 inhibition in this pathway, PBP1 depletion by use of an inducible pbp1 antisense RNA showed a dose-dependent relationship between the level of pbp1 antisense RNA and the luk-PV mRNA level. Upon imipenem treatment of exponential-phase cultures, we observed an increased sarA mRNA level after 30 min of incubation followed by a decreased rot mRNA level after 1 to 4 h of incubation. Unlike the agr and saeRS positive regulators, which were nonessential for PVL induction by beta-lactams, the sarA (positive) and rot (negative) PVL regulators were necessary for PVL induction by imipenem. Our results suggest that antibiotics binding to PBP1 increase PVL expression by modulating sarA and rot, which are essential mediators of the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression. PMID:21502633

  5. Association of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Western Nepal: a matter of concern for community infections (a hospital based prospective study).

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Dharm R; Cavaco, Lina M; Nath, Gopal; Kumar, Kush; Gaur, Abhishek; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dwij R

    2016-05-15

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S. aureus responsible for destruction of white blood cells, necrosis and apoptosis and as a marker of community acquired MRSA. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of PVL genes among MRSA isolates and to check the reliability of PVL as marker of community acquired MRSA isolates from Western Nepal. A total of 400 strains of S. aureus were collected from clinical specimens and various units (Operation Theater, Intensive Care Units) of the hospital and 139 of these had been confirmed as MRSA by previous study. Multiplex PCR was used to detect mecA and PVL genes. Clinical data as well as antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed and compared among PVL positive and negative MRSA isolates. Out of 139 MRSA isolates, 79 (56.8 %) were PVL positive. The majority of the community acquired MRSA (90.4 %) were PVL positive (Positive predictive value: 94.9 % and negative predictive value: 86.6 %), while PVL was detected only in 4 (7.1 %) hospital associated MRSA strains. None of the MRSA isolates from hospital environment was found positive for the PVL genes. The majority of the PVL positive strains (75.5 %) were isolated from pus samples. Antibiotic resistance among PVL negative MRSA isolates was found higher as compared to PVL positive MRSA. Our study showed high prevalence of PVL among community acquired MRSA isolates. Absence of PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment indicates its poor association with hospital acquired MRSA and therefore, PVL may be used a marker for community acquired MRSA. This is first study from Nepal, to test PVL among MRSA isolates from hospital environment.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from the main hospitals in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Eed, E M; Ghonaim, M M; Hussein, Y M; Al-Shehri, S S; Khalifa, A S

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a bicomponent pore-forming cytolytic toxin encoded by the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) may carry the pvl genes which may be related to increased disease severity. This study aimed to characterise the PVL-producing MRSA recovered from different Taif Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. The study included 45 hospital-acquired-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and 26 CA-MRSA strains which were identified from 445 S. aureus strains isolated from different clinical samples. MRSA strains were identified by standard oxacillin salt agar screening procedure and by the detection of the mecA gene by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of the S. aureus-specific femA, mecA and pvl genes was performed by multiplex PCR. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was done for coagulase (coa) gene. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types of the 45 HA-MRSA strains were Type I (n = 24), Type II (n = 7) and Type III (n = 14) whereas the 26 CA-MRSA strains were Type IV (n = 14), Type V (n = 11) and one isolate was non-typeable. All the HA-MRSA and six CA-MRSA strains were PVL-negative PCR-RFLP analysis of coa gene showed that PVL-positive MRSA (n = 20) isolates showed six different patterns, and five patterns were shared by PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The eighth pattern was the most frequent in both MRSA and MSSA. PVL is more frequent among CA-MRSA than MSSA. All the HA-MRSA and 25% of CA-MRSA strains were negative for PVL. The pvl gene was related to the severity of infection but not related to coa gene RFLP pattern.

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus has long been considered as a major pathogen of hospital infections. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene and antibiotic resistance properties of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from various types of infections found in Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and fifty-five clinical specimens were collected from four major provinces of Iran. Samples were cultured and the MRSA strains were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The patterns of antibiotic resistance were determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Seventy-four out of 255 (29.01%) clinical samples were positive for MRSA. Of the 74 MRSA strains, 47 (63.51%) were PVL positive. The clinical samples of respiratory tract infections (36.36%), those from the Shiraz province (37.87%) and samples collected during the summer season (56.48%) were the most commonly infected samples. The most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were tetK (89.18%), mecA (71.62%), msrA (56.75%) and tetM (54.05%). Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus had the highest levels of resistance against penicillin (100%), tetracycline (98.64%), ampicillin (93.24%) and oxacillin (93.24%). The most commonly detected SCCmec types in the MRSA strains were type V (18.91%) and III (17.56%). Conclusions: Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infections and monitoring of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce the prevalence of MRSA. We recommend initial management of children affected by MRSA with imipenem, lincomycin and cephalothin prescriptions. PMID:26862375

  8. Emergence of methicillin resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity in hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in Beira, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    van der Meeren, Birgitta T; Millard, Peter S; Scacchetti, Marco; Hermans, Mirjam H; Hilbink, Mirrian; Concelho, Timótio B; Ferro, Josefo J; Wever, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance patterns, including methicillin resistance, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ) resistance and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene carriage among hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (HA-SA) and community-acquired S. aureus (CA-SA), in Beira, Mozambique. In 2010-2011, two prospective surveillance studies were conducted on post-operative and burn wound infections at the Central Hospital of Beira and on skin and soft tissue abscesses at the São Lucas Health Centre. We cultured pus samples, identified suspected S. aureus isolates and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including detection of MLSB resistance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mecA, Martineau and PVL genes. The prevalence of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) infection among 53 inpatients was 15.1%; the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infection among 100 outpatients was 1.0%. Inducible MLSB resistance was present in 41.7% and 10.7% of HA-SA and CA-SA isolates, respectively. PVL toxin gene was detected in 81.1% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) compared with 11.1% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Our study shows, for the first time in Mozambique, the emergence of HA-MRSA. The prevalence of CA-MRSA was low, whereas the rate of PVL toxin gene carriage in MSSA was high. The high rate of inducible MLSB resistance indicates the importance of performing routine D-tests. Overall, our results show the need of strengthening laboratory facilities to provide microbiological data for both directed therapy and surveillance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evolution and virulence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the past 30 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hirokazu; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Akihito; Hung, Wei-Chun; Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Reva, Ivan; Yabe, Shizuka; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Khokhlova, Olga E; Okubo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) includes hospital-acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive multilocus sequence type 30 (ST30) MRSA is one of worldwide CA-MRSA, which has also persisted in Japan since the 1980s. However, unexpectedly, it was not the same ST30 clone throughout. Before 2000, it was HA-MRSA with spa43 and ψSa3sea (phage Sa3 carrying the sea gene) and only one PVL-positive MRSA in Japan; in the 1980s, ST30 MRSA accounted for 23.5% of HA-MRSA, showed multidrug resistance, had high MICs for oxacillin and imipenem, and caused decubitus and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. A dynamic clonal change (spa43/ψSa3sea→ spa19) occurred around 2000-2002. A rare spa43/ψSa3sea/SCCmecI-IE25923 genotype also emerged. After 2002, the prevalent spa19 clone was CA-MRSA; it accounted for only 0.3% (or less) of MRSA in hospitals but 7.6% of CA-MRSA. Since 2007, PVL-positive CA-MRSA with other ST types (such as ST8, ST22, and ST59) also emerged in Japan, albeit at a low frequency. ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA occasionally caused severe invasive infections and a novel ST1335/spa19 genotype emerged. These ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA and variants were identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Further analysis revealed that PVL-positive ST30/spa19 CA-MRSA is a highlyvirulent, successful clone, having a potential of clonal expansion.

  10. Engineering of the LukS-PV and LukF-PV subunits of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces several toxins, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The involvement of PVL in primary skin infections, necrotizing pneumonia, musculoskeletal disorders, brain abscess, and other diseases, some of which are life-threatening, has been reported. Following expert opinion, we aimed to provide the tools for establishment of sequence-based diagnostics and therapeutics for those conditions. We engineered the synergistic S and F (LukS-PV and LukF-PV respectively) pro-toxin subunits from Staphylococcus aureus USA400 into separate expression E. coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS hosts. Results Following Nickel affinity chromatography (NAC), the F subunit came out without bands of impurity. The S sub-unit did not come off very pure after NAC thus necessitating further purification by size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The purification plots showed that the BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are reliable for following the progress of the chromatographic purification in real-time. Computer predicted Mw for the 6His-LukF-PV and 6His-LukS-PV were 35645.41 Da and 33530.04 Da respectively, while the mass spectrometry results were 35643.57 Da and 33528.34 Da respectively. Conclusion The BioLogic-LP and AKTA systems are commendable for reliability and user-friendliness. As a recent work elsewhere also reported that a second round of chromatography was necessary to purify the S subunit after the first attempt, we speculate that the S subunit might contain yet unidentified motif(s) requiring further treatment. The purified S and F sub-units of PVL were supplied to the Nottingham Cancer Immunotherapy group who used them to establish sequence-based monoclonal antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic uses targeting PVL. PMID:24252611

  11. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  12. Transcription of the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is dependent on the phage life-cycle and on the host background.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming, bi-component toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strains epidemiologically associated with diseases such as necrotizing pneumonia and skin and soft-tissue infections. Here we demonstrate that transcription of the phage-encoded PVL (encoded in the luk-PV operon) is dependent on two major determinants: the phage life-cycle and the host chromosomal background. Mitomycin C induction of PVL-encoding prophages from different community-acquired MRSA strains led to an increase in the amount of luk-PV mRNA as a result of read-through transcription from latent phage promoters and an increase in phage copy numbers. Failing prophage excision was reflected in a constant expression of luk-PV as in the case of strain USA300, suggesting that phi Sa2USA300 is a replication-defective prophage. Additionally, we could show that luk-PV transcription is influenced by the S. aureus global virulence regulators agr and sae. We found a strong impact of the host background on prophage induction and replication when analysing PVL phages in different S. aureus strains. For example phage phi Sa2mw was greatly induced by mitomycin C in its native host MW2 and in strain Newman but to a considerably lesser extent in strains 8325-4, RN6390 and ISP479c. This discrepancy was not linked to the SOS response of the bacteria since recA transcription did not vary between the strains. These results suggest a fine tuning between certain phages and their host, with major impact on the expression of phage-encoded virulence genes.

  13. Typing of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding phages carried by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, A; Del Grosso, M; Villa, L; Ammendolia, M G; Superti, F; Monaco, M; Pantosti, A

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is the hallmark of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) but can also be found in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) sharing pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA. PVL is encoded by two co-transcribed genes that are carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. We applied an extended PCR-based typing scheme for the identification of two morphological groups (elongated-head group and icosahedral-head group I phages) and specific PVL phage types in S. aureus isolates recovered in Italy. We examined 48 PVL-positive isolates (25 MSSA and 23 MRSA) collected from different hospital laboratories from April 2005 to May 2011. spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing were applied to categorize the isolates. Phage typeability was 48.0% in MSSA and 91.3% in MRSA, highlighting the limitation of the PCR typing scheme when applied to PVL-positive MSSA. Five different PVL phages and two variants of a known phage were detected, the most prevalent being ΦSa2usa, recovered in 15 out of 48 (31.2%) isolates, and carried by both MSSA and MRSA belonging to CC8 and CC5. The recently described ΦTCH60 was recovered in four isolates. A PVL phage (ΦSa119) from an ST772 MRSA, that was not detected using the previous typing scheme, was sequenced, and new primers were designed for the identification of the icosahedral-head group II PVL phages present in ST772 and ST59 MRSA. A comprehensive PVL-phage typing can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of PVL-positive MSSA and MRSA.

  14. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Shahsavan, Shadi; Dabiri, Hossein; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2015-12-01

    Adenoids as a first line of host defense against respiratory microbes play an important role in majority of upper airway infectious and noninfectious illnesses. Bacterial pathogen can colonize on the adenoid tissue and probably act as a reservoir for them. To determine phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming capacity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy and prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene we collected 17 consecutive, clinically significant S. aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy with one or more of the upper airway obstruction symptoms, nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, snoring, or sleep apnea. Biofilm formation was evaluated by colorimetric microtiter plate's assay. Gene encoding PVL and adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. According to the results, all strains produced biofilm. Seven (41.2%) isolates produced strong biofilm whereas 7 (41.2%) isolates produced week and 3 (17.6%) isolates produced medium biofilm. Regarding the adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes, 16 (94.1%) isolates were positive for the gene eno, 13(76.4%) for icaA, 13 (76.4%) for icaD, 10 (58.8%) for fib, 10 (58.8%) for fnbB, 4(23.5%) for can, and 1(5.8%) for fnbA. The high prevalence of genes encoding biofilms and adhesins and phenotypic ability to form a biofilm by S. aureus strains emphasizes the pathogenic character of strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of ECMO and cytokine adsorption therapy for severe sepsis with cardiogenic shock and ARDS due to Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and H1N1.

    PubMed

    Lees, N J; Rosenberg, Ajp; Hurtado-Doce, A I; Jones, J; Marczin, N; Zeriouh, M; Weymann, A; Sabashnikov, A; Simon, A R; Popov, A F

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock in combination with severe acute respiratory failure represents a life-threatening combination that is often refractory to the conventional methods of treatment. We describe the case of a 33-year-old patient who developed acute cardiovascular collapse and ARDS secondary to superinfection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus and H1N1 pneumonia who underwent successful combination therapy for severe sepsis-related cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and cytokine adsorption therapy.

  16. In Vitro Assessment of the Expression and T Cell Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigens BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 in Uterine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Anke; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Everaert, Tina; Van Bree, Rieta; Verbist, Godelieve; Luyten, Cathérine; Amant, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background: While immunotherapy moved to the forefront of treatment of various cancers, it remains underexplored for uterine cancer. This might be due to the small patient population with advanced endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Data about immunotherapeutic targets are scarce in endometrial carcinoma and lacking in uterine sarcoma. Methods: Expression of five tumor-associated antigens (TAA) (BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17) was validated in uterine tumor samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TAA immunogenicity was analyzed by determining spontaneous T cell responses towards overlapping peptide pools covering the whole TAA in patient blood. Results: At mRNA level, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 were overexpressed in a minority of patients and BORIS was moderately overexpressed (26% in endometrial carcinoma and 62% in uterine sarcoma). hTERT was overexpressed in the vast majority of tumors. On protein level, MUC1 was upregulated in primary, recurrent and metastatic EMCAR and in metastatic US tumors. hTERT protein was highly expressed in both normal and malignant tissue. Spontaneous TAA-specific T cell responses were detected in a minority of patients, except for hTERT to which T cell responses occurred more frequently. Conclusions: These data point to MUC1 and hTERT as most suitable targets based on expression levels and T cell immunogenicity for use in immunotherapeutic regimens. PMID:27618037

  17. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  18. [Investigation of the presence of mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens during seven years period].

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Abdullah; Doğan, Eyüp; Kaya, Sinem; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a potent cytotoxin of S.aureus is also considered as an important virulence factor. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and prevalence of mecC and pvl genes among S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 1700 S.aureus isolates including 1177 methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and 523 MRSA, isolated in our hospital between January 2007 to December 2014, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and BD Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) according to the CLSI standards. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by the use of real-time PCR, and the presence of pvl and mecC genes were detected by conventional PCR method. Among the patients, 44.6% (759/1700) were outpatients, 65.8% (1119/1700) were male and the mean age of of patients was 39.7 years. Of 1700 isolates evaluated in this study, 523 (30.7%) were positive for mecA gene, however all of them were negative for mecC gene. A total of 32 (1.8%) isolates were positive for pvl gene including 23 (1.9%) out of 1177 MSSA and nine (1.7%) out of 523 MRSA strains. Eighteen (56.2%) of the PVL-positive S.aureus strains were isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. The frequency of PVL detected in this study was similar to the

  19. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  20. Panton-Valentine leukocidin and some exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of staphylococci isolated from milks of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Nilgün; Askar, Şinasi; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Sakarya, Fatma; Altun, Belgin; Yıldırım, Murat

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the existence of pvl gene, some toxin genes, and mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from sheep milk and to examine antimicrobial resistance profiles in staphylococci from sheep and goats' milk. The milk samples were collected from 13 different small ruminant farms in Kirikkale province from February to August 2009. A total of 1,604 half-udder milk samples from 857 ewes and 66 half-udder milk samples from 33 goats were collected. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and identified from the samples. Toxin genes and mecA gene among S. aureus strains were determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci was examined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar, and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection in both ewes and goats was 5.2%. The most prevalent subclinical mastitis agents were coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus with prevalences 2.8% (n:46) and 1.3% (n = 21), respectively. The prevalence of resistances in isolated Staphylococcus spp. to penicilin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and enrofloxacin were found as 26.9% (18), 7.5% (5), 6.0% (4), 3.0% (2), and 1.5% (1), respectively. Only 3 of the 21 S. aureus ewe isolates (13.4%) were shown to harbor enterotoxin genes being either seh, sej or sec. However, fourteen (66.6%) of the 21 S. aureus isolates had pvl gene while none of the isolates harbored mecA gene. In conclusion, Staphylococci were shown to be the most prevalent bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis of ewes and goats and these isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics. In addition, S. aureus strains isolated from ewes were harboring few staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. However, Panton-Valentine leukocidin produced by S. aureus could be an important virulence factor and contribute to subclinical mastitis pathogenicity.

  1. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  2. Valentines Day X2 Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Active region 1158 let loose with an X2.2 flare at 0153 UT or 8:50 pm ET on February 15, 2011, the largest flare since Dec. 2006 and the biggest flare so far in Solar Cycle 24. This video was taken...

  3. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  4. [Investigation of SCCmec types and Panton-Valentine leukocidin in community-acquired and nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus strains: comparing skin and soft tissue infections to the other infections].

    PubMed

    Gülmez, Dolunay; Sancak, Banu; Ercis, Serpil; Karakaya, Jale; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-07-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important health care problems since they are usually multidrug resistant. Although MRSA is isolated especially from nosocomial infections, community-acquired MRSA infections are increasing. Methicillin resistance is due to the expression of mecA gene, which is located on SCCmec gene cassette. Different SCCmec types can be detected in hospital-acquired and community-acquired (CA-) MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains might harbour Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an important virulence factor in skin and soft tissue infections. Strains carrying PVL has the ability to penetrate undamaged skin and cause more severe infections. The aim of this study was to detect SCCmec types and PVL gene in S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to compare with strains isolated from other infections in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (n= 285) and a control group consisting of 161 strains isolated from other infections (53 blood, 48 lower respiratory tract samples, 30 sterile body fluids, 30 genitourinary tract samples) chosen by stratification and random selection method, were included in the study. Among skin and soft tissue infection strains 46.7% were from the hospitalized patients and 48.4% of skin and soft tissue infection strains were from female patients. The mean age of the skin and soft tissue infection patients was 45.5 years. Among the control strains 60.9% were from the hospitalized patients and 41.6% of the control patients were female. The mean age of the control patients was 50.2 years. Strains were identified by the Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and identification was confirmed by tube coagulase test. Methicillin resistance was determined by the Phoenix system which determines both oxacillin and cefoxitin minimum inhibitor concentrations and, confirmed by oxacillin agar screening and

  5. Elderly infection in the community due to ST5/SCCmecII methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (the New York/Japan clone) in Japan: Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative necrotizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga; Tomita, Yusuke; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    An 89-year-old man suffered from and died of necrotizing pneumonia with rapid progression and cavity formation due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He was at no risk for hospital-acquired MRSA infection. His MRSA exhibited genotype ST5/spa2(t002)/agr2/SCCmecII/coagulaseII and was negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, indicating the New York/Japan clone (the predominant epidemic hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan). However, this strain expressed the cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin or δ-hemolysin) genes at high level, similar to USA300 (the most common community-acquired MRSA in the United States), indicating a variant of the New York/Japan clone with an important feature of community-acquired MRSA.

  6. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates are associated with skin and soft tissue infections and colonized mainly by infective PVL-encoding bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan; Rao, Xiancai

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Positive Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-Encoding Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. PMID:25339405

  8. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone) and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, R.H.; Aung, M.S.; Thapa, B.; Chaudhary, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Kobayashi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characteristics were analysed for recent clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA respectively) in Kathmandu, Nepal. MRSA isolates harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were classified into ST1, ST22 and ST88 with SCCmec-IV and ST772 with SCCmec-V (Bengal Bay clone), while PVL-positive MSSA into ST22, ST30 and ST772. ST22 isolates (PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA, PVL-negative MRSA) possessed a variant of elastin binding protein gene (ebpS) with an internal deletion of 180 bp, which was similar to that reported for ST121 S. aureus previously outside Nepal. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ebpS variant in ST22 might have occurred independently of ST121 strains. This is the first report of ST772 PVL-positive MRSA in Nepal and detection of the deletion variant of ebpS in ST22 S. aureus. PMID:27014464

  9. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high cytolytic peptide expression in association with community-acquired pediatric osteomyelitis complicated by pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sawanobori, Emi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Hachuda, Koji; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Reva, Galina; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy, who had had a furuncle on his femur, developed femoral pyomyositis and osteomyelitis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was isolated from pus and blood. Chemotherapy was started with cefazolin, followed by combination therapy with meropenem/vancomycin with surgery. The MSSA (strain KS1) was positive for increased levels of cytolytic peptide (psmα and hld) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and manifested IS1216V-mediated multidrug resistance (to erythromycin, clindamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol), similar to a genome-analyzed reference strain (PM1) of ST59/SCCmecV(5C2&5) community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Taiwan CA-MRSA), but unlike another reference strain (M013) of Taiwan CA-MRSA in terms of resistance. The data suggest that CA-MSSA KS1, characterized by PVL, increased levels of cytolytic peptide, SEB, and multidrug resistance, is a possible ancestral strain of Taiwan CA-MRSA and causes the unique association of osteomyelitis and septic pulmonary embolism, requiring complicated management. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Identification and Characterization of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in a Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Sequence Type 8 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus IVa (USA300) Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Brennan, Orla M.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Slickers, Peter; Coleman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The staphylococcal cfr gene mediates resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins, and streptogramin A, a phenotype that has been termed PhLOPSA. The cfr gene has mainly been associated with coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from animals, and only a few cfr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have been described so far. This study reports the first description of a cfr-positive MRSA isolate (M05/0060) belonging to the pandemic Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type 8 MRSA IVa/USA300 (ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300) clone. The cfr gene was detected in M05/0060 using a DNA microarray which was used to screen PVL-positive MRSA isolates for the presence of virulence genes, typing markers, and antimicrobial resistance genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that M05/0060 exhibited the cfr-associated resistance phenotype. Molecular analysis identified the presence of cfr and a second phenicol resistance gene, fexA, on a novel 45-kb conjugative plasmid, which was designated pSCFS7. Within pSCFS7, a DNA segment consisting of cfr, a truncated copy of insertion sequence IS21-558, and a region with homology to the DNA invertase gene bin3 of transposon Tn552 from Bacillus mycoides was integrated into the transposase gene tnpB of the fexA-carrying transposon Tn558. The emergence of a multidrug-resistant cfr-positive variant of ST8-MRSA-IVa/USA300 is alarming and requires ongoing surveillance. Moreover, the identification of a novel conjugative plasmid carrying the cfr gene indicates the ability of cfr to spread to other MRSA strains. PMID:20921317

  11. Prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive S. aureus in general practice patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the northern and southern regions of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, D; Rijnders, M I A; Roede, B M; Stobberingh, E; Möller, A V M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus in general practice (GP) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the northern (Groningen and Drenthe) and southern (Limburg) regions of The Netherlands. Secondary objectives were to assess the possible risk factors for patients with SSTI caused by S. aureus and PVL-positive S. aureus using a questionnaire-based survey. From 2007 to 2008, wound and nose cultures were obtained from patients with SSTI in general practice. These swabs were analysed for the presence of S. aureus and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined. The presence of the PVL toxin gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the genetic background with the use of spa typing. A survey was performed to detect risk factors for S. aureus infection and for the presence of PVL toxin.S. aureus was isolated from 219 out of 314 (70%) patients with SSTI, of which two (0.9%) patients were MRSA-positive. In 25 (11%) patients, the PVL toxin gene was found. A higher prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus of patients with SSTI was found in the northern region compared to the south (p < 0.05). Regional differences were found in the spa types of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates, and for PVL-negative S. aureus isolates, the genetic background was similar in both regions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA in GP patients with SSTI in The Netherlands is low. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from GP patients with SSTI. Household contacts having similar symptoms were found to be a risk factor for SSTI with S. aureus.

  12. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones.

    PubMed

    Oosthuysen, W F; Orth, H; Lombard, C J; Sinha, B; Wasserman, E

    2014-07-01

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape province. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), agr typing and SCCmec typing were used to characterize strains. Of 367 non-repetitive S. aureus isolates collected over a period of 1 year, 56 (15.3%) were MRSA. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most frequent source (54.8%), followed by bone and joint (15.3%) and respiratory tract infections (7.7%). For strain typing, PFGE was the most discriminative method, and resulted in 31 pulsotypes (n = 345, 94.0%), as compared with 16 spa clonal complexes (CCs) (n = 344, 93.4%). Four MLST CCs were identified after eBURST of sequence types (STs) of selected isolates. One hundred and sixty isolates (MSSA, n = 155, 42.2%) were PVL-positive, and agr types I-IV and SCCmec types I-V were identified. Our S. aureus population consisted of genotypically diverse strains, with PVL being a common characteristic of MSSA. MSSA and MRSA isolates clustered in different clones. However, the dominant MRSA clone (ST612) also contained an MSSA isolate, and had a unique genotype. Common global epidemic MRSA clones, such as ST239-MRSA-III and ST36-MRSA-II, were identified. A local clone, ST612-MRSA-IV, was found to be the dominant MRSA clone.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Types of, as Well as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Occurrence among, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Children and Adults in Middle Tennessee▿

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Abdullah; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) occurrence, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from children and adults at Vanderbilt University Medical Center during a 12-month period were evaluated. A total of 1,315 MRSA isolates were collected, of which 748 (36.7%) were recovered from children. Among all isolates, 448 (34.1%) were SCCmec-II, and 847 (64.4%) were SCCmec-IV. More SCCmec-IV isolates were recovered from children than SCCmec-II isolates (424 [50.1%] versus 50 [11.2%]; odds ration [OR] = 7.98; P < 0.000001). The PVL gene was detected in 93.6% of SCCmec-IV isolates, in contrast to 0.2% in SCCmec-II isolates. Within SCCmec-IV isolates, a statistically higher PVL occurrence was noticed in children (98.1%) than in adults (89.1%) (OR = 6.34; P < 0.000001). Overall, SCCmec-II strains showed greater resistance than SCCmec-IV strains to clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampin, minocycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Both SCCmec-II and SCCmec-IV strains recovered from adults were more resistant to these antibiotics than those recovered from children. SCCmec-II strains were predominantly recovered from the respiratory tract, whereas SCCmec-IV strains were predominantly recovered from skin, soft tissue, abscesses, and surgical wounds. These data indicate that SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates frequently infect children in middle Tennessee and are likely to harbor the PVL gene. PMID:17065272

  14. Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, In-Gyu; Tonthat, Giang T; Stryjewski, Martin E; Rude, Thomas H; Reilly, Lindsay F; Barriere, Steven L; Genter, Fredric C; Corey, G Ralph; Fowler, Vance G

    2009-12-01

    The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.

  15. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus in Ireland from 2002 to 2011: 21 Clones, Frequent Importation of Clones, Temporal Shifts of Predominant Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Clones, and Increasing Multiresistance

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Tecklenborg, Sarah C.; Brennan, Gráinne I.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. CA-MRSA isolates commonly produce the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin encoded by the pvl genes lukF-PV and lukS-PV. This study investigated the clinical and molecular epidemiologies of pvl-positive MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates identified by the Irish National MRSA Reference Laboratory (NMRSARL) between 2002 and 2011. All pvl-positive MRSA (n = 190) and MSSA (n = 39) isolates underwent antibiogram-resistogram typing, spa typing, and DNA microarray profiling for multilocus sequence type, clonal complex (CC) and/or sequence type (ST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type assignment, and virulence and resistance gene detection. Where available, patient demographics and clinical data were analyzed. The prevalence of pvl-positive MRSA increased from 0.2% to 8.8%, and that of pvl-positive MSSA decreased from 20% to 2.5% during the study period. The pvl-positive MRSA and MSSA isolates belonged to 16 and 5 genotypes, respectively, with CC/ST8-MRSA-IV, CC/ST30-MRSA-IV, CC/ST80-MRSA-IV, CC1/ST772-MRSA-V, CC30-MSSA, CC22-MSSA, and CC121-MSSA predominating. Temporal shifts in the predominant pvl-positive MRSA genotypes and a 6-fold increase in multiresistant pvl-positive MRSA genotypes occurred during the study period. An analysis of patient data indicated that pvl-positive S. aureus strains, especially MRSA strains, had been imported into Ireland several times. Two hospital and six family clusters of pvl-positive MRSA were identified, and 70% of the patient isolates for which information was available were from patients in the community. This study highlights the increased burden and changing molecular epidemiology of pvl-positive S. aureus in Ireland over the last decade and the contribution of international travel to the influx of genetically diverse pvl-positive S. aureus isolates into Ireland. PMID:24371244

  16. 2011 Valentines Day X-Class Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The video clip of the large X2 flare seen by Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in extreme ultraviolet light on February 15, 2011, has been enlarged and superimposed on a video of SOHO's C2 coronagra...

  17. NASA Comet Hunter Spots its Valentine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-27

    This composite image is the first taken by NASA Stardust spacecraft navigation camera. The observations were made on Jan. 18 and 19, 2011. Stardust will fly within about 200 kilometers 124 miles of the comet nucleus.

  18. Opportunity Rover on Valentine Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-09

    This is the latest image of NASA Opportunity rover at Solander Point, where it spend a few week investigation Pinnacle rock the jelly donut that was flipper over by the rover wheel. This observation is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  19. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  20. Emergence of Hospital- and Community-Associated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and Detailed Investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V Cluster in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Corcoran, Suzanne; Tecklenborg, Sarah; Coleman, David C.; O'Connell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) has predominated in Irish hospitals since the late 1990s. Six distinct clones of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have also been identified in Ireland. A new strain of CA-MRSA, ST772-MRSA-V, has recently emerged and become widespread in India and has spread into hospitals. In the present study, highly similar MRSA isolates were recovered from seven colonized neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a maternity hospital in Ireland during 2010 and 2011, two colonized NICU staff, one of their colonized children, and a NICU environmental site. The isolates exhibited multiantibiotic resistance, spa type t657, and were assigned to ST772-MRSA-V by DNA microarray profiling. All isolates encoded resistance to macrolides [msr(A) and mpb(BM)] and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD and aphA3) and harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin genes (lukF-PV and lukS-PV), enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sel, and egc), and one of the immune evasion complex genes (scn). One of the NICU staff colonized by ST772-MRSA-V was identified as the probable index case, based on recent travel to India. Seven additional hospital and CA-ST772-MRSA-V isolates recovered from skin and soft tissue infections in Ireland between 2009 and 2011 exhibiting highly similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the NICU isolates were also identified. The clinical details of four of these patients revealed connections with India through ethnic background or travel. Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions. PMID:22189119

  1. BORIS -- An Experiment in In-Depth Understanding of Narratives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Pasadena, California 91106 Mr. Steven Wong I copy New York Area Office 715 Broadway - 5th Floor New York, New York 10003 Naval Research Laboratory 6...MOP. A waitress will probably come to serve the patrons. They will probably order from a menu, and so on. There are expectations associated with the

  2. Observations of the Leonids in 2006 from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhurova, Eva; Koleva, Katya

    2010-12-01

    We report on results from an expediton to Bolyarci 2006 November 17/18 and 18/19. Boris Stoilov (STOBO), Ivaylo Ivanov (IVAIV) and Valentin Velkov (VELVA) recorded 51 Leonids out of 107 meteors in 7.83 hours of total effective observing time. High activity of the Leonids on 2006 November 18/19 around 4:45-4:48 UT as recorded by other contributors to the IMO data base, was confirmed. Processing the plotted meters using the RADIANT software provided radiant positions of the Leonids, alpha-Monocerotids, Taurids, and new iota-Aurigid meteor shower.

  3. Romance of a Mathematician: Celebrating St Valentine's Day in a Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekimoglu, Serkan

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics should not be studied simply because it is useful; mathematics should be also studied because it nurtures both the mind and soul with its beauty. By completing the four activities described in this paper, students will appreciate mathematical ideas both rationally and emotionally. Since students' appreciation of mathematical ideas…

  4. Embracing William, Oliver Button, and Tough Boris: Learning Acceptance from Characters in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen; McGee, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    One of the most reverberating social changes of the 20th century was the women's liberation movement. As new attitudes about women and their roles in society took hold, changes were made in the way in which females of all ages were represented in instructional materials, such as basal readers, curriculum materials, and tradebooks. Unfortunately,…

  5. Proceedings of the 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America Meeting (Editors: G. Burow, M. Jugulam & K.E. Valentin)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2016 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA), held on September 19-21, 2016 with the theme “The New Faces of Sorghum,” was a resounding success. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants that represented a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry from both public a...

  6. Share the Love: Why Not Celebrate Valentine's Day by Encouraging Kids to Give Back to the Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2011-01-01

    February is a natural time to teach students that love involves more than hearts and candy--it also means giving of oneself. According to Terri Kennamer, a third-grade teacher at West Elementary School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama, it is the responsibility of educators to help students recognize that they are citizens of the world. Children have…

  7. The relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content of Selliguea feei Bory from around Ratu crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novianti, Vivi; Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-01

    Proanthocyanidin is a chemical compound with a basic flavan-3-ol structure formed from flavonoid secondary metabolism in plants, with potential for human use because of its anti-hypertension, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Considering the fact that S. feei contains proanthocynidin and grows abundantly around Ratu Crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu, which actively emits S02 gas, this study aimed to see the relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves and rhizomes of S. feei. Field sampling was conducted in 1 m2 plots at elevations of 1400, 1600 m above sea level (100 m distance from sulfur source), 1700, 1800 and 1900 m a.s.l. (75 m from sulfur source). Measurements included soil sulfate concentration, proanthocyanidin content of rhizomes and leaves, and environmental factors. An experiment was conducted by planting S. feei from the field into polybags which were then given treatments of sterile plant media with varying sulfate concentrations (0 ppm, 100 ppm, 250 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, and 800 ppm). Proanthocyanidin content of S. feei leaves and rhizomes were measured on the third, sixth and ninth week. Soil sulfate concentrations were found to be very high (428.22 - 992.91 ppm) with values increasing according to altitude. Proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes were higher than in leaves, in both field and experimental data. Soil sulfate concentrations correlated positively and significantly with proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes of S. feei. As in the field, experimental results indicated no correlation or relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves. Besides soil sulfate concentration, environmental factors have a role in incresing peoanthocyanidin content of S.feei. Proanthocyanidin content of S.feei rhizomes could be classified as being very high, thus having potential to be developed as raw material in medicine and food industries.

  8. The role of authigenic sulfides in immobilization of potentially toxic metals in the Bagno Bory wetland, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smieja-Król, Beata; Janeczek, Janusz; Bauerek, Arkadiusz; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-10-01

    The supply of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Tl into a wetland in the industrial area of Upper Silesia, southern Poland via atmospheric precipitation and dust deposition has been counterbalanced by the biogenic metal sulfide crystallization in microsites of the thin (<30 cm) peat layer, despite the overall oxidative conditions in the wetland. Disequilibrium of the redox reactions in the peat pore water (pH 5.4-6.2) caused by sulfate-reducing microorganisms has resulted in the localized decrease in Eh and subsequent precipitation of micron- and submicron-sized framboidal pyrite, spheroidal ZnS and (Zn,Cd)S, and galena as revealed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Saturation index for each sulfide is at a maximum within the calculated Eh range of -80 and -146 mV. Lead was also immobilized in galena deposited in fungal filaments, possibly at a higher Eh. Thallium (up to 3 mg kg(-1)) in the peat strongly correlates with Zn, whereas Cu (up to 55 mg kg(-1)) co-precipitated with Pb. The metal sulfides occur within microbial exudates, which protect them from oxidation and mechanical displacement. Vertical distribution of toxic metals in the peat layer reflects differences in pollution loads from atmospheric deposition, which has been much reduced recently.

  9. Functional Assessment of the Role of BORIS in Ovarian Cancer Using a Novel in Vivo Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    floxed pRb will be established by in vitro fertilization , injected with adeno-Cre, and used for tumor collection. Task 3. The goal of the third task...pRbflox/ e intercross double mu lished by c injection. To ere injecte sgenic mou bflox/flox;p53flo ransgenic m by in vitro his should ontrol coho... fertilization expedite t rts (i.e. pRb /or tumor d matically in gle mutant ( to intrabur (contralater 5) ovary/tum : ouse line we the mouse ore Facility

  10. Panton-valentine leukocidin-positive and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French multicenter prospective study in 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet.

  11. Incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Pantone-Valentine leucocidin gene at a referral hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dash, Nihar; Panigrahi, Debadatta; Al Zarouni, Mansour; Yassin, Faten; Al-Shamsi, Moza

    2014-04-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen in hospitalized patients worldwide. The present study was undertaken to identify CA-MRSA in hospitalized patients in a 350-bed tertiary care hospital in Sharjah, UAE over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. CA-MRSA was defined based on identification within first 48 h of admission in the hospital. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing of the CA-MRSA isolates was carried out by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of PVL and mecA genes was done by PCR using the GenoType(®) MRSA test system (Hain Lifescience). Patient's clinical data and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates were also evaluated. Fifty seven of the 187 MRSA isolates were identified as CA-MRSA. All the CA-MRSA strains in our study belonged to SCCmecIV type and were positive for both PVL and mecA genes. The patients with CA-MRSA infections were young (median age, 32 years) and the majority of infections involved the skin and soft tissue (36%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates showed a better susceptibility profile to the non-beta-lactam antimicrobials with the exception of ciprofloxacin having 28% resistance. This study evidently strengthens the recent observation of an increase in CA-MRSA emergence among hospitalized patients in the UAE. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Trial to control an outbreak of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a boarding school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Masaaki; Ito, Teruyo; Han, Xiao; Nishiyama, Junichiro; Tanno, Akemi; Wada, Toshiko; Funaoka, Youichi; Yoshida, Yusuke; Mikita, Kei; Ogawa, Tomomichi; Okusa, Yasushi; Kaku, Koki; Hatada, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2011-12-01

    Our retrospective investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection at a hospital in Japan around 2007 suggested dissemination of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains among healthy students in a Japanese boarding school, which frequently caused skin disease and exhibited the same antibiogram patterns. Active surveillance of skin diseases for 6 months after May 2008, examination of MRSA carriage in selected high-risk groups, and investigation of their life circumstances, including environmental cultures, were conducted in the school. Furthermore, we strengthened hygiene practices and improved recognized risk factors from November 2008 and observed the occurrence of skin diseases and MRSA carriage rate for the evaluation of infection controls. We identified 21 patients with skin diseases in whom MRSA strains were isolated. MRSA colonization rates in 3 selected groups ranged from 7.6% to 36.6%. The rates of both skin disease and MRSA carriage decreased significantly after infection controls were introduced. Genetic analysis revealed a main dissemination of a PVL-positive SCCmec IVc clone (41/47 isolates in total), presenting as a different pulsed-field type than USA300. This first report of a PVL-positive CA-MRSA outbreak in Japan demonstrates systematic management of dissemination by conducting surveillance in a closed community. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French Multicenter Prospective Study in 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  14. A novel adaptive time stepping variant of the Boris-Buneman integrator for the simulation of particle accelerators with space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, Matthias; Adelmann, Andreas; Arbenz, Peter; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-09-01

    We show that adaptive time stepping in particle accelerator simulation is an enhancement for certain problems. The new algorithm has been implemented in the OPAL (Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library) framework. The idea is to adjust the frequency of costly self-field calculations, which are needed to model Coulomb interaction (space charge) effects. In analogy to a Kepler orbit simulation that requires a higher time step resolution at the close encounter, we propose to choose the time step based on the magnitude of the space charge forces. Inspired by geometric integration techniques, our algorithm chooses the time step proportional to a function of the current phase space state instead of calculating a local error estimate like a conventional adaptive procedure. Building on recent work, a more profound argument is given on how exactly the time step should be chosen. An intermediate algorithm, initially built to allow a clearer analysis by introducing separate time steps for external field and self-field integration, turned out to be useful by its own, for a large class of problems.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of a novel fern, Salvinia cucullata, Roxb. Ex Bory, to pulp and paper mill effluent: Physiological and anatomical response.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Kisholay

    2016-11-01

    The study was conducted with an aim to remediate effluent from a pulp and paper mill, after treating it for 28 days with an aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata. The effluent had high BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS, P, hardness and chloride, and several heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) above national limits. However, the plant survived a wide range of effluent concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, v/v), and flourished well, particularly at 25% (v/v), resisted membrane injury and generation of H2O2 and O2, showed better growth and induced all the major antioxidant enzymes. The plants also induced lipid peroxidation. Most of the elemental profiles were higher than the toxic levels stipulated for plants, indicating tolerance to metal. In fact, barring Fe, for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mg and P, at all the effluent doses, and for Cd, Ni and Mn, up to 75% (v/v) effluent, greater concentrations were observed in leaf than in root. This plant was more suited for nutrient removal, as it effectively reduced BOD, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mg, P and increased dissolve oxygen. Further, pH, hardness, chloride, TS and Mn was reduced optimally by 25-50% (v/v) treatments. SEM revealed prominent structural damages from 50 to 100% treatments. Presence of Pb as well as Fe in the EDX peaks were observed in the cortex rather than in the root vascular zone. This plant could be suggested to be an effective phytoremediator of multi-contaminant effluent with maximum benefit at low doses (25-50%, v/v). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W

    2002-05-23

    A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.

  17. Severity of Nonbullous Staphylococcus aureus Impetigo in Children Is Associated with Strains Harboring Genetic Markers for Exfoliative Toxin B, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, and the Multidrug Resistance Plasmid pSK41

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Sander; van Belkum, Alex; Snijders, Susan; van Leeuwen, Willem; Verbrugh, Henri; Nouwen, Jan; Op ′t Veld, Mariet; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W. A.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Verduin, Cees

    2003-01-01

    Nonbullous impetigo is a common skin infection in children and is frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal toxins and especially exfoliative toxin A are known mediators of bullous impetigo in children. It is not known whether this is also true for nonbullous impetigo. We set out to analyze clonality among clinical isolates of S. aureus from children with nonbullous impetigo living in a restricted geographical area in The Netherlands. We investigated whether staphylococcal nasal carriage and the nature of the staphylococcal strains were associated with the severity and course of impetigo. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the noses and wounds of children suffering from impetigo. Strains were genetically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-mediated typing and binary typing, which was also used to assess toxin gene content. In addition, a detailed clinical questionnaire was filled in by each of the participating patients. Staphylococcal nasal carriage seems to predispose the patients to the development of impetigo, and 34% of infections diagnosed in the Rotterdam area are caused by one clonal type of S. aureus. The S. aureus strains harbor the exfoliative toxin B (ETB) gene as a specific virulence factor. In particular, the numbers (P = 0.002) and sizes (P < 0.001) of the lesions were increased in patients infected with an ETB-positive strain. Additional predictors of disease severity and development could be identified. The presence of a staphylococcal plasmid encoding multiple antibiotic resistance traits, as detected by binary typing, was associated with a reduction in the cure rate. Our results recognize that a combination of staphylococcal virulence and resistance genes rather than a single gene determines the development and course of nonbullous impetigo. The identification of these microbial genetic markers, which are predictive of the severity and the course of the disease, will facilitate guided individualized antimicrobial therapy in the future. PMID:12843036

  18. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of marennine, a blue-green polyphenolic pigment from the diatom Haslea ostrearia (Gaillon/Bory) Simonsen responsible for the natural greening of cultured oysters.

    PubMed

    Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard; Morançais, Michèle; Taran, Frédéric; Rosa, Philippe; Dufossé, Laurent; Guérard, Fabienne; Pin, Serge; Fleurence, Joël; Pondaven, Pierre

    2008-08-13

    Among microalgae, the marine diatom Haslea ostrearia has the distinctive feature of synthesizing and releasing, into the surrounding environment, a blue-green polyphenolic pigment called marennine. The oyster-breeding industry commonly makes use of this natural phenomenon for the greening of oysters grown in the ponds of the French Atlantic coast. This article reports the in vitro antioxidant properties of pure marennine. Two kinds of evaluation systems were adopted to test the antioxidative activity of marennine: antioxidant capacity assays (beta-carotene and thymidine protection assays and iron reducing power assay) and free radical scavenging assays (DPPH*, O2*-, and HO*). In almost all cases, marennine exhibited significantly higher antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities than natural and synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food, as shown by comparing median effective concentration (EC 50) values, for each test independently. This medium molecular weight polyphenol (around 10 kDa) from microalgae is thus a potentially useful natural antioxidant. Because of its blue-coloring property and water solubility, it could also be used as a natural food-coloring additive.

  19. Differential invariants of feedback transformations for quasi-harmonic oscillation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsenko, Dmitry S.; Kiriukhin, Oleg M.

    2017-03-01

    The goal and the main result of the paper is to provide a complete description of the field of rational differential invariants of one class of second order ordinary differential equations with scalar control parameter with respect to Lie pseudo-group of local feedback transformations. In particular, considered class describes behavior of conservative mechanical systems. We construct the class of rational differential invariants that separate regular orbits. It is well known that differential invariants form algebra with respect to the operation of addition and multiplication (Alekseevskij et al. 1991) [20]. In our case, constructed rational differential operators form a field (in algebraic sense). Rational differential invariants were studied by Rosenlicht (1956, 1963) [25,26], Kruglikov and Lychagin (2011) [24].

  20. Deception Detection Process and Accuracy: An Examination of How International Military Officers Detect Deception in the Workplace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    PROCESS AND ACCURACY: AN EXAMINATION OF HOW INTERNATIONAL MILITARY OFFICERS DETECT DECEPTION IN THE WORKPLACE by Boris Kun Will Whaley...PROCESS AND ACCURACY: AN EXAMINATION OF HOW INTERNATIONAL MILITARY OFFICERS DETECT DECEPTION IN THE WORKPLACE 6. AUTHOR(S) Boris Knn and Will...Detection, Fraud, Diagnostic Utility, Questioning Method, International Officers, Officers, PAGES Workplace Deception, Fraudulent Enlistment, Recruiting

  1. Review of Empirical Research That Utilized the Bell Object Relations Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joseph Wm.

    This literature review examines how the Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI) (M. Bell and others, 1986) has been used in the literature. General domains of BORI use include interpersonal relatedness, the measurement of religious dimensions, and the diagnosis and prediction of psychopathology. Specific areas are reviewed regarding the…

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING AND ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY (EMSAT) Task Order 0003: Design of a Circularly Polarized, 20 60 GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-08

    GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning Carl R. Pfeiffer Defense Engineering Corporation Boris Tomasic Multispectral Sensing and...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F/61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Carl R. Pfeiffer (Defense Engineering Corporation) Boris Tomasic (AFRL...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Defense Engineering Corporation 4027 Colonel Glenn Hwy Beavercreek, OH 45431 Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers & Officials: Biographies, Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Industry 34 PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich 34 Minister of Finance 34 PERVYSHIN, Erlen Kirikovich 35 Minister of Communications 35 PUGIN...Administrator of Affairs, Council of Ministers 47 SILAYEV, Ivan Stepanovich 48 Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Chairman of the...labor-intensive orders. PAVLOV , Valentin Sergeyevich Minister of Finance [Text] Born in 1937, Russian. Graduated from the Moscow Institute of

  4. Idea Notebook. Quick Activities for Every Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajello, Tracey S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Teachers' ideas for quick classroom activities include creating a garden-in-winter bulletin board, writing a science story, playing a Valentine's game, graphing vowels, averaging students' sizes, creating lifesize figures of historical people, making picture books, creating an idiom bulletin board, and sending school valentines to local hospitals.…

  5. Towards High-Reynolds-Number Quiet Flow in Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-13

    Timothy Roediger, Dimitry A. Bountin, Boris V. Smorodsky, Ana- toly A. Maslov, and Julio Srulijes. A novel sensor for fast heat-flux measurements. J. of Spacecraft and Rockets, 46(2):255-265, March-April 2009. 31

  6. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  7. Memory Organization and Search Processes for Narratives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    AD-AO8 141 YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE F/6 5/7 MEMORY ORGANIZATION AND SEARCH PROCESSES FOR NARRATIVES.(U) APR 80 M 6 DYER, W O ... o ........... . . .... Memory Organization and Search...all a hoax. Some representative BORIS I/ O appears below. The questions are verbatim input to BORIS and the answers are verbatim computer output

  8. Department of the Army Supply Bulletin, Army Medical Department Supply Information, SB8-75-S9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-20

    25.00 1 Veterinary Medicine Zoonosis & Comunicable Diseases Common To Man & Animals (2nd Ed./1987 Pub # 503) Acha, Pedro N. & Szyfres, Boris Pan...Committee On Foreign Animal Diseases U.S. Animal Health Association $25.00 7 Veterinary Medicine Zoonosis & Communicable Diseases Common To Man...Veterinary Medicine Zoonosis & Communicable Diseases Common To Man & Animals Animals (2nd Ed./1987 Pub # 503) Acha, Pedro N. & Szyfres, Boris Pan

  9. Into the Curriculum. Creative Dramatics: Valentine Lip Sync Book Charades; Language Arts/Social Studies: Found Poetry from Primary Sources; Reading/Language Arts: A Thematic Activity To Herald in the New Year; Science: Asian Elephant Life Cycles; Social Studies: Conservation of Animal Species-Asian Elephants; Social Studies: What Makes a Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugar, Candace; Robinson, Alice A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides six fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in creative dramatics, language arts, social studies, reading, and science. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for…

  10. Optimized Battery-Type Reactor Primary System Design Utilizing Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Lee, Il S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    A number of small and medium size reactors are being developed worldwide as well as large electricity generation reactors for co-generation, district heating or desalination. The Seoul National University has started to develop 23 MWth BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System) as a multi-purpose reactor. BORIS is an integral-type optimized fast reactor with an ultra long life core. BORIS is being designed to meet the Generation IV nuclear energy system goals of sustainability, safety, reliability and economics. Major features of BORIS include 20 consecutive years of operation without refueling; elimination of an intermediate heat transport loop and main coolant pump; open core without individual subassemblies; inherent negative reactivity feedback; and inherent load following capability. Its one mission is to provide incremental electricity generation to match the needs of developing nations and especially remote communities without major electrical grid connections. BORIS consists of a reactor module, heat exchanger, coolant module, guard vessel, reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS), secondary system, containment and the seismic isolation. BORIS is designed to generate 10 MWe with the resulting thermal efficiency of 45 %. BORIS uses lead as the primary system coolant because of the inherent safety of the material. BORIS is coupled with a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle as the secondary system to gain a high cycle efficiency in the range of 45 %. The reference core consists of 757 fuel rods without assembly with an active core height of 0.8 m. The BORIS core consists of single enrichment zone composed of a Pu-MA (minor actinides)-U-N fuel and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel clad. This study is intended to set up appropriate reactor vessel geometry by performing thermal hydraulic analysis on RVACS using computational fluid dynamics codes; to examine the liquid metal coolant behavior along the subchannels; to find out whether the

  11. 75 FR 27599 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... public information such as methods that are acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing specific parts.../ Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of...

  12. Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Judith Allsaints Apio Chaudhari Mugdha Ramachandra Richard Lunyata Peter Agaba Elizabeth Nakabuye Team of medical students in ... Valentine Kahababo Art and audio team - Kampala, Uganda Peter Mukiibi Kenneth Nek Daniel Hama Contact the Makerere ...

  13. An Infrared portrait of Comet NEOWISE C/2014 C3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-27

    Comet NEOWISE was first observed by NASA NEOWISE spacecraft on Valentine Day, 2014. This heat-sensitive infrared image was made by combining six exposures taken by the NEOWISE mission of the newly discovered comet.

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. REAR OF HOUSE, CARRIAGE HOUSE, AND STABLE LOOKING EAST - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 75 FR 43208 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 5.17

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    .... Carpenter, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... locations for all types of hazardous material placards, including radioactive materials. The regulation is.... Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of...

  16. 75 FR 33853 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... date. Although a time limit is given, comments and suggestions in connection with items for inclusion... Commission. Andrea D. Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  17. Check-Up Checklist: Things to Do Before Your Next Check-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autumn Tips Camping Tips Family Reunions Gardening Tips Halloween Tips Healthy Halloween Prom Tips Spring Break Valentine Tips Winter Holiday ... Breast Cancer Assess Your Relationships Be Safe on Halloween Be Smoke-Free Check Alarm Batteries Know Your ...

  18. American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster County School Board, PA.

    Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

  19. Arts/Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)

  20. 78 FR 68464 - Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ..., Jemine A. Bryon, Stanley A. Gimont, John P. Benison, David R. Ziaya, Damon Y. Smith, Mary K. Kinney, Charles S. Coulter, Jean Lin Pao, Ricky T. Valentine, and Mary E. McBride as members of the Departmental...

  1. 78 FR 53737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review... information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be... assistive technology services. Dated: August 22, 2013. Stephanie Valentine, Acting Director,...

  2. 76 FR 57739 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ..., Propose to Modify and Expand their Existing Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Systems in New Jersey, New... Vehicle Management Plan, Implementation, AK, Comment Period Ends: 10/31/2011, Contact: Miriam Valentine...

  3. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  4. The Soviet Coup: A Command, Control, and Communications Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    reactionary Soyuz faction of the Supreme Soviet and by Pavlov and the Cabiijet of Ministers. The attempts were suppressed by Gorbachev, but effective...someone alongside me I can trust". (Hitchings, 91, p. 622) b. Valentin Sergeevich Pavlov Valentin Pavlov was appointed as Prime Minister by Gorbachev in...January 1991. Formerly the Soviet Finance Minister, Pavlov had a reputation as an old-style bureaucrat with little faith in free market reforms. His

  5. BOREAS Elevation Contours over the NSA and SSA in ARC/INFO Generate Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was prepared by BORIS Staff by reformatting the original data into the ARC/INFO Generate format. The original data were received in SIF at a scale of 1:50,000. BORIS staff could not find a format document or commercial software for reading SIF; the BOREAS HYD-08 team pro-vided some C source code that could read some of the SIF files. The data cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. The data are available in ARC/INFO Generate format files.

  6. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers over the SSA-MSA in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Gruszka, F; Hall, F.

    2000-01-01

    This data set, originally provided as vector polygons with attributes, has been processed by BORIS staff to provide raster files that can be used for modeling or for comparison purposes. The original data were received as ARC/INFO coverages or as export files from SERM. The data include information on forest parameters for the BOREAS SSA-MSA. Most of the data used for this product were acquired by BORIS in 1993; the maps were produced from aerial photography taken as recently as 1988. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  7. Navier-Stokes Neutral and Plasma Fluid Modelling in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, J; Borchardt, M; Schneider, R; Mutzke, A; Rognlien, T; Umansky, M

    2004-05-17

    The 3D finite volume transport code BoRiS is applied to a system of coupled plasma and neutral fluid equations in a slab. Demonstrating easy implementation of new equations, a new parallel BoRiS version is tested on three different models for the neutral fluid - diffusive, parallel Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes - and the results are compared to each other. Typical effects like density enhancement by ionization of recycled neutrals in front of a target plate can be seen and differences are linked to the neutral models in use.

  8. Effects for ICBM Basing. Volume 6. Numerical Simulation and Evaluation of Non-Ideal Airblast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    MSEC) 240.0-1 1 -------- HML GENERIC MODELO .- GAGE 203 HELIUM LAYER S0 -DUST 190.0 *:P -- CLEAN 0 cooo CERF DATA @HST6-60 140.0- a 210 204 PRESSURE...Corrected Transport II: Generalizations of the Method", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 18, pp . 248-283. 4. Boris, J.P., and D.L. Book (1973...34Flux Corrected Transport I: SHASTA, A Fluid Algorithm That Works", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 1 pp .38-69. 5. Boris, J.P., and D.L. Book

  9. Public Library YA Program Roundup. VOYA's Most Valuable Program 2002: Munching on Books; Really Getting Graphic: A Teen Read Week Art Show Preview; Masquerades and Millionaires: An After-hours Teen Extravaganza; Teen Time Travelers Make Listening a "Hobbit"; Teens Take a Humongous Bite Out of Newly Seasoned Reading Program; Putting a Stake through Valentine's Day; Celebrating the Day of the Dead; Legos in the Library Window; "So that You May Know": Teen Rading Group Meets Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Kara; Kan, Kat; Fletcher-Spear, Kristin; Solomon, Beth B.; Dunford, Karen; Rinella, Kay Walsh; Shenoy, Ravi; McIntosh, Jennifer R.; Socha, Debbie; Dudeck, Sharon; Duwel, Lucretia; Stackpole, Diane; Blosveren, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    These nine articles describe public library programs for young adults. Highlights include a read-a-thon with snacks; graphic novels and art; costume party and trivia contest; activities based on "The Hobbit"; a summer reading program that included teen volunteers; writing epitaphs for Day of the Dead celebration; Legos displays; and…

  10. The Life and Death of a Poet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Provides a psychohistorical perspective on the Russian poet, Marina Tsvetayeva, who committed suicide in 1941. Offers a critical analysis of Boris Pasternak's (1983) "I Remember: Sketch for an Autobiography" to yield several points to consider in interpreting motives for suicides. (SR)

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Premier Ivan Vasilyevich Arkhipov, the foreign trade minister and the chairmen of the State Planning Committee (Gosplan) and State Committee for Foreign...Foreign Trade of the Council of Minister. Ministry of Foreign Trade Boris Ivanovich Aristov: minister of foreign trade. V.l. Vorontsov, PI Pavlov

  12. MS Morukov works onboard Atlantis during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-11

    S106-E-5102 (11 September 2000) --- Cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, mission specialist representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, moves around supplies on the mid deck of the Space Shuttle Atlantis. The seven-member STS-106 crew is involved in preparations for the opening of doors into the International Space Station (ISS) and the movement of supplies into it.

  13. Global optimization of digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandera, Richard

    1991-12-01

    This thesis was divided into two tasks. The first task involved developing a parser which could translate a behavioral specification in Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into the format used by an existing digital circuit optimization tool, Boolean Reasoning In Scheme (BORIS). Since this tool is written in Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, the parser was also written in Scheme. The parser was implemented is Artez's modification of Earley's Algorithm. Additionally, a VHDL tokenizer was implemented in Scheme and a portion of the VHDL grammar was converted into the format which the parser uses. The second task was the incorporation of intermediate functions into BORIS. The existing BORIS contains a recursive optimization system that optimizes digital circuits by using circuit outputs as inputs into other circuits. Intermediate functions provide a greater selection of functions to be used as circuits inputs. Using both intermediate functions and output functions, the costs of the circuits in the test set were reduced by 43 percent. This is a 10 percent reduction when compared to the existing recursive optimization system. Incorporating intermediate functions into BORIS required the development of an intermediate-function generator and a set of control methods to keep the computation time from increasing exponentially.

  14. Tools for the Conceptual Design and Engineering Analysis of Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    George and Silin, Dmytro and Shakarayev, Sergev, “Autopilot Integration into Micro Air Vehicles.” in Introduction to The Design of Fixed-Wing Micro Air...Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, 2001. 43. Moschetta, Jean-Marc and Bataill , Boris and Thipyopas, Chinnapat and Shkarayev, Sergey

  15. Recent Developments in Computational Techniques for Applied Hydrodynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-07

    resolve the thermocline and neighboring levels. 4.1 Physical Model The relevant equations of momentum and diffusion can be written Du LOP +-0 Oi 0 Ou...PhYtics (North Holland , 1976a). Boris, J.P. and D.L. Book, "Flux-Corrected Transport 1: SHASTA-A Fluid Transport Algo- rithm That Works," J. Comp. Phys

  16. Fabrication of Metamaterials by Drawing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Final report for AOARD project FA23860914084: Fabrication of metamaterials by drawing techniques Boris Kuhlmey, Simon Fleming, Alessandro...Tuniz Title: Fabrication of metamaterials by drawing techniques Background: While metamaterials enable unprecedented control over propagation of...light with applications such as lenses beating the diffraction limit for hyperfine imaging and lithography, fabrication of metamaterials for the optical

  17. Lu, Altman and Morukov work on TVIS in Zvezda during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-16

    STS106-373-004 (8-20 September 2000) --- Three members of the STS-106 crew move the treadmill device. They are (counterclockwise from bottom) astronaut Edward T. Lu and cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, both mission specialists, along with astronaut Scott D. Altman, pilot.

  18. An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Design Parameters on Water Mist Suppression of Liquid Pool Fires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    subjected to a steady water mist spray from a single hollow cone nozzle mounted above the fire. The large plume to flame thrust ratio in their...1983) 21. Boris, J.P. and Book, D.L., (1973) "Flux-corrected Transport I. SHASTA A Fluid Transport Algorithm That Works," Journal of Computational

  19. Snapshots from the 1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2013-06-01

    It happened that our careers in physics - that of Boris Lazarevich Ioffe and mine - started almost simultaneously at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow. Half a century later, my memories of this time are still vivid...

  20. A Probabilistic Model for Diagnosing Misconceptions by a Pattern Classification Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Federico Box 39 Navy Personnel R&D Center FPO New York, NY 09510 Code P13 San Diego, CA 92152 Lt. Alexander Bory Applied Psychology 1 Dr. Cathy...Foundation 1 Dr. Seymour A. Papert Washington, DC 20550 MIT Artific. Intelli. Lab. Dr. Peter Mich 545 Technology Square Ed Psych Cambridge, MA 02139 Enderis

  1. Fractal Singularities in a Measure and How to Measure Singularities on a Fractal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, L. P.

    This is a report upon a piece of research being carried out by David Bensimon, Mogens Jensen, Leo Kadanoff, A. Libchaber, Itamar Procaccia, Boris Shraiman and Joel Stavans. It is an outgrowth of the thinking reflected in the work of Hentschel and Procaccia and of Halsey, Meakin and Procaccia.

  2. Arctic Haze: Natural or Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    multiwavelength atmospheric optical depths and sky radiance", Proceedings of the International Tropical Meteorological Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya , 1974. Russell...eruption: observation during the intial explosive phase", J. Volcanology and Geothermal Res.(Submitted May 1977). Rahn, K.A., R.D. Borys, and G.E. Shaw

  3. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities:…

  4. Advanced Research Workshop on Fundamentals of Electronic Nanosystems Held in St. Petersburg, Russia on 25 June-1 July 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    National Laboratory, USA Igor Lerner, University of Birmingham, UK ADVISORY COMMITTEE Boris Altshuler, Princeton University, USA Yuri Galperin, University...Moscow, Russia Alexei Tsvelik, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA Andrei Varlamov, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Yuri ...Aging in Wigner glass 17.0017.30 V. Gurevich , Instability of quasilocal oscillations in glasses and general features of their densities of states

  5. The Charge Designer’s Workbench: A Range of Interior Ballistic Modeling Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, June 2004. 9. Boris, J. P.; Landsburg, A. M.; Oran , E. S.; Gardner, J. H. LCPFCT–A Flux-Corrected...RESEARCH LAB AMSRD ARL CI OK TL 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND 1 DIR USARL AMSRD ARL CI OK TP (BLDG

  6. ARC-2010-ACD10-0110-076

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-09

    2010 NASA Honor Awards Awards Group Achievement Award to VMS Space Shuttle Visual Database Development Team. Boris M. Rabin accepting. Presenters are on left Mr. Charles H. Scales, NASA Associate Deputy Administrator, on right Dr. S. Pete Worden, Director, NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. Inhibition of Ras Signaling in Neurofibromitosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    regulates the level of tyrosine phosphorylation on targets within T cells, among them the critical T cell tyrosine kinase Zap -70 (Boris et al., 2011). In...ASSOCIATED PROTEIN ( ZAP )-70 AND T CELL RECEPTOR (TCR) SIGNALING PATHWAYS” in revision J. Biol. Chem. 4. Qiang Lu, Nicolas Nassar and Jin Wang “An

  8. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities:…

  9. Appendix C: GLEES Macroinvertebrates

    Treesearch

    B. C. Kondratieff

    1994-01-01

    This Appendix identifies macroinvertebrate species found in streams and lakes at GLEES during a preliminary qualitative survey conducted in the summer of 1988 by Dr. Boris Kondratieff. The littoral zones of each lake and each stream were sampled by hand-picking and with a triangle net. Insect voucher specimens are maintained in the Gillette Entomological Museum at...

  10. Roads, Power, and Schools: A Brighter Future for Bishkek and the Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-13

    Bretton Woods are ancient history, and given today’s economic A Brighter Future for Bishkek and the Region 387 American Foreign Policy Interests D o w n...of Global Finance: from Bretton Woods to the 1990s (Ithaca, NY, 1996). 4. Boris-Mathieu Petric, ‘‘Post-Soviet Kyr- gyz or the Birth of a Globalized

  11. Multimodal Olfactory Scence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-25

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT UNCLASSIFIED NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Alan Gelperin, Boris Shraiman, Daniel D. Lee University of Pennsylvania 3451 Walnut ...clues about optimum odor pattern recognition will be derived from a better understand- ing of how patterns of sensory neuron firing are transformed

  12. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  13. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs, Reference Aid, Directory of the USSR Ministry of Railways.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1933) (appointed deputy minister) Abdullayev, Mukhamedzhan Besedin, Ivan Sergeyevich Isayeva, Galina Anatolyevna Razuvayev, Dmitriy Ivanovich...Nikolayevich Malkhazov, Georgiy Rubenovich Mostovich, Yuriy Iosifovich Belyakov, N.A. Grigoryuk, V.F. Kozlov, Ivan Fedorovich Malakhov, Viktor...Sergeyevich Glukhov, Ivan Andreyevich Pogorelyy, Boleslav Grigoryevich (transfer to other work) Fayershteyn, Valentin Oskarovich Kucherenko

  15. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  16. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  17. Special Education Outcomes and Young Australian School Students: A Propensity Score Analysis Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Valentine, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Using a second cohort of Australian school students, this study repeated the propensity score analysis reported by Dempsey, Valentine, and Colyvas (2016) that found that 2 years after receiving special education support, a group of infant grade students performed significantly less well in academic and social skills in comparison to matched groups…

  18. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  19. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  20. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  1. “More than skin deep”: Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, L.; O’Connor, C.; Fitzpatrick, F.; O’Sullivan, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections. PMID:27252979

  2. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  3. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and influenza virus coinfections in patients with fatal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Denison, Amy M; Deleon-Carnes, Marlene; Blau, Dianna M; Shattuck, Eric C; McDougal, Linda K; Rasheed, James K; Limbago, Brandi M; Zaki, Sherif R; Paddock, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize genetic features of Staphylococcus aureus in 66 fatal cases of pneumonia caused by S. aureus and influenza A or B viruses. Nucleic acids were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The majority of cases revealed genetic markers for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, mecA, and spa type t008.

  4. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  5. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT In 2009 and 2010, three independent fertility trials were conducted on a putting green (PG) managed within the Pennsylvania State University Joseph Valentine Turfgrass Research Center (University Park, PA). The objective was to identify Penn A-1/A-4 creeping bentgrass putting green quality ...

  6. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon...

  7. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  8. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  9. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  10. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  11. "More than skin deep": Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative.

    PubMed

    Kearney, L; O'Connor, C; Fitzpatrick, F; O'Sullivan, J B

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections.

  12. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  13. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  14. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  15. From Road Map to Thought Map: Helping Students Theorise the Nature of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Warren

    2017-01-01

    Warren Valentine was dissatisfied with his Year 7 students' accounts of change across the Tudor period. Fixated with Henry VIII's wives, they failed to reflect on or analyse the bigger picture of the whole Tudor narrative. In order to overcome this problem, his department created a "thought-map" exercise in which students had to re-work…

  16. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  17. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  18. Taper models for commercial tree species in the northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    James A. Westfall; Charles T. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A new taper model was developed based on the switching taper model of Valentine and Gregoire; the most substantial changes were reformulation to incorporate estimated join points and modification of a switching function. Random-effects parameters were included that account for within-tree correlations and allow for customized calibration to each individual tree. The...

  19. Users Manual for the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) Management System (SCDBMS) Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Kirshnamagaru, Senior Software Engineer Mr. Valentine Anantharaj, Research Assistant Mr. Vishnu Mohan Das, Programmer Contributors to the SCDBMS Software...prompt. -f filename is optional; the -f flag indicates that the next parameter is the name of an initialization file (you may have as many default files

  20. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  1. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  2. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, c. 1890 Courtesy of Mrs. James A. Dunlap, Jr. FRONT (EAST) WALL, STABLE AND CARRIAGE HOUSE (HON. and MRS. ROBERT O. FULLER IN FOREGROUND) - Valentine-Fuller House & Garden, 125 Prospect Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 75 FR 63501 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    .... Specifically, exceptions were granted to the Cambridge Housing Authority for the purchase and installation of... exceptions to the Buy American requirement to the Cambridge Housing Authority: 1. Fairmont Street, Valentine Street, and Jackson Street Projects. Upon request of the Cambridge Housing Authority, HUD granted an...

  5. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  6. Celebrating Traditional Holidays in Public Schools: Books for Basic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, John F.; Moir, Hughes

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief annotated bibliography of children's books which may be used to foster greater understanding of the five most popular holidays celebrated in U. S. public schools. The holidays are Columbus Day, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and St. Valentine's Day. (JDH)

  7. Swap Shop: Original Teaching Ideas Submitted by Readers of "Learning" Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This collection of classroom ideas for the elementary school teacher contains learning activities, teaching methods, and suggestions on a wide variety of topics. The 22 teacher-submitted articles include ideas on writing, art, getting acquainted, vocabulary, self-esteem, open house, Halloween, mathematics, drama, hobbies, Valentine's Day, oral…

  8. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  9. Dynamic Stability of Maglev Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    M2, C1, and K2, appearing on the right-hand side, are thus, by definition , the nonconservative parts of the forces represented by M, C, and K. The...Contract File D. M. Rote (5) TIS Files (3) R. A. Valentin External DOE- OSTI for distribution per UC-330 (91) ANL-TIS Libraries (2) Manager, Chicago

  10. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Effective Strategy to Assess the Outcomes of Mentoring Programs for Troubled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Davies, Gethin L.; Viggers, Dave; Tranter, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring programs are increasingly popular as preventive and/or supportive interventions for youth with various needs. A meta-analysis of mentoring program effects conducted by DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, and Cooper (2002) suggests that youth from backgrounds of risk (defined broadly) have the capacity to benefit from mentoring, especially when…

  11. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  12. Thinking Outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kippie

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Amanda Valentin, a 22-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who is a quadriplegic and nonverbal, who uses assistive technology to improve her life. The author was Amanda's assistive technology specialist who trained her to utilize software and hardware efficiently. She describes the steps she took to ensure that the assistive…

  13. A Historical Vignette: Language Learning Eighteenth-Century Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalwies, Howard H.

    1977-01-01

    French became the foremost medium of communication in Europe in the 18th century. In Germany the most widely used French textbook was Johan Valentin Meidinger's "Practische Franzoesische Grammatik." This textbook was apparently a huge success from the pedagogical and the commerical points of view. With a few minor revisions, it would…

  14. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  15. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  16. Integrating Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on integrating learning and performance in human resource development (HRD). "Action Imperatives that Impact Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance in the Learning Organization: An Exploratory Model" (Gary L. Selden, Karen E. Watkins, Thomas Valentine, Victoria J. Marsick)…

  17. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  18. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  19. Using Meta-Analysis to Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results: The Role of Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Hart, Cassandra M.D.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Head Start was designed as a holistic intervention to improve economically disadvantaged, preschool-aged children's cognitive and social development by providing a comprehensive set of educational, health, nutritional, and social services, as well as opportunities for parent involvement (Zigler & Valentine, 1979). Given the current interest in ECE…

  20. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  1. Integrating Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on integrating learning and performance in human resource development (HRD). "Action Imperatives that Impact Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance in the Learning Organization: An Exploratory Model" (Gary L. Selden, Karen E. Watkins, Thomas Valentine, Victoria J. Marsick)…

  2. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  3. Comparative Growth Retarding Activity in Relation to Endogenous Tissue Concentration of Daminozide and a Pyrrolidino Analog (Uni-629) in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

    Treesearch

    R.M. Sachs; J. DeBie; J.L. Michael; J.R. Frank; R.A. Creager

    1975-01-01

    N-pyrrolidino succinamic acid (Uni-F529) was considerably superior to succinic acid 2,2 dimethyl hydrazide (daiminozide. SADH) in inhihiting stem elongation in Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine' and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, `Bright Golden Anne'. This was true in winter or summer greenhouses. Under...

  4. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  5. Holidays. Advisory List: Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of instructional materials that deal with subjects relating to holidays. Topics include Christmas, Earth Day, Easter, Halloween, Hannukah, Independence Day, Martin Luther King Day, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, and "More than One Holiday." Works cited include illustrated stories, poems,…

  6. Insecure? Keeping New England Campuses Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2009-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho traded in his title as "student" for one of "gunman." That day, Cho, a student at Virginia Tech, was responsible for the deadliest shooting spree by a single person in U.S. history, killing 33 people, including himself. Ten months later on Valentine's Day, Steven Kazmierczak joined Cho in the…

  7. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  8. Mercury concentration in lichen, moss and soil samples collected from the forest areas of Praded and Glacensis Euroregions (Poland and Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Kłos, Andrzej; Rajfur, Małgorzata; Šrámek, Ivo; Wacławek, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The concentration of mercury was determined in samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, the moss Pleurozium schreberi, and the soil humus collected in Polish and Czech Euroregions Praded and Glacensis. The sampling sites were located in Bory Stobrawskie, Bory Niemodlińskie and Kotlina Kłodzka in Poland, and in Jeseniki and Gory Orlickie in the Czech Republic. The mean concentrations of mercury accumulated in the lichen (0.129 mg g(-1)), in the moss (0.094 mg g(-1)) and in soil (0.286 mg g(-1)) were fairly close to the corresponding concentrations in other low-industrialized regions. The highest concentrations of mercury were observed in the lichen and the moss samples from Kotlina Kłodzka. The primary deposition of mercury was evaluated using the comparison factor, defined as the ratio of a difference between the concentrations of a bioavailable analyte in lichens and in mosses, to the arithmetic mean of these concentrations.

  9. BOREAS Level-4b AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Nickerson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Feng-Ting; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-11) and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4b data are gridded, 10-day composites of at-sensor radiance values produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10- day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  10. Numerical modeling of cavitational resonant oscillations of a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovtsov, A. V.

    Using the method of differential approximation, the dispersion characteristics of the Lax-Wendroff (LW) schemes and LW schemes with correction of Boris-Book flows are analyzed. It is shown that the combined Lax-Wendroff-Boris-Books scheme is capable of suppressing variance errors. Several fluid models are analyzed. Using three models of the combined scheme, the induced oscillations of a water column are calculated, and it is shown that the amplitude-frequency characteristics of oscillations calculated using a model of a liquid with bubbles are in good agreement with experimental data. Special attention is given to estimating boundary conditions and to determinations of the behavior of an oscillation process with increasing excitation frequencies.

  11. BOREAS Level-4c AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: Surface Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Huang, Fengting; Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the NOAA-11 and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4c data are gridded, 10-day composites of surface parameters produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10-day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files. Note: Some of the data files on the BOREAS CD-ROMs have been compressed using the Gzip program.

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 Sep 85) 3 Soviet Paper Views Canadian Public Opinion on SDI (Yuriy Lobov, Nikolay Pastukhov; Moscow SELSKAYA ZHIZN, 7 Jul 85) 4 Italian...Army Paper Rebuts Reagan Statements on Talks (Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 26 Sep 85) 12 Moscow TV: ’Still Opportunities’ Despite U.S. Actions (Boris... PAPER VIEWS CANADIAN PUBLIC OPINION ON SDI Moscow SELSKAYA ZHIZN in Russian 7 Jul 85 p 3 [Article by Yuriy Lobov and Nikolay Pastukhov, special

  13. Morukov and Altman among stowage bags in Zarya taken during STS-106

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-17

    STS106-322-017 (8-20 September 2000) --- Cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, mission specialist representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, works onboard the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) as the seven-man STS-106 crew carried out its busy move- and install-effort on the International Space Station. The astronauts and cosmonauts were able to accomplish the movement of several tons of hardware and supplies during the period the station was docked with the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    remain just that. Any attempt to change things in that Georgian people in all their inexorability, problems regard is doomed to failure. which must be...Integrated Study of the Prob- people are ever more convinced that the distance lems of Man, Boris Fedorovich LOMOV, to tell about between word and deed...months which have passed since the lying? moment of our first interview the psychology of our reader has changed drastically. People have stopped [Kallas

  15. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. III. Chlorophyta,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    1984:82 (Capricornia). Family Chaetosiphonaceae Blastophysa rhizopus Reinke 1888:241. Cribb 1984:82 (Capricornia). Family Cladophoraceae Chaetomorpha ...Arnhem Land). Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory) Kuetzing 1849:397. Dawson 1954a:386, fig.61. Cribb 1954:17, pl.1 fig.6 (Coolangatta, Stradbroke I...146 (Arnhem Land). Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey 1858:87, pl. 46a. Taylor 1960:70, pl.2 fig.9. Cribb 1978:67 (Hinchinbrook I.). * Chaetomorpha

  16. Recent Advances in Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Author( s ) Achi Brandt,Boris Diskin,James L. Thomas Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name( s ) and Address(es...ICASE Mail Stop 132C NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681-2199 Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name( s ...and Address(es) Sponsor/Monitor’s Acronym( s ) Sponsor/Monitor’s Report Number( s ) Distribution/Availability Statement Approved for public release

  17. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 2. Task Inventory Booklet (Form N21-Physicians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    PATIENT COMPLAINING OF EAR TROUBLE 34 IASSESS CHARACTERISTICS CF SPUTUM/MUCUS 35 IEXAHINE NOSEP THROAT , MOUTH, AND PHARYNX 36 IEXAMINE EARS WITH OTOSCLPE...37 ITEST HEARING WITH A TUNING FORK 38 ITAKE AIR CONDUCTION AUDIOGRAM 39 TAKE NASAL/ EAR / THROAT SPECIMEN BY STERILE SWAB 40 IPRESCRIBE SYMPTOMATIC...SUPERFICIAL FOREIGN BOrY FRCM THROAT 45 IREMOVE SUPERFICIAL FORE IGN BODY FROM NOSE 46 ICONTROL SIMPLE ANTERIOR NASAL RIFEDING 41 IINSERT POSTERIOR NASAL

  18. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric imagery in SF, Part II - H. P. Lovecraft's The Colour Out Of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2005-12-01

    A brief biography of American horror-fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft (1890-1937) precedes details from his story `The Colour Out Of Space', concerning a deadly life-form brought to Earth in a meteorite. This allows a comparison with details from the 1965 film derived from this tale, `Die, Monster, Die!', featuring the great horror actor Boris Karloff in one of his last, best roles.

  19. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting (12th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on June 10-14, 1990. Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    NIGMS) SH-1-5 ]SLEEP INDUCING EFFECTS OF LOW ENERGY EMISSION THERAPY . Martin Reite, Lisa Higgs, Niels Kuster, Jean-Pierre Lebet", and Boris Pasche...Group, CH-8092-Zurich, Switzerland’. Symtonic SA, Av. des Baumettes 9, CH-1020-Renens, Switzerland". Low energy emission therapy (LEET) consists of the...suggest that LEET may act as a sleep inducer. SH-l-6 LOW ENERGY EMISSION THERAPY DECREASES THE AMPLITUDE OF ALPHA ACTIVITY. Lisa Higgs, Martin Reite

  20. A Development Testbed for ALPS-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Balancing for a Multicomputer," Software Practice and Experience 15, 9 (Sept 1985), 901-913. [Beiz781 BORIS BEIZER, Microanalysis of Computer System...Systems, Brown University, June 1986. [Chou82] TIMOTHY CHOU AND JACOB ABRAHAM , "Load Balancing in Distributed Systems," Transactions on Software...Tekhnika 18, 3 (1984), 9-17. [Mott83] JOE L. MoTT, ABRAHAM KANDEL, AND THEODORE P. BAKER, Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists, Prentice-Hall

  1. Physics and cartoons collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-12-01

    How many different ways are there to explain cutting-edge physics to readers who want to get to grips with the subject? Benjamin Bahr, a quantum-gravity theorist at the University of Hamburg, and experimental particle-physicist Boris Lemmer from the University of Göttingen have hit upon the idea of using cartoons in Quirky Quarks: a Cartoon Guide to the Fascinating Realm of Physics.

  2. Why the United States Must Deploy a National Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    intensity it IS drvlded mto regrons where long-standing ammosntes, stmmermg resentment toward wealthter parts of the global community, personal...President Boris Yeitsm proposed that the Umted States and Russia cooperate on building a global protectlon system for the world communq--while further...111 rely on Improved space-based sensors for detectton and warmng of mlsale launches and cuemg for ground- based interceptors at one or more sites

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AIDC Chin -Kuo aircraft and Israel’s Lavi fighter, aban- doned two years ago because of soaring costs, flew again for the first time in September this...cordial meeting was Colonel-General Karpati, and Boris Stukalin, ambassador of the Soviet Union to Hun - gary. Pact Generals Depart LD1411212589...will be decreased. This includes artillery guns , howitzers, mortars, and salvo-firing rocket systems. There were real possibilities of agreeing on

  4. Ukraine’s Relations with Russia: Competition or Cooperation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    Because the Druzhba pipeline traverses Ukraine from Russia westward to Slovakia and Hungary, more Russian oil flows through Ukraine to Europe and...possible extensions into Poland while feeding off the Druzhba line. With the pipeline , Ukraine seeks to entice Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan oil exporters to...abroad.”3 In the fall of 2000, after receiving pressure from Russia, Ukrainian President Kuchma dismissed the “Western-oriented” Borys Tarasiuk as

  5. MOVEMENT IN THE CYANOPHYCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Paul R.

    1933-01-01

    The effect of pH upon the velocity of translatory movement of Oscillatoria formosa Bory in inorganic culture solutions was determined. Unhindered movement occurred in the range of about pH 6.4 to 9.5. Above and below these limits inhibition was marked. In the unfavorable acid and alkaline ranges inhibition was progressive with exposure time; in the favorable range continuous movement was maintained for 24 hours. PMID:19872745

  6. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  7. Bell's theorem and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Nathan

    1994-02-01

    Bell showed that assuming locality leads to a disagreement with quantum mechanics. Here the nature of the nonlocality that follows from quantum mechanics is investigated. Note by the Editor—Readers will recognize Professor Rosen, author of this paper, as one of the co-authors of the famous EPR paper, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, ``Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be considered Complete?'', Phys. Rev. 47, 770-780 (1935). Robert H. Romer, Editor

  8. Signal Processing and Communication with Solitons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    approach is taken in the framework of inverse scattering and is based on some results from random matrix theory. Although the analysis techniques developed...Benjamin. The stability of solitary waves. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A(328):1553-183, 1972. [6] Rajendra Bhatia . Perturbation bounds for...mathematics, pages 253-295, Berlin, 1976. Springer -Verlag. [17] Nikos Flytzanis, Boris Malomed, and Jonathan A.D. Wattis. Analysis of stability of

  9. Unlocking Russian Interests on the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and chemical contract, an arrangement that would significantly re- duce South Korean dependence upon natural gas from the Middle East. To minimize...years, the United States has invested vast resources to help keep the North Korean military machine at bay. If American policy is firmly committed to...TransportReview, December 1997, http:// www.jrtr.net/jrtr14/pdf/f30_xu.pdf. 23. Boris Dynkin, “Comments on the Regional Railroad Network and Electric Grid

  10. Yogyakarta Principles: applying existing human rights norms to sexual orientation and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Boris O

    2008-12-01

    International human rights apply to all people, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. But up until recently, there was no document that explained these rights specifically as they relate to sexual orientation and gender identity. In this article, based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Boris Dittrich describes the development of the Yogyakarta Principles, which not only list the rights involved, but also provide recommendations to states (and others) concerning how the rights should implemented.

  11. NATO Enlargement--Round Two; Prudence or Folly?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    be nearly endless. Benjamin Schwarz, “NATO Enlargement and the Inevitable Costs of the American Empire,” in NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality...Barbara Conry (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1998), 197. 8 For a full discussion of the these mechanisms, see Jack Mendelsohn , “The NATO Russian...Primakov, see Mendelsohn , n.p. For Igor Sergeyev’s viewpoint, see Boris Vinogradov, “Russia Still Feels Uncomfortable In NATO,” Izvestia, 4 December

  12. Understanding and Predicting Shockwave and Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    8. Boris, J., Grinstein, F., Oran , E., and Kolbe, R. (1992) "New insights into large-eddy simulations," Fluid Dynamics Research 10. 9. Delery, J...upstream i x<’&=7 1 (separation pant) <W5 (separated region) x/S=17 3 IrJownstreami ^WJ^W _i_ -I- Q. 10 10" 10’ 10’ 10 10’ - tl ^/U. K

  13. Regime Change and the Role of Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    failed to live up to the liberal ideals expected of a democratic nation. During Russia’s war against Chechen independence, Pres. Boris Yeltsin and the...war became deeply unpopular among Russian politicians, citizens, and the inter- national community. “At the strategic psychological level, the Chechens ...criminal mob syndicate that controlled the police forces in the city and had instigated uprisings against the government. Thus, Diem gained tenuous

  14. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Volume 2. Protected Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    Nostocal es £ ~Homeothrix juliana (Menegh.) Kirchner * * * Raohidioosis curvata Fritsch & Rich Osc i 11atori ales * gnoba sp. Agardh Oscillatoria sp... Nostocal es ’ na~aena sp. Bory** Oscil latoriales vroova so. gardh ** -aestuarii_ (Mert.) Liebmann (probably) -. imnetica Lemmermann (Dossbly) L...470 * ~0~ Table 10. (continued) Species Jun 15 Jul 15 Aug 12 Sep 9 C YANO PHYTA Nostocal es Anabaena sp. Bo ry Calothrix sp. Agardh Raohidioosis sp

  15. Russia’s Air Power at the Crossroads,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    pilots Roman Taskayev, Boris Orlov, and Marat Alykov for helping me to gain a more than bookish feel for the human side of military aviation in Russia...portion of Soviet airspace along - side the civilian ATC system. VPVO also maintained its own radar surveillance, controlling up to 12,000 flights a day... along with the geostrategic setting of Soviet force planning, underwent a fundamental change as a result of then-President Mikhail Gorbachev’s

  16. Time Dependent Studies of Reactive Shocks in the Gas Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-16

    1 LEVEL NRL Memorandum Report 3W tO Time Dependent Studies of Reactive Shocks in the Gas Phase E.S. ORAN, ’T.R. YOUNG and J.P. BORIS Laboratory for...34-• TIME DEPENDENT STUDIES OF REACTIVE SHOCKS IN THE GAS PHASE I. Introduction This paper presents results obtained from a detailed numerical...chemical kinetics, reaction products, and intermediates produced in reactive gas mixtures ignited by the propagation of a shock front. The model is based

  17. A fast numerical integrator for relativistic charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a fast second-order numerical integrator to solve the Lorentz force equations of a relativistic charged particle in electromagnetic fields. This numerical integrator shows less numerical error than the popular Boris algorithm in tracking the relativistic particle subject to electric and magnetic space-charge fields and requires less number of operations than another recently proposed relativistic integrator.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Airblast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    REPORT SAIC 87/1701 June 1987 Dr.. Submitted to: cp Dr. Jay Boris Laboratory for Computational Physics Accet F4,r Naval Research Laboratory I...boundary layer physical assumptions provides an unsteady prediction of the mass flux emerging from the ground. This model was first proposed by Mirels...the physics modeled will be explained. High explosive dust cloud simulation provides a research path when combined with numerical calculations can lead

  19. The Trust: The Classic Example of Soviet Manipulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    impression: According to all available evidence, Yakushev produced an impression of great daring, energy and intelligence. Moreover he had considerable...than waste their energies in senseless acts of terror. Above all, they should wait until the Soviet regime was ready to collapse from within, avoiding...could sit up all night drinking brandy and discussing what he would do the next day. 3 And when the morrow came, he left the action to others. řBoris

  20. On particle movers in cylindrical geometry for Particle-In-Cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Camporeale, E.

    2013-11-01

    Three movers for the orbit integration of charged particles in a given electromagnetic field are analyzed and compared in cylindrical geometry. The classic Boris mover, which is of leap-frog type with position and velocities staggered by half time step, is connected to a second order Strang operator splitting integrator. In general the Boris mover is about 20% faster than the Strang splitting mover without sacrificing much in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the Boris mover is second order accurate only for a very specific choice of the initial half step needed by the algorithm to get started. Unlike the case in Cartesian geometry, where any initial half step which is at least first order accurate does not compromise the second order accuracy of the method, in cylindrical geometry any attempt to use a more accurate initial half step does in fact decrease the accuracy of the scheme to first order. Through the connection with the Strang operator splitting integrator, this counter-intuitive behavior is explained by the fact that the error in the half step velocities of the Boris mover is proportional to the time step of the simulation. For the case of a uniform and static magnetic field, we discuss the leap-frog cyclotronic mover, cylindrical analogue of the cyclotronic mover of Ref. [L. Patacchini and I. Hutchinson, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (7), 2009], where the step involving acceleration due to inertial forces is combined with the acceleration due to the magnetic part of the Lorentz force. The advantage of a cyclotronic mover is that the gyration of a charged particle in a magnetic field is treated analytically and therefore only the dynamics associated with the electric field needs to be resolved.

  1. Beyond Nunn-Lugar: Curbing the Next Wave of Weapons Proliferation Threat from Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    given by a former Russian Minister of Science, Boris Saltykov , at Georgetown University in 1997—well before much had changed in population numbers...European Studies at Georgetown University, Saltykov stated that roughly half of the scientists were employed in civilian research and half in military...part addresses a new method of funding a portion of the denuclearization effort. The Denuclearization Metric. “Denuclearize” can be defined as either

  2. Prospects for Russian Military R&D.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    methods of peer review that have demonstrated to a skeptical Rus- sian scientific community how grants may be awarded meritoriously. As part of its...will increase substantially any time soon. New competitive funding methods may gradually improve the way that grants are distributed and thereby...1995, as reported in FBIS-SOV-95-019, January 30,1995, p. 21) said there were "more than 500 such institutions." 3Boris Saltykov , Russia’s Minister of

  3. Nonperturbative relativistic calculation of the muonic hydrogen spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. D.; Thomas, A. W.; Rafelski, J.; Miller, G. A.

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the muonic hydrogen 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} to 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} transition through a precise, nonperturbative numerical solution of the Dirac equation including the finite-size Coulomb force and finite-size vacuum polarization. The results are compared with earlier perturbative calculations of (primarily) [E. Borie, Phys. Rev. A 71, 032508 (2005); E. Borie and G. A. Rinker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 54, 67 (1982); E. Borie, Z. Phys. A 275, 347 (1975) and A. P. Martynenko, Phys. Rev. A 71, 022506 (2005); A. Martynenko, Phys. At. Nucl. 71, 125 (2008), and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2092 (1996)] and experimental results recently presented by Pohl et al.[Nature (London) 466, 213 (2010)], in which this very comparison is interpreted as requiring a modification of the proton charge radius from that obtained in electron scattering and electronic hydrogen analyses. We find no significant discrepancy between the perturbative and nonperturbative calculations, and we present our results as confirmation of the perturbative methods.

  4. Structure-preserving second-order integration of relativistic charged particle trajectories in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera, A. V.; Cary, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Time-centered, hence second-order, methods for integrating the relativistic momentum of charged particles in an electromagnetic field are derived. A new method is found by averaging the momentum before use in the magnetic rotation term, and an implementation is presented that differs from the relativistic Boris Push only in the method for calculating the Lorentz factor. This is shown to have the same second-order accuracy in time as that found by splitting the electric acceleration and magnetic rotation (Boris Push) and that found by averaging the velocity in the magnetic rotation term (Vay's method) [J.-L. Vay, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056701 (2008)]. All three methods are shown to conserve energy when there is no electric field. The Boris Push and the current method are shown to be volume-preserving, while Vay's method and the current method preserve the E →×B → velocity. Thus, of these second-order relativistic momentum integrations, only the integrator introduced here both preserves volume and gives the correct E →×B → velocity. While all methods have error that is second-order in time, they deviate from each other by terms that increase as the motion becomes relativistic. Numerical results show that Vay's method develops energy errors near resonant orbits of a test problem that neither volume-preserving integrator does.

  5. A multidimensional scaling analysis of own- and cross-race face spaces.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-08-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race categories. Participants made speeded "same-different" judgments to all possible combinations of faces, from which we generated psychological spaces, with "different" RTs as the measure of similarity. Consistent with the MDS framework, all faces were pseudo-normally distributed around the (unseen) prototype. The distribution of faces was consistent with Valentine's (1991) predictions: despite their physical identity to the White faces, Black faces had lower mean inter-object distances in psychological space. Other-race faces are more densely clustered in psychological space, which could underlie well-known recognition deficits. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Necrotizing pneumonia in children: report of 41 cases between 2006 and 2011 in a French tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Chloé; Angoulvant, François; Gabor, Flaviu; Makhoul, Juliette; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Naudin, Jérôme; Alison, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Bingen, Edouard; Lorrot, Mathie

    2013-10-01

    Forty-one children hospitalized for necrotizing pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Necrotizing pneumonia represented 0.8% of community-acquired pneumonia and 6% of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia. The chest radiograph revealed necrosis on admission in onethird of cases. Twenty-one cases (51%) were documented, including 13 Staphylococcus aureus, all Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  7. JPRS Report: East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    entire Alternative Socialist Party and a large proportion of the members of the Nikola Petkov Bulgarian National Agrarian Union. Ivan Rostov was...Minister Val- entin Pavlov , who has joined Prime Minister Ante Markovic in trying to find a solution for the collapse of trade between the two countries...amounted to $439 million, and exports under the liquidation account have not even begun yet. Soviet prime minister Valentin Pavlov listened to all

  8. Meta-Analysis of Armed service Vocational Aptitude Battery Subtest Validity Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 591-599. 51 Hawk, J. (1986). Real world implications of g. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 411...New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Jensen, A. R. (1983). Effects of inbreeding on mental ability factors. Personality and Individual Differences , 4... and Individual Differences , 7, 201-207. Palmer, P., Hartke, D. D., Ree, M. J., Welsh, J. R. & Valentine, L. D. Jr. (1988). Armed Services

  9. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Opportunity, Threat ( SWOT ) analysis is an example of an assessment that does just that. Regardless of which type of organizational assessment is used, the...Monterey, CA 93943. Analysis of the 918th Contracting Battalion and 410th Contracting Support Brigade Utilizing the Contract Management Maturity...Freedom for a total of 24 months. Upon redeployment, Captain Valentine attended the Aviation Captain’s Career Course at Fort Rucker, Alabama. In

  10. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Valentine Bay (105 miles to the east of Vladivostok). 2 0The crew members lost in the B-29 incident of June 13, 1952, were: Major Samuel N. Busch A0733811...Heydekrug, POW Camp No. 6, Grave 3, East Prussia 17. Robinson, Roy A. SIc 611 0637 City Cemetery, Murmansk, in lots for foreigners, USSR 18. Roland ...Nathan Ernser, Roland R. Irving, Edward J. Lang, Frederick A. Lord, Orvil H. Each set of remains was recovered from the far eastern area of the

  11. The Role of United States Army Special Forces in Operation NOBEL OBELISK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    effective use of special operations forces (SOF) in NEOs. SOF have contributed in some manner to almost every U.S. NEO conducted in the past thirty years...their primary operational methods. This RUF insurgency had such a destabilizing effect on Sierra Leone that Valentine Strasser led a military coup...conduct effective battalion-sized operations in the interior, without looting, raping, or terrorizing local citizens, immediate gains would be made

  12. Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-02

    793–810. 39. Wagatsuma H, Yamaguchi Y (2007) Neural dynamics of the cognitive map in the hippocampus. Cognitive Neurodynamics 1: 119–141. 40. Kifer Y...Transient Cognitive Dynamics, Metastability, and Decision Making Mikhail I. Rabinovich1*, Ramón Huerta1,2, Pablo Varona2, Valentin S. Afraimovich3 1...Óptica, UASLP, San Luis de Potosı́, Mexico Abstract The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively

  13. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  14. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale…

  15. Gorbachev’s Presidential Council

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    writer Valentin Rasputin told a Literaturnaya gazeta editor that his presence, and that of Chingis Aitmatov, on the Council was to ensure that the...president hear "another language a writer’s language." Also. Rasputin said, he would be able to convey to the president "specific Russian interests...and abroad. "It is very important." Council member Rasputin explains, "that the Presidential Council anticipates the probability of a critical

  16. Air Vehicle Path Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-13

    method of finite differences. Here an approximation to the cost funcional J = ∫ F (x, y, ẏ) dx is performed by using numerical methods of integration...edited by William H. Beyer, Boca Raton Florida: CRC Press, 1991. 15. Freund, E. and H. Hoyer. “Pathfinding in Multi-Robot Systems: Solution and Ap...March 2000. 35. Polyanin, Andrei D. and Valentin F. Zaitsev. Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations. Boca Raton Florida: CRC

  17. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  18. Simulating the 'other-race' effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Roberto; Hervé, Abdi

    2006-01-01

    Other-race (OR) faces are less accurately recognized than same-race (SR) faces, but faster classified by race. This phenomenon has often been reported as the 'other-race' effect (ORE). Valentine (1991 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology 43 161-204) proposed a theoretical multidimensional face-space model that explained both of these results, in terms of variations in exemplar density between races. According to this model, SR faces are more widely distributed across the dimensions of the space than OR faces. However, this model does not quantify nor state the dimensions coded within this face space. The aim of the present study was to test the face-space explanation of the ORE with neural network simulations by quantifying its dimensions. We found the predicted density properties of Valentine's framework in the face-projection spaces of the autoassociative memories. This was supported by an interaction for exemplar density between the race of the learned face set and the race of the faces. In addition, the elaborated face representations showed optimal responses for SR but not for OR faces within SR face spaces when explored at the individual level, as gender errors occurred significantly more often in OR than in SR face-space representations. Altogether, our results add further evidence in favor of a statistical exemplar density explanation of the ORE as suggested by Valentine, and question the plausibility of such coding for faces in the framework of recent neuroimaging studies.

  19. Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Larry J.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Butman, Bradford; Ackerman, Seth D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, Dave S.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2006-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder data collected off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data. The basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment and sedimentary environments. Presented verification data include new and historical sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam data, which cover a narrow band of the sea floor extending from Provincetown around the northern tip of Cape Cod and south southeastward to off Monomoy Island, were collected during transits between concurrent mapping projects in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (Valentine and others, 2001; Butman and others, 2004; and Valentine, 2005) and Great South Channel (Valentine and others, 2003a, b, c, d). Although originally collected to maximize the use of time aboard ship, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities in this part of the Gulf of Maine (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. These data and interpretations also support ongoing modeling studies of the lower Cape's aquifer system (Masterson, 2004) and of erosional hotspots along the Cape Cod National Seashore (List and others, 2006).

  20. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1a GOES-8 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. The level-1a GOES-8 images were created by BORIS personnel from the level-1 images delivered by FSU personnel. The data cover 14-Jul-1995 to 21-Sep-1995 and 12-Feb-1996 to 03-Oct-1996. The data start out as three bands with 8-bit pixel values and end up as five bands with 10-bit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. The differences between the level-1 and level-1a GOES-8 data are the formatting and packaging of the data. The images missing from the temporal series of level-1 GOES-8 images were zero-filled by BORIS staff to create files consistent in size and format. In addition, BORIS staff packaged all the images of a given type from a given day into a single file, removed the header information from the individual level-1 files, and placed it into a single descriptive ASCII header file. The data are contained in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-8 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-8 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  1. Desert Research Institute cloud droplet videometer measurements in support of MASTEX

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-13

    In support of the Monterey Area Ship-Track Experiment (MASTEX) the Desert Research Institute completed modifications to an existing cloud droplet videometer and construction of a second unit for deployment on board the RV Glorita during the month of June 1994. Dr. Randolph Borys accompanied the instrumentation during the period the ship was at sea and assisted in the day-to-day experiments which were conducted on board. Unusually clear conditions and high winds contributed to the lack of opportunities to deploy the new instrument from the ship.

  2. BOREAS Regional Soils Data in Raster Format and AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monette, Bryan; Knapp, David; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was gridded by BOREAS Information System (BORIS) Staff from a vector data set received from the Canadian Soil Information System (CanSIS). The original data came in two parts that covered Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data were gridded and merged into one data set of 84 files covering the BOREAS region. The data were gridded into the AEAC projection. Because the mapping of the two provinces was done separately in the original vector data, there may be discontinuities in some of the soil layers because of different interpretations of certain soil properties. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  3. The Role of BRCA1 in Suppressing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Mammary Gland and Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Radice P, Scherneck S, Sobol H, Jacquemier J, Wagner T, Peto J, Stratton MR, McGuffog L, Easton DF. Prediction of BRCA1 status in patients with breast...S0012-1606(06)00128-X [pii] 10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.02.043. PubMed PMID: 16581056. 24. Wagner KU, Wall RJ, St-Onge L, Gruss P, Wynshaw-Boris A... Wagner KU, McAllister K, Ward T, Davis B, Wiseman R, Hennighausen L. Spatial and temporal expression of the Cre gene under the control of the MMTV-LTR

  4. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 4. Rome Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    2n or in decibels as P, = G, + PD + 20logX - 7 .9 8 where, Pr = recieved power in dBm G, = receive antenna gain, which for a tuned dipole is 2.14...Information. There is also evidence that the glottal waveform changes with the vowel being vocalized (Cranen and Boris, 1985; Ananthapadmanabha and Fant...there Is a large potential for confusion of glottal wave and formant oscillations for vowels with low F 1,1 and nasalized uowels are not amenable to

  5. Recent developments in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, G. T.

    I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of bar-nu(sub e) mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of '17 keV neutrino' reports; and the use of (nu)p elastic scattering to determine the 'strange quark' content of the proton.

  6. FEM-FCT - Combining unstructured grids with high resolution. [Flux Corrected Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohner, R.; Morgan, K.; Vahdati, M.; Boris, J. P.; Book, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The extension of flux-corrected transport (FCT) schemes to unstructured grids is presented. The spatial discretization is performed via finite elements. In particular, triangular elements in two dimensions have been chosen. The limiting procedure is based on Zalesak's (1979) extension to more than one dimension of the FCT schemes developed by Boris and Book (1973). The resulting scheme, FEM-FCT, is capable of resolving moving and stationary shocks within two elements, and several examples are given that demonstrate the accuracy attainable, even for complicated geometries.

  7. Electronic Structure at Oxide Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    800 1000 1200 1400 T [ K ] 0 5 10 15 20 25 ( = 0 ) [ eV 1 ] DMFT PM a 0 500 1000 1500 T [ K ] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 n n [ B ] DMFT FM b Ni1 Ni2...superconductivity in lanio3/lamo3 superlattices. Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:016404, 2008. [6] P. Hansmann, X. P. Yang, A. Toschi, G. Khaliullin, O. K . Andersen, and K ...Haverkort, S. Bruck, E. Goering, S. Macke, A. Frano, X. P. Yang, O. K . Andersen, G. Cristiani, H. U. Habermeier, A. V. Boris, I. Zegkinoglou, P

  8. sts106-s-005

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    STS106-S-005 (8 September 2000) --- This distant view of the STS-106 liftoff was photographed across marsh waters around Mosquito Lagoon and Banana Creek, looking toward the Atlantic Ocean. The perfect on-time liftoff of the Space Shuttle Atlantis occurred at 8:45:47 a.m. (EDT), September 8, 2000. Onboard the shuttle were astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, Scott D. Altman, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank, along with cosmonauts Yuri I. Malenchenko and Boris V. Morukov who represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency.

  9. Prospects for Ukrainian denuclearization after the Moscow trilateral statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    On January 14, at the Moscow summit, Presidents Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin of Russia and Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine issued a trilateral statement that again commits Ukraine to denuclearize in compliance with START I and the Lisbon Protocol and to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear-weapon state. Recognizing that scant media attention had been paid to the importance of the trilateral statement, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference on January 28 to provide background and context on the many issues that affect prospects for Ukrainian denuclearization.

  10. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Science spreadsheets Richard Beare Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Calculating the `lost energy' Zhang Yongzhao and Zhang Shuyan Police Frontier Guard Patrol Boat Institute, Zhejiang, Ningbo 315801, People's Republic of China Cartesian diver solves the inverse sprinkler problem Boris M Valiyov and Vladimir D Yegorenkov Department of Physics, Kharkov State University, 4 Svobody sq., 310077, Kharkov, Ukraine Update excellence Karen Barker Lytham St Annes, Lancs, UK

  11. STS-106 M.S. Morukov arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Mission Specialist Boris V. Morukov smiles upon his arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. He and the rest of the crew will be making pre-launch preparations for the fourth flight to the International Space Station. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long- duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  12. Rubidium Recycling in a High Intensity Short Duration Pulsed Alkali Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    rubidium laser27 and a 48 W CW cesium laser .28 As time goes on the maximum output power of DPAL devices is 16 expected to rise with this research...greatly over the next couple of years. In 2007 Zhdanov and Knize demonstrated a 10 W CW cesium DPAL.11 This was followed in 2008 by a 17 W CW ...Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, 901, 2003. 11. Boris Zhadanov and R. J. Knize. Diode-pumped 10 W continuous wave cesium laser . Optics Letters, 32:2167

  13. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 13 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-09

    ISS013-E-79496 (9 Sept. 2006) --- This picture, photographed from the International Space Station by an Expedition 13 crewmember, includes the Baikonur launch complex and thus has special significance for the Expedition 13 crew and all crews who have launched aboard Soyuz craft to join the orbital outpost. Baikonur, formerly known as Leninsk, is a city within Kazakhstan, but it is rented and administered by Russia. It was constructed to service the Baikonur Cosmodrome and was officially renamed Baikonur by Boris Yeltsin on December 20, 1995. The name Baikonur is Kazakh for "wealthy brown," i.e. "fertile land with many herbs."

  14. High Order ZIP’ Differencing of Convective Terms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-08

    Yanenko and Shokin [17], and by Cheng [18]. 13 ACKN(NJLEDGENM The author would like to thank Drs. D . L. Book and C. W. Hirt for their comnents and...Physics, Vol. 8, Springer Verlag, New York, 1971. 5. S. 1. Cheng and G. Shubin, J. Comput. Phys, 28 (1978), 315. 6. J. P. Boris and D . L. Book, "Solution...V. Rusanov, J. Comp. Math. Math. Phys. USSR, No. 2 (1962). 8. D . Gottlieb and S. A. Orszag, Numerical Analysis of Spectral Methods: Theory and

  15. Verification of nonlinear particle simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, G. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear simulation model for radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas has been developed and verified using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron. Ion cyclotron motion in the toroidal geometry is implemented using Boris push in the Boozer coordinates. Linear dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping are verified for the lower hybrid wave and ion Bernstein wave (IBW). Parametric decay instability is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasimode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity.

  16. Simulation of beams or plasmas crossing at relativistic velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.

    2008-05-15

    This paper addresses the numerical issues related to the modeling of beams or plasmas crossing at relativistic velocity using the particle-in-cell method. Issues related to the use of the standard Boris particle pusher are identified and a novel pusher which circumvents them is proposed, whose effectiveness is demonstrated on single particle tests. A procedure for solving the fields is proposed, which retains electrostatic, magnetostatic, and inductive field effects in the direction of the mean velocity of the species, is fully explicit and simpler than the full Darwin approximation. Finally, results are given, from a calculation using the novel features, of an ultrarelativistic beam interacting with a background of electrons.

  17. Note on online books and articles about the history of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2008-01-01

    Students of the history of dissociation will be interested in the materials on the subject available in the digital document database Google Book Search. This includes a variety of books and journals covering automatic writing, hypnosis, mediumship, multiple personality, trance, somnambulism, and other topics. Among the authors represented in the database are: Eugène Azam, Alfred Binet, James Braid, Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Janet, Frederic W.H. Myers, Morton Prince, and Boris Sidis, among others. The database includes examples of case reports, conceptual discussions, and psychiatric and psychological textbook literature.

  18. STS-106 crewmembers in Superman pose for a group photograph on Zvezda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-16

    STS106-373-034 (8-20 September 2000) --- The seven crew members for the STS-106 mission pose in a flying position for the traditional in-flight crew portrait in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). In the foreground are astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt (center), mission commander, flanked by cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko (left), mission specialist, and Scott D. Altman, pilot. On the back row are astronauts Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, and Richard A. Mastracchio, along with cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, all mission specialists. Malenchenko and Morukov represent Rosaviakosmos.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Irreversibility in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomtsev, Boris B.

    2003-11-01

    From the Editorial Board. November 9, 2003 would have marked the seventy-fifth birthday of Boris Borisovich Kadomtsev, were he alive. An outstanding theoretical physicist, teacher, and enlightener, a prominent scientist in plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, Kadomtsev was also actively involved in science organization activities. In particular, from 1976 until his untimely death on August 19, 1998, Kadomtsev was the Editor-in-Chief of Physics-Uspekhi, and it is owing to his efforts that the journal improved notably during his tenure. Now, the Editorial Board, with gratitude and sorrow, would like to celebrate his birthday and to honor his blessed memory in these pages. There is, however, a rule — indeed an immutable tradition — in the journal that, except for the Personalia section, no anniversary can be marked in any way other than in a scientific publication. This rule was strictly observed under Kadomtsev, and certainly should not be violated now, even when honoring his memory. Fortunately, there is a video which remained of a lecture on modern problems of quantum physics that Kadomtsev delivered on May 12, 1997. Prepared for publication by M B Kadomtsev, the lecture allows the reader to revisit the heritage of B B Kadomtsev, to appreciate his logic in treating this very difficult area of physics, to hear his voice as it were, to recall Boris Borisovich Kadomtsev and to honor his memory.

  20. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  1. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-101 crew learn about some of the cargo that will be on their mission. At left are Mission Specialists Jeffrey N. Williams and Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.); at right are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., and Mission Specialist Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Other crew members are Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov and Yuri Malenchenko, who are with the Russian Space Agency. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  2. Pushing particles in extreme fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Daniel F.; Hafizi, Bahman; Palastro, John

    2017-03-01

    The update of the particle momentum in an electromagnetic simulation typically employs the Boris scheme, which has the advantage that the magnetic field strictly performs no work on the particle. In an extreme field, however, it is found that onerously small time steps are required to maintain accuracy. One reason for this is that the operator splitting scheme fails. In particular, even if the electric field impulse and magnetic field rotation are computed exactly, a large error remains. The problem can be analyzed for the case of constant, but arbitrarily polarized and independent electric and magnetic fields. The error can be expressed in terms of exponentials of nested commutators of the generators of boosts and rotations. To second order in the field, the Boris scheme causes the error to vanish, but to third order in the field, there is an error that has to be controlled by decreasing the time step. This paper introduces a scheme that avoids this problem entirely, while respecting the property that magnetic fields cannot change the particle energy.

  3. ["A shot at the father: a student's assault". Sigmund Freud and the case of Ernst Haberl].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.

  4. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed.

  5. Investigation of Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys under Spectrum Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK U NIT NUMBERS .’ , Northrop Corporation, Aircraft Division A WR T M One...under Naval Air Systems Command Contract N00019-81-C-0550. Mr. M . Valentine of Naval Air Systems Command (Code AIR-5304B4) was the project engineer...growth is not the same at intermediate and high growth rates ( 10_8 m /cycle (2.5xlO- 7in. /cycle)) as it is at near-threshold rates .2- (1-8lcle (

  6. Differences in habitat use by blanding's turtles, Emydoidea blandingii, and painted turtles, Chysemys picta, in the Nebraska sandhills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Germano, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We sampled a variety of wetlands in the Nebraska sandhills at Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Significantly more individuals of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) occurred in lakes and open waters than in marshes or small ponds, and the opposite was true for Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii). Besides this marked difference in habitat use, 46% of the captured E. blandingii in pond/marsh habitat were juveniles, but only 31.6% in lakes and open water. Current information suggests that marshes and small ponds are important habitat for juvenile turtles, especially Emydoidea blandingii.

  7. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-09-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  8. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: novel mutation in the aminomethyl transferase gene. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Çavuşoğlu, Dilek; Özbeyler, Ömer; Kaya, Özge Ö; Baydan, Figen; Olgac Dundar, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  9. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  10. Critical pneumonia complicating early-stage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, Marco; Di Rosa, Roberta; Pantosti, Annalisa; De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Pinto, Giovanni; Arcioni, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia, Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, in a woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting this critical lung infection occurring during an early phase of pregnancy. This case study alerts physicians to the increasing worldwide spread of these uncommon yet virulent and potentially lethal infections. In our patient, antibiotic therapy with linezolid plus rifampin started at 14 weeks of pregnancy had a successful outcome without inducing toxicity or teratogenesis in the fetus.

  11. [Dualism and malaise in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chebili, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterised by the confrontation of theoretical models, or dualism.The contrast between these trends has always added to the richness of this discipline, from Philippe Pinel to Henri Ey, and from Bénédict-Augustin Morel to Valentin Magnan.Today, we are faced with an epistemological malaise which is the result of the domination of neurosciences. In order to protect against the temptation to allow the domination of one of the theoretical models, a return to dualism is recommended.

  12. ROLE OF FERREDOXIN IN THE METABOLISM OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN.

    PubMed

    VALENTINE, R C; WOLFE, R S

    1963-05-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and R. S. Wolfe. Role of ferredoxin in the metabolism of molecular hydrogen. J. Bacteriol. 85:1114-1120. 1963.-The metabolism of molecular hydrogen by Clostridium pasteurianum, Micrococcus lactilyticus (Veillonella alcalescens), and several other anaerobic bacteria was studied. Oxidation of hydrogen, using several electron-accepting substrates including triphosphopyridine nucleotide, uric acid, xanthine, nitrite, and hydroxylamine, required ferredoxin in conjunction with hydrogenase. Evolution of hydrogen from pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, hypoxanthine, and dithionite was mediated by ferredoxin. On the basis of these findings, a unitary hypothesis for biological hydrogen evolution is proposed in which ferredoxin plays a key role.

  13. The Perseids Aug 11-12, 1996 in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojurova, E.; Trukchev, I.

    As every year Astroclub "Canopus" organized an extended Perseid observing campaign. Members of the club took part in expedition to Avren village near Varna, at the National Astronomical Observatory (Rojen) and at the National Yought Astronomical Camp in Belite Brezi (South Bulgaria). Here we present some results derived on the basis of data obtained by Biliana Ognianova, Diana Tisheva, Diliana Antonova, Eva Bojurova, Elena Surbinska, Irena Stavreva, Katia Koleva, Lilia Porojanova, Anton Antonov, Denis Mechmedov, Doichin Docinski, Galin Genchev, Ivan Trukhchev, Valentin Velkov. More than 2000 Perseids were recorded. Some other showers were also observed.

  14. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  15. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteremia at a major hospital in southern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dhritiman; Batte, Justin L; Brown, Stephanie N; Crosby, Angela G; Marcos, Luis A; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant cause of bacteremia worldwide. We assessed the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant S aureus isolates causing bacteremia in southern Mississippi. Diverse genetic backgrounds in terms of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing types of methicillin-resistant S aureus were identified as causing bacteremia in Mississippi. A strong association of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is one of the important findings of our study.

  16. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  17. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the

  18. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  19. Age of acquisition effects on an object-name verification task.

    PubMed

    Catling, J C; Johnston, R A

    2006-02-01

    Naming latencies for words, objects and faces have been shown to be affected by the age at which an item is acquired (AoA). Originally, this effect was explained in terms of differential access to name representations. However, a number of recent studies have found AoA effects in tasks which do not require access to names (e.g. Brysbaert, Van Wijnendaele, & De Deynes, 2000; Lewis, 1999; Moore, Smith Spark, & Valentine, 2004; Moore & Valentine, 1999). Ellis and Lambon Ralph (2000) propose an alternative account of AoA, predicting that the effect should arise in any task where previously stored information is retrieved. The current study explored the effect of AoA on an object-name verification task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that early acquired objects were verified significantly faster than later acquired objects. A third experiment collected naming latencies for the same picture stimuli in order to allow a comparison of the magnitude of the AoA effect for object verification and naming. The implications of these findings for accounts of AoA and its locus of effect are discussed.

  20. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  1. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  2. Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: implications for models of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Byatt, G; Rhodes, G

    1998-08-01

    Valentine's (Valentine T. Q J Exp Psychol 1991;43A:161-204) face recognition framework supports both a norm-based coding (NBC) and an exemplar-only, absolute coding, model (ABC). According to NBC; (1) faces are represented in terms of deviations from a prototype or norm; (2) caricatures are effective because they exaggerate this norm deviation information; and (3) other-race faces are coded relative to the (only available) own-race norm. Therefore NBC predicts that, for European subjects, caricatures of Chinese faces made by distorting differences from the European norm would be more effective than caricatures made relative to the Chinese norm. According to ABC; (1) faces are encoded as absolute values on a set of shared dimensions with the norm playing no role in recognition; (2) caricatures are effective because they minimise exemplar density and (3) the dimensions of face-space are inappropriate for other-race faces leaving them relatively densely clustered. ABC predicts that all faces would be recognised more accurately when caricatured against their own-race norm. We tested European subjects' identification of European and Chinese faces, caricatured against both race norms. The ABC model's prediction was supported. European faces were also rated as more distinctive and recognised more easily than Chinese faces. However, the own-race recognition bias held even when the races were equated for distinctiveness which suggests that the ABC model may not provide a complete account of race effects in recognition.

  3. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity.

    PubMed

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E

    2017-05-30

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  4. Spread of Tst-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Strains Belonging to ST30 Clone among Patients and Healthcare Workers in Two Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Drougka, Eleanna; Fligou, Fotini; Dodou, Vasiliki; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Filos, Kriton S; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Marangos, Markos; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2017-09-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections. Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are associated with severe clinical syndromes. S. aureus colonizing isolates recovered from healthcare workers and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital comprising Group A were compared with those from adult non-ICU carriers (Group B). mecA, lukS/lukF-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL), and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) gene carriage was detected by PCR. Clones were identified in all methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and toxin-positive methicillin-susceptible strains (MSSA) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), agr groups, and multi locus sequencing typing (MLST). Group A included 90 S. aureus isolates, whereas Group B 53. PVL was more frequently found among MRSA vs. MSSA (p < 0.001) and in strains of Group B as compared to Group A (p < 0.001), consistent with the spread of ST80-IV. Higher incidence of tst gene carriage was identified among MSSA vs. MRSA (P 0.005) belonging mainly to ST30, and Group A vs. Group B (P 0.002). The wide dissemination of ST80-IV mainly in the community is responsible for a high percentage of PVL-positive MRSA, while silent spread of tst-positive S. aureus clones among ICU patients and personnel poses a threat of hospital transmission and possible severe infections.

  5. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna; Valentine, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented simultaneously a famous and an unfamiliar face, one face in LVF and the other in RVF. In one task, participants responded according to which of the faces generated the stronger visual percept, and in the other task, they attempted an explicit familiarity decision. The relative strength of the visual percept of the famous face compared to the unfamiliar face was moderated by response latency and participants' attitude towards the famous person. There was also an interaction of visual field with response latency, suggesting that the right hemisphere can generate a visual percept differentiating famous from unfamiliar faces more rapidly than the left hemisphere. Participants were at chance in the explicit familiarity decision, confirming the absence of awareness of facial familiarity.

  6. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  7. Mitochondrial genes at Cold Spring Harbor.

    PubMed

    Grivell, L A

    1981-12-01

    The flowering dogwood trees and green lawns of Cold Spring Harbor provided the setting for a meeting devoted to Mitochondrial Genes from May 13-17th, 1981. Dedicated to the memory of Boris Ephrussi, who pioneered mitochondrial genetics at a time when the only kinds of genetics were nuclear or unclear, the meeting showed that the study of mtDNA has had impact on many areas of molecular biology including the genetic code and decoding, tRNA function, mechanisms of splicing and molecular evolution. Curiously, as Herschel Roman pointed out in his opening address, Ephrussi took great pains to avoid any mention of mitochondrial DNA in connection with his observations on cytoplasmic inheritance, preferring instead to refer to 'cytoplasmic particles, endowed with genetic continuity' (Ephrussi 1953). This reticence was not shared by participants at the meeting, as the following, brief report will show.

  8. Nonlinear particle simulation of ion cyclotron waves in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.

    2015-12-10

    Global particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the nonlinear interactions of radio frequency (RF) waves with plasmas in tokamak. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. Boris push scheme for the ion motion has been developed in the toroidal geometry using magnetic coordinates and successfully verified for the ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein waves in global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The nonlinear simulation capability is applied to study the parametric decay instability of a pump wave into an ion Bernstein wave side band and a low frequency ion cyclotron quasi mode.

  9. One giant leap for mankind? A cost-utility analysis of abolishing the law of gravity.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Claude; Lanthier, Luc

    2007-12-04

    Canada's Neo Rhino Party, a joke political party created in 2006 as a successor to the Parti Rhinocéros, is planning a new regulation to repeal the law of gravity, which could have an important impact on diseases attributable to gravity on earth. We sought to estimate the number of quality-adjusted life-years that would be saved if the proposed regulation is passed and determine the cost-effectiveness of adapting Boris Volfson's antigravity machine for use on earth. We performed an economic analysis using a hidden Markov model. Our results suggest that a microgravity environment would save over 2 million quality-adjusted life-years. The cost for every quality-adjusted life-year saved is estimated to be $328. Microgravity is the solution to the health care crisis in Canada. In addition, using technological, statistical and medical jargon gives us the opportunity to defy the laws of physics, mathematics and medicine.

  10. Postmiocene geodynamic evolution of the drake passage, Western Antarctic Region, southern ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterin, D. E.

    2011-08-01

    In 1994-2006, the German research vessel, Polarstern, and the Russian research vessel, Akademik Boris Petrov, carried out marine geologic and geophysical explorations in the Western Antarctic Region within the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Scotia marginal Seas and the Drake Passage. In these expeditions, new unique data on submarine topography have been collected by a multibeam echosounder, gravity and magnetic measurements have been carried out, multichannel seismic profiling has been performed, and the collections of rock samples have been acquired. The analysis and interpretation of new evidence together with previous geologic and geophysical data for the Drake Passage region have shown that end of spreading in the Aluk Ridge three million years ago resulted in the redistribution of stresses associated with the relative motion of the Antarctic, Scotia, and Phoenix Plates, which, in turn, caused significant tectonic reconstruction of the entire transition zone of the Drake Passage.

  11. Nonlinear particle simulation of ion cyclotron waves in toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuley, A.; Bao, J.; Lin, Z.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Global particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the nonlinear interactions of radio frequency (RF) waves with plasmas in tokamak. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. Boris push scheme for the ion motion has been developed in the toroidal geometry using magnetic coordinates and successfully verified for the ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein waves in global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The nonlinear simulation capability is applied to study the parametric decay instability of a pump wave into an ion Bernstein wave side band and a low frequency ion cyclotron quasi mode.

  12. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers of the NSA in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David; Tuinhoff, Manning

    2000-01-01

    This data set was processed by BORIS staff from the original vector data of species, crown closure, cutting class, and site classification/subtype into raster files. The original polygon data were received from Linnet Graphics, the distributor of data for MNR. In the case of the species layer, the percentages of species composition were removed. This reduced the amount of information contained in the species layer of the gridded product, but it was necessary in order to make the gridded product easier to use. The original maps were produced from 1:15,840-scale aerial photography collected in 1988 over an area of the BOREAS NSA MSA. The data are stored in binary, image format files and they are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. Personalia and the current health crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M

    1993-01-01

    Recent changes in the Russian government introduced by Boris Yeltsin include the appointment of Eduard Nechaev as health minister at the beginning of this year. The appointment received little publicity in the West, although his predecessor was sacked after only one year for failing to make any effort to improve health care. The challenges facing the new minister are enormous. Not only does he have to introduce a new medical insurance system but he has to tackle the problems of falling population, rising childhood illness linked to poor diet, and the spread of polio and diphtheria. It remains to be seen whether his experience in the military medical service has equipped him for the job. Images p910-a PMID:8490420

  14. Development and Test of 2.5-Dimensional Electromagnetic PIC Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Seon, Jongho; Lee, Dong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation code using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to investigate electromagnetic phenomena that occur in space plasmas. Our code is based on the leap-frog method and the centered difference method for integration and differentiation of the governing equations. We adopted the relativistic Buneman-Boris method to solve the Lorentz force equation and the Esirkepov method to calculate the current density while maintaining charge conservation. Using the developed code, we performed test simulations for electron two-stream instability and electron temperature anisotropy induced instability with the same initial parameters as used in previously reported studies. The test simulation results are almost identical with those of the previous papers.

  15. A comparative study of computational methods in cosmic gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Albada, G. D.; Van Leer, B.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many theoretical investigations of fluid flows in astrophysics require extensive numerical calculations. The selection of an appropriate computational method is, therefore, important for the astronomer who has to solve an astrophysical flow problem. The present investigation has the objective to provide an informational basis for such a selection by comparing a variety of numerical methods with the aid of a test problem. The test problem involves a simple, one-dimensional model of the gas flow in a spiral galaxy. The numerical methods considered include the beam scheme, Godunov's method (G), the second-order flux-splitting method (FS2), MacCormack's method, and the flux corrected transport methods of Boris and Book (1973). It is found that the best second-order method (FS2) outperforms the best first-order method (G) by a huge margin.

  16. STS-106 crew breakfast in O&C building before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-106 crew relax after breakfast and before suitup for launch. Seated (left to right) are Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank and Boris V. Morukov; Pilot Scott D. Altman; Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio and Yuri I. Malenchenko. Morukov and Malenchenko are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis is set for 8:45 a.m. EDT on the fourth flight to the International Space Station. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbe d is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  17. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli.

  18. Recent developments in neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form, as there is an adequate supply of interesting and controversial data restricting oneself to these generally more reliable sources. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of {bar {nu}}{sub e} mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of 17-keV neutrino'' reports; and the use of {nu}p elastic scattering to determine the strange quark'' content of the proton. 2 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. KSC-00pp0784

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew look over TVIS equipment that will be part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left (in uniform) are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  20. KSC00pp0783

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew look over TVIS equipment that will be part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and (behind) Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  1. Chemi- and physisorption of hydrogen on graphitic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakobson, Boris; Singh, Abhishek; Lu, Jianxin; Ribas, Morgana

    2010-03-01

    We evaluate the possibilities of hydrogen storage on graphitic substrates by chemical and physical sorption using multiscale modeling. Detailed thermodynamic analysis based on ab initio calculations of chemisorptions via catalytic spillover shows that the catalyst saturation and improved C-H binding energies are the key to enhanced storage [1]. The estimation of amount of physisorbed hydrogen under the ambient condition in 3D-foams using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations demands judicious choice of interaction potential and incorporation of quantum corrections due to large thermal de Brogile wavelength. We will show that the storage capacities (chemi- or physisorption) in graphitic materials can meet the DOE 2015 targets. [4pt] [1] A. K. Singh, M. A. Ribas, and Boris I. Yakobson, ACS Nano, 3, 1657 (2009).

  2. Toward US-Russian strategic defense: Ban the ABM Treaty now

    SciTech Connect

    Savelyev, A.

    1992-11-12

    Boris Yeltsin and George Bush agreed on June 17 to develop and deploy a jointly controlled global protection system against ballistic missile strikes. Three teams of Russian and American experts now are studying the Bush-Yeltsin idea, called the Joint Defense Program (JDP). The drive to develop a U.S.-Russian defense system, however, faces a formidable obstacle-the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, which prohibits not only the deployment of territorial defenses against strategic missiles but the creation of an infrastructure (or `base`) for such a defense. If America and Russia hope to build a common defense against ballistic missiles, they first will have to remove ABM Treaty obstacles to expanded U.S.-Russian cooperation and missile defense.

  3. Recognizing the obvious bush should declare the ABM Treaty dead

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-05

    In televised speech to the Russian people on January 29, Russia`s President Boris Yeltsin called for the United States and Russia to create and jointly operate a global defense system. One day earlier, in his State of the Union address, George Bush affirmed his own commitment to strategic defense, or SDI. Washington and Moscow now both are on record in favor of deploying defenses against missile attacks. Then late last week, Yeltsin at the United Nations reaffirmed his Moscow statement. The common Bush-Yeltsin view is not surprising. Both of their countries face a growing danger of accidental, unauthorized, or irrational attacks from an expanding number of states armed with ballistic missiles.

  4. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. View of signing of ASTP joint flight readiness review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overall view of the signing of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint flight readiness review in ceremonies on May 22, 1975 in Moscow. Academician Vladimir A. Kotelnikov (on left) and NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low (in center) are seen affixing their signatures to the ASTP document. Kotelnikov is the Acting President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Seated at far left is Professor Konstantin D. Bushuyev, the Soviet Technical Director of ASTP. Dr. Glynn S. Lunney, the U.S. Technical Director of ASTP, is seated on Dr. Low's left. Arnold W. Frutkin (in light jacket), NASA Administrator for International Affairs, is standing behind Dr. Low. Academician Boris N. Petrov (in dark suit), Chairman of the USSR Council for International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, is standing behind Kotelnikov. The signing of the agreement took place at the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

  6. Complex and liquid hydrides for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callini, Elsa; Atakli, Zuleyha Özlem Kocabas; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jensen, Craig; Dornheim, Martin; Grant, David; Cho, Young Whan; Chen, Ping; Hjörvarsson, Bjørgvin; de Jongh, Petra; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Baricco, Marcello; Paskevicius, Mark; Jensen, Torben R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Autrey, Thomas S.; Züttel, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The research on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage was initiated by the discovery of Ti as a hydrogen sorption catalyst in NaAlH4 by Boris Bogdanovic in 1996. A large number of new complex hydride materials in various forms and combinations have been synthesized and characterized, and the knowledge regarding the properties of complex hydrides and the synthesis methods has grown enormously since then. A significant portion of the research groups active in the field of complex hydrides is collaborators in the International Energy Agreement Task 32. This paper reports about the important issues in the field of complex hydride research, i.e. the synthesis of borohydrides, the thermodynamics of complex hydrides, the effects of size and confinement, the hydrogen sorption mechanism and the complex hydride composites as well as the properties of liquid complex hydrides. This paper is the result of the collaboration of several groups and is an excellent summary of the recent achievements.

  7. STS-106 crewmembers pose for a group photograph on Zvezda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-13

    STS106-E-5195 (13 September 2000) --- Two cosmonauts and five astronauts pose for a tradition-based inflight crew portrait aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which is currently docked with the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, mission commander, and Scott D. Altman (bottom center) are surrounded by the five mission specialists (counterclockwise from Wilcutt) -- cosmonaut Boris V. Morukov, astronauts Richard A. Mastracchio, Edward T. Lu and Daniel C. Burbank, along with cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko. Morukov and Malenchenko represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The seven had just taken a brief break from the continuing tasks they're performing to help ready the ISS for other astronauts and cosmonauts permanent habitation in the near future.

  8. Numerical error in electron orbits with large. omega. sub ce. delta. t

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.E.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-12-20

    We have found that running electrostatic particle codes relatively large {omega}{sub ce}{Delta}t in some circumstances does not significantly affect the physical results. We first present results from a single particle mover finding the correct first order drifts for large {omega}{sub ce}{Delta}t. We then characterize the numerical orbit of the Boris algorithm for rotation when {omega}{sub ce}{Delta}t {much gt} 1. Next, an analysis of the guiding center motion is given showing why the first order drift is retained at large {omega}{sub ce}{Delta}t. Lastly, we present a plasma simulation of a one dimensional cross field sheath, with large and small {omega}{sub ce}{Delta}t, with very little difference in the results. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Modeling relativistic plasmas with PIC using VORPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieter, Chet; Cary, John R.

    2002-11-01

    VORPAL, a fully object-oriented, dimension-free plasma simulation code, now has a fully developed PIC model. This PIC model has been applied to studies of Laser Wake Field Acceleration, including the nonlinear structure of the wake field generated in the colliding pulse injection scheme and in the development of a new injection scheme that reduces timing requirements. (See Giacone et al. and Cary et al. at this conference). Since the PIC model was developed using VORPAL's object oriented architecture, it works in any dimension and with both serial and parallel runs. Several different update methods are available, including both relativistic and non-relativistic Boris push and an electrostatic update as well.

  10. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  11. Structure and phycobiliprotein composition of phycobilisomes from Griffithsia pacifica (Rhodophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, E.; Lipschultz, C.A.

    1980-09-01

    Phycobilisomes in Griffithsia pacifica are closely spaced on the thylakoid membrane. By negative staining, attached and isolated phycobilisomes have been shown to have a block shaped appearance. They are 63 nm long, 38 nm high, and 38 nm wide, making them the largest thus far reported. Isolated phycobilisomes, shown to be functionally intact by their 675 nm fluorescence emission (excitation 545 nm) were stable for more than a day. Phycobiliproteins from dissociated phycobilisomes, separated on sucrose gradients and by polyacrylamide, electrophoresis, yielded large (R-) and small (r-) molecular weight species of phycoerythrin (ca. 4:1 respectively) constituting 89% of the phycobiliprotein content, with R-phycocyanin 8%, and allophycocyanin 3% accounting for the rest. Phycobilisomes of Griffithsia pacifica and Porphyridium purpureum (Bory) Drew and Ross (P. cruentum) are structurally very similar with phycoerythrin being on the outside and surrounding a core of R-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin.

  12. STS106-s-013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    STS106-S-013 (8 September 2000)--- This view of shock-wave condensation collars backlit by the Sun occurred during the launch of the Space Shuttle Atlantis on September 8, 2000. The scene was captured on 35mm motion picture film. One frame was digitized to make this still image. Although the primary effect is created by the forward fuselage of the Atlantis, secondary effects can be seen on the solid rocket booster (SRB) forward skirt, shuttle vertical stabilizer and wing trailing edge, behind the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The perfect on-time launch took place at 8:45:47 a.m. (EDT), September 8, 2000. Onboard the shuttle were astronauts Terrence W. Wilcutt, Scott D. Altman, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank, along with cosmonauts Yuri I. Malenchenko and Boris V. Morukov who represent the Russian Aviation and Space Agency.

  13. STS-106 Crew Activity Report / Flight Day Highlights Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 was launched on Sept 8, 2000 at 8:45 a.m. The crew was commanded by Terrence W. Wilcutt, the pilot was Scott D. Altman. The mission specialists were Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov. During the 11-day mission, the crew spent a week inside the International Space Station (ISS) unloading supplies from both a double SPACEHAB cargo module in the rear of the Atlantis cargo bay and from a Russian Progress M-1 resupply craft docked to the aft end of the Zvezda Service Module. The videotape shows the activities of the second day of the flight and the preparations for docking with the ISS. Shown on the video are shots of the flight deck on the shuttle, the shuttle payload arm, and shots of the crew eating lunch.

  14. BOREAS Level 3-b AVHRR-LAC Imagery: Scaled At-sensor Radiance in LGSOWG Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Data acquired from the AVHRR instrument on the NOAA-9, -11, -12, and -14 satellites were processed and archived for the BOREAS region by the MRSC and BORIS. The data were acquired by CCRS and were provided for use by BOREAS researchers. A few winter acquisitions are available, but the archive contains primarily growing season imagery. These gridded, at-sensor radiance image data cover the period of 30-Jan-1994 to 18-Sep-1996. Geographically, the data cover the entire 1,000-km x 1,000-km BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  15. Method to integrate full particle orbit in toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Kuley, A.; Lin, Z.

    2015-09-01

    It is important to integrate full particle orbit accurately when studying charged particle dynamics in electromagnetic waves with frequency higher than cyclotron frequency. We have derived a form of the Boris scheme using magnetic coordinates, which can be used effectively to integrate the cyclotron orbit in toroidal geometry over a long period of time. The new method has been verified by a full particle orbit simulation in toroidal geometry without high frequency waves. The full particle orbit calculation recovers guiding center banana orbit. This method has better numeric properties than the conventional Runge-Kutta method for conserving particle energy and magnetic moment. The toroidal precession frequency is found to match that from guiding center simulation. Many other important phenomena in the presence of an electric field, such as E × B drift, Ware pinch effect and neoclassical polarization drift are also verified by the full orbit simulation.

  16. STS-106 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 07 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are seen participating in several outfitting activities. Burbank and Morukov remove and replace a fourth battery in Zarya. Lu and Malenchenko finish installing the third and final battery and other electrical equipment inside the Zvezda Service Module. While Altman and Wilcutt perform a series of jet firings, Altman is shown as he narrates a tour of the Zvezda Service Module. Scenes also include Lu and Malenchenko unpacking the Russian-made Orlan space suits, Burbank and Wilcutt participating in an interview, and a beautiful night shot of the International Space Station (ISS) and Atlantis complex above the Earth.

  17. Ethical considerations in psychiatric profiling of political figures.

    PubMed

    Post, Jerrold M

    2002-09-01

    Questions concerning such matters as the effects of health and alcoholism on Boris Yeltsin's decision making; the mind of the Unabomber; the psychology and decision making of Saddam Hussein of Iraq, who was initially characterized by the US Government as "the madman of the Middle East"; the psychology of David Koresh and the Branch Davidians, who were involved in an extended siege with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that ended tragically on April 19, 1993; and, most recently, the psychology of the nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists responsible for the tragic events of September 11, 2001 in which they claimed thousands of lives while giving their own, "killing in the name of God," and of their charismatic leader Osama bin Laden have led journalists to turn to social scientists, including psychiatrists, to offer commentary on public figures.

  18. STS106-s-015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-08

    STS106-S-015 (8 September 2000) --- The Space Shuttle Atlantis streaks into the sky on mission STS-106 after a perfect on-time launch at 8:45:47 a.m. (EDT), September 8, 2000. Blue mach diamonds are barely visible beneath the main engine nozzles. On the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit; transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Onboard the spacecraft were astronauts Terrance W. Wilcutt, Scott D. Altman, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank, along with cosmonauts Yuri I. Malenchenko and Boris Morukov, both of whom represent Rosaviakosmos.

  19. View of signing of ASTP joint flight readiness review

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-05-22

    S75-27346 (22 May 1975) --- An overall view of the signing of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight readiness review in ceremonies on May 22, 1975 in Moscow. Academician Vladimir A. Kotelnikov (on left) and NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low (in center) are seen affixing their signatures to the ASTP document. Kotelnikov is the Acting President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Seated at far left is Professor Konstantin D. Bushuyev, the Soviet Technical Director of ASTP. Dr. Glynn S. Lunney, the U.S. Technical Director of ASTP, is seated on Dr. Low?s left. Arnold W. Frutkin (in light jacket), NASA Assistant Administrator for International Affairs, is standing behind Dr. Low. Academician Boris N. Petrov (in dark suit), Chairman of the USSR Council for International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, is standing behind Kotelnikov. The signing of the agreement took place at the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

  20. Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of plasma near hohlraum walls heated with nanosecond laser pulses calculated using the ray tracing equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, Archis; Thomas, Alec

    2013-10-01

    Here, we present 2D numerical modeling of near critical density plasma using a fully implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, IMPACTA, which includes self-consistent magnetic fields as well as anisotropic electron pressure terms in the expansion of the distribution function, as well as an implementation of the Boris CYLRAD algorithm through a ray tracing add-on package. This allows to model inverse brehmsstrahlung heating as a laser travels through a plasma by solving the ray tracing equations. Generated magnetic fields (eg. the Biermann battery effect) as well as field advection through heat fluxes from the laser heating is shown. Additionally, perturbations in the plasma density profile arise as a result of the high pressures and flows in the plasma. These perturbations in the plasma density affect the path of the laser traveling through the plasma and modify the heating profile accordingly. The interplay between these effects is discussed in this study.

  1. Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1990-03-01

    The effects of nitrogen limitation on laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross were studied under continuous white light illumination (35 {mu}E {times} m{sup {minus}2} {times} s{sup {minus}1}). Growth ceased, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, chlorophyll content was reduced by 80%, and phycoerythrin content was reduced by 99% over a period of 14 days under nitrogen limitation. Recovery upon addition of nitrogen resulted in increased phycobiliprotein content, appearance of phycobilisomes attached to the thylakoids, increased oxygen evolution, and increased fluorescence emission from photosystem 1 (720 nm) and photosystem 2 (685 nm) upon excitation by green light. Growth resumes after 72 h and was concomitant with an increase of chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and phycobilisomes per thylakoid area. The results suggest that photosystem 1 was less affected by nitrogen starvation than photosystem 2 and that the recovery was largely dependent on the restoration of phycobilisomes and other photosystem components.

  2. STS-106 Mission Specialists Morukov and Malenchenko greeted by Halsell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jim Halsell Jr. (left), former mission commander and now the manager, Shuttle Program Integration Office, chats with STS-106 Mission Specialists Boris V. Morukov (center) and Yuri I. Malenchenko (right) after their arrival at KSC. Morukov and Malenchenko, who are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, are at KSC with the rest of the crew to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  3. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  4. Spectral properties and chiral symmetry violations of (staggered) domain wall fermions in the Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelbling, Christian; Zielinski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We follow up on a suggestion by Adams and construct explicit domain wall fermion operators with staggered kernels. We compare different domain wall formulations, namely the standard construction as well as Boriçi's modified and Chiu's optimal construction, utilizing both Wilson and staggered kernels. In the process, we generalize the staggered kernels to arbitrary even dimensions and introduce both truncated and optimal staggered domain wall fermions. Some numerical investigations are carried out in the (1 +1 )-dimensional setting of the Schwinger model, where we explore spectral properties of the bulk, effective and overlap Dirac operators in the free-field case, on quenched thermalized gauge configurations and on smooth topological configurations. We compare different formulations using the effective mass, deviations from normality and violations of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation as measures of chirality.

  5. Risk of Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation to Humans Symposium Annual Meeting of the Environmental Mutagen Society: Agenda and Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Veigl, Martina L.; Morgan, William F.; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.

    2009-11-11

    The low dose symposium thoughtfully addressed controversy of risk from low dose radiation exposure, hormesis and radon therapy. The stem cell symposium cogently considered the role of DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic stem cells underlying aging and malignancy and provocatively presented evidence that stem cells may have distinct morphologies and replicative properties, as well as special roles in cancer initiation. In the epigenetics symposium, studies illustrated the long range interaction of epigenetic mechanisms, the roles of CTCF and BORIS in region/specific regulation of epigenetic processes, the impact of DNA damage on epigenetic processes as well as links between epigenetic mechanisms and early nutrition and bystander effects. This report shows the agenda and abstracts for this symposium.

  6. Sorption of cadmium and zinc in selected species of epigeic mosses.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Andrzej; Gordzielik, Ewelina; Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Anna; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The sorption abilities of seven moss species growing on the area of Bory Stobrawskie forest (southern Poland) were tested in laboratory. Sorption was carried out in solutions of Zn and Cd chlorides. It has been shown that the sorption properties depend on the moss species and increases in the series as follows: Polytrichum commune < Leucobryum glaucum < Eurhynchium praelongum < Thuidium tamtariscifolium ≤ Dicranum scoparium ≤ Pleurozium schreberi < Sphagnum sp. With help of microscope images, it was also demonstrated that one of the factors affecting the sorption properties of mosses was the level of their surface development. The determined sorption capacity of Zn varies according to species of mosses from 0.0491 to 0.1287 mmol g(-1), and in relation to Cd from 0.0319 to 0.1335 mmol g(-1). The described results may be important in the process of biomonitoring research design and in the test results interpretation.

  7. Complex and liquid hydrides for energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Callini, Elsa; Atakli, Zuleyha Özlem Kocabas; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jensen, Craig; Dornheim, Martin; Grant, David; Cho, Young Whan; Chen, Ping; Hjörvarsson, Bjørgvin; de Jongh, Petra; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Baricco, Marcello; Paskevicius, Mark; Jensen, Torben R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Autrey, Thomas S.; Züttel, Andreas

    2016-03-10

    The research on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage was imitated by the discovery of Ti as a hydrogen sorption catalyst in NaAlH4 by Boris Bogdanovic in 1996. A large number of new complex hydride materials in various forms and combinations have been synthesized and characterized and the knowledge on the properties of complex hydrides and the synthesis methods has grown enormously since then. A significant part of the research groups active in the field of complex hydrides are collaborators in the IEA task 32. This paper reports about the important issues in the field of the complex hydride research, i.e. the synthesis of borohydrides, the thermodynamics of complex hydrides and their thermodynamic properties, the effects of size and confinement, the hydrogen sorption mechanism and the complex hydride composites as well as the properties of liquid complex hydrides. This paper is the result of the collaboration of several groups and excellent summary of the recent achievements.

  8. Relativistic radiation damping for simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotia, Amodsen

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work is to implement radiation braking into a simulation code. Radiation physics of accelerated charges is not new. It dates from the end of the 19th century, from Maxwell theory and Larmor, Poynting, Thomson, Poincare, Lorentz, Von Laue, Abraham, Schott, Planck, Landau, Einstein, Dirac, Wheeler et Feynmann (and many others). The result reaches out from the length of life of exited levels of atoms, antennas, and lays out through specific production of radiation by bremsstrahlung in particles accelerators but also spatial and stellar astrophysics. In this work we start from Landau Lifchitz equation to express the quadrivector acceleration in term of the fields. Using a result from Pomeranchouck we deduce the energy lost by radiation. We do an instantaneous colinear projection of the velocity vector in order to substract the loss of kinetic energy due to radiation. The equation of motion is then solved based on Boris algorithm. The code is tested on few examples.

  9. Envy in the group-therapy process.

    PubMed

    Dubner, M A

    1998-10-01

    The origins and vicissitudes of envy are discussed from the viewpoints of Boris and the Kleinians. Their ideas, coupled with a relational perspective of the therapeutic process, enrich our understanding and inform our work concerning the emergence, processing, and working through of envy in the therapy group. A variable in the negative therapeutic reaction, envy can be destructive to the therapy process. It is proposed that envy, accompanied by shame and guilt, is likely to enter the group via enactments. They are fueled by projective identification, which, if ignored, impede the continuation of the group process. Four clinical vignettes illustrate how envy enters the group and how the group functions as a container and transformational object as it processes the projective identifications and works through the enactments.

  10. A treecode to simulate dust-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Holgate, J. T.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of a small object with surrounding plasma is an area of plasma-physics research with a multitude of applications. This paper introduces the plasma octree code pot, a microscopic simulator of a spheroidal dust grain in a plasma. pot uses the Barnes-Hut treecode algorithm to perform N-body simulations of electrons and ions in the vicinity of a chargeable spheroid, employing also the Boris particle-motion integrator and Hutchinson’s reinjection algorithm from SCEPTIC; a description of the implementation of all three algorithms is provided. We present results from pot simulations of the charging of spheres in magnetised plasmas, and of spheroids in unmagnetized plasmas. The results call into question the validity of using the Boltzmann relation in hybrid PIC codes. Substantial portions of this paper are adapted from chapters 4 and 5 of the first author’s recent PhD dissertation.

  11. KSC00pp0787

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew check out part of the payload, called TVIS, on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Mission Specialist Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency, Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialist Edward Lu. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  12. KSC00pp0785

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Members of the STS-106 crew get information from a worker while looking over paperwork at SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., about the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left (in uniform) are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Among the payload is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  13. KSC-00pp0787

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew check out part of the payload, called TVIS, on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Mission Specialist Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency, Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialist Edward Lu. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  14. KSC00pp0786

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew become familiar with part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Among the payload is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  15. KSC-00pp0783

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew look over TVIS equipment that will be part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and (behind) Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  16. KSC-00pp0785

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Members of the STS-106 crew get information from a worker while looking over paperwork at SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., about the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left (in uniform) are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Among the payload is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  17. KSC-00pp0786

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew become familiar with part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Among the payload is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  18. KSC00pp0784

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, Port Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-106 crew look over TVIS equipment that will be part of the payload on their mission to the International Space Station. From left (in uniform) are Pilot Scott Altman and Mission Specialists Edward Lu and Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency. TVIS is the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, a device to collect data on how vibrations imparted by crew exercise may be reduced or eliminated on the International Space Station. Those vibrations could disturb delicate microgravity experiments on the Space Station. During the mission, the crew will complete service module support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and outfit the Space Station for the first long-duration crew. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8

  19. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  20. Volcanic Plumes Tower over Mount Etna [annotated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Twin volcanic plumes—one of ash, one of gas—rose from Sicily’ Mount Etna on the morning of October 26, 2013. L’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) Osservatorio Etneo (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology Etna Observatory) reported that Etna was experiencing its first paroxysm in six months. Multiple eruption columns are common at Etna, a result of complex plumbing within the volcano. The Northeast Crater, one of several on Etna’s summit, was emitting the ash column, while the New Southeast Crater was simultaneously venting mostly gas. This natural-color image collected by Landsat 8 shows the view from space at 11:38 a.m. local time. The towering, gas-rich plume cast a dark shadow over the lower, ash-rich plume and Etna’s northwestern flank. Relatively fresh lava flows (less than a century or so old) are dark gray; vegetation is green; and the tile-roofed buildings of Bronte and Biancavilla lend the towns an ochre hue. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from the USGS Earth Explorer. Photograph ©2013, Boris Behncke. Caption by Robert Simmon with contributions from Boris Behncke. Instrument: Landsat 8 - OLI More info: 1.usa.gov/1cEcOFi Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Volcanic Plumes Tower over Mount Etna

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Twin volcanic plumes—one of ash, one of gas—rose from Sicily’ Mount Etna on the morning of October 26, 2013. L’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) Osservatorio Etneo (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology Etna Observatory) reported that Etna was experiencing its first paroxysm in six months. Multiple eruption columns are common at Etna, a result of complex plumbing within the volcano. The Northeast Crater, one of several on Etna’s summit, was emitting the ash column, while the New Southeast Crater was simultaneously venting mostly gas. This natural-color image collected by Landsat 8 shows the view from space at 11:38 a.m. local time. The towering, gas-rich plume cast a dark shadow over the lower, ash-rich plume and Etna’s northwestern flank. Relatively fresh lava flows (less than a century or so old) are dark gray; vegetation is green; and the tile-roofed buildings of Bronte and Biancavilla lend the towns an ochre hue. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from the USGS Earth Explorer. Photograph ©2013, Boris Behncke. Caption by Robert Simmon with contributions from Boris Behncke. Instrument: Landsat 8 - OLI More info: 1.usa.gov/1cEcOFi Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Big in the benthos: Future change of seafloor community biomass in a global, body size-resolved model.

    PubMed

    Yool, Andrew; Martin, Adrian P; Anderson, Thomas R; Bett, Brian J; Jones, Daniel O B; Ruhl, Henry A

    2017-09-01

    Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs. Advances have led to an understanding of the importance of size (body mass) in structuring these communities. Here we force a size-resolved benthic biomass model, BORIS, using seafloor POC flux from a coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate global patterns in benthic biomass. BORIS resolves 16 size classes of metazoans, successively doubling in mass from approximately 1 μg to 28 mg. Simulations find a wide range of seasonal responses to differing patterns of POC forcing, with both a decline in seasonal variability, and an increase in peak lag times with increasing body size. However, the dominant factor for modelled benthic communities is the integrated magnitude of POC reaching the seafloor rather than its seasonal pattern. Scenarios of POC forcing under climate change and ocean acidification are then applied to investigate how benthic communities may change under different future conditions. Against a backdrop of falling surface primary production (-6.1%), and driven by changes in pelagic remineralization with depth, results show that while benthic communities in shallow seas generally show higher biomass in a warmed world (+3.2%), deep-sea communities experience a substantial decline (-32%) under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Our results underscore the importance for benthic ecology of reducing uncertainty in the magnitude and seasonality of seafloor POC fluxes, as well as the importance

  3. KSC-99pp1489

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-101 crew learn about some of the cargo that will be on their mission. At left are Mission Specialists Jeffrey N. Williams and Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.); at right are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., and Mission Specialist Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Other crew members are Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov and Yuri Malenchenko, who are with the Russian Space Agency. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000

  4. Generating geomorphological catalogues using neural networks: Seamounts in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Andrew; Kalnins, Lara; van Dinther, Chantal; Trampert, Jeannot

    2013-04-01

    We recently introduced the idea that neural networks may be used to construct catalogues of geomorphological features, by extrapolating from the characteristics of a set of hand-selected examples (Valentine et al., 2012). These learning algorithms are inspired by the complex pattern identification and recognition capabilities of the human brain and remove the need to develop an a priori model of the feature of interest. In order to demonstrate this approach, and to develop a clearer understanding of its possibilities and pitfalls, we concentrate on the problem of identifying seamounts - isolated topographic highs of volcanic origin - in the world's oceans. The distribution of seamounts in time and space can provide important constraints on the tectonic history and evolution of the Earth and has been studied using several conventional approaches (e.g. Kim & Wessel, 2011). However, these typically perform poorly in the Atlantic, where the slow spreading rate results in a rough 'background' seafloor that produces many false positives. The learning algorithm approach should improve this, as it attempts to encapsulate more complex information about the seamount and its surroundings. We present an overview of our work to date, with a focus on results from a systematic search for seamounts in the Atlantic. We compare the performance of our approach in detecting seamounts in bathymetric, free-air gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient (VGG) datasets to examine the particular strengths and weaknesses of each data type and to assess the potential benefits of assimilating information from two or three data types simultaneously. We compare the resulting seamount database with existing catalogues, examining the variations in measures such as total count, height distribution, and spatial and temporal distribution across the Atlantic, and comment on the potential implications for our understanding of the tectonic history of the region. Kim, S.-S. & Wessel, P., 2011. New

  5. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections.

    PubMed

    El-Aouar Filho, Rachid A; Nicolas, Aurélie; De Paula Castro, Thiago L; Deplanche, Martine; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A; Goossens, Pierre L; Taieb, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host.

  6. Effect of Butanedioic Acid Mono (2,2-Dimethylhydrazide) on the Activity of Membrane-Bound Succinate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    See, Raymond M.; Foy, Chester L.

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated from hypocotyls of five-day-old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. `Black Valentine') seedlings rapidly oxidized succinate, malate, and NADH. Oxidation rates, respiratory control, and ADP:O ratios obtained with saturating concentrations of all three substrates indicated that the mitochondria were tightly coupled. The mitochondrial preparation was then employed to investigate the respiration-inhibiting effects of butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl-hydrazide) (daminozide) a plant growth retardant having structural similarity to an endogenous respiratory substrate (succinate). Daminozide markedly inhibited the activity of membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition was of the competitive type (apparent Ki, 20.2 millimolar) with respect to succinate. Although not excluding other hypotheses, the results support an active role for daminozide in the suppression of respiration as an important metabolic site of its action as a plant growth regulator. PMID:16662493

  7. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  8. Precise leveling, space geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.

    1981-01-01

    The implications of currently available leveling data on understanding the crustal dynamics of the continental United States are investigated. Neotectonic deformation, near surface movements, systematic errors in releveling measurements, and the implications of this information for earthquake prediction are described. Vertical crustal movements in the vicinity of the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake which may represent coseismic deformation are investigated. The detection of vertical fault displacements by precise leveling in western Kentucky is reported. An empirical basis for defining releveling anomalies and its implications for crustal deformation in southern California is presented. Releveling measurements in the eastern United States and their meaning in the context of possible crustal deformation, including uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, eastward tilting of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and apparent movements associated with a number of structural features along the east coast, are reported.

  9. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections - case report.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis; Abad, Eliane Dios; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Dos Santos, Fabiana Monteiro; Saintive, Simone; Goudoris, Ekaterini; do Prado, Evandro Alves; Ribeiro, Marcia; Soares Rosado, Alexandre; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL) genes) and herpetic (Herpes Simplex - HSV) infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient's quality of life.

  10. Treatment and recurrence management of staphylococcal infections: community-acquired MRSA.

    PubMed

    Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini; Johnson, Leonard B

    2008-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has resulted in a change in the paradigm for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections. The CA-MRSA strains are more likely to carry the genes for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin and have increased susceptibility to non-beta-lactam antibiotics. As a result, a wide range of therapies is available for treatment of CA-MRSA infections. Relapses occur frequently and the optimal approach to eliminate colonization is not clear. This article reviews the therapeutic options for patients with presumed and definite MRSA infections, as well as for the prevention of relapses.

  11. Automatic Biological Cell Counting Using a Modified Gradient Hough Transform.

    PubMed

    Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    We present a computational method for pseudo-circular object detection and quantitative characterization in digital images, using the gradient accumulation matrix as a basic tool. This Gradient Accumulation Transform (GAT) was first introduced in 1992 by Kierkegaard and recently used by Kaytanli & Valentine. In the present article, we modify the approach by using the phase coding studied by Cicconet, and by adding a "local contributor list" (LCL) as well as a "used contributor matrix" (UCM), which allow for accurate peak detection and exploitation. These changes help make the GAT algorithm a robust and precise method to automatically detect pseudo-circular objects in a microscopic image. We then present an application of the method to cell counting in microbiological images.

  12. A Novel Method for Producing Transgenic Enzymes and Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    M. Liebergesell, M. H . Madkour , F. Mayer, U. Pieper-Furst, A. Pries, H . E. Valentin, et al. 1995. Considerations on the structure and biochemistry...co nc en tr at io n (g D C W /L ) 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 S pe ci fic A ct iv ity o f O P H fo r P ar ao xo n (U /m g) OUR...DNA region analyzed. The open reading frame of the oph gene is indicated in the figure while H refers to the HindIII restriction sites. A

  13. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Petersen, Klaus K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis, using different imaging modalities to guide the surgical and antibiotic treatment. PMID:27867536

  14. The silane isotopomers (Si-29)H4 and (Si-30)H4 constants of the nu2/nu4 dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, H.; Kreiner, W. A.; Pierre, G.

    1990-08-01

    Silane isotopomers may be of some importance in IR astronomy, since the main isotopomer (with Si-28) has already been discovered in a planetary nebula surrounding the IR star IRC + 10216. With a view toward future isotope investigations of stellar objects, the IR spectrum of two silane isotopomers containing Si-29 and Si-30 is investigated with tunable CO2 laser sidebands in the 877-954-kayser range at a resolution of 0.00002 kayser. An analysis is performed of the nu2 and nu4 dyad, including data by Henry and Valentin (1986) from a Fourier transform spectrum and sub-Doppler lines observed by Borde (1983) and Skrzypczak et al. (1989). Forty-one vibration-rotation constants of the nu2/nu4 Hamiltonian are determined from the spectrum fitting.

  15. The naming game: A discrepancy among the medical community.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Aly, Islam; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    As anatomists we rely on the nomenclature of structures in order to describe them appropriately, particularly their orientation in respect to their surrounding. The terminology used by the anatomist to describe an organ, muscle, or nerve within the body is taught to medical students as law. Students learn to describe structures in the "anatomical position", which has been accepted in the literature since the original Latin Nomina Anatomica. They therefore familiarize themselves with the use of terms such as superior, inferior, posterior and anterior to describe all anatomical structures, except in respect of the heart. The heart is still described in the original Valentine position. As anatomists we owe it to the medical and research community to correct the nomenclature to minimize confusion, and to describe the heart properly in respect to its surrounding structures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heterogeneous Family of Cyclomodulins: Smart Weapons That Allow Bacteria to Hijack the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Promote Infections

    PubMed Central

    El-Aouar Filho, Rachid A.; Nicolas, Aurélie; De Paula Castro, Thiago L.; Deplanche, Martine; De Carvalho Azevedo, Vasco A.; Goossens, Pierre L.; Taieb, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Some bacterial pathogens modulate signaling pathways of eukaryotic cells in order to subvert the host response for their own benefit, leading to successful colonization and invasion. Pathogenic bacteria produce multiple compounds that generate favorable conditions to their survival and growth during infection in eukaryotic hosts. Many bacterial toxins can alter the cell cycle progression of host cells, impairing essential cellular functions and impeding host cell division. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cyclomodulins, a heterogeneous family of bacterial effectors that induce eukaryotic cell cycle alterations. We discuss the mechanisms of actions of cyclomodulins according to their biochemical properties, providing examples of various cyclomodulins such as cycle inhibiting factor, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, cytolethal distending toxins, shiga toxin, subtilase toxin, anthrax toxin, cholera toxin, adenylate cyclase toxins, vacuolating cytotoxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol soluble modulins, and mycolactone. Special attention is paid to the benefit provided by cyclomodulins to bacteria during colonization of the host. PMID:28589102

  17. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  18. Site Description for the University of Nebraska's Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory is operated by the University of Nebraska. The laboratory is located in the south-central part of the Nebraska Sandhills near Tryon, Nebraska (41 deg. 37' N; 100 deg. 50' W). The laboratory is surrounded on the west and south by native rangeland vegetation, on the south by a large field of corn irrigated by a center pivot, and on the east by wheat stubble. This site is appropriate for moisture stress studies since rainfall is almost always inadequate to meet evaporative demands of agricultural crops during most of the growing season and the sandy soils (Valentine fine sand) at the site do not store large quantities of water. Various levels of water stress are achieved through irrigation from solid set sprinklers.

  19. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the U.S./Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Rivera, José O; Ho, Hoi; Domínguez, Delfina C; Tyroch, Alan H; Antony, Suresh; Norte, Arturo; Pérez-Ruvalcaba, José Ascensión

    2009-01-01

    El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico comprise the largest U.S./Mexico border population. Bacterial samples were collected from two hospitals in El Paso and two in Ciudad Juarez and transported to a reference microbiology laboratory in El Paso for microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to NCCLS standards. The presence of the MecA gene, and the prevalence of both the SSCmec IV element and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin were investigated by PCR in all MRSA isolates. A total of 201 isolates in El Paso and 128 in Ciudad Juarez of Staphylococcus aureus were identified, of those, MRSA were significantly more prevalent in El Paso than in Ciudad Juarez [89 (44.3%) versus 10 (7.8%) respectively (p<0.0001)]. Thirty one (35%) of MRSA strains isolated in El Paso were community associated. Significantly higher prevalence of MRSA infections was documented in El Paso compared to Ciudad Juarez.

  1. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    PubMed

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  2. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, F; Alabi, A S; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-07-01

    Research on African Staphylococcus aureus has been largely neglected in the past, despite the cultural and geographical diversity in Africa, which has a significant impact on the epidemiology of this pathogen. The polarity between developed urban societies and remote rural populations (e.g. Pygmies), combined with close contact with animals (e.g. livestock and domestic animals, and wildlife), makes the epidemiology of S. aureus on the African continent unique and fascinating. Here, we try to draw an epidemiological picture of S. aureus colonization and infection in Africa, and focus on the wide spread of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive isolates, the emergence of the hypervirulent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone USA300, and the dissemination of the typical African clone MRSA sequence type 88.

  3. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery.

  4. Daptomycin efficacy in the central nervous system of a patient with disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen in the last decades and also represents the second most common pathogen isolated from patients in outpatient settings. Although methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections were traditionally limited to hospitals, community-associated cases of methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections have been reported. In our case, we observed an unexpected event during treatment. Case presentation A 60-year-old Caucasian man developed fever and multiple muscle and brain abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion Although our patient was given antimicrobials active against the isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, it was only after the introduction of daptomycin that his skin, soft tissue and muscle lesions and also brain manifestations improved. PMID:22938025

  5. Early NACA human computers at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The women of the Computer Department at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station are shown busy with test flight calculations. The computers under the direction of Roxanah Yancey were responsible for accurate calculations on the research test flights made at the Station. There were no mechanical computers at the station in 1949, but data was reduced by human computers. Shown in this photograph starting at the left are: Geraldine Mayer and Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth with Friden calculators on the their desks; Emily Stephens conferring with engineer John Mayer; Gertrude (Trudy) Valentine is working on an oscillograph recording reducing the data from a flight. Across the desk is Dorothy Clift Hughes using a slide rule to complete data calculations. Roxanah Yancey completes the picture as she fills out engineering requests for further data.

  6. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: spread of specific lineages among patients in different wards at a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Schuenck, R P; Ferreira, D C; da Costa, C R; Nouér, S A; dos Santos, K R N

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineages circulating in a Brazilian teaching hospital. MRSA isolates from nasal swabs were evaluated to assess antimicrobial susceptibility, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Panton-Valentine leucocidin status, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) analysis. Eighty-three MRSA isolates were analysed. SCCmec III (43.4%) and IV (49.4%) were predominant. ST1-IV (USA400) was more common in internal medicine (P = 0.002) whereas 'clone M' (SCCmec III) was more common in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (P = 0.004), and all isolates were ST5-IV (USA800) in dermatology (P < 0.001). These data improved the understanding of the MRSA epidemiology inside the hospital and helped to establish effective control measures.

  7. Blood and the Revenant in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In Sir Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth; or St Valentine's Day (1828), the resuscitated subject is referred to as a revenant, a term that Scott borrowed from Henry Thomson's Blackwoodian tale 'Le Revenant' (1827), meaning 'dead-alive'. Taking its cue from the sanguinary subtext of The Fair Maid of Perth, which is fascinated with the shedding of blood and transfusion of fluids, this chapter reads the Scottish revenant as a literary reflection on the extraordinary promise of blood transfusion in the 1820s: that death could be understood as a process, rather than an absolute state, and that medical intervention could restore life to those on the brink of death and even to the recently deceased.

  8. Molecular nature of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus derived from explosive nosocomial outbreaks of the 1980s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taneike, Ikue; Otsuka, Taketo; Dohmae, Soshi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2006-04-17

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes is increasing worldwide. Nosocomial outbreak-derived (hospital-acquired) MRSA (HA-MRSA) in Japan in the 1980s was also largely PVL(+). PVL(+) HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA shared the same multi-locus sequence type (ST30) and methicillin resistance cassette (SCCmecIV), but were divergent in oxacillin resistance, spa typing, PFGE analysis or clfA gene analysis. PVL(+) HA-MRSA, which probably originated in PVL(+)S. aureus ST30, was highly adhesive (carrying cna and bbp genes), highly-toxic (carrying luk(PV) and sea genes) and highly drug-resistant. PVL(+) HA-MRSA was once replaced by other PVL(-) HA-MRSA (e.g., ST5), and is re-emerging as CA-MRSA.

  9. The Role of Various Regions of the Bean Hypocotyl on Red Light-induced Hook Opening.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, B

    1971-08-01

    Measurement of various zones on the concave half of etiolated Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Black Valentine) hypocotyls has shown that growth at the basal portion of the elbow and the contiguous upper portion of the shank was stimulated earliest by red light. Growth of these two zones was unaffected by the tissue of the convex half but was inhibited by tissue distal to them. The inhibition was alleviated by the continuous presence of shank tissue below the growing zones. Based on cuts made halfway through the hypocotyl at positions above, below, or between the two zones of growth, it is suggested that cells at the inner portion of the upper shank control in some way the light-induced growth of the elbow cells directly above.

  10. Real-Time PCR to Identify Staphylococci and Assay for Virulence from Blood.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    The genus Staphylococcus includes pathogenic and non-pathogenic facultative anaerobes. Due to the plethora of virulence factors encoded in its genome, the species Staphylococcus aureus is known to be the most pathogenic. S. aureus strains harboring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, however, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbor mecA, the genetic driver for staphylococcal methicillin-resistance. In this chapter, the detailed practical procedure for operating a real-time pentaplex PCR assay in blood cultures is described. The pentaplex real-time PCR assay simultaneously detects markers for the presence of bacteria (16S rRNA), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), S. aureus (spa), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), and methicillin resistance (mecA).

  11. Photographs of the Sea Floor of Western Massachusetts Bay, Offshore of Boston, Massachusett, July 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Butman, Bradford; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains photographs and sediment sample analyses of the sea floor obtained at 142 sites in western Massachusetts Bay (Figure 1) during a research cruise (USGS cruise ISBL99024) aboard the Fishing Vessel (FV) Isabel S. (Figure 2) conducted July 18-21, 1999. These photographs and samples provide critical ground truth information for the interpretation of shaded relief and backscatter intensity maps created using data collected with a multibeam echo sounder system (Butman and others, in press, a, b, c; Valentine and others, in press, a, b, c). Collection of these photographs and samples was undertaken in support of a large project whose overall objective is to map and describe the sea floor of Massachusetts Bay.

  12. Clinical photography and patient rights: the need for orthopraxy.

    PubMed

    Berle, I

    2008-02-01

    The increasing use of digital image recording devices, whether they are digital cameras or mobile phone cameras, has democratised clinical photography in the UK. However, when non-professional clinical photographers take photographs of patients the issues of consent and confidentiality are either ignored or given scant attention. Whatever the status of the clinician, the taking of clinical photographs must be practised within the context of a professional etiquette. Best practice recognises the need for informed consent and the constraints associated with confidentiality. Against the background of the poverty of the current discourse of these issues, as presented during the Valentine GMC Fitness to Practice hearing, the paper considers the need for orthopraxy in the use of clinical photography.

  13. On sliding of a puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, V. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aleksandr Yul'evich Ishlinsky liked to consider a problem with some "special thrill" at the end of the Seminar meeting of the Chair of Applied Mathematics at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. For example, in 1978 he asked the author of this paper to describe the process of sliding of a rotating hockey puck on ice. Somewhat later, on such a seminar, the author made his report and demonstrated the experimental results, which was approved by Aleksandr Yul'evich. But the small paper on this topic, delivered to the journal "Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta," was published only in 1981 [1] thanks to the support of Valentin Vitalievich Rumyantsev. The author thanks the Editorial Board of this journal for the possibility of discussing one of "Ishlinsky's problems" once again.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hee-Soo; Choi, Min-Jung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-Cho; Song, Si-Wook; Wee, Sung-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    A total of 2,858 meat samples collected during 2003-2008 in Korea were investigated, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated from 1.0% (9/890) of beef, 0.3% (4/1,055) of pork, and 0.3% (3/913) of chicken meat samples, respectively. MRSA isolates showed the two sequence types (STs), ST72 from beef and pork and ST692 from chicken meat. MRSA isolates from beef and pork were Panton-Valentine leukocidin -negative, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa strain with ST 72, which is the most prevalent type of community acquired-MRSA in Korea. An identical pulse-field gel electrophoresis pattern was detected among 10 of 16 MRSA isolates: 9 strains from beef (n=5) and pork (n=4) in 2008, respectively, and one strain from beef in 2005.

  15. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  16. Hunting for exploding red supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Zhu, Qingfeng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Rich, Michael; Chen, Rosie; Trombley, Christine; MacKenty, John W.; Habing, Harm; Churchwell, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are among the brightest Galactic stars at infrared wavelengths. They lose mass at high-rates and, eventually, explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium. I would like to present results on our ongoing searches for candidate obscured-far-luminous late-type stars, which are based on 2MASS, UKIDSS, and GLIMPSE data, on extinction-free colors(Messineo et al. 2012, A&A, 537) and on the analysis of the extinction curve along a given line-of-sight with clump stars. Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 571, 43) spectroscopically confirmed two clusters of red supergiants, one on the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm at a distance of ~7 kpc, and another on the Scutum-Crux arm at a distance of ~4 kpc; while Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 569, 20) have, found several RSGs in the core of SNRs W41 and within the area covered by the SNR G22.7-0.2 in the GMC G23.3-0.3. SNR G22.7-0.2 appears to be most likely a type II SNR.Messineo , M.; Menten, K. M.; Churchwell, E.; Habing, H. 2012A&A...537A..10MMessineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie 2014A&A...571A..43MMessineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine; 2014A&A...569A..20M

  17. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Savitha; Velusamy, Nithya; Lalitha, Prajna; Kar, Sarita; Sharma, Savitri; Arakere, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India. Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type. The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST)772, positive for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%). Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%), 5 (3%), 72 (6%), 88 (3%), 121 (3%), and 672 (3%). This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India. Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were detected. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (ST22) is a major ST found in health care as well as community settings in non-eye infections in India, but only one methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate belonging to ST22 was detected. Predominantly ST772, along with a few other STs, caused the 33 eye infections

  18. Staphylococcus aureus eye infections in two Indian hospitals: emergence of ST772 as a major clone

    PubMed Central

    Nadig, Savitha; Velusamy, Nithya; Lalitha, Prajna; Kar, Sarita; Sharma, Savitri; Arakere, Gayathri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing a variety of eye infections from two major eye care hospitals in India. Methods Twenty-four isolates from Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India, and nine isolates from LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, India, representing severe to nonsevere eye infections like microbial keratitis to lacrimal sac abscess, were characterized. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, accessory gene regulator typing, staphylococcal protein A typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were used, along with determination of the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin toxin and endotoxin gene cluster among each sequence type. Results The majority of eye infections, both severe and nonsevere, were caused by sequence type (ST)772, positive for the Panton–Valentine leucocidin gene, and carrying methicillin-resistant staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V cassette (22/33, 67%). Some of the other sequence types that caused severe eye infections were ST1 (9%), 5 (3%), 72 (6%), 88 (3%), 121 (3%), and 672 (3%). This is the first report of the presence of ST1 and 88 in India. Conclusion Although the number of isolates included in this study was small, most of the eye infections were caused by community-associated S. aureus where patients had no history of hospitalization or treatment in the past year. In the case of six severe infections, patients were admitted for surgeries and there is probability of hospital infection. In addition, only methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type V were detected. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (ST22) is a major ST found in health care as well as community settings in non-eye infections in India, but only one methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate belonging to ST22 was detected. Predominantly ST772, along with a few other

  19. Functional independence within the self-memory system: new insights from two cases of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Picard, Laurence; Mayor-Dubois, Claire; Maeder, Philippe; Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Abram, Maria; Duval, Céline; Eustache, Francis; Roulet-Perez, Eliane; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest that the self-memory system can be fractionated into three functionally independent systems processing personal information at several levels of abstraction, including episodic memories of one's life (episodic autobiographical memory, EAM), semantic knowledge of facts about one's life (semantic autobiographical memory, SAM), and semantic knowledge of one's personality [conceptual self, (CS)]. Through the study of two developmental amnesic patients suffering of neonatal brain injuries, we explored how the different facets of the self-memory system develop when growing up with bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Neuropsychological evaluations showed that both of them suffered from dramatic episodic learning disability with no sense of recollection (Remember/Know procedure), whereas their semantic abilities differed, being completely preserved (Valentine) or not (Jocelyn). Magnetic resonance imaging, including quantitative volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and adjacent (entorhinal, perirhinal, and temporopolar) cortex, showed severe bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus in both patients, with additional atrophy of adjacent cortex in Jocelyn. Exploration of EAM and SAM according to lifetime periods covering the entire lifespan (TEMPAu task, Piolino et al., 2009) showed that both patients had marked impairments in EAM, as they lacked specificity, details and sense of recollection, whereas SAM was completely normal in Valentine, but impaired in Jocelyn. Finally, measures of patients' CS (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, Fitts and Warren, 1996), checked by their mothers, were generally within normal range, but both patients showed a more positive self-concept than healthy controls. These two new cases support a modular account of the medial-temporal lobe with episodic memory and recollection depending on the hippocampus, and semantic memory and familiarity on adjacent cortices. Furthermore, they highlight developmental

  20. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected in 2005 and 2006 from patients with invasive disease: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Limbago, Brandi; Fosheim, Gregory E; Schoonover, Valerie; Crane, Christina E; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Heltzel, David; Ray, Susan M; Harrison, Lee H; Lynfield, Ruth; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Townes, John M; Schaffner, William; Mu, Yi; Fridkin, Scott K

    2009-05-01

    This study characterizes 1,984 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected in 2005 and 2006 from normally sterile sites in patients with invasive MRSA infection. These isolates represent a convenience sample of all invasive MRSA cases reported as part of the Active Bacterial Core surveillance system in eight states in the United States. The majority of isolates were from blood (83.8%), joints (4.1%), and bone (4.2%). Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); SCCmec typing; susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents; and PCR analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) to SEH, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Thirteen established PFGE types were recognized among these isolates, although USA100 and USA300 predominated, accounting for 53.2% and 31.4% of the isolates, respectively. As expected, isolates from hospital onset cases were predominantly USA100, whereas those from community-associated cases were predominantly USA300. USA100 isolates were diverse (Simpson's discriminatory index [DI] = 0.924); generally positive only for enterotoxin D (74.5%); and resistant to clindamycin (98.6%), erythromycin (99.0%), and levofloxacin (99.6%), in addition to beta-lactam agents. USA300 isolates were less diverse (DI = 0.566), positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (96.3%), and resistant to erythromycin (94.1%) and, less commonly, levofloxacin (54.6%), in addition to beta-lactam agents. This collection provides a reference collection of MRSA isolates associated with invasive disease, collected in 2005 and 2006 in the United States, for future comparison and ongoing studies.

  1. Virulence Factors in Staphylococci Isolated From Nasal Cavities of Footballers.

    PubMed

    Duran, Nizami; Yildirim, Yunus; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Pasa, Ozgur; Kilinc, Cetin; Yildirim, Irfan; Eryilmaz, Naciye; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the rate of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin producing Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin (mecA) and slime (icaA/icaD) genes in staphylococcal strains isolated from nasal cavities of footballers. Nasal swab samples were taken from each footballers and a healthy control group for the isolation of staphylococcal strains. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to determine Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, mecA and icaA/icaD genes in staphylococcal isolates. Among 91 S. aureus strains, the presence of mecA gene was detected as 9.9%. This ratio was 17.9% (27 of 151) among the coagulase-negative staphylococci. A significant difference was found between coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus isolates regarding the presence of mecA gene (P < 0.001). As for the genes of the slime, icaA/icaD genes were detected in 198 of 242 (81.8%) strains. The occurrence of slime genes was 91.2% and 89.4% among the S. aureus coagulase and negative staphylococci, respectively (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the frequency of the mecA and slime genes when compared with the healthy control group and the football players (P < 0.01). Of 91 isolates, 22 were found to be methicillin resistant by the oxacillin disc diffusion method, whereas the remaining (220) were methicillin susceptible. Methicillin resistance was detected as 14.9% by the polymerase chain reaction method, whereas it was found as 9.1% by phenotypic methods. Early and accurate diagnosis of virulent staphylococcal strains is crucial because the virulent coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococcal strains in the nasal floras of footballers may be major potential sources of superficial and deep tissue infections. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CALL FOR PAPERS: Progress in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General dedicated to the subject of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as featured in the International Conference in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (PSQM03), 15--19 July 2003, University of Valladolid, Spain (http://metodos.fam.cie.uva.es/~susy_qm_03/). Participants at that meeting, as well as other researchers working in this area or in related fields, are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Irina Areféva, David J Fernández, Véronique Hussin, Javier Negro, Luis M Nieto and Boris F Samsonov to act as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: bullet The subject of the paper should be in the general area covered by the PSQM03 conference. bullet Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual mechanisms of the journal. bullet Papers should present substantial new results (they should not be simply reviews of authors' own work that is already published elsewhere). The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are as follows: bullet DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 15 January 2004. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in approximately September 2004. bullet There is a page limit of 15 pages per research contribution. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. bullet Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by e-mail to jphysa@iop.org, quoting `JPhysA special issue --- PSQM03'. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Please see the web site for further information on electronic submissions. bullet Authors unable to submit by email may send hard copy contributions to: Journal of Physics A, Institute of Physics Publishing

  3. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  4. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  5. KSC-99pp1487

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-09

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), members of the STS-101 crew learn about some of the cargo that will be on their mission from workers at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. At left are Mission Specialists Boris W. Morukov and Yuri Malenchenko, who are with the Russian Space Agency. Other crew members are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber (Ph.D.), Edward Lu, and Jeffrey N. Williams, The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000

  6. Prohibiting juvenile access to tobacco: Violation rates, cigarette sales, and youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Andrew L; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-09-01

    Scholars who examine the efficacy of juvenile tobacco sales restrictions, especially the 1992 "Synar Amendment" that led all of fifty U.S. states to enact prohibitions on tobacco sales to minors, are notably divided as to impact on youth smoking. Some researchers claim that such policies have failed and ought to be abandoned (Craig & Boris, 2007; Etter, 2006; Glantz, 2002), while others insist that enforcement has indeed led to reduced tobacco use (DiFranza, 2011b; SAMHSA, 2011). The present study is the first to combine data on Synar violation rates from all states and years available since the amendment's implementation, assessing the connection to national rates of cigarette sales and youth smoking behavior. Using national data from the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Tobacco Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System across all U.S. states between 1996 and 2007, we employ hierarchical linear modeling to examine the connection between retailer Synar violations and youth smoking. Controlling for state-level demographic variables, results indicate that retailer violation rates are significantly associated with greater youth smoking prevalence, as well as higher overall cigarette sales. While critiques of Synar policies are substantive and should be addressed, laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to juveniles appear to have had some degree of success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How do pre-adolescent children interpret conditionals?

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies examining children's basic understanding of conditionals have led to very different conclusions. On the one hand, conditional inference tasks suggest that young children are able to interpret familiar conditionals in a complex manner. In contrast, truth-table tasks suggest that before adolescence, children have limited (conjunctive) representations of conditionals. We hypothesized that the latter results are due to use of what are essentially arbitrary conditionals. To examine this, we gave a truth-table task using two kinds of conditional rules, Arbitrary and Imaginary categorical rules (If an animal is a bori, then it has red wings) to 9- and 12-year-olds. Results with the Arbitrary rules were consistent with those found in previous studies, with the most frequent interpretation being the Conjunctive one. However, among even the youngest children, the most frequent interpretation of the Imaginary categorical rules was the defective conditional, which is only found with much older adolescents with Arbitrary rules. These results suggest that working memory limitations are not an important developmental factor in how young children interpret conditional rules.

  8. Global simulation of field-reversed configuration using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Calvin; Fulton, Daniel; Kuley, Animesh; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Binderbauer, Michael; Tajima, Toshiki; Schmitz, Lothar; the TAE Team Team

    2016-10-01

    In the last several years, the C-2/C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments at Tri Alpha Energy have progressed to consistent, reproducible plasma lifetimes of 10+ ms, i.e. FRCs have reached transport limited regimes. In FRC geometry, the thermal ion gyroradius is on the order of the size of the plasma near the magnetic null-point. Fast ion orbits intersect both the FRC core and the scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Previous local simulations of electrostatic drift-wave instabilities using the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) find the core to be robustly stable with driftwave instability only in the SOL at frequencies approaching the ion cyclotron frequency. Therefore, FRC transport studies require fully kinetic ion simulations with cross-separatrix coupling between the core and SOL. Here we report progress of such global simulations using fully kinetic ions and drift kinetic electrons, including the implementation of the Boris push scheme for cyclotron motion and cylindrical coordinates for the separatrix. Supported by the Norman Rostoker Fellowship.

  9. KSC00pp1395

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Upon touchdown on Runway 15 of KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility, Atlantis’s drag chute opens to help slow the vehicle. At the controls are Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt and Pilot Scott D. Altman. Also on board the orbiter are Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT, landing on orbit 185 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 3:56:57 a.m. EDT and wheel stop at 3:58:01 a.m. EDT. The crew has returned from the International Space Station where they transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. This was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC

  10. KSC00pp1393

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis presents a ghostlike image in the runway lights as it approaches touchdown on the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 15. At the controls are Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt and Pilot Scott D. Altman. Also on board the orbiter are Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT, landing on orbit 185 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 3:56:57 a.m. EDT and wheel stop at 3:58:01 a.m. EDT. The crew has returned from the International Space Station where they transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. This was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC

  11. KSC-00pp1394

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis appears ghostlike in the runway lights as it touches down on the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 15. At the controls are Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt and Pilot Scott D. Altman. Also on board the orbiter are Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT, landing on orbit 185 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 3:56:57 a.m. EDT and wheel stop at 3:58:01 a.m. EDT. The crew has returned from the International Space Station where they transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. This was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC

  12. KSC-00pp1395

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Upon touchdown on Runway 15 of KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility, Atlantis’s drag chute opens to help slow the vehicle. At the controls are Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt and Pilot Scott D. Altman. Also on board the orbiter are Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT, landing on orbit 185 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 3:56:57 a.m. EDT and wheel stop at 3:58:01 a.m. EDT. The crew has returned from the International Space Station where they transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. This was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC

  13. KSC00pp1394

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-09-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis appears ghostlike in the runway lights as it touches down on the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 15. At the controls are Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt and Pilot Scott D. Altman. Also on board the orbiter are Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT, landing on orbit 185 of the mission. Nose gear touchdown was at 3:56:57 a.m. EDT and wheel stop at 3:58:01 a.m. EDT. The crew has returned from the International Space Station where they transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. This was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC

  14. Remote sensing of hydrologic variables in boreal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carroll, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    During Phase 2 airborne Gamma Radiation measurements were conducted over 48 BOREAS flight lines. Ground measurements of the soil moisture (SM) of the mineral soil and of the depth and water content (WC) of the moss/humus layer were collected for calibration of the flight lines. Special attention has been given to the flight lines over and near the primary tower sites in the southern study area (SSA): Old Black Spruce (OBS), Old Jack Pine, Old Aspen, and Young Aspen. Multiple ground surveys (September 1993; July, August, and September 1994) show the variation of the water content of the moss/humus layers and changes in the amount of standing water near the SSA, OBS tower during the period September 1993 to September 1994. All ground data, airborne estimates and locations of flight lines and ground sampling points have been submitted to BORIS (Boreas Information System). On 8-10 September 1994 exceptionally high values of cosmic radiation were observed by the airborne gamma radiation system over the SSA. Follow-up investigation has not determined the source of, or what caused, the high cosmic count rates.

  15. Remote sensing of hydrologic variables in boreal areas, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carroll, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    During Phase 2 airborne Gamma Radiation measurements were conducted over 48 BOREAS (boreal ecosystem atmosphere study) flight lines. Ground measurements of the soil moisture (SM) of the mineral soil and the depth and water content (WC) of the moss/humus layer were collected for calibration of the flight lines. Special attention has been given to the flight lines over, and near, the primary tower sites in the southern study area (SSA); Old Black Spruce (OBS), Old Jack Pine, Old Aspen, and Young Aspen. Multiple ground surveys (September 1993, July, August, and September 1994) show the variation of the water content of the moss/humus layers and changes in the amount of standing water near the SSA OBS tower during the period September 1993 to September 1994. All ground data, airborne estimates and locations of flight lines and ground sampling points have been submitted to BORIS (BOREAS Information System). On 8-10 September 1994 exceptionally high values of cosmic radiation were observed by the airborne gamma radiation system over the SSA. Follow up investigation has not determined the source of, or what caused, the high cosmic count rates.

  16. BOREAS RSS-14 Level 1a GOES-7 Visible, IR, and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. The level-1a BOREAS GOES-7 image data were collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and processed to level-1a products by BORIS personnel. The data cover the period of 01-Jan-1994 through 08-Jul-1995 with partial to complete coverage on the majority of the days. The data include three bands with eightbit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. STS-106 Mission Specialist Morukov is ready to drive the M113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Mission Specialist Boris Morukov, who is with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, seems to take his role as M113 driver seriously. The M113 is an armored personnel carrier that is part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter'''s payload bay. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  18. The endocrine quiz.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Nagesh, V Sri

    2014-05-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  19. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality.

  20. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-I. Verification and update of theoretical predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-02-15

    Research Highlights: > The QED theory of muonic hydrogen energy levels is verified and updated. > Previously obtained results of Pachucki and Borie are confirmed. > The influence of the vacuum polarization potential onto the Bethe logarithm is calculated nonperturbatively. > A model-independent estimate of the Zemach moment correction is given. > Parametrically, the observed discrepancy of theory and experiment is shown to be substantial and large. - Abstract: In view of the recently observed discrepancy of theory and experiment for muonic hydrogen [R. Pohl et al., Nature 466 (2010) 213], we reexamine the theory on which the quantum electrodynamic (QED) predictions are based. In particular, we update the theory of the 2P-2S Lamb shift, by calculating the self-energy of the bound muon in the full Coulomb + vacuum polarization (Uehling) potential. We also investigate the relativistic two-body corrections to the vacuum polarization shift, and we analyze the influence of the shape of the nuclear charge distribution on the proton radius determination. The uncertainty associated with the third Zemach moment {sub 2} in the determination of the proton radius from the measurement is estimated. An updated theoretical prediction for the 2S-2P transition is given.