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Sample records for boris kruglikov valentin

  1. Valentine 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 February 2006 Happy Valentine's Day from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) team!

    This somewhat heart-shaped, eroded and partially-filled crater is located near the southeast wall of Columbus Crater in the Mare Sirenum region of Mars. North is toward the bottom/lower left.

    Location near: 29.9oS, 165.2oW Image width: 400 meter scale bar = 1,312 feet Illumination from: lower right Season: Southern Autumn

  2. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Why is Boris algorithm so good?

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Shuangxi; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Sun, Yajuan; Tang, William M.

    2013-08-15

    Due to its excellent long term accuracy, the Boris algorithm is the de facto standard for advancing a charged particle. Despite its popularity, up to now there has been no convincing explanation why the Boris algorithm has this advantageous feature. In this paper, we provide an answer to this question. We show that the Boris algorithm conserves phase space volume, even though it is not symplectic. The global bound on energy error typically associated with symplectic algorithms still holds for the Boris algorithm, making it an effective algorithm for the multi-scale dynamics of plasmas.

  4. Why is Boris Algorithm So Good?

    SciTech Connect

    et al, Hong Qin

    2013-03-03

    Due to its excellent long term accuracy, the Boris algorithm is the de facto standard for advancing a charged particle. Despite its popularity, up to now there has been no convincing explanation why the Boris algorithm has this advantageous feature. In this letter, we provide an answer to this question. We show that the Boris algorithm conserves phase space volume, even though it is not symplectic. The global bound on energy error typically associated with symplectic algorithms still holds for the Boris algorithm, making it an effective algorithm for the multi-scale dynamics of plasmas.

  5. Valentine's Day: a Brief History and Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Valentine's Day presents an opportunity to show loved ones they are appreciated. Sweethearts, spouses, and families exchange gifts to express affection. Beyond traditional celebrations, new customs such as a romantic dinner, attending movies, and exchanging jewelry have been added. This article presents a brief history of Valentine's Day and a…

  6. Streaming the Boris Pusher: a CUDA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Paulo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis O.

    2009-01-22

    We demonstrate an implementation of the Boris Particle Pusher Algorithm using CUDA-enabled processors. A simplified PIC code is used as a reference for the pusher and several tests are shown. The deployment time from a developer point of view is also evaluated. Results show that CUDA is a good tool for significant code acceleration with minimal code impact and minimal effort for the developer.

  7. BORIS/CTCFL is an RNA-binding protein that associates with polysomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background BORIS (CTCFL), a paralogue of the multifunctional and ubiquitously expressed transcription factor CTCF, is best known for its role in transcriptional regulation. In the nucleus, BORIS is particularly enriched in the nucleolus, a crucial compartment for ribosomal RNA and RNA metabolism. However, little is known about cytoplasmic BORIS, which represents the major pool of BORIS protein. Results We show, firstly, that BORIS has a putative nuclear export signal in the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, BORIS associates with mRNA in both neural stem cells and young neurons. The majority of the BORIS-associated transcripts are different in the two cell types. Finally, by using polysome profiling we show that BORIS is associated with actively translating ribosomes. Conclusion We have demonstrated the RNA binding properties of cellular BORIS and its association with actively translating ribosomes. We suggest that BORIS is involved in gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:24279897

  8. STS-106 Crew Interviews: Boris Morukov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) video production presents an STS-106 pre-launch interview with Russian Cosmonaut/Mission Specialist Boris Morukov, M.D., Ph.D. Among other topics, Morukov discusses his background in studying weightlessness at the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems and how his experiences prepared him to become a Cosmonaut candidate. STS-106 is International Space Station assembly flight ISS-2A.2b and will utilize the SPACEHAB Double Module and the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to take supplies to the station. The mission will also include 2 spacewalks.

  9. Boris G. Karpov (1903-1990); (German Title: Boris G. Karpov (1903-1990))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.

    Boris George Karpov studied at the University of California in Berkeley and got his Ph.D. from this university in 1933. From 1931 to 1944 he worked as astronomer and lecturer at the Lick Observatory, the University of California, Mount Wilson Observatory, the University of Minnesota, and finally at Vassar College. From 1931 to 1942 he published some astronomical papers. After this he moved into military research at the Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground. This biographical study is widely based on online sources and also demonstrates the possibilities and limits of such investigations in the Internet.

  10. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  11. Possible prognostic value of BORIS transcript variants ratio in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Novak Kujundžić, Renata; Grbeša, Ivana; Ivkić, Mirko; Krušlin, Božo; Konjevoda, Paško; Gall Trošelj, Koraljka

    2014-07-01

    BORIS is a paralog of a highly conserved, multi-functional chromatin factor CTCF. Unlike CTCF, which has been shown to possess tumor-suppressive properties, BORIS belongs to the "cancer/testis antigen" family normally expressed only in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of tumors. The consequences of BORIS expression, relative abundance of its isoforms, and its role in carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. It activates transcription of hTERT and MYC, genes relevant for laryngeal carcinoma progression. In this study, BORIS expression has been analyzed at the transcriptional level by RT-PCR and protein level by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry in 32 laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent non-tumorous tissue. BORIS was detected in 44 % (14/32) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples, while it was detected only in one normal, tumor-adjacent tissue sample. Tree based survival analysis, using the recursive partitioning algorithm mvpart, extracted the ratio of relative abundance of BORIS transcript variants containing exon 7 (BORIS 7+) and those lacking exon 7 (BORIS 7-) as an independent prognostic factor associated with disease relapse during a 5-year follow-up period. Patients having BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio ≥1 had a higher rate of disease relapse than patients with BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio <1. Hazard ratio for that group, based on Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, was 3.53. This is the first study analyzing expression of BORIS protein and transcript variants in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma relative to its possible prognostic value for recurrence and overall survival. PMID:24563233

  12. High expression of hTERT and stemness genes in BORIS/CTCFL positive cells isolated from embryonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Loredana; Renaud, Stéphanie; Losi, Lorena; Leyvraz, Serge; Benhattar, Jean

    2014-01-01

    BORIS/CTCFL is a member of cancer testis antigen family normally expressed in germ cells. In tumors, it is aberrantly expressed although its functions are not completely well-defined. To better understand the functions of BORIS in cancer, we selected the embryonic cancer cells as a model. Using a molecular beacon, which specifically targets BORIS mRNA, we demonstrated that BORIS positive cells are a small subpopulation of tumor cells (3-5% of total). The BORIS-positive cells isolated using BORIS-molecular beacon, expressed higher telomerase hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2) and cancer stem cell marker genes (CD44 and ALDH1) compared to the BORIS-negative tumor cells. In order to define the functional role of BORIS, stable BORIS-depleted embryonic cancer cells were generated. BORIS silencing strongly down-regulated the expression of hTERT, stem cell and cancer stem cell marker genes. Moreover, the BORIS knockdown increased cellular senescence in embryonic cancer cells, revealing a putative role of BORIS in the senescence biological program. Our data indicate an association of BORIS expressing cells subpopulation with the expression of stemness genes, highlighting the critical role played by BORIS in embryonic neoplastic disease.

  13. The case of Valentine Shortis--yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Friedland, M L

    1991-04-01

    Valentine Shortis, a young Irish immigrant, was convicted of murder in Quebec in 1895. His insanity defence was unsuccessful in spite of psychiatric evidence given by the leading psychiatrists in Canada. Shortis spent the next 42 years in custody. The case provides a good vehicle for exploring a number of aspects of the history of psychiatry, the insanity defence, and the treatment of the criminally insane in Canada. Comparisons are made with the insanity defence and the treatment of the criminally insane today.

  14. Selective apoptosis of breast cancer cells by siRNA targeting of BORIS.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher J; Ichim, Thomas E; Liu, Liping; Reznik, Gary; Min, Wei-Ping; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Reznik, Boris N

    2008-05-23

    Brother of the regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) is an epigenetically acting transcription factor which represses the tumor inhibitor functions of the tumor suppressor protein CTCF. BORIS expression has not been documented in adult females, making it an exciting molecular target for drug development in breast cancer. Previously, we demonstrated that vaccination of mice with zing-finger (ZF)-deleted non-functional BORIS results in regression of breast cancer and generation of potent anti-tumor immune responses. RNAi induction can be used as an alternative approach for selective tumor cell killing. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules targeting BORIS were generated and their efficacy was tested in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and non-malignant epithelial cell lines. Treatment with BORIS-specific siRNA, but not control siRNA led to a concentration-dependent reduction in BORIS expression and proportional apoptotic death of the cancer but not control cells. To our knowledge this is first report demonstrating a critical role of BORIS in maintaining tumor cell viability.

  15. Influence of Valentine's Day and Halloween on birth timing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2011-10-01

    It is known that cultural representations, in the form of stereotypes, can influence functional health. We predicted that the influence of cultural representations, in the form of salient holidays, would extend to birth timing. On Valentine's Day, which conveys positive symbolism, there was a 3.6% increase in spontaneous births and a 12.1% increase in cesarean births. Whereas, on Halloween, which conveys negative symbolism, there was a 5.3% decrease in spontaneous births and a 16.9% decrease in cesarean births. These effects reached significance at p < .0001, after adjusting for year and day of the week. The sample was based on birth-certificate information for all births in the United States within one week on either side of each holiday across 11 years. The Valentine's-Day window included 1,676,217 births and the Halloween window included 1,809,304 births. Our findings raise the possibility that pregnant women may be able to control the timing of spontaneous births, in contrast to the traditional assumption, and that scheduled births are also influenced by the cultural representations of the two holidays. PMID:21880409

  16. Influence of Valentine's Day and Halloween on birth timing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2011-10-01

    It is known that cultural representations, in the form of stereotypes, can influence functional health. We predicted that the influence of cultural representations, in the form of salient holidays, would extend to birth timing. On Valentine's Day, which conveys positive symbolism, there was a 3.6% increase in spontaneous births and a 12.1% increase in cesarean births. Whereas, on Halloween, which conveys negative symbolism, there was a 5.3% decrease in spontaneous births and a 16.9% decrease in cesarean births. These effects reached significance at p < .0001, after adjusting for year and day of the week. The sample was based on birth-certificate information for all births in the United States within one week on either side of each holiday across 11 years. The Valentine's-Day window included 1,676,217 births and the Halloween window included 1,809,304 births. Our findings raise the possibility that pregnant women may be able to control the timing of spontaneous births, in contrast to the traditional assumption, and that scheduled births are also influenced by the cultural representations of the two holidays.

  17. NASA's TRMM Satellite Sees Mexico Soaked from Boris, System 90L

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM satellite data showed that some areas in southwestern Mexico received over 12 inches of rainfall (red) from Boris, while System 90L on the eastern side of Mexico brought similar totals to part...

  18. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  19. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is involved in cervical cancer stemness and can be a target of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takuya; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Mariya, Tasuku; Horibe, Ryota; Kuroda, Takafumi; Tabuchi, Yuta; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Takahashi, Akari; Asanuma, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Cervical cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence. Eradication of CSCs/CICs is thus essential to cure cervical cancer. In this study, we isolated cervical CSCs/CICs by sphere culture, and we identified a cancer testis (CT) antigen, CTCFL/BORIS, that is expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS has 23 mRNA isoform variants classified by 6 subfamilies (sfs), and they encode 17 different BORIS peptides. BORIS sf1 and sf4 are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs, whereas BORIS sf6 is expressed only in CSCs/CICs. Overexpression of BORIS sf6 in cervical cancer cells increased sphere formation and tumor-initiating ability compared with those in control cells, whereas overexpression of BORIS sf1 and BORIS sf4 resulted in only slight increases. Thus, BORIS sf6 is a cervical CSC/CIC-specific subfamily and has a role in the maintenance of cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS sf6 contains a specific c-terminal domain (C34), and we identified a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted antigenic peptide, BORIS C34_24(9) encoded by BORIS sf6. A BORIS C34_24(9)-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clone showed cytotoxicity for BORIS sf6-overexpressing cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the CTL clone significantly suppressed sphere formation of CaSki cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the CT antigen BORIS sf6 is specifically expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs, that BORIS sf6 has a role in the maintenance of CSCs/CICs, and that BORIS C34_24(9) peptide is a promising candidate for cervical CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. PMID:26849232

  20. Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site (BORIS) variant subfamily 6 is involved in cervical cancer stemness and can be a target of immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Takuya; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Mariya, Tasuku; Horibe, Ryota; Kuroda, Takafumi; Tabuchi, Yuta; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Takahashi, Akari; Asanuma, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Cervical cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence. Eradication of CSCs/CICs is thus essential to cure cervical cancer. In this study, we isolated cervical CSCs/CICs by sphere culture, and we identified a cancer testis (CT) antigen, CTCFL/BORIS, that is expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS has 23 mRNA isoform variants classified by 6 subfamilies (sfs), and they encode 17 different BORIS peptides. BORIS sf1 and sf4 are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs, whereas BORIS sf6 is expressed only in CSCs/CICs. Overexpression of BORIS sf6 in cervical cancer cells increased sphere formation and tumor-initiating ability compared with those in control cells, whereas overexpression of BORIS sf1 and BORIS sf4 resulted in only slight increases. Thus, BORIS sf6 is a cervical CSC/CIC-specific subfamily and has a role in the maintenance of cervical CSCs/CICs. BORIS sf6 contains a specific c-terminal domain (C34), and we identified a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted antigenic peptide, BORIS C34_24(9) encoded by BORIS sf6. A BORIS C34_24(9)-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clone showed cytotoxicity for BORIS sf6-overexpressing cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the CTL clone significantly suppressed sphere formation of CaSki cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the CT antigen BORIS sf6 is specifically expressed in cervical CSCs/CICs, that BORIS sf6 has a role in the maintenance of CSCs/CICs, and that BORIS C34_24(9) peptide is a promising candidate for cervical CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. PMID:26849232

  1. A polymorphic minisatellite region of BORIS regulates gene expression and its rare variants correlate with lung cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Lyun; Roh, Yun-Gil; Chu, In-Sun; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seung Il; Chang, Heekyung; Kang, Tae-Hong; Chung, Jin Woong; Koh, Sang Seok; Larionov, Vladimir; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of BORIS/CTCFL (Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites/CTCF-like protein) is reported in different malignancies. In this study, we characterized the entire promoter region of BORIS/CTCFL, including the CpG islands, to assess the relationship between BORIS expression and lung cancer. To simplify the construction of luciferase reporter cassettes with various-sized portions of the upstream region, genomic copies of BORIS were isolated using TAR cloning technology. We analyzed three promoter blocks: the GATA/CCAAT box, the CpG islands and the minisatellite region BORIS-MS2. Polymorphic minisatellite sequences were isolated from genomic DNA prepared from the blood of controls and cases. Of the three promoter blocks, the GATA/CCAAT box was determined to be a critical element of the core promoter, while the CpG islands and the BORIS-MS2 minisatellite region were found to act as regulators. Interestingly, the polymorphic minisatellite region BORIS-MS2 was identified as a negative regulator that repressed the expression levels of luciferase reporter cassettes less effectively in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also examined the association between the size of BORIS-MS2 and lung cancer in a case-control study with 590 controls and 206 lung cancer cases. Rare alleles of BORIS-MS2 were associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.08; and P=0.039). To conclude, our data provide information on the organization of the BORIS promoter region and gene regulation in normal and cancer cells. In addition, we propose that specific alleles of the BORIS-MS2 region could be used to identify the risk for lung cancer. PMID:27416782

  2. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Loredana; Losi, Lorena; Leyvraz, Serge; Benhattar, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites) or CTCFL (CTCF-like) is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres) of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1) and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1) genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7). Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  3. A polymorphic minisatellite region of BORIS regulates gene expression and its rare variants correlate with lung cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se-Lyun; Roh, Yun-Gil; Chu, In-Sun; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seung Il; Chang, Heekyung; Kang, Tae-Hong; Chung, Jin Woong; Koh, Sang Seok; Larionov, Vladimir; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of BORIS/CTCFL (Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites/CTCF-like protein) is reported in different malignancies. In this study, we characterized the entire promoter region of BORIS/CTCFL, including the CpG islands, to assess the relationship between BORIS expression and lung cancer. To simplify the construction of luciferase reporter cassettes with various-sized portions of the upstream region, genomic copies of BORIS were isolated using TAR cloning technology. We analyzed three promoter blocks: the GATA/CCAAT box, the CpG islands and the minisatellite region BORIS-MS2. Polymorphic minisatellite sequences were isolated from genomic DNA prepared from the blood of controls and cases. Of the three promoter blocks, the GATA/CCAAT box was determined to be a critical element of the core promoter, while the CpG islands and the BORIS-MS2 minisatellite region were found to act as regulators. Interestingly, the polymorphic minisatellite region BORIS-MS2 was identified as a negative regulator that repressed the expression levels of luciferase reporter cassettes less effectively in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also examined the association between the size of BORIS-MS2 and lung cancer in a case–control study with 590 controls and 206 lung cancer cases. Rare alleles of BORIS-MS2 were associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–4.08; and P=0.039). To conclude, our data provide information on the organization of the BORIS promoter region and gene regulation in normal and cancer cells. In addition, we propose that specific alleles of the BORIS-MS2 region could be used to identify the risk for lung cancer. PMID:27416782

  4. [Severe infection by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: reports of two cases].

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Martín; Pérez, Guadalupe; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Sarkis, Claudia; Romero, Romina; Mastroianni, Alejandra; Casimir, Lidia; Venuta, María E; Gómez Bonduele, Verónica; Bologna, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications. It is essential the suspected diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment and early surgical management to improve the approach of these infections. Epidemiological surveillance should be mantained to detect the frequency of infections caused by these bacteria. PMID:27399020

  5. [Severe infection by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: reports of two cases].

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Martín; Pérez, Guadalupe; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Sarkis, Claudia; Romero, Romina; Mastroianni, Alejandra; Casimir, Lidia; Venuta, María E; Gómez Bonduele, Verónica; Bologna, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiologic agent of infections in children from the community and the hospital setting. The severity of these conditions is associated with virulence factors, including the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Both methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus produce this leukocidin although with varying frequency. We present two children with severe infection by sensitive Staphylococcus aureus producer of Panton-Valentine leukocidin with musculoskeletal and endovascular complications. It is essential the suspected diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment and early surgical management to improve the approach of these infections. Epidemiological surveillance should be mantained to detect the frequency of infections caused by these bacteria.

  6. 76 FR 18291 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Boris Mikhailov: Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Boris Mikhailov: Case History... Mikhailov: Case History,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of... Art, New York, New York, from on or about May 26, 2011, until on or about September 5, 2011, and...

  7. Be My Valentine: The Social Engineering of Children's Concepts of Love and Friendship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Robin M.

    1997-01-01

    Gender stereotyping manifests itself in educational settings through perceptions of friendship and love relationships. This study examined how Valentine's Day is celebrated in 20 Canadian elementary classrooms and by 40 school children. Data revealed that children attempt to make sense of their own socialization as evidenced by the fact boys and…

  8. [Valentine's Day Activities Compiled from Eleven Years of February Issues of Instructor Magazine, 1973-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Valentine's Day activities which include a play, music, poetry, and numerous art and craft projects are presented in this compilation from February issues of "Instructor" magazine. The short and easy projects, suitable for primary and elementary students, use inexpensive and easily found materials such as paper, cloth, yarn, magazine pictures,…

  9. Outbreak of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Associated Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a Rugby Team, France, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Couvé-Deacon, Elodie; Tristan, Anne; Pestourie, Nathalie; Faure, Christian; Doffoel-Hantz, Valérie; Garnier, Fabien; Laurent, Frédéric; Lina, Gerard; Ploy, Marie-Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin are known to cause community infections. We describe an outbreak of skin abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (clonal complex 121) in a professional rugby team in France during July 2010-February 2011. Eight team members were carriers; 7 had skin abscesses. PMID:26690308

  10. Disseminated Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Staphylococcus aureus infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Yanik, Keramettin; Paksu, Muhammet S; Sensoy, Gulnar; Aykanat, Alper; Yener, Nazik; Belet, Nursen; Ceyhan, Meltem

    2016-04-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  11. [Fatal Panton-Valentine leukocidine-associated Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Laverdure, F; Neulier, C; Sudant, J; Legriel, S; Bruneel, F

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is an unusual cause of community-acquired pneumonia associated with a high fatality rate. The specificities of its presentation must be known by the critical care doctor, in order to quickly make the diagnosis and start the right antibiotics and discuss adjunctive therapy with intravenous immunoglobin. Moreover, the management of close contacts (household and healthcare workers) of patient with such a pneumonia is not well-known. The present case report underlines the clinical presentation of this pneumonia, the specificities of its treatment, and specifies the management of close contacts.

  12. Integration of Full Particle Orbit in Toroidal Plasmas Using Boris Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xishuo; Xiao, Yong

    2014-10-01

    When studying particle dynamics in high frequency electromagnetic waves, such as low hybrid wave heating, it is important to integrate full particle orbit accurately to very long time in tokamaks. Here we derived a formulation under magnetic coordinate based on the Boris Scheme, which can be used effectively to push particles in long time scale. After several hundred gyro-periods, the banana orbit can be observed and the toroidal precession frequency can be measured. The toroidal precession frequency is found to match that from the guiding center simulation. This new method shows superior numeric properties than the traditional Runge-Kutta method in terms of conserving particle energy and magnetic moment.

  13. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  14. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  15. BAT3 and SET1A form a complex with CTCFL/BORIS to modulate H3K4 histone dimethylation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuongmai; Bar-Sela, Gil; Sun, Lunching; Bisht, Kheem S; Cui, Hengmi; Kohn, Elise; Feinberg, Andrew P; Gius, David

    2008-11-01

    Chromatin status is characterized in part by covalent posttranslational modifications of histones that regulate chromatin dynamics and direct gene expression. BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) is an insulator DNA-binding protein that is thought to play a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. BORIS is a cancer-germ line gene; these are genes normally present in male germ cells (testis) that are also expressed in cancer cell lines as well as primary tumors. This work identifies SET1A, an H3K4 methyltransferase, and BAT3, a cochaperone recruiter, as binding partners for BORIS, and these proteins bind to the upstream promoter regions of two well-characterized procarcinogenic genes, Myc and BRCA1. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of BAT3, as well as SET1A, decreased Myc and BRCA1 gene expression but did not affect the binding properties of BORIS, but RNAi knockdown of BORIS prevented the assembly of BAT3 and SET1A at the Myc and BRCA1 promoters. Finally, chromatin analysis suggested that BORIS and BAT3 exert their effects on gene expression by recruiting proteins such as SET1A that are linked to changes in H3K4 dimethylation. Thus, we propose that BORIS acts as a platform upon which BAT3 and SET1A assemble and exert effects upon chromatin structure and gene expression. PMID:18765639

  16. Inhibitory effect of peroxyacetyl nitrate on cyclic photophosphorylation by chloroplasts from black valentine bean leaves.

    PubMed

    Koukol, J; Dugger, W M; Palmer, R L

    1967-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of peroxyacetyl nitrate on the cyclic photophosphorylation of chloroplasts isolated from Black Valentine variety bean leaves (Phaseolis vulgaris L.) has been studied. Peroxyacetyl nitrate caused inhibition to photophosphorylation, in either the dark or the light, by affecting the chloroplast. Evidence is presented which suggests that peroxyacetyl nitrate could oxidize sulfhydryl groups on enzymes necessary for photophosphorylation. The inhibition to photophosphorylation caused by peroxyacetyl nitrate cannot be reversed by glutathione, even when added in large amounts, whereas the inhibition to photophosphorylation caused by para-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid is easily reversed by small quantities of glutathione. This suggests that if peroxyacetyl nitrate is oxidizing sulfhydryl groups necessary for photophosphorylation, this oxidation is proceeding beyond the disulfide state.

  17. Comment on "Symplectic integration of magnetic systems": A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    The Boris algorithm is a popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1-4]. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1,5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of the conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6-11].

  18. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious

    PubMed Central

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including “cold temperature,” “thermoneutral temperature,” and “warm-sensitive” and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception? PMID:27226997

  19. Characterization of a Bifidobacterium longum BORI dipeptidase belonging to the U34 family.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong Min; Ji, Geun Eog; Cho, Sang Hee; Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2007-09-01

    A dipeptidase was purified from a cell extract of Bifidobacterium longum BORI by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose columns. The purified dipeptidase had a molecular mass of about 49 kDa and was optimally active at pH 8.0 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme was a strict dipeptidase, being capable of hydrolyzing a range of dipeptides but not tri- and tetrapeptides, p-nitroanilide derivatives of amino acids, or N- or C-terminus-blocked dipeptides. A search of the amino acid sequence of an internal tryptic fragment against protein sequences deduced from the total genome sequence of B. longum NCC2705 revealed that it was identical to an internal sequence of the dipeptidase gene (pepD), which comprised 1,602 nucleotides encoding 533 amino acids with a molecular mass of 60 kDa, and thereby differed considerably from the 49-kDa mass of the purified dipeptidase. To understand this discrepancy, pepD was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector (pBAD-TOPO derivative) to generate the recombinant plasmids pBAD-pepD and pBAD-pepD-His (note that His in the plasmid designation stands for a polyhistidine coding region). Both plasmids were successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein PepD-His was purified using nickel-chelating affinity chromatography and reconfirmed by internal amino acid sequencing. The PepD sequence was highly homologous to those of the U34 family of peptidases, suggesting that the B. longum BORI dipeptidase is a type of cysteine-type N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase and has a beta-hairpin motif similar to that of penicillin V acylase, which is activated by autoproteolytic processing.

  20. Investigations of fluvial sediments of the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Matejka, D.Q.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1953-01-01

    This report contains results of observations that were made from the time when a natural constriction was formed in the Niobrara River near Valentine, Nebr., to the time when it was widened by high flows. After the constriction was widened, insufficient turbulence was developed to suspend most of the sediment. The report gives information on the amount and characteristics of the sediment that moves as unmeasured load at normal sections of the stream near the constriction and at the measuring sections at the Sparks gaging station. Lateral distributions of depth, velocity, and concentration are shown for the sections where sediment discharge was measured. In addition, vertical distributions of concentration, velocity, and percentage of particles coarser than 0.25 mm are shown for the contracted section. The vertical distributions seem to indicate that the total sediment load of the stream was usually in suspension at the contracted section. Exclusive of the period during the winter when upstream reservoirs. were not flushed, the measured discharge of suspended sediment at the normal sections near the contraction averaged 47 percent and at the Sparks gaging station 41 percent of the measured sediment discharge at the contracted section. Particle sizes of suspended sediment and bed material are tabulated, and some size distributions are plotted. In conformity with bedload theory, the computed particle sizes of the unmeasured load were slightly smaller than the average particle sizes in the samples of bed material.

  1. Infection by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinically mimicking Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shivashankar, Girish H; Murukesh, Nishanth; Varma, M P S; Sharif, Ikram M; Glynn, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an oropharyngeal infection which leads to severe septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic abscesses of the lungs and other organs. It is usually caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative obligate anaerobe. An unusual case of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus infection masquerading as Lemierre's syndrome is reported here. A 32-year-old fit and otherwise healthy male presented on Christmas morning with a boil on his left cheek for 2 days and generalized rash for 3 h. His general condition began to worsen, he developed facial swelling and loss of vision in the left eye and was transferred to the intensive care unit. His treatment was taken over by team of specialists and further investigations revealed thrombophlebitis of the left internal jugular vein and cavernous sinus thrombosis with multiple brain infarcts and lung abscesses. His condition remained critical with multiple cranial nerve involvement despite being on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Blood cultures grew S. aureus which was producing PVL toxin. He improved gradually over several weeks. He underwent intensive physiotherapy and made a good recovery. Although a rare entity, it is important to consider Lemierre's syndrome in septic patients who present with rapidly worsening symptoms.

  2. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1), in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition.

  3. Growth Rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and Its Climatic Background

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993–1996 at bottom and 2006–2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year−1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year−1). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year−1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year−1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from −2.75 to −1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from −6.75 to −5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  4. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1), in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  5. Genome-wide copy number profiling using a 100K SNP array reveals novel disease-related genes BORIS and TSHZ1 in juvenile angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Schick, Bernhard; Wemmert, Silke; Willnecker, Vivienne; Dlugaiczyk, Julia; Nicolai, Piero; Siwiec, Henryk; Thiel, Christian T; Rauch, Anita; Wendler, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is a unique fibrovascular tumor, which is almost exclusively found in the posterior nasal cavity of adolescent males. Although histologically classified as benign, the tumor often shows an aggressive growth pattern and has been associated with chromosomal imbalances, amplification of oncogenes and epigenetic dysregulation. We present the first genome-wide profiling of JAs (n=14) with a 100K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. Among the 30 novel JA-specific amplifications detected on autosomal chromosomes with this technique, the genes encoding the cancer-testis antigen BORIS (brother of the regulator of imprinted sites) and the developmental regulator protein TSHZ1 (teashirt zinc finger homeobox 1) were selected for further analysis. Gains for both BORIS (20q13.3) and TSHZ1 (18q22.3) were confirmed by quantitative genomic PCR. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR revealed a significant up-regulation of BORIS (p<0.001) and TSHZ1 transcripts (p<0.05) for JAs compared to nasal mucosa. Following detection of BORIS and TSHZ1 proteins in western blots of JAs, subcellular localization was determined for both proteins in immunostaining of JA cryosections. In conclusion, genomic copy number profiling using an SNP microarray has been proven to be a suitable and reliable tool for identifying novel disease-related genes in JAs and newly implicates BORIS and TSHZ1 overexpression in the pathogenesis of JAs. Detection of BORIS in JAs is described with special regard to tumor proliferation and epigenetic dysregulation, and the finding of TSHZ1 amplifications is discussed with special respect to the hypothesis of JAs as malformations of the first branchial arch artery.

  6. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  7. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Bettina; Hussain, Muzaffar; Grundmeier, Matthias; Brück, Michaela; Holzinger, Dirk; Varga, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Kahl, Barbara C.; Proctor, Richard A.; Peters, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The role of the pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in severe necrotizing diseases is debated due to conflicting data from epidemiological studies of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections and various murine disease-models. In this study, we used neutrophils isolated from different species to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PVL in comparison to other staphylococcal cytolytic components. Furthermore, to study the impact of PVL we expressed it heterologously in a non-virulent staphylococcal species and examined pvl-positive and pvl-negative clinical isolates as well as the strain USA300 and its pvl-negative mutant. We demonstrate that PVL induces rapid activation and cell death in human and rabbit neutrophils, but not in murine or simian cells. By contrast, the phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), a newly identified group of cytolytic staphylococcal components, lack species-specificity. In general, after phagocytosis of bacteria different pvl-positive and pvl-negative staphylococcal strains, expressing a variety of other virulence factors (such as surface proteins), induced cell death in neutrophils, which is most likely associated with the physiological clearing function of these cells. However, the release of PVL by staphylococcal strains caused rapid and premature cell death, which is different from the physiological (and programmed) cell death of neutrophils following phagocytosis and degradation of virulent bacteria. Taken together, our results question the value of infection-models in mice and non-human primates to elucidate the impact of PVL. Our data clearly demonstrate that PVL acts differentially on neutrophils of various species and suggests that PVL has an important cytotoxic role in human neutrophils, which has major implications for the pathogenesis of CA-MRSA infections. PMID:20072612

  9. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Kolar, Stacey L.; Müller, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Maria D.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Fan, Xuemo; Beenhouwer, David O.; Town, Terrence; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These “humanized” NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor. PMID:26618545

  10. Association of recurrent furunculosis with Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Masiuk, Helena; Kopron, Katarzyna; Grumann, Dorothee; Goerke, Christiane; Kolata, Julia; Jursa-Kulesza, Joanna; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania; Bröker, Barbara M; Holtfreter, Silva

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections, such as furuncles, carbuncles, and abscesses, but it also frequently colonizes the human skin and mucosa without causing clinical symptoms. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin that has been associated with soft tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. We have compared the genotypes, virulence gene repertoires, and phage patterns of 74 furunculosis isolates with those of 108 control strains from healthy nasal carriers. The large majority of furunculosis strains were methicillin sensitive. Clonal cluster (CC) 121 (CC121) and CC22 accounted for 70% of the furunculosis strains but for only 8% of the nasal isolates. The PVL-encoding genes luk-PV were detected in 85% of furunculosis strains, while their prevalence among colonizing S. aureus strains was below 1%. luk-PV genes were distributed over several lineages (CCs 5, 8, 22, 30, and 121 and sequence type 59). Even within the same lineages, luk-PV-positive phages characterized furunculosis strains, while their luk-PV-negative variants were frequent among nasal strains. The very tight epidemiological linkage between luk-PV and furunculosis, which could be separated from the genetic background of the S. aureus strain as well as from the gene makeup of the luk-PV-transducing phage, lends support to the notion of an important role for PVL in human furunculosis. These results make a case for the determination of luk-PV in recurrent soft tissue infections with methicillin-sensitive as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:20200289

  11. Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcal aureus infections of the head and neck: case series and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, John; Changez, Huma; Smith, Andrew; Wales, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams.

  12. Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcal aureus infections of the head and neck: case series and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hanratty, John; Changez, Huma; Smith, Andrew; Wales, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams. PMID:25544295

  13. Community-acquired infections due to Staphylococcus argenteus lineage isolates harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Dupieux, C; Blondé, R; Bouchiat, C; Meugnier, H; Bes, M; Laurent, S; Vandenesch, F; Laurent, F; Tristan, A

    2015-06-11

    We describe two cases of human infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 75, also called Staphylococcus argenteus, harbouring the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). These two sporadic cases were community-acquired, and identified in France in 2014. Both had an epidemiological link with Mayotte, an overseas department of France located in the Indian Ocean off the south-eastern African coast. This report illustrates that, contrary to previous descriptions, S. argenteus can acquire important virulence factors and be responsible for severe infections.

  14. Comment on “Symplectic integration of magnetic systems”: A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    DOE PAGES

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    One popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1], [2], [3] and [4] is the Boris algorithm. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1] and [5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Moreover, without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of themore » conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11].« less

  15. Comment on “Symplectic integration of magnetic systems”: A proof that the Boris algorithm is not variational

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, C. L.; Burby, J. W.; Qin, H.

    2015-11-01

    One popular technique for the numerical time advance of charged particles interacting with electric and magnetic fields according to the Lorentz force law [1], [2], [3] and [4] is the Boris algorithm. Its popularity stems from simple implementation, rapid iteration, and excellent long-term numerical fidelity [1] and [5]. Excellent long-term behavior strongly suggests the numerical dynamics exhibit conservation laws analogous to those governing the continuous Lorentz force system [6]. Moreover, without conserved quantities to constrain the numerical dynamics, algorithms typically dissipate or accumulate important observables such as energy and momentum over long periods of simulated time [6]. Identification of the conservative properties of an algorithm is important for establishing rigorous expectations on the long-term behavior; energy-preserving, symplectic, and volume-preserving methods each have particular implications for the qualitative numerical behavior [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] and [11].

  16. Necrotizing pneumonia due to clonally diverse Staphylococcus aureus strains producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin: the Czech experience.

    PubMed

    Rájová, J; Pantůček, R; Petráš, P; Varbanovová, I; Mašlaňová, I; Beneš, J

    2016-02-01

    A prospective study (2007-2013) was undertaken to investigate clinical features and prognostic factors of necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in the Czech Republic. Twelve cases of necrotizing pneumonia were detected in 12 patients (median age 25 years) without severe underlying disease. Eight cases occurred in December and January and the accumulation of cases in the winter months preceding the influenza season was statistically significant (P < 0·001). The course of pneumonia was very rapid, leading to early sepsis and/or septic shock in all but one patient. Seven patients died and mortality was fourfold higher in those patients presenting with primary pneumonia than with pneumonia complicating other staphylococcal/pyogenic infection elsewhere in the body. The S. aureus isolates displayed considerable genetic variability and were assigned to five lineages CC8 (n = 3), CC15 (n = 2), CC30 (n = 2), CC80 (n = 1), and CC121 (n = 3) and one was a singleton of ST154 (n = 1), all were reported to be associated with community-acquired infection. Four strains were methicillin resistant. The high case-fatality rate can only be reduced by improving the speed of diagnosis and a rapid test to detect S. aureus in the airways is needed.

  17. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Mesrati, I; Saïdani, M; Ennigrou, S; Zouari, B; Ben Redjeb, S

    2010-08-01

    Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) are members of the synergohymenotropic toxin family produced by Staphylococcus aureus and encoded by pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Many reports describe an association between PVL toxin and necrotic lesions involving skin and mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus strains carrying pvl and hlg genes and to investigate a possible relationship between pvl- and hlg-positive S. aureus with specific clinical presentations. Between January 2005 and July 2007, a total of 143 S. aureus strains including 58 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 85 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were screened for pvl and hlg genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. These strains were isolated from 141 patients for whom demographic and clinical data were recorded. Thirty-one (21.7%) and 77 (53.7%) isolates were positive for pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Twenty-one (67.7%) pvl-positive strains were MRSA (P = 0.001). Among pvl-positive strains, 16 (51.6%) were community-acquired. There was a strong association between pvl genes and skin and soft tissue infections, especially abscesses (60% of strains; P = 0.008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus. PMID:20635511

  18. High frequency of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus causing pediatric infections in the city of Cartagena-Colombia.

    PubMed

    Correa-Jiménez, Oscar; Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Reyes, Niradiz

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin that has been epidemiologically associated with CA-MRSA infections. However, its role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus is still unclear. We evaluated the prevalence of PVL-coding genes in methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) isolates that cause infections in pediatric patients in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. We obtained S. aureus isolates from patients at the Napoleon Franco Pareja Children's Hospital in Cartagena. Then, we evaluated the presence of the nuc, mecA, and PVL genes in these isolates by multiplex PCR and determined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles using CLSI standards. We further correlated methicillin susceptibility and the presence of PVL genes with clinical variables. Overall PVL prevalence in S. aureus isolates was 73.91%, with a frequency of 80.92% among MRSA isolates and 67.59% among MSSA. We found a correlation between erythromycin resistance and lack of PVL and found that PVL+ cases were more common in older patients. We found a high PVL prevalence in both MRSA and MSSA isolates, in concordance with previous regional reports.

  19. Basis of virulence in a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Yeh, Anthony J; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Tan, Vee Y; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Chatterjee, Som S; Yu, Yunsong; Otto, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Community-associated (CA) infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are on a global rise. However, analysis of virulence characteristics has been limited almost exclusively to the US endemic strain USA300. CA-MRSA strains that do not produce Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) have not been investigated on a molecular level. Therefore, we analyzed virulence determinants in a PVL-negative CA-MRSA strain, ST72, from Korea. Genome-wide analysis identified 3 loci that are unique to that strain, but did not affect virulence. In contrast, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and the global virulence regulator Agr strongly affected lysis of neutrophils and erythrocytes, while α-toxin and Agr had a major impact on in vivo virulence. Our findings substantiate the general key roles these factors play in CA-MRSA virulence. However, our analyses also showed noticeable differences to strain USA300, inasmuch as α-toxin emerged as a much more important factor than PSMs in experimental skin infection caused by ST72.

  20. Back to the future: Valentin Magnan, French psychiatry, and the classification of mental diseases, 1885-1925.

    PubMed

    Dowbiggin, I

    1996-12-01

    To this day one of the most curious gaps in the historiography of French psychiatry is the era between the fin-de-siècle and the 1920s, years that overlapped the life and career of Valentin Magnan (1835-1916), a pivotal figure in the historical classification of mental diseases. This paper seeks to address this shortcoming as well as contribute to the growing scholarly interest in the history of clinical psychiatry. It argues that Magnan was in many ways a tragic figure, someone who lived and worked at a time when circumstances conspired against him and his efforts to reform psychiatric classification. Essentially Magnan had the misfortune to practise psychiatry when Emil Kraepelin's influence began to spread beyond Germany's borders, sparking a nationalist reaction that penalized both French Kraepelinians and Magnan whose theories shared similarities with Kraepelin's. But Magnan's stature also suffered because of the intense internecine quarrels that arose in late nineteenth-century French psychiatry. Magnan was no helpless victim, though, and there is reason to believe that some of the criticism directed at him was based on documented personal failings. Ultimately, Magnan's theory of psychiatric classification was overtaken by these and other events in French psychiatry, culminating by the interwar period in the emergence of a new national, nosological pardigm that has dominated French psychiatry for most of the twentieth century. Thus Magnan was in many respects a pariah within French psychiatry by the early twentieth century. An examination of his career casts light on this crucial turning-point in the history of French psychiatry and indicates why and how the new model of classification was more to the tastes of his medical colleagues. PMID:11618728

  1. The role of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin in staphylococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shallcross, Laura J; Fragaszy, Ellen; Johnson, Anne M; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Invasive community-onset staphylococcal disease has emerged worldwide associated with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin. Whether PVL is pathogenic or an epidemiological marker is unclear. We investigate the role of PVL in disease, colonisation, and clinical outcome. Methods We searched Medline and Embase for original research reporting the prevalence of PVL genes among Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, bacteraemia, musculoskeletal infection, skin and soft-tissue infection, or colonisation published before Oct 1, 2011. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) to compare patients with PVL-positive colonisation and each infection relative to the odds of PVL-positive skin and soft-tissue infection. We did meta-analyses to estimate odds of infection or colonisation with a PVL-positive strain with fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the results of tests for heterogeneity. Results Of 509 articles identified by our search strategy, 76 studies from 31 countries met our inclusion criteria. PVL strains are strongly associated with skin and soft-tissue infections, but are comparatively rare in pneumonia (OR 0·37, 95% CI 0·22–0·63), musculoskeletal infections (0·44, 0·19–0·99), bacteraemias (0·10, 0·06–0·18), and colonising strains (0·07, 0·01–0·31). PVL-positive skin and soft-tissue infections are more likely to be treated surgically than are PVL-negative infections, and children with PVL-positive musculoskeletal disease might have increased morbidity. For other forms of disease we identified no evidence that PVL affects outcome. Interpretation PVL genes are consistently associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and are comparatively rare in invasive disease. This finding challenges the view that PVL mainly causes invasive disease with poor prognosis. Population-based studies are needed to define the role of PVL in mild, moderate, and severe disease and to inform control strategies. Funding None. PMID:23103172

  2. A pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which causes a wide range of hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide. Conventional testing for detection of MRSA takes 2–5 days to yield complete information of the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Results The present study focused on the development of a pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of MRSA. The assay simultaneously detected five genes, namely 16S rRNA of the Staphylococcus genus, femA of S. aureus, mecA that encodes methicillin resistance, lukS that encodes production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a necrotizing cytotoxin, and one internal control. Specific primer pairs were successfully designed and simultaneously amplified the targeted genes. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the pentaplex PCR assay was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional method. The analytical sensitivity of the pentaplex PCR at the DNA level was found to be 10 ng DNA. The analytical specificity was evaluated with 34 reference staphylococci and non-staphylococcal strains and was found to be 100%. The diagnostic evaluation of MRSA carried out using 230 clinical isolates, showed 97.6% of sensitivity, 99.3% of specificity, 98.8% of positive predictive value and 98.6% of negative predictive value compared to the conventional method. The presence of an internal control in the pentaplex PCR assay is important to exclude false-negative cases. Conclusion The pentaplex PCR assay developed was rapid and gave results within 4 h, which is essential for the identification of Staphylococcus spp., virulence and their resistance to methicillin. Our PCR assay may be used as an effective surveillance tool to survey the prevalence of MRSA and PVL-producing strains in hospitals and the community. PMID:19476638

  3. Geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic (800-767 Ma) Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: tectonic evolution of an ancient continental arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, C.; Porcher, C. C.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Masquelin, H.; Koester, E.; Conceição, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    The Cerro Bori orthogneisses, crystallized between ca. 800 and 767 Ma, are composed of a sequence of mafic gneisses, with dioritic-gabbroic and dioritic composition tectonically interleaved with a sequence of tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses. These rocks intruded the Chafalote paragneisses (metapelites, semipelites, carbonate and mafic rocks) and they were metamorphosed of high P-T conditions at ca. 676-654 Ma. This paper presents the first major and trace geochemical signatures, as well as Sm and Pb isotopic composition for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, which allow distinguishing three different groups of rocks. Type I rocks are mafic gneisses with tholeiitic affinity, whereas the Type II rocks are tonalitic and granodioritic gneisses with calc-alkaline affinity. The third type is composed of biotite-rich mafic gneisses with potassic and ultrapotassic affinities. All the three types of rocks have negative ℰND values (between -2.12 and -6.67) and old TDM ages (between 1.2 and 2.0 Ga), indicating that the process of crustal assimilation/contamination was an important process, together with fractional crystallization. An continental arc tectonic setting is suggested to this association of rocks between 800 and 767 Ma. This subduction suggests the existence of an ocean between Rio de La Plata and adjacent cratons during the break up of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  4. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children in Tripoli-Libya.

    PubMed

    Al-haddad, Omaima H; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA among inpatient children (8.3%, 24 of 289), their mothers (11%, 22 of 200), and healthcare workers (12.4%, 22 of 178) was significantly higher than among outpatient children (2.2%, 2 of 91) (P < 0.05, P < 0.02, and P < 0.006, respectively). Of the examined MRSA isolates (N = 35) 10 (28.6%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Multidrug resistance was found in 24.3% (17 of 70) of MRSA isolates. Nasal carriage of multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive MRSA is not uncommon among inpatient children and their mothers in Tripoli.

  5. The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877-1950).

    PubMed

    Beck, Ivan T

    2006-09-01

    The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today's and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin's life. Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov's exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73. His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery

  6. The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877-1950).

    PubMed

    Beck, Ivan T

    2006-09-01

    The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today's and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin's life. Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov's exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73. His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery

  7. The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Ivan T

    2006-01-01

    The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life. Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73. His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the

  8. No More Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2010-01-01

    Too often, teacher evaluations haven't provided enough information to spur improvement in teaching. The vast majority of teachers in any school, district, or state are rated above--sometimes well above--average. The feedback that teachers do receive is often not specific enough to help them improve. In this article, Morgaen Donaldson explores some…

  9. Gene of LukF-PV-like component of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus P83 is linked with lukM.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, J; Muramoto, K; Kamio, Y

    1997-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus P83 (ATCC 31890) produces five components, I to V for synergistic toxins, leukocidin and gamma-hemolysin [Sudo et al., Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 56, 1786-1789 (1995)]. We report here the identification of component II, which is designated LukF-PV(P83) and its gene (lukF-PV(P83)). The lukF-PV(P83) gene was found to be one base downstream of the stop codon of the lukM gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of LukF-PV(P83) showed 78.4% identity with that of LukF-PV. The lukM and lukF-PV(P83) genes were encoded as one operon like that of Panton-Valentine leukocidin.

  10. Infective Endocarditis Caused by Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-producing Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Identified by the Broad-range PCR Method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Dohi, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masaki; Nakamura, Akiko; Kanemitsu, Shinji; Wada, Hideo; Yamada, Norikazu; Nobori, Tsutomu; Shinpo, Hideto; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old man was admitted to a community hospital due to a persistent high fever. He became afebrile after the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, but developed heart failure due to progressive aortic and mitral valve insufficiency and was transferred to our hospital. Although sequential blood cultures were negative, a broad-range polymerase chain reaction targeting the bacterial 16S-rRNA gene followed by the direct sequencing of whole blood revealed spa(+), mecA(-) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)(+). He was finally diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) caused by PVL-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and underwent cardiac surgery. This is the first reported case of IE due to MSSA producing PVL. PMID:27432095

  11. Accumulation of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomains on the target cells is essential for its cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akihito; Isobe, Hirokazu; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Taneike, Ikue; Nakagawa, Saori; Dohmae, Soshi; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms for the cytotoxicity of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a pore-forming toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV, in human immune cells are still unclear. Because LukS-PV binds to ganglioside GM1, a constituent of detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs) of the plasma membrane, the role of DRMs in PVL cytotoxicity was examined in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, HL-60 cells, and THP-1 cells. PVL binding capacities in HL-60 and THP-1 cells were higher than those in PMNs and monocytes; however, the PVL concentration to obtain more than 80% cell lysis in HL-60 cells was 10 times higher than that in PMNs and PVL even at such concentration induced < 10% cell lysis in THP-1 cells. After incubation of PMNs with LukS-PV, more than 90% of LukS-PV bound to the detergent-soluble membranes. Subsequent incubation with LukF-PV at 4 °C induced the accumulation of more than 70% of PVL components and 170- to 220-kDa complex formation in DRMs in an actin-independent manner. However, only 30% of PVL was found, and complex formation was under detectable level in DRMs in HL-60 cells. PVL did not accumulate in DRMs in THP-1 cells. Our observations strongly indicate that PVL accumulation in DRMs is essential for PVL cytotoxicity.

  12. High Prevalence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes in Nosocomial-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Tertiary Care Hospitals in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bidya; Singh, Winny; Raj, V. Samuel; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mohapatra, Tribhuban Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carrying the important virulence determinant, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), is an emerging infectious pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections as well as life-threatening invasive diseases. In carrying out the first PVL prevalence study in Nepal, we screened 73 nosocomial isolates of S. aureus from 2 tertiary care Nepali hospitals and obtained an overall PVL-positivity rate of 35.6% among the hospital isolates: 26.1% of MRSA and 51.9% of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were found to be positive for the PVL genes. PVL prevalence was not associated with a specific (i) infection site, (ii) age group, or (iii) hospital of origin. It was found to be positively associated with heterogeneous MRSA (73.3%) compared to homogeneous MRSA (3.2%) and MSSA (51.9%); negatively associated with multiresistant MRSA (22%) compared to nonmultiresistant MRSA (60%) and MSSA (51.9%); and positively associated with macrolide-streptogramin B resistance (93.8%) compared to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance (0%) and no-resistance (45.8%) types. Macrolide-streptogramin B resistance was confirmed by the presence of msr(A) gene. Restriction pattern analyses provided evidence to support the circulation of a limited number of clones of PVL-positive MRSA, arguing for the adaptability of these isolates to a hospital setting. PMID:25045702

  13. Residues Essential for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin S Component Binding to Its Cell Receptor Suggest Both Plasticity and Adaptability in Its Interaction Surface

    PubMed Central

    Laventie, Benoit-Joseph; Guérin, Frédéric; Mourey, Lionel; Tawk, Mira Y.; Jover, Emmanuel; Maveyraud, Laurent; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10−10 M) compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10−9 M). Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV. PMID:24643034

  14. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  15. Recurrence of pelvic abscess from Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired ST30 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hirokazu; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Akihito; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Khokhlova, Olga E; Okubo, Takeshi; Endo, Naoto; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2013-02-01

    A 17-year-old female patient (a basketball player) suffered from recurrent pelvic abscesses from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The first episode, from strain NN12, occurred in October 2004. Her cutaneous abscesses complicated into systemic progression to osteomyelitis and multifocal pelvic abscesses, adjacent to the sacroiliac joint. The second episode, abscesses at tissues adjacent to the sacroiliac joint from strain NN31A, occurred late in February 2005. The third episode, from strain NN31B, occurred on July 30, 2005, repeating the second episode. Three MRSA strains were identical in terms of genotypes (belonging to Panton-Valentine leukocidin [PVL]-positive ST30 community-acquired MRSA, CA-MRSA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and peptide cytolysin gene (psmα) expression levels. The three MRSA strains exhibited superior THP-1 cell invasion ability over hospital-acquired MRSA (New York/Japan clone). The data suggest that PVL-positive ST30 CA-MRSA, with high levels of cell invasion and peptide cytolysins, causes recurrence of pelvic abscesses in a healthy adolescent.

  16. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  17. Molecular epidemiologic study of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene among family members in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yuki; Ito, Teruyo; Ogawa, Yu; Hirotaki, Shintaro; Shoji, Takayo; Tame, Tomoyuki; Horikoshi, Yuho; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-09-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the worldwide concerns of antimicrobial chemotherapy. An accumulation of ten patients in five families (A-E) suffering from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) of CA-MRSA was experienced in 2012, in Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan. Molecular epidemiological investigation was performed for the 10 MRSA strains obtained from 8 children and 2 of their parents to assess endemic patterns of CA-MRSA in the community. Results of molecular typing, presence of toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed combined with the patients' clinical information. Each family had its own unique MRSA strain: A, ST30-SCCmec IVd; B, ST8-SCCmec IVd; C, ST8-SCCmec IVa; D, ST8-SCCmec IVl; E, ST8-SCCmec IVl and ST858-SCCmec IVl. Seven strains from the families A-C carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Three strains from the families D and E carried toxic shock syndrome toxin gene. Strains belonged to the same family demonstrated genetically related banding patterns of pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. The family C experienced intrafamilial transmission of USA300-0114. Our data showed the MRSA clones disseminating in this community were highly diverse. They contained USA300-0114 clone, the rapidly distributing clone in the world, as well as MRSA clones identified in Japan. Our results suggested intrafamilial transmission of MRSA could be initial phenomenon of wide transmission in a community, therefore CA-MRSA SSTI in children and their family members should be monitored closely in order to notice the spread of highly pathogenic and transmittable strains. PMID:26091885

  18. Molecular epidemiologic study of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene among family members in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yuki; Ito, Teruyo; Ogawa, Yu; Hirotaki, Shintaro; Shoji, Takayo; Tame, Tomoyuki; Horikoshi, Yuho; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-09-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is one of the worldwide concerns of antimicrobial chemotherapy. An accumulation of ten patients in five families (A-E) suffering from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) of CA-MRSA was experienced in 2012, in Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan. Molecular epidemiological investigation was performed for the 10 MRSA strains obtained from 8 children and 2 of their parents to assess endemic patterns of CA-MRSA in the community. Results of molecular typing, presence of toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analyzed combined with the patients' clinical information. Each family had its own unique MRSA strain: A, ST30-SCCmec IVd; B, ST8-SCCmec IVd; C, ST8-SCCmec IVa; D, ST8-SCCmec IVl; E, ST8-SCCmec IVl and ST858-SCCmec IVl. Seven strains from the families A-C carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Three strains from the families D and E carried toxic shock syndrome toxin gene. Strains belonged to the same family demonstrated genetically related banding patterns of pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. The family C experienced intrafamilial transmission of USA300-0114. Our data showed the MRSA clones disseminating in this community were highly diverse. They contained USA300-0114 clone, the rapidly distributing clone in the world, as well as MRSA clones identified in Japan. Our results suggested intrafamilial transmission of MRSA could be initial phenomenon of wide transmission in a community, therefore CA-MRSA SSTI in children and their family members should be monitored closely in order to notice the spread of highly pathogenic and transmittable strains.

  19. Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Niveditha Sundar; Ramlal, Shylaja; Urs, Radhika Madan; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-12-01

    Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifically reacted to confirm PVL-S positive strains of S. aureus recovered from clinical samples in Western blot analysis. Similarly all the three MAbs did not show any binding to other tested 14 different pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera and species in Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a simple dot-ELISA method was standardized for the identification of PVL-S toxin containing S. aureus strains. Initially in dot-ELISA, Protein A (Spa) of S. aureus posed background noise problems due to the non-specific binding of antibodies resulting in false positive reactions. With the addition of 10mM diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) along with 5% milk in PBS in the blocking step prevented this non-specific binding of Spa to mouse anti-PVL monoclonal antibodies in dot-ELISA. Once standardized, this simple dot-ELISA was evaluated with nine PVL positive strains recovered from food, environmental and clinical samples and the results were compared with PCR assay for the presence of PVL toxin genes and also with Western blot analysis. A 100% correlation was found between dot-ELISA, PCR assay and Western blot analysis. Collectively our results suggest the newly developed simple dot-ELISA system can be of immense help in providing, rapid detection of the PVL toxin containing S. aureus strains at a relatively low cost and will be a valuable tool for the reliable identification of CA-MRSA.

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus has long been considered as a major pathogen of hospital infections. Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) types, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene and antibiotic resistance properties of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from various types of infections found in Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and fifty-five clinical specimens were collected from four major provinces of Iran. Samples were cultured and the MRSA strains were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The patterns of antibiotic resistance were determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Seventy-four out of 255 (29.01%) clinical samples were positive for MRSA. Of the 74 MRSA strains, 47 (63.51%) were PVL positive. The clinical samples of respiratory tract infections (36.36%), those from the Shiraz province (37.87%) and samples collected during the summer season (56.48%) were the most commonly infected samples. The most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were tetK (89.18%), mecA (71.62%), msrA (56.75%) and tetM (54.05%). Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus had the highest levels of resistance against penicillin (100%), tetracycline (98.64%), ampicillin (93.24%) and oxacillin (93.24%). The most commonly detected SCCmec types in the MRSA strains were type V (18.91%) and III (17.56%). Conclusions: Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infections and monitoring of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce the prevalence of MRSA. We recommend initial management of children affected by MRSA with imipenem, lincomycin and cephalothin prescriptions. PMID:26862375

  1. The Association of Panton-Valentine leukocidin and mecA Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Patients Referred to Educational Hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Hossein; Rahmat Abadi, Seyyed Soheil; Moosavian, Seyyed Mojtaba; Torabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen is one of the main causative agents of nosocomial infection. Virulence genes play a major role in the pathogenicity of this agent and its infections. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are major challenge among infectious agents that can cause severe infections and mortality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus produces a unique type of Penicillin Binding Protein 2a (PBP2a) that has low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. Most of the MRSA bacterial strains can also produce a leukotoxin as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) that increases the virulence of MRSA strains and can cause severe necrotic pneumonia. The presence of pvl gene is a genetic marker for the MRSA populations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the association of pvl and mecA genes in clinical isolates of MRSA. Materials and Methods: Fifty MRSA isolates were collected from 200 clinical samples from three different educational hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, and identified by biochemical tests including catalase, oxidase, tube coagulase, mannitol fermentation, and sensitivity to furazolidone, resistance to bacitracin, PYR test and Voges-Proskauer test. Their resistance to methicillin was evaluated using the disc diffusion method. DNA was extracted by boiling and then the presence of pvl and mecA genes was investigated by the polymerase chain reaction method using specific primers. Results: The results revealed that mecA and pvl genes were positive for 15 (30%) and 3 (6%) of the isolates, respectively. None of mecA positive isolates was positive for pvl gene. Conclusions: It can be concluded from these results that fortunately the prevalence of pvl gene is low in MRSA isolates in this region and there is no association between the presence of pvl and mecA genes in these isolates. PMID:26468365

  2. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Shahsavan, Shadi; Dabiri, Hossein; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2015-12-01

    Adenoids as a first line of host defense against respiratory microbes play an important role in majority of upper airway infectious and noninfectious illnesses. Bacterial pathogen can colonize on the adenoid tissue and probably act as a reservoir for them. To determine phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming capacity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy and prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene we collected 17 consecutive, clinically significant S. aureus isolates from children with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy with one or more of the upper airway obstruction symptoms, nasal obstruction, mouth breathing, snoring, or sleep apnea. Biofilm formation was evaluated by colorimetric microtiter plate's assay. Gene encoding PVL and adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. According to the results, all strains produced biofilm. Seven (41.2%) isolates produced strong biofilm whereas 7 (41.2%) isolates produced week and 3 (17.6%) isolates produced medium biofilm. Regarding the adhesion- or biofilm formation-encoding genes, 16 (94.1%) isolates were positive for the gene eno, 13(76.4%) for icaA, 13 (76.4%) for icaD, 10 (58.8%) for fib, 10 (58.8%) for fnbB, 4(23.5%) for can, and 1(5.8%) for fnbA. The high prevalence of genes encoding biofilms and adhesins and phenotypic ability to form a biofilm by S. aureus strains emphasizes the pathogenic character of strains isolated from children with adenoid hypertrophy.

  3. Typing of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding phages carried by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, A; Del Grosso, M; Villa, L; Ammendolia, M G; Superti, F; Monaco, M; Pantosti, A

    2014-11-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is the hallmark of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) but can also be found in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) sharing pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA. PVL is encoded by two co-transcribed genes that are carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. We applied an extended PCR-based typing scheme for the identification of two morphological groups (elongated-head group and icosahedral-head group I phages) and specific PVL phage types in S. aureus isolates recovered in Italy. We examined 48 PVL-positive isolates (25 MSSA and 23 MRSA) collected from different hospital laboratories from April 2005 to May 2011. spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing were applied to categorize the isolates. Phage typeability was 48.0% in MSSA and 91.3% in MRSA, highlighting the limitation of the PCR typing scheme when applied to PVL-positive MSSA. Five different PVL phages and two variants of a known phage were detected, the most prevalent being ΦSa2usa, recovered in 15 out of 48 (31.2%) isolates, and carried by both MSSA and MRSA belonging to CC8 and CC5. The recently described ΦTCH60 was recovered in four isolates. A PVL phage (ΦSa119) from an ST772 MRSA, that was not detected using the previous typing scheme, was sequenced, and new primers were designed for the identification of the icosahedral-head group II PVL phages present in ST772 and ST59 MRSA. A comprehensive PVL-phage typing can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of PVL-positive MSSA and MRSA.

  4. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  5. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  6. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  7. In Vitro Assessment of the Expression and T Cell Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigens BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 in Uterine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vanderstraeten, Anke; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Everaert, Tina; Van Bree, Rieta; Verbist, Godelieve; Luyten, Cathérine; Amant, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Background: While immunotherapy moved to the forefront of treatment of various cancers, it remains underexplored for uterine cancer. This might be due to the small patient population with advanced endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Data about immunotherapeutic targets are scarce in endometrial carcinoma and lacking in uterine sarcoma. Methods: Expression of five tumor-associated antigens (TAA) (BORIS, MUC1, hTERT, MAGE-A3 and Sp17) was validated in uterine tumor samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TAA immunogenicity was analyzed by determining spontaneous T cell responses towards overlapping peptide pools covering the whole TAA in patient blood. Results: At mRNA level, MAGE-A3 and Sp17 were overexpressed in a minority of patients and BORIS was moderately overexpressed (26% in endometrial carcinoma and 62% in uterine sarcoma). hTERT was overexpressed in the vast majority of tumors. On protein level, MUC1 was upregulated in primary, recurrent and metastatic EMCAR and in metastatic US tumors. hTERT protein was highly expressed in both normal and malignant tissue. Spontaneous TAA-specific T cell responses were detected in a minority of patients, except for hTERT to which T cell responses occurred more frequently. Conclusions: These data point to MUC1 and hTERT as most suitable targets based on expression levels and T cell immunogenicity for use in immunotherapeutic regimens. PMID:27618037

  8. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  9. Typing of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Phages and lukSF-PV Gene Sequence Variation in Staphylococcus aureus from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanqiang; Hu, Fupin; Jin, Shu; Xu, Xiaogang; Zou, Yuhan; Ding, Baixing; He, Chunyan; Gong, Fang; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, encoded by lukSF-PV genes), a bi-component and pore-forming toxin, is carried by different staphylococcal bacteriophages. The prevalence of PVL in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported around the globe. However, the data on PVL-encoding phage types, lukSF-PV gene variation and chromosomal phage insertion sites for PVL-positive S. aureus are limited, especially in China. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PVL-positive S. aureus, an integrated and modified PCR-based scheme was applied to detect the PVL-encoding phage types. Phage insertion locus and the lukSF-PV variant were determined by PCR and sequencing. Meanwhile, the genetic background was characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene polymorphisms typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) locus typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy eight (78/1175, 6.6%) isolates possessed the lukSF-PV genes and 59.0% (46/78) of PVL-positive strains belonged to CC59 lineage. Eight known different PVL-encoding phage types were detected, and Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL (n = 13) and ΦPVL (n = 12) were the most prevalent among them. While 25 (25/78, 32.1%) isolates, belonging to ST30, and ST59 clones, were unable to be typed by the modified PCR-based scheme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at five locations in the lukSF-PV genes, two of which were non-synonymous. Maximum-likelihood tree analysis of attachment sites sequences detected six SNP profiles for attR and eight for attL, respectively. In conclusion, the PVL-positive S. aureus mainly harbored Φ7247PVL/ΦST5967PVL and ΦPVL in the regions studied. lukSF-PV gene sequences, PVL-encoding phages, and phage insertion locus generally varied with lineages. Moreover, PVL-positive clones that have emerged worldwide likely carry distinct phages. PMID:27536288

  10. Jim Dine-Inspired Valentines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, April

    2011-01-01

    Jim Dine was born in 1935 in Cincinnati. He earned a BFA from Ohio University in 1957 and then moved to New York in 1959, where he fell in with a group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg. Dine is best known as a Pop innovator, whose paintings, sculptures, and prints were layered with everyday objects, including ties, tools, and even a…

  11. Valentines Day X2 Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    Active region 1158 let loose with an X2.2 flare at 0153 UT or 8:50 pm ET on February 15, 2011, the largest flare since Dec. 2006 and the biggest flare so far in Solar Cycle 24. This video was taken...

  12. [Investigation of the presence of mecC and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens during seven years period].

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Abdullah; Doğan, Eyüp; Kaya, Sinem; Baysallar, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Detection and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical microbiology laboratories are important for the selection of appropriate treatment and obtaining epidemiological data. mecC gene, is a mecA homologue, showing almost 69% DNA similarity with the mecA gene and the encoded protein by this gene shows almost 63% similarity with the PBP2a/2' protein. Several studies indicated that mecC positive MRSA strains can be transmitted from the livestock to humans by cross contamination. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a potent cytotoxin of S.aureus is also considered as an important virulence factor. The aim of this study was to determine the existence and prevalence of mecC and pvl genes among S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 1700 S.aureus isolates including 1177 methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and 523 MRSA, isolated in our hospital between January 2007 to December 2014, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by both conventional methods and BD Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg) and cefoxitin (30 μg) according to the CLSI standards. The presence of mecA gene was investigated by the use of real-time PCR, and the presence of pvl and mecC genes were detected by conventional PCR method. Among the patients, 44.6% (759/1700) were outpatients, 65.8% (1119/1700) were male and the mean age of of patients was 39.7 years. Of 1700 isolates evaluated in this study, 523 (30.7%) were positive for mecA gene, however all of them were negative for mecC gene. A total of 32 (1.8%) isolates were positive for pvl gene including 23 (1.9%) out of 1177 MSSA and nine (1.7%) out of 523 MRSA strains. Eighteen (56.2%) of the PVL-positive S.aureus strains were isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. The frequency of PVL detected in this study was similar to the

  13. Elderly infection in the community due to ST5/SCCmecII methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (the New York/Japan clone) in Japan: Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative necrotizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Olga; Tomita, Yusuke; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Wataru; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    An 89-year-old man suffered from and died of necrotizing pneumonia with rapid progression and cavity formation due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He was at no risk for hospital-acquired MRSA infection. His MRSA exhibited genotype ST5/spa2(t002)/agr2/SCCmecII/coagulaseII and was negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, indicating the New York/Japan clone (the predominant epidemic hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan). However, this strain expressed the cytolytic peptide (phenol-soluble modulin or δ-hemolysin) genes at high level, similar to USA300 (the most common community-acquired MRSA in the United States), indicating a variant of the New York/Japan clone with an important feature of community-acquired MRSA.

  14. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high cytolytic peptide expression in association with community-acquired pediatric osteomyelitis complicated by pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sawanobori, Emi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Takano, Tomomi; Hachuda, Koji; Horiuchi, Tadahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Hung, Wei-Wen; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Nishiyama, Akihito; Reva, Ivan; Reva, Galina; Teng, Lee-Jene; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    A 15-year-old boy, who had had a furuncle on his femur, developed femoral pyomyositis and osteomyelitis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) ST59 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was isolated from pus and blood. Chemotherapy was started with cefazolin, followed by combination therapy with meropenem/vancomycin with surgery. The MSSA (strain KS1) was positive for increased levels of cytolytic peptide (psmα and hld) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and manifested IS1216V-mediated multidrug resistance (to erythromycin, clindamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol), similar to a genome-analyzed reference strain (PM1) of ST59/SCCmecV(5C2&5) community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (Taiwan CA-MRSA), but unlike another reference strain (M013) of Taiwan CA-MRSA in terms of resistance. The data suggest that CA-MSSA KS1, characterized by PVL, increased levels of cytolytic peptide, SEB, and multidrug resistance, is a possible ancestral strain of Taiwan CA-MRSA and causes the unique association of osteomyelitis and septic pulmonary embolism, requiring complicated management.

  15. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Positive Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-Encoding Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. PMID:25339405

  16. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone) and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, R.H.; Aung, M.S.; Thapa, B.; Chaudhary, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Urushibara, N.; Kobayashi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characteristics were analysed for recent clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA respectively) in Kathmandu, Nepal. MRSA isolates harbouring Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were classified into ST1, ST22 and ST88 with SCCmec-IV and ST772 with SCCmec-V (Bengal Bay clone), while PVL-positive MSSA into ST22, ST30 and ST772. ST22 isolates (PVL-positive MRSA and MSSA, PVL-negative MRSA) possessed a variant of elastin binding protein gene (ebpS) with an internal deletion of 180 bp, which was similar to that reported for ST121 S. aureus previously outside Nepal. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ebpS variant in ST22 might have occurred independently of ST121 strains. This is the first report of ST772 PVL-positive MRSA in Nepal and detection of the deletion variant of ebpS in ST22 S. aureus. PMID:27014464

  17. Prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive S. aureus in general practice patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the northern and southern regions of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, D; Rijnders, M I A; Roede, B M; Stobberingh, E; Möller, A V M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus in general practice (GP) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the northern (Groningen and Drenthe) and southern (Limburg) regions of The Netherlands. Secondary objectives were to assess the possible risk factors for patients with SSTI caused by S. aureus and PVL-positive S. aureus using a questionnaire-based survey. From 2007 to 2008, wound and nose cultures were obtained from patients with SSTI in general practice. These swabs were analysed for the presence of S. aureus and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined. The presence of the PVL toxin gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the genetic background with the use of spa typing. A survey was performed to detect risk factors for S. aureus infection and for the presence of PVL toxin.S. aureus was isolated from 219 out of 314 (70%) patients with SSTI, of which two (0.9%) patients were MRSA-positive. In 25 (11%) patients, the PVL toxin gene was found. A higher prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus of patients with SSTI was found in the northern region compared to the south (p < 0.05). Regional differences were found in the spa types of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates, and for PVL-negative S. aureus isolates, the genetic background was similar in both regions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA in GP patients with SSTI in The Netherlands is low. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from GP patients with SSTI. Household contacts having similar symptoms were found to be a risk factor for SSTI with S. aureus.

  18. Prophage, phiPV83-pro, carrying panton-valentine leukocidin genes, on the Staphylococcus aureus P83 chromosome: comparative analysis of the genome structures of phiPV83-pro, phiPVL, phi11, and other phages.

    PubMed

    Zou, D; Kaneko, J; Narita, S; Kamio, Y

    2000-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus P83 has Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-like genes, lukM and lukF-PV. Here, lukM and lukF-PV genes were found on the genome of a prophage, which was designated as phiPV83-pro. The precise genome size was 45,636 bp with att core sequences of 10 base pairs. Sixty-four ORFs were identified on the phiPV83-pro genome, including two extra operons, lukM-lukF-PV and orfs63-64. The lukM-lukF-PV cluster was located 2.1 kb upstream of the attL site. The most striking feature of the phiPV83-pro genome was a constituent of at least 4 regions from phi11, phiPVL, and other phages, i.e., (i) att sites identical with those of phi11, (ii) a cos sequence and the genes encoding packaging and head proteins of phiPVL (occupied half region of phiPV83-pro), and (iii) the other two regions which showed no significant similarity with known phages (occupied about 40% of phiPV83-pro). Furthermore, two insertion sequences, ISSA1 and ISSA2 were integrated into attL site and orf44, respectively. PhiPV83-pro was not induced as phage particles from S. aureus P83 regardless of its treatment with mitomycin C. The insertion of ISSA1 into the attL site was one of the reasons of the failure of the induction of the phage particles by mitomycin C treatment of the strain P83.

  19. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive ST8-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (USA300 clone) in Korea causing healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Song, E H; Park, S Y; Lee, S-R; Park, S-J; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Woo, J H; Kim, Y S; Chong, Y P

    2016-08-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type (ST)8-MRSA-SCCmec IVa (USA300) is the epidemic strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in North America. USA300 is extremely rare in South Korea, and PVL-negative ST72 SCCmec type IVc is the predominant CA-MRSA clone. In a multicentre, prospective cohort study of S. aureus bacteraemia, we identified PVL-positive ST8-MRSA isolates by performing multilocus sequence typing and PCR for PVL. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with PVL-positive ST8-MRSA bacteraemia, and performed SCCmec, spa, and agr typing, PCR for arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), virulence gene profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among a total of 818 MRSA isolates, we identified ten isolates of PVL-positive ST8-MRSA (USA300) (3 from Hospital D, 4 from Hospital G, and 3 from Hospital A), all of which involved exclusively healthcare-associated (5 isolates) and hospital-acquired bacteraemia (5 isolates). This strain accounted for 8~10 % of the hospital-acquired MRSA bacteraemia in Hospitals D and G. Bacteraemia of unknown origin was the most common type of infection followed by pneumonia. All the isolates were SCCmec type IVa, spa type t008, and agr group I. Eight of the isolates harboured ACME. In a PFGE analysis, four isolates were identical to the USA300 control strain, five differed by a single band, and the remaining one differed by two bands. All the isolates were pulsed-field type USA300. This is the first report of healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia caused by USA300 in South Korea. USA300 seems to be an emerging hospital clone in this country. PMID:27209287

  20. Genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman reveals the dominance of Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone

    PubMed Central

    Udo, E E; Al-Lawati, B A-H; Al-Muharmi, Z; Thukral, S S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotypes circulating at a tertiary hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 79 MRSA isolates were obtained from different clinical samples and investigated using antibiogram, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec), Spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, tigecycline and mupirocin but were resistant to tetracycline (30.4%), erythromycin (26.6%), clindamycin (24.1%), trimethoprim (19.0%), ciprofloxacin (17.7%), fusidic acid (15.2%) and gentamicin (12.7%). Molecular typing revealed 19 PFGE patterns, 26 Spa types and 21 sequence types. SCCmec-IV (86.0%) was the dominant SCCmec type, followed by SCCmec-V (10.1%). SCCmec-III (2.5%) and SCCmec-II (1.3%) were less common. ST6-IV/t304 (n = 30) and ST1295-IV/t690 (n = 12) were the dominant genotypes followed by ST772-V/t657 (n = 5), ST30-IV/t019/t021 (n = 5), ST22-IV/t852 (n = 4), ST80-IV/t044 (n = 3) and 18 single genotypes that were isolated sporadically. On the basis of SCCmec typing and MLST, 91.2% of the isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA and 8.8% of the isolates (consisting of four ST22-IV/t852, one ST239-III/t632, one ST5-III/t311 and one ST5-II/t003) were classified as healthcare-associated MRSA. The study has revealed the dominance of a Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone and provided insights into the distribution of antibiotic resistance in MRSA at the tertiary hospital in Oman. It also highlights the importance of surveillance in detecting the emergence of new MRSA clones in a healthcare facility. PMID:25356354

  1. Presence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Is Associated with Severity and Clinical Outcome of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in a Single Center Study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanling; Guo, Liang; Chu, Xu; Shen, Limeng; Guo, Yuanyu; Dong, Huali; Mao, Jianfeng; van der Veen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have previously been associated with severe infections. Here, the impact of the PVL genes on severity of disease and clinical outcome of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to MRSA was investigated in a single center observational study in a hospital in China. HAP due to MRSA was diagnosed in 100 patients and 13 of the patients were PVL positive, while VAP was diagnosed in 5 patients and 2 were PVL positive. The PVL positive patient group showed a significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (14.3 ±7.8 vs. 10.1 ±4.7, P = 0.005) and significantly more patients with CRP levels >80 mg/L (8/15 vs. 12/90, P = 0.006) or WBC counts >15x109/L (7/15 vs. 12/90, P = 0.006), indicating that the severity of disease is affected by the presence of the PVL genes. The outcome of the study was defined by 30-day mortality. Four (27%) of the PVL positive patients and four (4%) of the PVL negative patients died within 30 days (P = 0.01, Fisher exact test). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated for the PVL positive and PVL negative patient groups, which differed significantly (P = 0.003). Among the patients that died, the mean interval between diagnosis and death was shorter for the PVL positive patients (9.3 ±5.6 vs. 40.8 ±6.6 days, P = 0.013). Further analysis within the HAP and VAP patient groups showed that the presence of PVL in MRSA impacted the severity of disease and clinical outcome of HAP, but for VAP the number of patients included in the study was too low. In conclusion, in this single center study in a Chinese hospital the presence of the PVL genes in MRSA impacted the severity of disease and clinical outcome in patients with HAP due to MRSA. PMID:27249225

  2. 2011 Valentines Day X-Class Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The video clip of the large X2 flare seen by Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) in extreme ultraviolet light on February 15, 2011, has been enlarged and superimposed on a video of SOHO's C2 coronagra...

  3. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  4. Evolution of a fatal septic arthritis caused by a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Rafai, Mostafa; Abouelalaa, Khalil; Skhsoukh, Yassine; Balkhi, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen; Dimou, M'barek

    2013-10-01

    We report the observation of a septic arthritis of the knee complicated within first 36 hours by multiorgan failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), heart failure, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A diagnosis of staphylococcal arthritis was suspected confirmed by direct examination, and culture showed a Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to methicillin. The sample sent to the National Reference Centre for Staphylococci (Lyon, France) for genetic analysis confirmed the isolate positive for the PVL gene expression. The fulminating evolution of a septic S. aureus arthritis in an otherwise healthy man should probably evoke the possibility of LPV strain. Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain.

  5. Share the Love: Why Not Celebrate Valentine's Day by Encouraging Kids to Give Back to the Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2011-01-01

    February is a natural time to teach students that love involves more than hearts and candy--it also means giving of oneself. According to Terri Kennamer, a third-grade teacher at West Elementary School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama, it is the responsibility of educators to help students recognize that they are citizens of the world. Children have…

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces an inflammatory response in human phagocytes via the NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Dirk; Gieldon, Laura; Mysore, Vijayashree; Nippe, Nadine; Taxman, Debra J.; Duncan, Joseph A.; Broglie, Peter M.; Marketon, Kristina; Austermann, Judith; Vogl, Thomas; Foell, Dirk; Niemann, Silke; Peters, Georg; Roth, Johannes; Löffler, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus pore-forming toxin PVL is most likely causative for life-threatening necrotizing infections, which are characterized by massive tissue inflammation and necrosis. Whereas the cytotoxic action of PVL on human neutrophils is already well established, the PVL effects on other sensitive cell types, such as monocytes and macrophages, are less clear. In this study, we used different types of human leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes) to investigate cell-specific binding of PVL subunits and subsequent proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. In all PVL-sensitive cells, we identified the binding of the subunit LukS-PV as the critical factor for PVL-induced cytotoxicity, which was followed by binding of LukF-PV. LukS-PV binds to monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils but not to lymphocytes. Additionally, we showed that PVL binding to monocytes and macrophages leads to release of caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. PVL activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, a signaling complex of myeloid cells that is involved in caspase-1-dependent IL-1β processing in response to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Specific inhibition of this pathway at several steps significantly reduced inflammasome activation and subsequent pyronecrosis. Furthermore, we found that PAMPs and DAMPs derived from dying neutrophils can dramatically enhance this response by up-regulating pro-IL-1β in monocytes/macrophages. This study analyzes a specific host signaling pathway that mediates PVL-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity, which has high relevance for CA-MRSA-associated and PVL-mediated pathogenic processes, such as necrotizing infections. PMID:22892107

  7. The relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content of Selliguea feei Bory from around Ratu crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novianti, Vivi; Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-01

    Proanthocyanidin is a chemical compound with a basic flavan-3-ol structure formed from flavonoid secondary metabolism in plants, with potential for human use because of its anti-hypertension, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Considering the fact that S. feei contains proanthocynidin and grows abundantly around Ratu Crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu, which actively emits S02 gas, this study aimed to see the relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves and rhizomes of S. feei. Field sampling was conducted in 1 m2 plots at elevations of 1400, 1600 m above sea level (100 m distance from sulfur source), 1700, 1800 and 1900 m a.s.l. (75 m from sulfur source). Measurements included soil sulfate concentration, proanthocyanidin content of rhizomes and leaves, and environmental factors. An experiment was conducted by planting S. feei from the field into polybags which were then given treatments of sterile plant media with varying sulfate concentrations (0 ppm, 100 ppm, 250 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, and 800 ppm). Proanthocyanidin content of S. feei leaves and rhizomes were measured on the third, sixth and ninth week. Soil sulfate concentrations were found to be very high (428.22 - 992.91 ppm) with values increasing according to altitude. Proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes were higher than in leaves, in both field and experimental data. Soil sulfate concentrations correlated positively and significantly with proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes of S. feei. As in the field, experimental results indicated no correlation or relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves. Besides soil sulfate concentration, environmental factors have a role in incresing peoanthocyanidin content of S.feei. Proanthocyanidin content of S.feei rhizomes could be classified as being very high, thus having potential to be developed as raw material in medicine and food industries.

  8. The role of authigenic sulfides in immobilization of potentially toxic metals in the Bagno Bory wetland, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smieja-Król, Beata; Janeczek, Janusz; Bauerek, Arkadiusz; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-10-01

    The supply of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Tl into a wetland in the industrial area of Upper Silesia, southern Poland via atmospheric precipitation and dust deposition has been counterbalanced by the biogenic metal sulfide crystallization in microsites of the thin (<30 cm) peat layer, despite the overall oxidative conditions in the wetland. Disequilibrium of the redox reactions in the peat pore water (pH 5.4-6.2) caused by sulfate-reducing microorganisms has resulted in the localized decrease in Eh and subsequent precipitation of micron- and submicron-sized framboidal pyrite, spheroidal ZnS and (Zn,Cd)S, and galena as revealed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Saturation index for each sulfide is at a maximum within the calculated Eh range of -80 and -146 mV. Lead was also immobilized in galena deposited in fungal filaments, possibly at a higher Eh. Thallium (up to 3 mg kg(-1)) in the peat strongly correlates with Zn, whereas Cu (up to 55 mg kg(-1)) co-precipitated with Pb. The metal sulfides occur within microbial exudates, which protect them from oxidation and mechanical displacement. Vertical distribution of toxic metals in the peat layer reflects differences in pollution loads from atmospheric deposition, which has been much reduced recently. PMID:26006073

  9. The role of authigenic sulfides in immobilization of potentially toxic metals in the Bagno Bory wetland, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smieja-Król, Beata; Janeczek, Janusz; Bauerek, Arkadiusz; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-10-01

    The supply of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Tl into a wetland in the industrial area of Upper Silesia, southern Poland via atmospheric precipitation and dust deposition has been counterbalanced by the biogenic metal sulfide crystallization in microsites of the thin (<30 cm) peat layer, despite the overall oxidative conditions in the wetland. Disequilibrium of the redox reactions in the peat pore water (pH 5.4-6.2) caused by sulfate-reducing microorganisms has resulted in the localized decrease in Eh and subsequent precipitation of micron- and submicron-sized framboidal pyrite, spheroidal ZnS and (Zn,Cd)S, and galena as revealed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Saturation index for each sulfide is at a maximum within the calculated Eh range of -80 and -146 mV. Lead was also immobilized in galena deposited in fungal filaments, possibly at a higher Eh. Thallium (up to 3 mg kg(-1)) in the peat strongly correlates with Zn, whereas Cu (up to 55 mg kg(-1)) co-precipitated with Pb. The metal sulfides occur within microbial exudates, which protect them from oxidation and mechanical displacement. Vertical distribution of toxic metals in the peat layer reflects differences in pollution loads from atmospheric deposition, which has been much reduced recently.

  10. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French Multicenter Prospective Study in 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  11. Incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Pantone-Valentine leucocidin gene at a referral hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dash, Nihar; Panigrahi, Debadatta; Al Zarouni, Mansour; Yassin, Faten; Al-Shamsi, Moza

    2014-04-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen in hospitalized patients worldwide. The present study was undertaken to identify CA-MRSA in hospitalized patients in a 350-bed tertiary care hospital in Sharjah, UAE over a 2-year period from January 2011 to December 2012. CA-MRSA was defined based on identification within first 48 h of admission in the hospital. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing of the CA-MRSA isolates was carried out by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of PVL and mecA genes was done by PCR using the GenoType(®) MRSA test system (Hain Lifescience). Patient's clinical data and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates were also evaluated. Fifty seven of the 187 MRSA isolates were identified as CA-MRSA. All the CA-MRSA strains in our study belonged to SCCmecIV type and were positive for both PVL and mecA genes. The patients with CA-MRSA infections were young (median age, 32 years) and the majority of infections involved the skin and soft tissue (36%). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the CA-MRSA isolates showed a better susceptibility profile to the non-beta-lactam antimicrobials with the exception of ciprofloxacin having 28% resistance. This study evidently strengthens the recent observation of an increase in CA-MRSA emergence among hospitalized patients in the UAE. PMID:23919760

  12. Outbreak of Skin Infections Due to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a French Prison in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Bourigault, Céline; Corvec, Stéphane; Brulet, Virginie; Robert, Pierre-Yves; Mounoury, Olivier; Goubin, Chloé; Boutoille, David; Hubert, Bruno; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Etienne, Jérôme; Lepelletier, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background. An outbreak of PVL-positive MSSA skin and soft tissue-infections (SSTIs) was suspected in May 2010 when recurrent SSTI was diagnosed in an inmate of a large prison in Nantes, France. Methods and findings. Retrospective and prospective investigations were performed. Microbiological characterisation was by DNA microarray testing (S. aureus genotyping - Identibac, Alere). We identified 14 inmates meeting our clinical and microbiological case definition for PVL-MSSA SSTI between March 2010 and April 2011. The SSTIs developed in tattooed areas in 4 patients and in areas shaved daily with a mechanical razor in 4 other patients. All case isolates exhibited a similar SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Microarray analysis showed that all 14 isolates harboured genes encoding PVL and enterotoxins (A, H, K, and Q) and belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1). Individual and collective hygiene measures, education delivered to inmates and prison employees, and antibiotic treatment of SSTIs were successful in controlling the outbreak. No new cases were identified after April 2011. Routine screening for PVL-positive MSSA carriage was not feasible. Conclusions. Our data suggest that tattooing and shaving with mechanical razors may constitute risk factors for SSTIs among previously colonised inmates and contribute to the PVL-MSSA outbreak in the prison. Allowing inmates access to professional tattooists and to the hygiene and safety conditions available to people in the community would help to prevent tattoo-related infections. PMID:24619564

  13. Phytoremediation potential of a novel fern, Salvinia cucullata, Roxb. Ex Bory, to pulp and paper mill effluent: Physiological and anatomical response.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Kisholay

    2016-11-01

    The study was conducted with an aim to remediate effluent from a pulp and paper mill, after treating it for 28 days with an aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata. The effluent had high BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS, P, hardness and chloride, and several heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) above national limits. However, the plant survived a wide range of effluent concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, v/v), and flourished well, particularly at 25% (v/v), resisted membrane injury and generation of H2O2 and O2, showed better growth and induced all the major antioxidant enzymes. The plants also induced lipid peroxidation. Most of the elemental profiles were higher than the toxic levels stipulated for plants, indicating tolerance to metal. In fact, barring Fe, for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mg and P, at all the effluent doses, and for Cd, Ni and Mn, up to 75% (v/v) effluent, greater concentrations were observed in leaf than in root. This plant was more suited for nutrient removal, as it effectively reduced BOD, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mg, P and increased dissolve oxygen. Further, pH, hardness, chloride, TS and Mn was reduced optimally by 25-50% (v/v) treatments. SEM revealed prominent structural damages from 50 to 100% treatments. Presence of Pb as well as Fe in the EDX peaks were observed in the cortex rather than in the root vascular zone. This plant could be suggested to be an effective phytoremediator of multi-contaminant effluent with maximum benefit at low doses (25-50%, v/v). PMID:27521640

  14. Phytoremediation potential of a novel fern, Salvinia cucullata, Roxb. Ex Bory, to pulp and paper mill effluent: Physiological and anatomical response.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Mazumdar, Kisholay

    2016-11-01

    The study was conducted with an aim to remediate effluent from a pulp and paper mill, after treating it for 28 days with an aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata. The effluent had high BOD, COD, TS, TSS, TDS, P, hardness and chloride, and several heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn) above national limits. However, the plant survived a wide range of effluent concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, v/v), and flourished well, particularly at 25% (v/v), resisted membrane injury and generation of H2O2 and O2, showed better growth and induced all the major antioxidant enzymes. The plants also induced lipid peroxidation. Most of the elemental profiles were higher than the toxic levels stipulated for plants, indicating tolerance to metal. In fact, barring Fe, for Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mg and P, at all the effluent doses, and for Cd, Ni and Mn, up to 75% (v/v) effluent, greater concentrations were observed in leaf than in root. This plant was more suited for nutrient removal, as it effectively reduced BOD, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mg, P and increased dissolve oxygen. Further, pH, hardness, chloride, TS and Mn was reduced optimally by 25-50% (v/v) treatments. SEM revealed prominent structural damages from 50 to 100% treatments. Presence of Pb as well as Fe in the EDX peaks were observed in the cortex rather than in the root vascular zone. This plant could be suggested to be an effective phytoremediator of multi-contaminant effluent with maximum benefit at low doses (25-50%, v/v).

  15. [Inhibitory effect of Gracilaria lemaneformis (Bory) Weber Bosse on the co-cultured Scrippsiella trochoidea (Stein) Loeblich III under controlled laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-dong; Song, Xiu-xian; Cao, Xi-hua; Yu, Zhi-ming

    2008-08-01

    The inhibitory effects of Grcilaria lemaneiformis on the co-cultured Scrippsiella trochoidea were determined under controlled laboratory conditions, and the possible mechanism was studied. Results showed that: (1) in the separating S. trochoiea-G. lemaneormis co-culture system when the initial cell density of C. lemaneaonis was set at 0.5 g x L(-1), the growth of S. trochoidea was obviously inhibited and its maximum cell density and exponential phase were decreased compared with the control; however, the inhibitory effect was not as strong as that in the direct cell-cell contact co-culture. Result showed that allelopathy basing on the direct cell contact was the most possible reason leading to the observed result; (2) when the initial cell density of G. lemaneiformis was set at 0.2 g'L-' in the direct cell-cell contact co-culture, the intracellular nitrate concentration of S. trochoidea in monoculture system was 1.5 times of that in co-culture. It seemed that G. lemaneiformis could competitively absorb the environmental nitrate and ultimately led to the decrease of the stock of intracellular nitrate of S. trochoidea.

  16. Modeling of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in 3D Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W

    2002-05-23

    A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully 3D fluid plasma model. We supplement BoRiS with a 3D fluid neutral model including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral model suitable for a variety of applications. We present modeling results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.

  17. Review of Empirical Research That Utilized the Bell Object Relations Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joseph Wm.

    This literature review examines how the Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI) (M. Bell and others, 1986) has been used in the literature. General domains of BORI use include interpersonal relatedness, the measurement of religious dimensions, and the diagnosis and prediction of psychopathology. Specific areas are reviewed regarding the…

  18. 76 FR 50235 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... applications. Place: Pier 5 Hotel, 711 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21202. Contact Person: Boris P Sokolov, Ph... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.306, Comparative Medicine; 93.333, Clinical...

  19. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  20. A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Brent; Yao, Xiaopan; Deng, Yanhong; Waner, Milton; Spock, Christopher; Tom, Laura; Persing, John; Narayan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional) IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions) prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF), placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states. PMID:26496499

  1. Deliberate self-harm and public holidays: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Cullum, S J; Catalan, J; Berelowitz, K; O'Brien, S; Millington, H T; Preston, D

    1993-01-01

    It has previously been reported [Davenport & Birtle, 1990] that there is a positive association between nonfatal deliberate self-harm in adolescents and emotionally charged festivals, such as St Valentine's Day and Christmas Day. We studied all cases of nonfatal deliberate self-harm presenting to three Central London hospitals on St Valentine's Day and Christmas Day and on two control dates, between 1983 and 1989. No association was found between cases of deliberate self-harm and St Valentine's Day, but a negative association was found with Christmas Day.

  2. 'Business Diet' a Bad Deal for The Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... author Dr. Valentin Fuster. He's a professor of cardiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount ... in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . The finding "underscores the importance of developing healthful ...

  3. 76 FR 21622 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... 17500 THEDFORD, NE VOR/DME MARSS, NE FIX 4900 17500 MARSS, NE FIX VALENTINE, NE NDB 4800 17500...

  4. 77 FR 14770 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Comment... information technology. Dated: March 7, 2012. Stephanie Valentine, Acting Director, Information Collection... for information should be addressed to U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW.,...

  5. 78 FR 53737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be... assistive technology services. Dated: August 22, 2013. Stephanie Valentine, Acting Director, Information... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Arts/Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described are various arts and crafts ideas, mostly with a February theme. Included are: ceramic boxes, valentine ideas, and patriotic projects--symbols of our country, silhouettes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, and stars and stripes. (KC)

  7. Recurring off-types in lettuce: Their significance in plant breeding and seed production.

    PubMed

    Maxon Smith, J W

    1977-03-01

    The lettuce cv. Valentine regularly produces non-heading off-type plants at the relatively high frequency of 4 × 10(-3). They result from mutation to the dominant condition. A similar propensity has been reported twice before in lettuce; it is highly heritable.The propensity to produce off-types was not present in the parents of Valentine so it must have arisen during the pedigree breeding programme. Closely related cultivars do not carry the character but it was subsequently transmitted to Dandie a new cultivar of which Valentine was one of the parents. Allelism tests to relate Valentine off-types to those in crisphead cultivars were not successful.The elimination of off-types in breeding programmes is discussed. Contrary to the findings in day-neutral crisphead cultivars, mutant phenotypes in long-day butterhead cultivars have no selective advantage for seed production. Consequently, strict roguing ensures adequate varietal stability. PMID:24407526

  8. American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster County School Board, PA.

    Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

  9. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on water stress in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, T.E.; Davis, D.D.; Pell, E.J.; Merrill, W.

    1981-08-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cvs. Provider and Stringless Black Valentine) were exposed to 395 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.08 ppm) peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) for 0.5 hr and subjected to drought stress following exposure. PAN influenced the plant potential of PAN-sensitive Provider resulting in visible wilting and reduced soil moisture content. There was no effect of PAN on the water relations of the PAN-tolerant Stringless Black Valentine.

  10. Public Library YA Program Roundup. VOYA's Most Valuable Program 2002: Munching on Books; Really Getting Graphic: A Teen Read Week Art Show Preview; Masquerades and Millionaires: An After-hours Teen Extravaganza; Teen Time Travelers Make Listening a "Hobbit"; Teens Take a Humongous Bite Out of Newly Seasoned Reading Program; Putting a Stake through Valentine's Day; Celebrating the Day of the Dead; Legos in the Library Window; "So that You May Know": Teen Rading Group Meets Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Kara; Kan, Kat; Fletcher-Spear, Kristin; Solomon, Beth B.; Dunford, Karen; Rinella, Kay Walsh; Shenoy, Ravi; McIntosh, Jennifer R.; Socha, Debbie; Dudeck, Sharon; Duwel, Lucretia; Stackpole, Diane; Blosveren, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    These nine articles describe public library programs for young adults. Highlights include a read-a-thon with snacks; graphic novels and art; costume party and trivia contest; activities based on "The Hobbit"; a summer reading program that included teen volunteers; writing epitaphs for Day of the Dead celebration; Legos displays; and meeting with…

  11. BOREAS Elevation Contours over the NSA and SSA in ARC/INFO Generate Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was prepared by BORIS Staff by reformatting the original data into the ARC/INFO Generate format. The original data were received in SIF at a scale of 1:50,000. BORIS staff could not find a format document or commercial software for reading SIF; the BOREAS HYD-08 team pro-vided some C source code that could read some of the SIF files. The data cover the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The original data were compiled from information available in the 1970s and 1980s. The data are available in ARC/INFO Generate format files.

  12. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers over the SSA-MSA in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Gruszka, F; Hall, F.

    2000-01-01

    This data set, originally provided as vector polygons with attributes, has been processed by BORIS staff to provide raster files that can be used for modeling or for comparison purposes. The original data were received as ARC/INFO coverages or as export files from SERM. The data include information on forest parameters for the BOREAS SSA-MSA. Most of the data used for this product were acquired by BORIS in 1993; the maps were produced from aerial photography taken as recently as 1988. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  13. Navier-Stokes Neutral and Plasma Fluid Modelling in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, J; Borchardt, M; Schneider, R; Mutzke, A; Rognlien, T; Umansky, M

    2004-05-17

    The 3D finite volume transport code BoRiS is applied to a system of coupled plasma and neutral fluid equations in a slab. Demonstrating easy implementation of new equations, a new parallel BoRiS version is tested on three different models for the neutral fluid - diffusive, parallel Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes - and the results are compared to each other. Typical effects like density enhancement by ionization of recycled neutrals in front of a target plate can be seen and differences are linked to the neutral models in use.

  14. The Life and Death of a Poet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Provides a psychohistorical perspective on the Russian poet, Marina Tsvetayeva, who committed suicide in 1941. Offers a critical analysis of Boris Pasternak's (1983) "I Remember: Sketch for an Autobiography" to yield several points to consider in interpreting motives for suicides. (SR)

  15. The new Russian law on psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, D

    1994-01-01

    On July 2, 1992, President Boris Yeltsin signed into effect a law that has the potential for advancing human rights of psychiatric clients in the Russian Federation. The author provides a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian psychiatric laws, demonstrating a striking similarity of the laws in terms of substance and scope.

  16. Global optimization of digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandera, Richard

    1991-12-01

    This thesis was divided into two tasks. The first task involved developing a parser which could translate a behavioral specification in Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into the format used by an existing digital circuit optimization tool, Boolean Reasoning In Scheme (BORIS). Since this tool is written in Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, the parser was also written in Scheme. The parser was implemented is Artez's modification of Earley's Algorithm. Additionally, a VHDL tokenizer was implemented in Scheme and a portion of the VHDL grammar was converted into the format which the parser uses. The second task was the incorporation of intermediate functions into BORIS. The existing BORIS contains a recursive optimization system that optimizes digital circuits by using circuit outputs as inputs into other circuits. Intermediate functions provide a greater selection of functions to be used as circuits inputs. Using both intermediate functions and output functions, the costs of the circuits in the test set were reduced by 43 percent. This is a 10 percent reduction when compared to the existing recursive optimization system. Incorporating intermediate functions into BORIS required the development of an intermediate-function generator and a set of control methods to keep the computation time from increasing exponentially.

  17. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities: Reconsidering…

  18. 75 FR 47252 - Proposed Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Routes (T-281, T-283, T-285, T-286, and T...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... ``significant rule'' under Department of ] Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3...'09'' W.) MARSS, NE Fix (Lat. 42 27'49'' N., long. 100 36'15'' W.) Valentine, NE (VTN) NDB (Lat. 42...

  19. Large-Scale Blast Experiments Examine Subsurface Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonder, Ingo; Graettinger, Alison; Valentine, Greg

    2013-09-01

    Volcanic craters are often formed by multiple subsurface explosions caused by the interaction of magma and groundwater [Lorenz, 1973; Valentine and White, 2012]. To understand the processes and products of such explosions, scientists spent 2 years conducting experiments that produced craters on the meter scale at the Geohazards Field Station in Ashford, N. Y.

  20. Insecure? Keeping New England Campuses Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Alyssa

    2009-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, Seung-Hui Cho traded in his title as "student" for one of "gunman." That day, Cho, a student at Virginia Tech, was responsible for the deadliest shooting spree by a single person in U.S. history, killing 33 people, including himself. Ten months later on Valentine's Day, Steven Kazmierczak joined Cho in the ranks of student…

  1. “More than skin deep”: Recurrent primary hand abscesses in a warehouse operative

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, L.; O’Connor, C.; Fitzpatrick, F.; O’Sullivan, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old male right-hand dominant warehouse operator presented with two hand infections within 12 weeks both requiring surgical drainage and antimicrobial therapy. Subsequent testing confirmed Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA). This case highlights the need for prompt multidisciplinary management of hand infections to consider, diagnose and manage atypical infections. PMID:27252979

  2. 77 FR 23807 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Juarez, Valentin Gomez Farias 120A, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico; Puerta de Hierro 5594, Colonia...--B, Colonia Reg. 92, Quintana Roo, Benito Juarez 77516, Mexico; Avenida Vallarta No. 6503, Piso 15..., Col. Napoles, Benito Juarez, Mexico City, Distrito Federal 03810, Mexico; Wisconsin No. 68,...

  3. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  4. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development..., LLC, Avalon Wind 2, LLC, Catalina Solar, LLC, Catalina Solar 2, LLC, Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC,...

  5. What's Happening in February?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  6. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  7. February Folklore: You'll Love It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1980-01-01

    Folk tales which are particularly suited to February cover legends about George Washington, the Chinese zodiac, and Groundhog Day. Also included is a calendar of activities for February. These activities are appropriate for Groundhog Day, Valentine's Day, Chinese New Year, President's (Washington and Lincoln) Day, and Leap Year. (KC)

  8. 75 FR 20533 - Interpretation of “Children's Product”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... animal packaged with a candle as a sentimental gift for Valentine's Day or some other holiday. The candle... stuffed animal, on the other hand, is likely to be considered a children's product even though it has been combined in a promotion with a general use or adult product. The stuffed animal must meet all...

  9. Music Curriculum for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picht, Harriet

    This kindergarten music curriculum provides a year-long program of a sequenced series of activities designed to develop music concepts. Topics of the units in this guide are: self-concept (beginning of the year), fall, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, winter, a circus, Valentine's Day, spring, and farms. A scope and sequence chart of concepts…

  10. Peers and Plagiarism: The Role of Student Judicial Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    After reading Kathryn Valentine's article that talked about her interaction with a Chinese student accused of plagiarism, the author was reminded of the effectiveness of student judicial boards. In this article, the author describes the benefits of having a student judicial board in fighting off plagiarism among students. She relates that although…

  11. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  12. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Own- and Cross-Race Face Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race…

  13. Women and Communicative Power: Theory, Research, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Carol Ann; Hoar, Nancy, Ed.

    A collection of essays that explores the links among women and communicative power from a variety of perspectives, this monograph focuses on issue analysis and suggestions for future research. The articles and their authors are as follows (1) "Women and Communicative Power: Introduction" (Carol Ann Valentine); (2) "Genderlect, Powerlect, and…

  14. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Effective Strategy to Assess the Outcomes of Mentoring Programs for Troubled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Davies, Gethin L.; Viggers, Dave; Tranter, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring programs are increasingly popular as preventive and/or supportive interventions for youth with various needs. A meta-analysis of mentoring program effects conducted by DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, and Cooper (2002) suggests that youth from backgrounds of risk (defined broadly) have the capacity to benefit from mentoring, especially when…

  15. Creeping bentgrass putting green response to foliar nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT In 2009 and 2010, three independent fertility trials were conducted on a putting green (PG) managed within the Pennsylvania State University Joseph Valentine Turfgrass Research Center (University Park, PA). The objective was to identify Penn A-1/A-4 creeping bentgrass putting green quality ...

  16. Holidays. Advisory List: Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This document presents an annotated bibliography of instructional materials that deal with subjects relating to holidays. Topics include Christmas, Earth Day, Easter, Halloween, Hannukah, Independence Day, Martin Luther King Day, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, and "More than One Holiday." Works cited include illustrated stories, poems, songs, and…

  17. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  18. Celebrating Traditional Holidays in Public Schools: Books for Basic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, John F.; Moir, Hughes

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief annotated bibliography of children's books which may be used to foster greater understanding of the five most popular holidays celebrated in U. S. public schools. The holidays are Columbus Day, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and St. Valentine's Day. (JDH)

  19. Post-Secondary Youth and Adult Learning [and] Educational Marketing and Delivery Systems. Trustees' Symposium on Postsecondary Education, Programs Two and Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Walter E., Ed.

    This is the report of a conference held to communicate the results of the Non Traditional Community College Project conducted during 1973-74 to determine the potential learning population of metropolitan St. Louis. The conference report consists of major presentations by J. A. Valentine of the College Entrance Examination Board and by the…

  20. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  1. 75 FR 63501 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... section 1605(c) of the Recovery Act and OMB's implementing guidance published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR... energy efficient bathroom exhaust fans and linoleum flooring for the Fairmont Street, Valentine Street... exhaust fans and linoleum flooring) are not produced in the U.S. in sufficient and reasonably...

  2. Using Video Cases to Scaffold Mentoring Competencies: A Program Design from the Young Women Leaders Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bryan Rossiter

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project conducted an intervention using video cases to scaffold traditional methods of concept presentation in a youth mentoring program. Video cases delivered online were chosen as a methodology to strengthen the support and practitioner aspects indicative of mentoring program success rates (D. L. DuBois, Holloway, Valentine, &…

  3. Courtside: NCLB=New Cause for Litigious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the children of parents Latasha Gibbs, Carmella Glass, Laverne Jones, Charlene Mingo, Deborah Powell-Jasper, Eunice Staton, and Keikola Valentine were attending New York City public schools that the state education department identified as needing improvement -- in other words, failing -- under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB)…

  4. 77 FR 74842 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Lessee, LLC, Pacific Wind 2, LLC, Valentine Solar, LLC, and EDF Renewables Development, Inc. E-23 OMITTED... Renewables, Inc., PacificCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration. E-3 EL11-44-002 Iberdrola Renewables, Inc.,...

  5. Swap Shop: Original Teaching Ideas Submitted by Readers of "Learning" Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This collection of classroom ideas for the elementary school teacher contains learning activities, teaching methods, and suggestions on a wide variety of topics. The 22 teacher-submitted articles include ideas on writing, art, getting acquainted, vocabulary, self-esteem, open house, Halloween, mathematics, drama, hobbies, Valentine's Day, oral…

  6. Mental Health in Head Start: Leave No Child Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.; Murphy, Michael; Zigler, Edward F.

    2005-01-01

    The original vision of Head Start called for a program that would "get kids ready so they would have a chance in school...a chance in life" (Sargent Shriver; quoted in Zigler and Valentine, 1997, p. 59). President George W. Bush's recent emphasis on literacy and school achievement in Head Start highlights the academic aspect of the Head Start…

  7. Relational Framing Theory and Coming-Out Narratives: A Data Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helens-Hart, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Coming-out scenarios have been described as potentially traumatic events that change the parent-child relationship (MacDonald, 1983). Little research in the field of communication studies has been conducted on how the process of coming out unfolds within families (Valentine, Skelton, & Butler, 2003). The exercise described in this article…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (20th, Oakland, California, May 7, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    Conference papers include: "The 'New Approach of the California State Colleges'" (Glenn S. Dumke); "Toward Institutional Goal-Consciousness" (Richard E. Peterson); "The Commission on Non-traditional Study - Who Needs It?" (John A. Valentine); "The Impact of Mandated Evaluation on Education" (Alexander I. Law); "A Workable Solution to the Demand…

  9. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  10. Traduction et langues de specialite: Approches theoriques et considerations pedagogiques (Translation and Specialty Languages: Theoretical Approaches and Pedagogic Considerations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevel, Zelie, Ed.; Valentine, Egan, Ed.

    Essays on the teaching of translation and on specialized translation, all in French, include: "Perspectives d'optimisation de la formation du traducteur: quelques reflexions" ("Perspectives on Optimization of Training of Translation Teachers: Some Reflections") (Egan Valentine); "L'enseignement de la revision pedagogique" ("The Teaching of…

  11. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  12. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  13. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  14. Football or Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  15. BOREAS Level-4c AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: Surface Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Huang, Fengting; Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the NOAA-11 and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4c data are gridded, 10-day composites of surface parameters produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10-day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files. Note: Some of the data files on the BOREAS CD-ROMs have been compressed using the Gzip program.

  16. BOREAS Level-4b AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Nickerson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Feng-Ting; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-11) and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4b data are gridded, 10-day composites of at-sensor radiance values produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10- day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  17. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  18. An ACA briefing on indefinite NPT extension and on the Moscow summit

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr; Mendelsohn, J.; Hartman, A.A.

    1995-06-01

    On May 17, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a new conference to address important aspects of two events of fundamental importance that occurred in rapid succession. These were the decision by consensus on May 11 by member states meeting in New York to extend indefinitely the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)- and the May 9-10 summit in Moscow between President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin.

  19. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric imagery in SF, Part II - H. P. Lovecraft's The Colour Out Of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair; Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian

    2005-12-01

    A brief biography of American horror-fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft (1890-1937) precedes details from his story `The Colour Out Of Space', concerning a deadly life-form brought to Earth in a meteorite. This allows a comparison with details from the 1965 film derived from this tale, `Die, Monster, Die!', featuring the great horror actor Boris Karloff in one of his last, best roles.

  20. STS-106 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are shown preparing for their departure from the International Space Station (ISS). Crewmembers are shown closing the hatches of the Zarya, Unity and Zvezda modules. They are also shown packing up trash and packing materials into the Russian Progress ship.

  1. Nonperturbative relativistic calculation of the muonic hydrogen spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. D.; Thomas, A. W.; Rafelski, J.; Miller, G. A.

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the muonic hydrogen 2P{sub 3/2}{sup F=2} to 2S{sub 1/2}{sup F=1} transition through a precise, nonperturbative numerical solution of the Dirac equation including the finite-size Coulomb force and finite-size vacuum polarization. The results are compared with earlier perturbative calculations of (primarily) [E. Borie, Phys. Rev. A 71, 032508 (2005); E. Borie and G. A. Rinker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 54, 67 (1982); E. Borie, Z. Phys. A 275, 347 (1975) and A. P. Martynenko, Phys. Rev. A 71, 022506 (2005); A. Martynenko, Phys. At. Nucl. 71, 125 (2008), and K. Pachucki, Phys. Rev. A 53, 2092 (1996)] and experimental results recently presented by Pohl et al.[Nature (London) 466, 213 (2010)], in which this very comparison is interpreted as requiring a modification of the proton charge radius from that obtained in electron scattering and electronic hydrogen analyses. We find no significant discrepancy between the perturbative and nonperturbative calculations, and we present our results as confirmation of the perturbative methods.

  2. A multidimensional scaling analysis of own- and cross-race face spaces.

    PubMed

    Papesh, Megan H; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-08-01

    We examined predictions derived from Valentine's (1991) Multidimensional Space (MDS) framework for own- and other-race face processing. A set of 20 computerized faces was generated from a single prototype. Each face was saved as Black and White, changing only skin tone, such that structurally identical faces were represented in both race categories. Participants made speeded "same-different" judgments to all possible combinations of faces, from which we generated psychological spaces, with "different" RTs as the measure of similarity. Consistent with the MDS framework, all faces were pseudo-normally distributed around the (unseen) prototype. The distribution of faces was consistent with Valentine's (1991) predictions: despite their physical identity to the White faces, Black faces had lower mean inter-object distances in psychological space. Other-race faces are more densely clustered in psychological space, which could underlie well-known recognition deficits.

  3. The effects of oil spill chemicals on carbon translocation rates in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Daly, E J; Hoddinott, J; Dale, M R

    1988-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Black Valentine when sprayed with Corexit dispersants shows a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis. The plant retains the ability to translocate fixed carbon, and this involves mobilising previously fixed carbon in the sprayed leaf or the repartitioning of carbon from unsprayed regions of the plant towards the growing sink regions. The ability to maintain carbon translocation while photosynthesis is declining maximises the regrowth potential of the plant. PMID:15092613

  4. Epidemic Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Lineages Are the Main Cause of Infections at an Iranian University Hospital ▿

    PubMed Central

    Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Vidovic, Sinisa; Tahmineh, Narimani; Mohammad, Kazemi; Mohsen, Karbalaei; Starnino, Stefania; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Staphylococcus aureus infections from Isfahan, Iran, were caused by epidemic methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) lineages, sequence type 8 (ST8), ST22, ST30, and ST6. The predominant methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain was ST239. We observed a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive MSSA strains (19.7%), which is a matter of considerable concern, since these strains have the ability to cause severe infections. PMID:21940478

  5. "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U. S. History" Hones Students' Subject Search and Indexing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla

    2010-01-01

    This article features the "U-X-L Encyclopedia of U.S. History" by Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine is a new eight-volume set available in print or ebook (2009). The set has 1,745 pages and 677 entries ranging from just under one page to around eight pages in length. The ebook option may be accessed through Gale Virtual…

  6. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  7. Molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus nasal isolates from medical students in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bettin, Alfonso; Causil, Ceyla; Reyes, Niradiz

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) remains a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections worldwide. Nasal carriage of this bacterium among hospital personnel constitutes an important source for nosocomial infections. A cross-sectional study enrolling the whole medical student population (n=387) of the School of Medicine at the Universidad de Cartagena, Colombia, was conducted to evaluate the carriage rates of both methicillin sensitive- and methicillin resistant-SA, the frequency of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in the isolates, and risk factors associated with carriage in this selected population. After signing an informed consent, participants completed a survey related to possible risk factors for colonization, and nasal swabs were collected from anterior nares. Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from carriers were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR assays to determine the presence of MecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Typing of the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette was performed for methicillin resistant strains. Molecular analysis was performed for only one strain per carrier. Prevalence of carriage for methicillin sensitive- and methicillin resistant-SA was 25% and 1.6% respectively. Most of the methicillin resistant isolates carried the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette type IV and the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. To determine carrier types among medical students, each participant was subjected to four additional swabs, each taken two weeks apart. 9.8% persistent carriers, 53.1% intermittent carriers, and 37.1% non-carriers of SA were found. There was no association between risk factors analyzed and carriage of the bacterium. The study was conducted from April to September 2009 and found a persistent carriage of methicillin resistant-SA strains bearing the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin among medical students, evidencing the potential contribution of this portion of healthcare personnel either to the spread or

  8. From theory to implementation: building a multidimensional space for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Catz, Or; Kampf, Michal; Nachson, Israel; Babkoff, Harvey

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to empirically construct a multidimensional model of face space based upon Valentine's [Valentine, T. (1991). A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion, and race in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43A, 161-204; Valentine, T. (2001). Face-space models of face recognition. In M. J. Wenger, & J. T. Townsend, (Eds.). Computational, geometric, and process perspectives on facial cognition: Contexts and challenges. Scientific psychology series (pp. 83-113). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] metaphoric model. Two-hundred and ten participants ranked 200 faces on a 21-dimensional space composed of internal facial features. On the basis of these dimensions an index of distance from the center of the dimensional space was calculated. A factor analysis revealed six factors which highlighted the importance of both featural and holistic processes in face recognition. Testing the model in relation to facial distinctiveness and face recognition strengthened its validity by emphasizing the relevance of the constructed multidimensional space for face recognition. The data are discussed within the framework of theoretical models of face recognition.

  9. Simulating the 'other-race' effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Roberto; Hervé, Abdi

    2006-01-01

    Other-race (OR) faces are less accurately recognized than same-race (SR) faces, but faster classified by race. This phenomenon has often been reported as the 'other-race' effect (ORE). Valentine (1991 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology 43 161-204) proposed a theoretical multidimensional face-space model that explained both of these results, in terms of variations in exemplar density between races. According to this model, SR faces are more widely distributed across the dimensions of the space than OR faces. However, this model does not quantify nor state the dimensions coded within this face space. The aim of the present study was to test the face-space explanation of the ORE with neural network simulations by quantifying its dimensions. We found the predicted density properties of Valentine's framework in the face-projection spaces of the autoassociative memories. This was supported by an interaction for exemplar density between the race of the learned face set and the race of the faces. In addition, the elaborated face representations showed optimal responses for SR but not for OR faces within SR face spaces when explored at the individual level, as gender errors occurred significantly more often in OR than in SR face-space representations. Altogether, our results add further evidence in favor of a statistical exemplar density explanation of the ORE as suggested by Valentine, and question the plausibility of such coding for faces in the framework of recent neuroimaging studies.

  10. Geological Interpretation of Bathymetric and Backscatter Imagery of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Larry J.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Butman, Bradford; Ackerman, Seth D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, Dave S.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2006-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder data collected off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data. The basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment and sedimentary environments. Presented verification data include new and historical sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam data, which cover a narrow band of the sea floor extending from Provincetown around the northern tip of Cape Cod and south southeastward to off Monomoy Island, were collected during transits between concurrent mapping projects in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (Valentine and others, 2001; Butman and others, 2004; and Valentine, 2005) and Great South Channel (Valentine and others, 2003a, b, c, d). Although originally collected to maximize the use of time aboard ship, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities in this part of the Gulf of Maine (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. These data and interpretations also support ongoing modeling studies of the lower Cape's aquifer system (Masterson, 2004) and of erosional hotspots along the Cape Cod National Seashore (List and others, 2006).

  11. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1a GOES-8 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. The level-1a GOES-8 images were created by BORIS personnel from the level-1 images delivered by FSU personnel. The data cover 14-Jul-1995 to 21-Sep-1995 and 12-Feb-1996 to 03-Oct-1996. The data start out as three bands with 8-bit pixel values and end up as five bands with 10-bit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. The differences between the level-1 and level-1a GOES-8 data are the formatting and packaging of the data. The images missing from the temporal series of level-1 GOES-8 images were zero-filled by BORIS staff to create files consistent in size and format. In addition, BORIS staff packaged all the images of a given type from a given day into a single file, removed the header information from the individual level-1 files, and placed it into a single descriptive ASCII header file. The data are contained in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-8 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-8 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. STS-106 M.S. Morukov arrives at KSC for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 Mission Specialist Boris V. Morukov smiles upon his arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. He and the rest of the crew will be making pre-launch preparations for the fourth flight to the International Space Station. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long- duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  13. Note on online books and articles about the history of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2008-01-01

    Students of the history of dissociation will be interested in the materials on the subject available in the digital document database Google Book Search. This includes a variety of books and journals covering automatic writing, hypnosis, mediumship, multiple personality, trance, somnambulism, and other topics. Among the authors represented in the database are: Eugène Azam, Alfred Binet, James Braid, Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Janet, Frederic W.H. Myers, Morton Prince, and Boris Sidis, among others. The database includes examples of case reports, conceptual discussions, and psychiatric and psychological textbook literature.

  14. Desert Research Institute cloud droplet videometer measurements in support of MASTEX

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-13

    In support of the Monterey Area Ship-Track Experiment (MASTEX) the Desert Research Institute completed modifications to an existing cloud droplet videometer and construction of a second unit for deployment on board the RV Glorita during the month of June 1994. Dr. Randolph Borys accompanied the instrumentation during the period the ship was at sea and assisted in the day-to-day experiments which were conducted on board. Unusually clear conditions and high winds contributed to the lack of opportunities to deploy the new instrument from the ship.

  15. Less reality, more security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, Artur

    2009-09-01

    On 25 March 1935 John Tate, the then editor of Physical Review, received a paper that Einstein had co-authored with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, his younger colleagues at Princeton. The logbooks of Physical Review show that the EPR paper, as it has since become known, bypassed the refereeing process and went straight to press. Four printed pages of beautifully constructed argument appeared in the 15 May issue. They were heralded by a brief article in the New York Times titled "Einstein attacks quantum theory". And so he did.

  16. Simulation of beams or plasmas crossing at relativistic velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.

    2008-05-15

    This paper addresses the numerical issues related to the modeling of beams or plasmas crossing at relativistic velocity using the particle-in-cell method. Issues related to the use of the standard Boris particle pusher are identified and a novel pusher which circumvents them is proposed, whose effectiveness is demonstrated on single particle tests. A procedure for solving the fields is proposed, which retains electrostatic, magnetostatic, and inductive field effects in the direction of the mean velocity of the species, is fully explicit and simpler than the full Darwin approximation. Finally, results are given, from a calculation using the novel features, of an ultrarelativistic beam interacting with a background of electrons.

  17. Prospects for Ukrainian denuclearization after the Moscow trilateral statement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    On January 14, at the Moscow summit, Presidents Bill Clinton, Boris Yeltsin of Russia and Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine issued a trilateral statement that again commits Ukraine to denuclearize in compliance with START I and the Lisbon Protocol and to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear-weapon state. Recognizing that scant media attention had been paid to the importance of the trilateral statement, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference on January 28 to provide background and context on the many issues that affect prospects for Ukrainian denuclearization.

  18. Risk of Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation to Humans Symposium at the EMS 2009 Annual Meeting - September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.; von Borstel, Robert C.; Brenner, David; Redpath, J. Leslie; Erickson, Barbra E.; Brooks, Antone L.

    2009-11-12

    The low dose symposium thoughtfully addressed controversy of risk from low dose radiation exposure, hormesis and radon therapy. The stem cell symposium cogently considered the role of DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic stem cells underlying aging and malignancy and provocatively presented evidence that stem cells may have distinct morphologies and replicative properties, as well as special roles in cancer initiation. In the epigenetics symposium, studies illustrated the long range interaction of epigenetic mechanisms, the roles of CTCF and BORIS in region/specific regulation of epigenetic processes, the impact of DNA damage on epigenetic processes as well as links between epigenetic mechanisms and early nutrition and bystander effects.

  19. BOREAS Regional Soils Data in Raster Format and AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monette, Bryan; Knapp, David; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set was gridded by BOREAS Information System (BORIS) Staff from a vector data set received from the Canadian Soil Information System (CanSIS). The original data came in two parts that covered Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data were gridded and merged into one data set of 84 files covering the BOREAS region. The data were gridded into the AEAC projection. Because the mapping of the two provinces was done separately in the original vector data, there may be discontinuities in some of the soil layers because of different interpretations of certain soil properties. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  20. Verification of nonlinear particle simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Sun, G. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear simulation model for radio frequency waves in fusion plasmas has been developed and verified using fully kinetic ion and drift kinetic electron. Ion cyclotron motion in the toroidal geometry is implemented using Boris push in the Boozer coordinates. Linear dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping are verified for the lower hybrid wave and ion Bernstein wave (IBW). Parametric decay instability is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasimode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity.

  1. Low-temperature experimental studies in molecular biophysics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoi, Yu. P.; Sheina, G. G.; Ivanov, A. Yu.; Radchenko, E. D.; Kosevich, M. V.; Shelkovsky, V. S.; Boryak, O. A.; Rubin, Yu. V.

    1999-10-01

    The enormous contribution of Academician Boris I. Verkin in laying the foundation of the biophysics research school in Kharkov are recalled in the Jubilee year commemorating his 80th birthday. This review describes the development and realization of his ideas during the last two decades at Molecular Biophysics Department of the Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (ILTPE) in Kharkov. Main results of the studies of physical and chemical properties of biopolymer fragments and biologically active compounds using methods of low-temperature electron-vibrational spectroscopy, low-temperature secondary-emission mass spectrometry, and low-temperature luminescence spectroscopy are presented.

  2. PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph

  3. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-101 crew learn about some of the cargo that will be on their mission. At left are Mission Specialists Jeffrey N. Williams and Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.); at right are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., and Mission Specialist Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Other crew members are Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov and Yuri Malenchenko, who are with the Russian Space Agency. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  4. Comparative study of the removal of phenolic compounds by biological and non-biological adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Abel E; Cuizano, Norma A; Lazo, Jose C; Sun-Kou, María R; Llanos, Bertha P

    2009-05-30

    The ability of biological and non-biological adsorbents to remove 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from aqueous solutions in batch experiments at room temperature was compared. The marine seaweeds Macrocystis integrifolia Bory (S1) and Lessonia nigrescens Bory (S2) were cross-linked with CaCl(2) to enhance their mechanical properties. Natural bentonite was chemically exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (B1) and bencyltriethylammonium chloride (B2) to increase their affinity towards organic compounds as well. The adsorption capacity of all of the adsorbents strongly depends on solution pH, whereas equilibrium assays showed a mixed mechanism according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-NP follows the trend: S1>S2>B2>B1 within the range of 97.37 and 18.64 mg g(-1) whereas for 2-CP, it ranged between 24.18 and 9.95 mg g(-1) with the trend: S1>S2>B2 approximately B1. The importance of the octanol-water partition coefficient as the main factor on the adsorption of these compounds on two different kinds of adsorbents is discussed. PMID:18990486

  5. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the

  6. ["A shot at the father: a student's assault". Sigmund Freud and the case of Ernst Haberl].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable. PMID:24988808

  7. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed. PMID:24109144

  8. Involvement of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Related to Sequence Type 25 and Harboring pvl Genes in a Case of Carotid Cavernous Fistula after Community-Associated Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Damasco, Paulo V.; Chamon, Raiane C.; Barbosa, Angélica T. L.; da Cunha, Sérgio; Aquino, José H. W.; Cavalcante, Fernanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes has become the cause of life-threatening infections. We describe a case of carotid cavernous fistula after bacteremia in a 12-year-old male, caused by a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolate carrying the pvl, fnbA, and ebpS genes and related to sequence type 25 (ST25). The patient's condition was complicated by pleural empyema and osteomyelitis in the right femur. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition after 160 days of hospitalization. PMID:22090398

  9. Optimization of triplex real time PCR for detecting Staphylococcus aureus mecA, pvl and nuc genes.

    PubMed

    Vremeră, Teodora; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Logigan, Cătălina; Năstase, Eduard; Miftode, Egidia; Luncă, Cătălina; Dorneanu, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows simultaneous detection of two or more genes, using the same reaction conditions, and so it is possible the rapid detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) in clinical specimens. This study aimed to implement, for the first time in our laboratory, a triplex real time PCR (RT-PCR) technique for detection of genes encoding resistance to oxacillin and synthesis of Panton Valentine leukocidin (pvl), a pathogenicity factor characteristic for community acquired strains (CA-MRSA). The application of this method will permit the epidemiological surveillance of circulating strains and early application of prevention measures.

  10. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  11. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  12. ["A shot at the father: a student's assault". Sigmund Freud and the case of Ernst Haberl].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 1922, the Freud family was involved in a criminal case: The son of Mathilde Freud's nursing sister, Ernst Haberl, had shot at his father. With the help of August Aichhorn the Viennese Juvenile Court's social assistance department was engaged on behalf of the young man. Freud commissioned the lawyer Valentin Teirich to defend him in court. The Viennese dailies reported the deed and the trial extensively (Haberl was acquitted). That a comment published in the Neue Freie Presse was written by Freud himself, as Teirich believed, is, according to Anna Freud, highly improbable.

  13. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: novel mutation in the aminomethyl transferase gene. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Çavuşoğlu, Dilek; Özbeyler, Ömer; Kaya, Özge Ö; Baydan, Figen; Olgac Dundar, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an exotoxin that is produced by many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, and an important virulence factor. A PVL-positive S. aureus infection leads to rapid and severe infections of soft tissue and necrotizing pneumonia in healthy adolescents, and has a high mortality. This case report included a 12-year-old male patient who admitted for fever, respiratory distress and hip pain and was identified with necrotizing pneumonia with septic pulmonary embolism, psoas abscess, cellulitis and osteomyelitis. The PVL positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated in the patient blood culture.

  14. Study of comets at wavelengths between 0.5 and 18 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Net, E. P.; Gehrz, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969 every bright comet was measured which has reached a distance of one astronomical unit from the sun. Observing techniques were developed which make it possible to observe as close as elongation 3 deg., and to find, track and measure comets at all wavelengths in full daylight. Comet Halley was measured on twenty four occasions between December 12, 1985 and March 25, 1986. Clear weather seems to come on holidays, and days on which are observed including Winter Solstice, Christmas, New Years, Valentines day, Super Bowl Sunday and the Vernal Equinox. Halley is observed within hours of perihelion passage.

  15. Differences in habitat use by blanding's turtles, Emydoidea blandingii, and painted turtles, Chysemys picta, in the Nebraska sandhills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Germano, David J.

    2003-01-01

    We sampled a variety of wetlands in the Nebraska sandhills at Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Significantly more individuals of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) occurred in lakes and open waters than in marshes or small ponds, and the opposite was true for Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii). Besides this marked difference in habitat use, 46% of the captured E. blandingii in pond/marsh habitat were juveniles, but only 31.6% in lakes and open water. Current information suggests that marshes and small ponds are important habitat for juvenile turtles, especially Emydoidea blandingii.

  16. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed.

  17. Here's what top employers, unions are doing about HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that while only one in six large companies offer formal HIV/AIDS education programs, some companies and labor unions are conducting workplace-based prevention. The National Business and Labor Conference on HIV/AIDS, held September 29, 1997 in Washington, DC, recognized a variety of companies for their innovative workplace-based programs. These included Levi Strauss and Company, Sailor's Valentine Gallery, the National Basketball Players Association, Hawaii Industry Venture, IBM, Polaroid, Unum Life Insurance Company, and Gap, Inc. These companies provide a range of programs and services including fundraising for local AIDS organizations, employee education, public awareness, and family education.

  18. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the

  19. Recognition of own-race and other-race caricatures: implications for models of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Byatt, G; Rhodes, G

    1998-08-01

    Valentine's (Valentine T. Q J Exp Psychol 1991;43A:161-204) face recognition framework supports both a norm-based coding (NBC) and an exemplar-only, absolute coding, model (ABC). According to NBC; (1) faces are represented in terms of deviations from a prototype or norm; (2) caricatures are effective because they exaggerate this norm deviation information; and (3) other-race faces are coded relative to the (only available) own-race norm. Therefore NBC predicts that, for European subjects, caricatures of Chinese faces made by distorting differences from the European norm would be more effective than caricatures made relative to the Chinese norm. According to ABC; (1) faces are encoded as absolute values on a set of shared dimensions with the norm playing no role in recognition; (2) caricatures are effective because they minimise exemplar density and (3) the dimensions of face-space are inappropriate for other-race faces leaving them relatively densely clustered. ABC predicts that all faces would be recognised more accurately when caricatured against their own-race norm. We tested European subjects' identification of European and Chinese faces, caricatured against both race norms. The ABC model's prediction was supported. European faces were also rated as more distinctive and recognised more easily than Chinese faces. However, the own-race recognition bias held even when the races were equated for distinctiveness which suggests that the ABC model may not provide a complete account of race effects in recognition.

  20. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  1. Congress moves to set priorities for EPA research spending

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.

    1993-05-31

    Research and development spending at the Environmental Protection Agency is slated to rise more than 5% in President Bill Clinton's fiscal 1994 budget. Congress is stepping in, however, and may have something to say not only about how much money is spent, but also how it is spent. For the first time in a decade, formal authorization of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is moving through Congress. The ORD authorization was approved May 20 in the House Science Committee's Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation. Introduced by subcommittee chairman Rep. Tim Valentine (D.-N.C.), the authorization bill (H.R. 1994) would provide $475 million in funding for fiscal 1994. This equals the amount proposed by Clinton, $536 million, if about $60 million earmarked for Superfund-related research is removed. The Valentine bill would set out programmatic guidelines for EPA research, requiring fundamental research in ecology, health, and risk reduction. It would also require the agency's Science Advisory Board to review these programs and submit progress reports to Congress every two years. Another part of the bill would require EPA to consolidate agency efforts to identify, compare, and assess risk to public health and the environment posed by pollution.

  2. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  3. Penicillin: its discovery and early development.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-01-01

    In August 1928, Alexander Fleming returned from a vacation to his usually messy, disordered laboratory. In one of the Petri dishes that had not been touched by the Lysol, he noticed an unusual phenomenon: separate colonies of staphylococci and, near the dish's edge, a colony of mold approximately 20 mm in diameter. The finding proved to be a watershed in the history of medicine. This discovery lay dormant for some time before other researchers took up the challenge to investigate its clinical possibilities. Two investigators at Oxford, Sir Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, brought penicillin's potential for medical use to fruition and, along with Fleming, shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The discovery and development of penicillin represent one of the most important developments in the annals of medical history. This article presents a brief overview of the events that occurred in the progress from discovery to implementation as a therapeutic agent. PMID:15175995

  4. Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of plasma near hohlraum walls heated with nanosecond laser pulses calculated using the ray tracing equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, Archis; Thomas, Alec

    2013-10-01

    Here, we present 2D numerical modeling of near critical density plasma using a fully implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, IMPACTA, which includes self-consistent magnetic fields as well as anisotropic electron pressure terms in the expansion of the distribution function, as well as an implementation of the Boris CYLRAD algorithm through a ray tracing add-on package. This allows to model inverse brehmsstrahlung heating as a laser travels through a plasma by solving the ray tracing equations. Generated magnetic fields (eg. the Biermann battery effect) as well as field advection through heat fluxes from the laser heating is shown. Additionally, perturbations in the plasma density profile arise as a result of the high pressures and flows in the plasma. These perturbations in the plasma density affect the path of the laser traveling through the plasma and modify the heating profile accordingly. The interplay between these effects is discussed in this study.

  5. STS-106 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 07 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are seen participating in several outfitting activities. Burbank and Morukov remove and replace a fourth battery in Zarya. Lu and Malenchenko finish installing the third and final battery and other electrical equipment inside the Zvezda Service Module. While Altman and Wilcutt perform a series of jet firings, Altman is shown as he narrates a tour of the Zvezda Service Module. Scenes also include Lu and Malenchenko unpacking the Russian-made Orlan space suits, Burbank and Wilcutt participating in an interview, and a beautiful night shot of the International Space Station (ISS) and Atlantis complex above the Earth.

  6. Nonlinear particle simulation of ion cyclotron waves in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuley, A. Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.

    2015-12-10

    Global particle simulation model has been developed in this work to provide a first-principles tool for studying the nonlinear interactions of radio frequency (RF) waves with plasmas in tokamak. In this model, ions are considered as fully kinetic particles using the Vlasov equation and electrons are treated as guiding centers using the drift kinetic equation with realistic electron-to-ion mass ratio. Boris push scheme for the ion motion has been developed in the toroidal geometry using magnetic coordinates and successfully verified for the ion cyclotron and ion Bernstein waves in global gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The nonlinear simulation capability is applied to study the parametric decay instability of a pump wave into an ion Bernstein wave side band and a low frequency ion cyclotron quasi mode.

  7. STS-106 Crew Activity Report/Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are seen performing pre-launch activities. They are shown sitting around the breakfast table with the traditional cake, suiting-up, and riding out to the launch pad. The final inspection team is seen as they conduct their final check of the space shuttle on the launch complex. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  8. Development of photosynthetic activity in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta) following nitrogen starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1990-03-01

    The effects of nitrogen limitation on laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross were studied under continuous white light illumination (35 {mu}E {times} m{sup {minus}2} {times} s{sup {minus}1}). Growth ceased, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, chlorophyll content was reduced by 80%, and phycoerythrin content was reduced by 99% over a period of 14 days under nitrogen limitation. Recovery upon addition of nitrogen resulted in increased phycobiliprotein content, appearance of phycobilisomes attached to the thylakoids, increased oxygen evolution, and increased fluorescence emission from photosystem 1 (720 nm) and photosystem 2 (685 nm) upon excitation by green light. Growth resumes after 72 h and was concomitant with an increase of chlorophyll, phycoerythrin and phycobilisomes per thylakoid area. The results suggest that photosystem 1 was less affected by nitrogen starvation than photosystem 2 and that the recovery was largely dependent on the restoration of phycobilisomes and other photosystem components.

  9. Structure and phycobiliprotein composition of phycobilisomes from Griffithsia pacifica (Rhodophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, E.; Lipschultz, C.A.

    1980-09-01

    Phycobilisomes in Griffithsia pacifica are closely spaced on the thylakoid membrane. By negative staining, attached and isolated phycobilisomes have been shown to have a block shaped appearance. They are 63 nm long, 38 nm high, and 38 nm wide, making them the largest thus far reported. Isolated phycobilisomes, shown to be functionally intact by their 675 nm fluorescence emission (excitation 545 nm) were stable for more than a day. Phycobiliproteins from dissociated phycobilisomes, separated on sucrose gradients and by polyacrylamide, electrophoresis, yielded large (R-) and small (r-) molecular weight species of phycoerythrin (ca. 4:1 respectively) constituting 89% of the phycobiliprotein content, with R-phycocyanin 8%, and allophycocyanin 3% accounting for the rest. Phycobilisomes of Griffithsia pacifica and Porphyridium purpureum (Bory) Drew and Ross (P. cruentum) are structurally very similar with phycoerythrin being on the outside and surrounding a core of R-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin.

  10. Spectral properties and chiral symmetry violations of (staggered) domain wall fermions in the Schwinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelbling, Christian; Zielinski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We follow up on a suggestion by Adams and construct explicit domain wall fermion operators with staggered kernels. We compare different domain wall formulations, namely the standard construction as well as Boriçi's modified and Chiu's optimal construction, utilizing both Wilson and staggered kernels. In the process, we generalize the staggered kernels to arbitrary even dimensions and introduce both truncated and optimal staggered domain wall fermions. Some numerical investigations are carried out in the (1 +1 )-dimensional setting of the Schwinger model, where we explore spectral properties of the bulk, effective and overlap Dirac operators in the free-field case, on quenched thermalized gauge configurations and on smooth topological configurations. We compare different formulations using the effective mass, deviations from normality and violations of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation as measures of chirality.

  11. Penicillin: its discovery and early development.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-01-01

    In August 1928, Alexander Fleming returned from a vacation to his usually messy, disordered laboratory. In one of the Petri dishes that had not been touched by the Lysol, he noticed an unusual phenomenon: separate colonies of staphylococci and, near the dish's edge, a colony of mold approximately 20 mm in diameter. The finding proved to be a watershed in the history of medicine. This discovery lay dormant for some time before other researchers took up the challenge to investigate its clinical possibilities. Two investigators at Oxford, Sir Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, brought penicillin's potential for medical use to fruition and, along with Fleming, shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The discovery and development of penicillin represent one of the most important developments in the annals of medical history. This article presents a brief overview of the events that occurred in the progress from discovery to implementation as a therapeutic agent.

  12. STS-106 crew poses at SLF for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-106 crew poses on the tarmac at KSC'''s Shuttle Landing Facility after their arrival aboard the T-38 jets behind them. From left are Mission Specialists Boris V. Morukov, Yuri I. Malenchenko and Edward T. Lu; Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt; Pilot Scott D. Altman; and Mission Specialists Richard A. Mastracchio and Daniel C. Burbank. They will taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include emergency egress training and a simulated launch countdown. STS- 106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module

  13. STS-106 crew members Morukov and Malenchenko pose in front of Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Russian cosmonauts Boris V. Morukov and Yuri I. Malenchenko wave for the photo while standing in front of Launch Pad 39B where Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits launch. The cosmonauts are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11- day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Malenchenko will perform a six-and-a-half-hour space walk, along with Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu, during the mission. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  14. STS-106 crew poses for photos after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-106 crew poses for a photograph after a successful mission and landing. Standing, left to right, are Mission Specialists Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Daniel C. Burbank and Richard A. Mastracchio; Pilot Scott D. Altman; Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu; and Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt. Main gear touchdown occurred on-time at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. During the mission to the International Space Station, the crew transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. STS-106 was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC.

  15. Recognizing the obvious bush should declare the ABM Treaty dead

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-05

    In televised speech to the Russian people on January 29, Russia`s President Boris Yeltsin called for the United States and Russia to create and jointly operate a global defense system. One day earlier, in his State of the Union address, George Bush affirmed his own commitment to strategic defense, or SDI. Washington and Moscow now both are on record in favor of deploying defenses against missile attacks. Then late last week, Yeltsin at the United Nations reaffirmed his Moscow statement. The common Bush-Yeltsin view is not surprising. Both of their countries face a growing danger of accidental, unauthorized, or irrational attacks from an expanding number of states armed with ballistic missiles.

  16. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers of the NSA in Raster Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David; Tuinhoff, Manning

    2000-01-01

    This data set was processed by BORIS staff from the original vector data of species, crown closure, cutting class, and site classification/subtype into raster files. The original polygon data were received from Linnet Graphics, the distributor of data for MNR. In the case of the species layer, the percentages of species composition were removed. This reduced the amount of information contained in the species layer of the gridded product, but it was necessary in order to make the gridded product easier to use. The original maps were produced from 1:15,840-scale aerial photography collected in 1988 over an area of the BOREAS NSA MSA. The data are stored in binary, image format files and they are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. View of signing of ASTP joint flight readiness review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overall view of the signing of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint flight readiness review in ceremonies on May 22, 1975 in Moscow. Academician Vladimir A. Kotelnikov (on left) and NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low (in center) are seen affixing their signatures to the ASTP document. Kotelnikov is the Acting President of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Seated at far left is Professor Konstantin D. Bushuyev, the Soviet Technical Director of ASTP. Dr. Glynn S. Lunney, the U.S. Technical Director of ASTP, is seated on Dr. Low's left. Arnold W. Frutkin (in light jacket), NASA Administrator for International Affairs, is standing behind Dr. Low. Academician Boris N. Petrov (in dark suit), Chairman of the USSR Council for International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, is standing behind Kotelnikov. The signing of the agreement took place at the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

  18. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli. PMID:11854503

  19. Ethical considerations in psychiatric profiling of political figures.

    PubMed

    Post, Jerrold M

    2002-09-01

    Questions concerning such matters as the effects of health and alcoholism on Boris Yeltsin's decision making; the mind of the Unabomber; the psychology and decision making of Saddam Hussein of Iraq, who was initially characterized by the US Government as "the madman of the Middle East"; the psychology of David Koresh and the Branch Davidians, who were involved in an extended siege with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and the Federal Bureau of Investigation that ended tragically on April 19, 1993; and, most recently, the psychology of the nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists responsible for the tragic events of September 11, 2001 in which they claimed thousands of lives while giving their own, "killing in the name of God," and of their charismatic leader Osama bin Laden have led journalists to turn to social scientists, including psychiatrists, to offer commentary on public figures. PMID:12232976

  20. Method to integrate full particle orbit in toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Kuley, A.; Lin, Z.

    2015-09-01

    It is important to integrate full particle orbit accurately when studying charged particle dynamics in electromagnetic waves with frequency higher than cyclotron frequency. We have derived a form of the Boris scheme using magnetic coordinates, which can be used effectively to integrate the cyclotron orbit in toroidal geometry over a long period of time. The new method has been verified by a full particle orbit simulation in toroidal geometry without high frequency waves. The full particle orbit calculation recovers guiding center banana orbit. This method has better numeric properties than the conventional Runge-Kutta method for conserving particle energy and magnetic moment. The toroidal precession frequency is found to match that from guiding center simulation. Many other important phenomena in the presence of an electric field, such as E × B drift, Ware pinch effect and neoclassical polarization drift are also verified by the full orbit simulation.

  1. Observations of Orionids and eta-Aquariids in 2006 from Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhurova, Eva; Zhivkova, Desislava

    2010-12-01

    We present observations of the eta-Aquariid and Orionid meteor showers collected during observing expeditions. The 2006 May 4-6 expedition with two observers yielded 63 meteors in 4.14 h of total effective observing time. A radiant was derived from 34 eta-Aquariids. The October campaign surprised all observers with the unusually high Orionid activity about twice as high as the average. In our analysis we include observing data of Boris Stoilov (STOBO), Natasha Ivanova (IVANA) and Ivan Gradinarov (GRAIV). Based on 107 recorded meteors from which 47 were Orionids seen in 9.8 total effective time for the night of 21/22 October, we obtained a mean ZHR equal to 41.5 assuming a population index r = 2.0.

  2. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  3. The view from Kiev

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselyov, S.

    1993-11-01

    This article reports the observations of correspondents for the Bulletin (two Russian journalists, one based in Moscow, the other in Kiev) who investigated the status of the Soviet Union's Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. After two years of wrangling and two earlier failed settlements, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk at Massandra in Crimea. On September 3, the leaders announced that Russia would buy out Ukraine's interest in the fleet and lease the port at Sevastopol. The Massandra summit was also supposed to settle Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. Described here are the Kiev-based correspondent's views on the Massandra summit (and its major topics), which was to have been called off by the Russian foreign ministry when Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma resigned.

  4. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R J; Friedmann, E I

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  5. STS-106 Crew Activity Report / Flight Day Highlights Day 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-106 was launched on Sept 8, 2000 at 8:45 a.m. The crew was commanded by Terrence W. Wilcutt, the pilot was Scott D. Altman. The mission specialists were Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov. During the 11-day mission, the crew spent a week inside the International Space Station (ISS) unloading supplies from both a double SPACEHAB cargo module in the rear of the Atlantis cargo bay and from a Russian Progress M-1 resupply craft docked to the aft end of the Zvezda Service Module. The videotape shows the activities of the second day of the flight and the preparations for docking with the ISS. Shown on the video are shots of the flight deck on the shuttle, the shuttle payload arm, and shots of the crew eating lunch.

  6. Sorption of cadmium and zinc in selected species of epigeic mosses.

    PubMed

    Kłos, Andrzej; Gordzielik, Ewelina; Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Anna; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The sorption abilities of seven moss species growing on the area of Bory Stobrawskie forest (southern Poland) were tested in laboratory. Sorption was carried out in solutions of Zn and Cd chlorides. It has been shown that the sorption properties depend on the moss species and increases in the series as follows: Polytrichum commune < Leucobryum glaucum < Eurhynchium praelongum < Thuidium tamtariscifolium ≤ Dicranum scoparium ≤ Pleurozium schreberi < Sphagnum sp. With help of microscope images, it was also demonstrated that one of the factors affecting the sorption properties of mosses was the level of their surface development. The determined sorption capacity of Zn varies according to species of mosses from 0.0491 to 0.1287 mmol g(-1), and in relation to Cd from 0.0319 to 0.1335 mmol g(-1). The described results may be important in the process of biomonitoring research design and in the test results interpretation.

  7. STS-106 crew breakfast in O&C building before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-106 crew relax after breakfast and before suitup for launch. Seated (left to right) are Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank and Boris V. Morukov; Pilot Scott D. Altman; Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio and Yuri I. Malenchenko. Morukov and Malenchenko are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis is set for 8:45 a.m. EDT on the fourth flight to the International Space Station. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbe d is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  8. BOREAS Level 3-b AVHRR-LAC Imagery: Scaled At-sensor Radiance in LGSOWG Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Data acquired from the AVHRR instrument on the NOAA-9, -11, -12, and -14 satellites were processed and archived for the BOREAS region by the MRSC and BORIS. The data were acquired by CCRS and were provided for use by BOREAS researchers. A few winter acquisitions are available, but the archive contains primarily growing season imagery. These gridded, at-sensor radiance image data cover the period of 30-Jan-1994 to 18-Sep-1996. Geographically, the data cover the entire 1,000-km x 1,000-km BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  9. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  10. Development and Test of 2.5-Dimensional Electromagnetic PIC Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Seon, Jongho; Lee, Dong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation code using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to investigate electromagnetic phenomena that occur in space plasmas. Our code is based on the leap-frog method and the centered difference method for integration and differentiation of the governing equations. We adopted the relativistic Buneman-Boris method to solve the Lorentz force equation and the Esirkepov method to calculate the current density while maintaining charge conservation. Using the developed code, we performed test simulations for electron two-stream instability and electron temperature anisotropy induced instability with the same initial parameters as used in previously reported studies. The test simulation results are almost identical with those of the previous papers.

  11. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  12. Generating geomorphological catalogues using neural networks: Seamounts in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Andrew; Kalnins, Lara; van Dinther, Chantal; Trampert, Jeannot

    2013-04-01

    We recently introduced the idea that neural networks may be used to construct catalogues of geomorphological features, by extrapolating from the characteristics of a set of hand-selected examples (Valentine et al., 2012). These learning algorithms are inspired by the complex pattern identification and recognition capabilities of the human brain and remove the need to develop an a priori model of the feature of interest. In order to demonstrate this approach, and to develop a clearer understanding of its possibilities and pitfalls, we concentrate on the problem of identifying seamounts - isolated topographic highs of volcanic origin - in the world's oceans. The distribution of seamounts in time and space can provide important constraints on the tectonic history and evolution of the Earth and has been studied using several conventional approaches (e.g. Kim & Wessel, 2011). However, these typically perform poorly in the Atlantic, where the slow spreading rate results in a rough 'background' seafloor that produces many false positives. The learning algorithm approach should improve this, as it attempts to encapsulate more complex information about the seamount and its surroundings. We present an overview of our work to date, with a focus on results from a systematic search for seamounts in the Atlantic. We compare the performance of our approach in detecting seamounts in bathymetric, free-air gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient (VGG) datasets to examine the particular strengths and weaknesses of each data type and to assess the potential benefits of assimilating information from two or three data types simultaneously. We compare the resulting seamount database with existing catalogues, examining the variations in measures such as total count, height distribution, and spatial and temporal distribution across the Atlantic, and comment on the potential implications for our understanding of the tectonic history of the region. Kim, S.-S. & Wessel, P., 2011. New

  13. In vitro activity of oritavancin against community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and daptomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus (DNSSA).

    PubMed

    Saravolatz, Louis D; Pawlak, Joan; Johnson, Leonard B

    2010-07-01

    Isolates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus (DNSSA) are increasing in frequency and new antistaphylococcal therapies are needed. Microdilution testing using Mueller-Hinton broth was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oritavancin and nine additional antimicrobial agents against 92 CA-MRSA, 23 VISA, 7 DNSSA and 10 VRSA isolates. Minimal bactericidal concentrations were also determined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing as well as assays for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) genes were performed. Oritavancin was more bactericidal than any of the other comparators against CA-MRSA and demonstrated excellent activity against VRSA and VISA.

  14. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly.

    PubMed

    Wan, T-W; Tomita, Y; Saita, N; Konno, K; Iwao, Y; Hung, W-C; Teng, L-J; Yamamoto, T

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)(-)/spat5110/SCCmecV(+) versus PVL(+)/spat159((etc.))/SCCmec (-), but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type) and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  15. Clinical photography and patient rights: the need for orthopraxy.

    PubMed

    Berle, I

    2008-02-01

    The increasing use of digital image recording devices, whether they are digital cameras or mobile phone cameras, has democratised clinical photography in the UK. However, when non-professional clinical photographers take photographs of patients the issues of consent and confidentiality are either ignored or given scant attention. Whatever the status of the clinician, the taking of clinical photographs must be practised within the context of a professional etiquette. Best practice recognises the need for informed consent and the constraints associated with confidentiality. Against the background of the poverty of the current discourse of these issues, as presented during the Valentine GMC Fitness to Practice hearing, the paper considers the need for orthopraxy in the use of clinical photography.

  16. Halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Nadesalingam, Kavitha; Goodfield, Mark; Emery, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We present a follow-up case report of a 33-year-old lady with juvenile onset arthritis who developed halo naevi while on treatment with tocilizumab. This case report describes the development of halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy following infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin positivity. This is the first case that describes these events and supports previous theories on cellular and humoral immunity as causative factors. The regression of melanocytes during treatment with tocilizumab could also implicate IL-6 and sIL-6R as future targets in the treatment of melanoma through its direct effect of melanocytic cytotoxicity, which supports previous studies. PMID:27516894

  17. Insertion of host DNA into PVL-encoding phages of the Staphylococcus aureus lineage ST80 by intra-chromosomal recombination.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2010-10-25

    Temperate bacteriophages play a critical role in the pathogenicity of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus by mediating positive lysogenic conversion for different virulence factors such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) or by interrupting chromosomal virulence genes. PVL-encoding phages are integrated in the S. aureus genome within a conserved ORF which is surrounded by a cluster of tandemly repeated genes. Here we demonstrate that in S. aureus clonal complex ST80 strains PVL-phage induction led to the acquisition of host DNA into the phage genome probably due to a homologous recombination event between direct repeats of the two paralogous genes adjacent to the phage integration site. Phage excision was accompanied by an additional chromosomal deletion in this region. This so far unrecognized mechanism of DNA uptake into the phage genome may play an important role in the co-evolution of phages and bacteria. PMID:20708208

  18. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  19. Halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nadesalingam, Kavitha; Goodfield, Mark; Emery, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a follow-up case report of a 33-year-old lady with juvenile onset arthritis who developed halo naevi while on treatment with tocilizumab. This case report describes the development of halo naevi, vitiligo and diffuse alopecia areata associated with tocilizumab therapy following infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Panton–Valentine leukocidin positivity. This is the first case that describes these events and supports previous theories on cellular and humoral immunity as causative factors. The regression of melanocytes during treatment with tocilizumab could also implicate IL-6 and sIL-6R as future targets in the treatment of melanoma through its direct effect of melanocytic cytotoxicity, which supports previous studies. PMID:27516894

  20. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Blood and the Revenant in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In Sir Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth; or St Valentine's Day (1828), the resuscitated subject is referred to as a revenant, a term that Scott borrowed from Henry Thomson's Blackwoodian tale 'Le Revenant' (1827), meaning 'dead-alive'. Taking its cue from the sanguinary subtext of The Fair Maid of Perth, which is fascinated with the shedding of blood and transfusion of fluids, this chapter reads the Scottish revenant as a literary reflection on the extraordinary promise of blood transfusion in the 1820s: that death could be understood as a process, rather than an absolute state, and that medical intervention could restore life to those on the brink of death and even to the recently deceased.

  2. Precise leveling, space geodesy and geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.

    1981-01-01

    The implications of currently available leveling data on understanding the crustal dynamics of the continental United States are investigated. Neotectonic deformation, near surface movements, systematic errors in releveling measurements, and the implications of this information for earthquake prediction are described. Vertical crustal movements in the vicinity of the 1931 Valentine, Texas, earthquake which may represent coseismic deformation are investigated. The detection of vertical fault displacements by precise leveling in western Kentucky is reported. An empirical basis for defining releveling anomalies and its implications for crustal deformation in southern California is presented. Releveling measurements in the eastern United States and their meaning in the context of possible crustal deformation, including uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, eastward tilting of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and apparent movements associated with a number of structural features along the east coast, are reported.

  3. Blood and the Revenant in Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In Sir Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth; or St Valentine's Day (1828), the resuscitated subject is referred to as a revenant, a term that Scott borrowed from Henry Thomson's Blackwoodian tale 'Le Revenant' (1827), meaning 'dead-alive'. Taking its cue from the sanguinary subtext of The Fair Maid of Perth, which is fascinated with the shedding of blood and transfusion of fluids, this chapter reads the Scottish revenant as a literary reflection on the extraordinary promise of blood transfusion in the 1820s: that death could be understood as a process, rather than an absolute state, and that medical intervention could restore life to those on the brink of death and even to the recently deceased. PMID:27132355

  4. Characterisation of a synergohymenotropic toxin produced by Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Prevost, G; Bouakham, T; Piemont, Y; Monteil, H

    1995-12-01

    Staphylococcal synergohymenotropic (SHT) toxins damage membranes of host defence cells and erythrocytes by the synergy of two secreted and non-associated proteins: class S and class F components. Whereas Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), gamma-hemolysin and Luk-M from Staphylococcus aureus are members of this toxin family, a new bi-component toxin (LukS-I + LukF-I) from Staphylococcus intermedius, a pathogen for small animals, was characterised and sequenced. It is encoded as a luk-I operon by two cotranscribed genes, like PVL, LukS-I + LukF-I shares a strong leukotoxicity of various PMNs, but only slight haemolytic properties on rabbit erythrocytes. When intradermally injected into rabbit skin, a 100 ng dose caused acute inflammatory reaction leading to tissue necrosis. The new SHT seemed to be largely distributed among various Staphylococcus intermedius strains.

  5. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  6. The temporal Doppler effect: when the future feels closer than the past.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Van Boven, Leaf; Chin, Mark; Ward, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    People routinely remember events that have passed and imagine those that are yet to come. The past and the future are sometimes psychologically close ("just around the corner") and other times psychologically distant ("ages away"). Four studies demonstrate a systematic asymmetry whereby future events are psychologically closer than past events of equivalent objective distance. When considering specific times (e.g., 1 year) or events (e.g., Valentine's Day), people consistently reported that the future was closer than the past. We suggest that this asymmetry arises because the subjective experience of movement through time (whereby future events approach and past events recede) is analogous to the physical experience of movement through space. Consistent with this hypothesis, experimentally reversing the metaphorical arrow of time (by having participants move backward through virtual space) completely eliminated the past-future asymmetry. We discuss how reducing psychological distance to the future may function to prepare people for upcoming action.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KT/312045, an ST1-MSSA PVL positive isolated from pus sample in East Coast Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Suhaili, Zarizal; Lean, Soo-Sum; Mohamad, Noor Muzamil; Rachman, Abdul R Abdul; Desa, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2016-09-01

    Most of the efforts in elucidating the molecular relatedness and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Malaysia have been largely focused on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Therefore, here we report the draft genome sequence of the methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with sequence type 1 (ST1), spa type t127 with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) pathogenic determinant isolated from pus sample designated as KT/314250 strain. The size of the draft genome is 2.86 Mbp with 32.7% of G + C content consisting 2673 coding sequences. The draft genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number AOCP00000000. PMID:27508119

  8. Photographs of the Sea Floor of Western Massachusetts Bay, Offshore of Boston, Massachusett, July 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Butman, Bradford; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains photographs and sediment sample analyses of the sea floor obtained at 142 sites in western Massachusetts Bay (Figure 1) during a research cruise (USGS cruise ISBL99024) aboard the Fishing Vessel (FV) Isabel S. (Figure 2) conducted July 18-21, 1999. These photographs and samples provide critical ground truth information for the interpretation of shaded relief and backscatter intensity maps created using data collected with a multibeam echo sounder system (Butman and others, in press, a, b, c; Valentine and others, in press, a, b, c). Collection of these photographs and samples was undertaken in support of a large project whose overall objective is to map and describe the sea floor of Massachusetts Bay.

  9. Site Description for the University of Nebraska's Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sandhills Agricultural Laboratory is operated by the University of Nebraska. The laboratory is located in the south-central part of the Nebraska Sandhills near Tryon, Nebraska (41 deg. 37' N; 100 deg. 50' W). The laboratory is surrounded on the west and south by native rangeland vegetation, on the south by a large field of corn irrigated by a center pivot, and on the east by wheat stubble. This site is appropriate for moisture stress studies since rainfall is almost always inadequate to meet evaporative demands of agricultural crops during most of the growing season and the sandy soils (Valentine fine sand) at the site do not store large quantities of water. Various levels of water stress are achieved through irrigation from solid set sprinklers.

  10. [Scientific, pedagogical, and surgical work of professor V.F.Voyno-Yasenetsky during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Kosachev, I D; Gladkikh, P F; Iakovlev, A E

    2011-08-01

    The article is devoted to activities in the period 1941-1945. Krasnoyarsk and Tambov, a professor of surgery Valentine Feliksovich Voyno-Yasenetsky (Archbishop Luka)--doctor of medical sciences, laureate of the State (Stalin) Prize of the USSR, who made a significant contribution to the success of modern surgical science. A brilliant scholar and successor of the ideas of the outstanding scientist and surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, as in the Great Patriotic War surgeon and consultant evacuation hospitals, along with leading surgeons in the Soviet Union had a significant impact on the results of treatment of wounded soldiers and officers, thereby affecting the development of military field surgery. In our country it is rightfully considered the founder of contaminated surgery. PMID:22164990

  11. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25189189

  12. The temporal Doppler effect: when the future feels closer than the past.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Van Boven, Leaf; Chin, Mark; Ward, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    People routinely remember events that have passed and imagine those that are yet to come. The past and the future are sometimes psychologically close ("just around the corner") and other times psychologically distant ("ages away"). Four studies demonstrate a systematic asymmetry whereby future events are psychologically closer than past events of equivalent objective distance. When considering specific times (e.g., 1 year) or events (e.g., Valentine's Day), people consistently reported that the future was closer than the past. We suggest that this asymmetry arises because the subjective experience of movement through time (whereby future events approach and past events recede) is analogous to the physical experience of movement through space. Consistent with this hypothesis, experimentally reversing the metaphorical arrow of time (by having participants move backward through virtual space) completely eliminated the past-future asymmetry. We discuss how reducing psychological distance to the future may function to prepare people for upcoming action. PMID:23474832

  13. Daptomycin efficacy in the central nervous system of a patient with disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen in the last decades and also represents the second most common pathogen isolated from patients in outpatient settings. Although methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections were traditionally limited to hospitals, community-associated cases of methicillin-resistant S.aureus infections have been reported. In our case, we observed an unexpected event during treatment. Case presentation A 60-year-old Caucasian man developed fever and multiple muscle and brain abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-negative community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion Although our patient was given antimicrobials active against the isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain, it was only after the introduction of daptomycin that his skin, soft tissue and muscle lesions and also brain manifestations improved. PMID:22938025

  14. Mapping seafloor volcanism and its record of tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.

    2013-12-01

    One relatively obvious surface reflection of certain types of tectonic and mantle processes is volcanic activity. Ocean covers two thirds of our planet, so naturally much of this evidence will be marine, yet the evidence of volcanic activity in the oceans remains very incompletely mapped. Many seamounts, the products of 'excess' volcanism, have been identified (10,000--20,000 over 1 km in height, depending on the study), but it is estimated that up to 60% of seamounts in this height range remain unmapped. Given the scale of the task, identification of probable seamounts is a process that clearly needs to be automated, but identifying naturally occurring features such as these is difficult because of the degree of inherent variation. A very promising avenue for these questions lies in the use of learning algorithms, such as neural networks, designed to have complex pattern recognition capabilities. Building on the work of Valentine et al. (2013), we present preliminary results of a new global seamount study based on neural network methods. Advantages of this approach include an intrinsic measure of confidence in the seamount identification and full automation, allowing easy re-picking to suit the requirements of different types of studies. Here, we examine the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of marine volcanism and consider what insights this offers into the shifting patterns of plate tectonics and mantle activity. We also consider the size distribution of the seamounts and explore possible classes based on shape and their distributions, potentially reflecting both differing formational processes and later erosional processes. Valentine, A. P., L. M. Kalnins, and J. Trampert (2013), Discovery and analysis of topographic features using learning algorithms: A seamount case study, Geophysical Research Letters, 40(12), p. 3048--3054.

  15. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals: virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Hassan; Hafezi, Laleh

    2014-10-05

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases. Indiscriminate prescription of antibiotics caused severe antibiotic resistance especially against commonly used drugs. The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene, SCCmec types and antibiotic resistance properties of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals. A total of 132 clinical specimens were collected from two major Iranian hospitals. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to several PCR methods. The patterns of antibiotic resistance were studied using the disk diffusion method. We found that 66 out of 132 samples (50%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The most commonly infected samples were superficial and surgical wounds (66.12%). The incidence of mecA, tetK, ermA, ermC, tetM, aacA-D, linA, msrA, vatA, vatC and vatB antibiotic resistance genes were 80.30%, 34.84%, 30.30%, 25.75%, 24.24%, 19.69%, 7.57%, 7.57%, 6.06%, 3.03% and 1.51%, respectively. Totally, 40.90% of isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene. Of 53 mec positive strains, the distribution of SCCmec V, SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa, SCCmec IVc and SCCmec IVb were 28 (52.83%), 13 (24.52%), 6 (11.32%), 4 (7.54%) and 2 (3.77%), respectively. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalothin, cefazoline and ceftriaxone. The high levels of Staphylococcus aureus resistance against commonly used antibiotics as well as high presence of SCCmec types of meticillin-resistant virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus suggest that infections with these strains require more advanced hospital care with emerging demand for novel antibiotics.

  16. Functional independence within the self-memory system: new insights from two cases of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Picard, Laurence; Mayor-Dubois, Claire; Maeder, Philippe; Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Abram, Maria; Duval, Céline; Eustache, Francis; Roulet-Perez, Eliane; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest that the self-memory system can be fractionated into three functionally independent systems processing personal information at several levels of abstraction, including episodic memories of one's life (episodic autobiographical memory, EAM), semantic knowledge of facts about one's life (semantic autobiographical memory, SAM), and semantic knowledge of one's personality [conceptual self, (CS)]. Through the study of two developmental amnesic patients suffering of neonatal brain injuries, we explored how the different facets of the self-memory system develop when growing up with bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Neuropsychological evaluations showed that both of them suffered from dramatic episodic learning disability with no sense of recollection (Remember/Know procedure), whereas their semantic abilities differed, being completely preserved (Valentine) or not (Jocelyn). Magnetic resonance imaging, including quantitative volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and adjacent (entorhinal, perirhinal, and temporopolar) cortex, showed severe bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus in both patients, with additional atrophy of adjacent cortex in Jocelyn. Exploration of EAM and SAM according to lifetime periods covering the entire lifespan (TEMPAu task, Piolino et al., 2009) showed that both patients had marked impairments in EAM, as they lacked specificity, details and sense of recollection, whereas SAM was completely normal in Valentine, but impaired in Jocelyn. Finally, measures of patients' CS (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, Fitts and Warren, 1996), checked by their mothers, were generally within normal range, but both patients showed a more positive self-concept than healthy controls. These two new cases support a modular account of the medial-temporal lobe with episodic memory and recollection depending on the hippocampus, and semantic memory and familiarity on adjacent cortices. Furthermore, they highlight developmental

  17. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Types Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherirad, Akram; Jahanbakhsh, Roghayeh; Shakeri, Fatemeh; Anvary, Shaghayegh; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah

    2016-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections around the world. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing methods are often used to study MRSA molecular epidemiology. Objectives The current study was designed to explore the distribution profiles of different SCCmec types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from hospitals in Gorgan, in northern Iran, and to correlate the types into observed bacterial virulence factors. Materials and Methods Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing of 62 MRSA strains isolated from patients and health-care workers in Gorgan was performed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The prevalence of the strains was then compared according to isolation source, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, biofilm production, and the presence of the Panton-Valentine gene in isolates. Results The most common SCCmec type was type III, with a frequency rate of 76%, followed by types IV, I, and V, with frequency rates of 11.2%, 4.8%, and 3.2%, respectively; three isolates (4.8%) were not typeable by this method. SCCmec type I was only isolated from blood culture, and types IV and V were mainly isolated from wounds and urine samples; SCCmec type III was isolated from all of the clinically samples. All of the MRSA strains that were isolated from healthy carriers were type III. Multidrug resistance in the type III strains was higher compared to the other types. The frequencies of Panton-Valentine and biofilm production were significantly lower in the type III strains compared to the other SCCmec types (P < 0.05). Conclusions Similarly to other geographical regions of Iran, the SCCmec type III MRSA strain was the most frequently isolated strain from patients in Gorgan. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III showed fewer virulence factors compared to other SCCmec types. PMID:27800133

  18. Possible healthcare-associated transmission as a cause of secondary infection and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two wound treatment centres in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpeli, G; Darko Otchere, I; Lamelas, A; Buultjens, A L; Bulach, D; Baines, S L; Seemann, T; Giulieri, S; Nakobu, Z; Aboagye, S Y; Owusu-Mireku, E; Pluschke, G; Stinear, T P; Yeboah-Manu, D

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that secondary infections of Buruli ulcer wounds were frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To gain understanding into possible routes of secondary infection, we characterized S. aureus isolates from patient lesions and surrounding environments across two Ghanaian health centres. One hundred and one S. aureus isolates were isolated from wounds (n = 93, 92.1%) and the hospital environment (n = 8, 7.9%) and characterized by the spa gene, mecA and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin followed by spa sequencing and whole genome sequencing of a subset of 49 isolates. Spa typing and sequencing of the spa gene from 91 isolates identified 29 different spa types with t355 (ST152), t186 (ST88), and t346 dominating. Although many distinct strains were isolated from both health centres, genotype clustering was identified within centres. In addition, we identified a cluster consisting of isolates from a healthcare worker, patients dressed that same day and forceps used for dressing, pointing to possible healthcare-associated transmission. These clusters were confirmed by phylogenomic analysis. Twenty-four (22.8%) isolates were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and lukFS genes encoding Panton-Valentine leucocidin were identified in 67 (63.8%) of the isolates. Phenotype screening showed widespread resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampicin, amikacin and streptomycin. Genomics confirmed the widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, quinolone, streptomycin and tetracycline. Our findings indicate that the healthcare environment probably contributes to the superinfection of Buruli ulcer wounds and calls for improved training in wound management and infection control techniques. PMID:27547406

  19. Hunting for exploding red supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Zhu, Qingfeng; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Rich, Michael; Chen, Rosie; Trombley, Christine; MacKenty, John W.; Habing, Harm; Churchwell, Edward

    2015-08-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are among the brightest Galactic stars at infrared wavelengths. They lose mass at high-rates and, eventually, explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium. I would like to present results on our ongoing searches for candidate obscured-far-luminous late-type stars, which are based on 2MASS, UKIDSS, and GLIMPSE data, on extinction-free colors(Messineo et al. 2012, A&A, 537) and on the analysis of the extinction curve along a given line-of-sight with clump stars. Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 571, 43) spectroscopically confirmed two clusters of red supergiants, one on the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm at a distance of ~7 kpc, and another on the Scutum-Crux arm at a distance of ~4 kpc; while Messineo et al. (2014, A&A, 569, 20) have, found several RSGs in the core of SNRs W41 and within the area covered by the SNR G22.7-0.2 in the GMC G23.3-0.3. SNR G22.7-0.2 appears to be most likely a type II SNR.Messineo , M.; Menten, K. M.; Churchwell, E.; Habing, H. 2012A&A...537A..10MMessineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie 2014A&A...571A..43MMessineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine; 2014A&A...569A..20M

  20. CALL FOR PAPERS: Progress in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General dedicated to the subject of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as featured in the International Conference in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (PSQM03), 15--19 July 2003, University of Valladolid, Spain (http://metodos.fam.cie.uva.es/~susy_qm_03/). Participants at that meeting, as well as other researchers working in this area or in related fields, are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Irina Areféva, David J Fernández, Véronique Hussin, Javier Negro, Luis M Nieto and Boris F Samsonov to act as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: bullet The subject of the paper should be in the general area covered by the PSQM03 conference. bullet Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual mechanisms of the journal. bullet Papers should present substantial new results (they should not be simply reviews of authors' own work that is already published elsewhere). The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are as follows: bullet DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 15 January 2004. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in approximately September 2004. bullet There is a page limit of 15 pages per research contribution. Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. bullet Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by e-mail to jphysa@iop.org, quoting `JPhysA special issue --- PSQM03'. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Please see the web site for further information on electronic submissions. bullet Authors unable to submit by email may send hard copy contributions to: Journal of Physics A, Institute of Physics Publishing

  1. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  2. Spatial heterogeneity of Greenland ice-core dust composition and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bory, A.; Biscaye, P.; Piotrowski, A.; Steffensen, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    By comparing mineralogical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) composition of mineral dust extracted from Greenland ice-cores and snow deposits with that of fine particles in sediment samples from potential source areas (PSA) for Greenland dust, it has been shown that eastern Asia was the source for central Greenland dust during several intervals of the last Glacial period [Biscaye et al., 1997; Svensson et al., 2000], in two intervals of the Holocene [Svensson, 1998], and through the present day [Bory et al., 2002; Bory et al., in press]. Based on transport patterns, it has often been suggested, however, that North American and African dust could reach the Greenland ice cap. Mosher et al. [1993], for instance, claimed to have identified an African source for a dust event at Dye 3 in southern Greenland. Identifying possible non-Asian dust sources to Greenland is important since it would bear on the large temporal variability of ice-core dust concentration, whose causes remain largely unexplained, as well as on the validation of dust transport models. Determining the degree of spatial heterogeneity of Greenland dust composition, and therefore provenance, can be done by analyzing contemporaneous dust samples in as many locations as possible. Here we report on six samples from six Greenland ice-cores, representing several decades of dust deposition each, all expect one within the 17th and 18th century. The six locations (Dye 3, A8-Crete region, Renland, GRIP, NorthGRIP, Hans Tausen) range from 65-82^oN and 27-43^oW. Variations in tracers composition (mineralogical and isotopic) are apparent, particularly between sites located on top of the ice cap and those located around the periphery, reflecting a distribution with altitude of dust sources and transport patterns to the ice-cap. The lower altitude sites are likely to be influenced by proximal dust sources. These results, however, confirm that long-range dust transport from eastern Asia is the main source of dust deposited on

  3. Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The field of molecular electronics has grown significantly since the first measurements of single molecule conductance. The single molecule junction, a device in which two conducting leads are spanned by a single molecule, has become a powerful tool for studying charge transfer at the molecular level. While early experiments were focused on elastic electron conductance, today measurements of vibronic effects, molecular optical response, spintronics, thermal conductance, and quantum interference and decoherence effects are prominent areas of research. These new experimental advancements demand improved theoretical treatments which properly account for the interactions between different degrees of freedom: charge, electronic, vibrational, spin, etc.; all in physically relevant parameter ranges. This talk focuses on using a many-body states based approach to investigate the regime of strong interaction between these degrees of freedom, with relatively weak coupling between the molecule and the electric reservoirs created by the conducting leads. We focused on three related processes, electron transfer, electronic energy transfer and molecular excitation. In collaboraton with Boris Fainberg, Faculty of Sciences, Holon Institute of Technology; Sergei Tretiak, Theoretical Division, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Michael Galperin, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego.

  4. Development of a SCAR marker for male gametophyte of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis based on AFLP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Ding, Hongye; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Zhongxia; Wang, Jinguo

    2014-05-01

    The red alga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Bory) is an economically valuable macroalgae. As a means to identify the sex of immature Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to search for possible sex- or phase-related markers in male gametophytes, female gametophytes, and tetrasporophytes, respectively. Seven AFLP selective amplification primers were used in this study. The primer combination E-TG/M-CCA detected a specific band linked to male gametophytes. The DNA fragment was recovered and a 402-bp fragment was sequenced. However, no DNA sequence match was found in public databases. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed from the sequence to test the repeatability of the relationship to the sex, using 69 male gametophytes, 139 female gametophytes, and 47 tetrasporophytes. The test results demonstrate a good linkage and repeatability of the SCAR marker to sex. The SCAR primers developed in this study could reduce the time required for sex identification of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis by four to six months. This can reduce both the time investment and number of specimens required in breeding experiments.

  5. Large-timestep mover for particle simulations of arbitrarilymagnetized species

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J-L.

    2007-03-26

    For self-consistent ion-beam simulations including electron motion, it is desirable to be able to follow electron dynamics accurately without being constrained by the electron cyclotron timescale. To this end, we have developed a particle-advance that interpolates between full particle dynamics and drift motion. By making a proper choice of interpolation parameter, simulation particles experience physically correct parallel dynamics, drift motion, and gyroradius when the timestep is large compared to the cyclotron period, though the effective gyro frequency is artificially low; in the opposite timestep limit, the method approaches a conventional Boris particle push. By combining this scheme with a Poisson solver that includes an interpolated form of the polarization drift in the dielectric response, the movers utility can be extended to higher-density problems where the plasma frequency of the species being advanced exceeds its cyclotron frequency. We describe a series of tests of the mover and its application to simulation of electron clouds in heavy-ion accelerators.

  6. Large-Timestep Mover for Particle Simulations of Arbitrarily Magnetized Species

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Vay, J

    2006-06-16

    For self-consistent ion-beam simulations including electron motion, it is desirable to be able to follow electron dynamics accurately without being constrained by the electron cyclotron timescale. To this end, we have developed a particle-advance that interpolates between full particle dynamics and drift motion. By making a proper choice of interpolation parameter, simulation particles experience physically correct parallel dynamics, drift motion, and gyroradius when the timestep is large compared to the cyclotron period, though the effective gyro frequency is artificially low; in the opposite timestep limit, the method approaches a conventional Boris particle push. By combining this scheme with a Poisson solver that includes an interpolated form of the polarization drift in the dielectric response, the movers utility can be extended to higher-density problems where the plasma frequency of the species being advanced exceeds its cyclotron frequency. We describe a series of tests of the mover and its application to simulation of electron clouds in heavy-ion accelerators.

  7. The use of a combined portable X ray fluorescence and multivariate statistical methods to assess a validated macroscopic rock samples classification in an ore exploration survey.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Cisterna, J; Bagur-González, M G; Morales-Ruano, S; Carrillo-Rosúa, J; Martín-Peinado, F

    2011-10-15

    The combination of "ex situ" portable X ray fluorescence with unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to rock samples, in order to validate a "in situ" macroscopic rock samples classification of samples collected in the Boris Angelo mining area (Central Chile), during a drill-hole survey carried out to evaluate the economic potential of this Cu deposit. The analysed elements were Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn. The statistical treatment of the geological data has been arisen from the application of the Box-Cox transformation used to transform the data set in normal form to minimize the non-normal distribution of the data. From the statistical results obtained it can be concluded that the macroscopic classification applied to the transformed data permits at least, to distinguish quite well in relation to two of the rock classes defined (70.5% correctly classified (p<0.05)) as well as for four of the five alteration types defined "in situ" (75% of the total samples).

  8. Comparison of Electron Cloud Simulation and Experiments in the High-Current Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Covo, M K; Lund, S M; Molvik, A W; Bieniosek, F M; Seidl, P A; Vay, J; Stoltz, P; Veitzer, S

    2004-11-11

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a common concern for accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly, weakly, and un-magnetized. We describe our approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. We present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam on an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrate the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  9. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  10. Comment on "Symplectic integration of magnetic systems" by Stephen D. Webb [J. Comput. Phys. 270 (2014) 570-576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Jia, Yuesong; Sun, Qizhi

    2015-02-01

    Webb [1] proposed a method to get symplectic integrators of magnetic systems by Taylor expanding the discrete Euler-Lagrangian equations (DEL) which resulted from variational symplectic method by making the variation of the discrete action [2], and approximating the results to the order of O (h2), where h is the time step. And in that paper, Webb thought that the integrators obtained by that method are symplectic ones, especially, he treated Boris integrator (BI) as the symplectic one. However, we have questions about Webb's results. Theoretically the transformation of phase-space coordinates between two adjacent points induced by symplectic algorithm should conserve a symplectic 2-form [2-5]. As proved in Refs. [2,3], the transformations induced by the standard symplectic integrator derived from Hamilton and the variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [2,6] from Lagrangian should conserve a symplectic 2-forms. But the approximation of VSI to O (h2) obtained by that paper is hard to conserve a symplectic 2-form, contrary to the claim of [1]. In the next section, we will use BI as an example to support our point and will prove BI not to be a symplectic one but an integrator conserving discrete phase-space volume.

  11. Expression of the CTCFL Gene during Mouse Embryogenesis Causes Growth Retardation, Postnatal Lethality, and Dysregulation of the Transforming Growth Factor β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Zeiss, Caroline; Yekkala, Krishna; Demir, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF, also known as BORIS (brother of regulator of imprinted sites), is a testis-expressed gene whose function is largely unknown. Its product is a cancer testis antigen (CTA), and it is often expressed in tumor cells and also seen in two benign human vascular malformations, juvenile angiofibromas and infantile hemangiomas. To understand the function of Ctcfl, we created tetracycline-inducible Ctcfl transgenic mice. We show that Ctcfl expression during embryogenesis results in growth retardation, eye malformations, multiorgan pathologies, vascular defects, and neonatal death. This phenotype resembles prior mouse models that perturb the transforming growth factor β (TGFB) pathway. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the Ctcfl transgene reproduce the phenotype in ES cell-tetraploid chimeras. Transcriptome sequencing of the Ctcfl ES cells revealed 14 genes deregulated by Ctcfl expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the TGFB pathway as most affected by embryonic Ctcfl expression. Understanding the consequence of Ctcfl expression in nontesticular cells and elucidating downstream targets of Ctcfl could explain the role of its product as a CTA and its involvement in two, if not more, human vascular malformations. PMID:26169830

  12. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Muelleria frenguelli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spaulding, S.A.; Stoermer, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Navicula gibbula Cleve and its allies have a number of morphological characters which are visible under the light microscope and distinguish them from taxa included in Navicula Bory sensu stricto. These include proximal raphe ends which are sharply and unilaterally hooked and often extend beyond the central area, as well as two apparently thickened longitudinal ribs which extend the length of the valve on either side of the raphe. With the use of the SEM additional well-defined characters of the N. gibbula complex become apparent. Distal raphe ends are bifurcate and the valve face and mantle possess bipartite walls similar to those in Neidium Pfitzer. Furthermore, the apparently thickened longitudinal ribs are actually hollow canals, a feature reminiscent of the longitudinal canals of Diploneis Ehrenberg. Characters of the group are particularly well-defined and distinct from those of other genera, justifying separation from Navicula. Based on the valve morphology of N. gibbula and all other members of the section Naviculae fistulatae McCall, we separate these taxa from Navicula and resurrect the genus Muelleria Frenguelli to include them.

  13. Light acclimation in Porphyridium purpureum (Rhodophyta): Growth, photosynthesis, and phycobilisomes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, I.; Gantt, E. )

    1988-12-01

    Acclimation to three photon flux densities 10, 35, 180 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} was determined in laboratory cultures of Porphyridium purpureum Bory, Drew and Ross. Cultures grown at low, medium, and high PPFDs had compensation points of <3, 6, and 20 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, and saturating irradiances in the initial log phase of 90, 115, 175 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} and up to 240 {mu}E{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} in late log phase. High light cells had the smallest photosynthetic unit size (phycobiliproteins plus chlorophyll), the highest photosynthetic capacity, and the highest growth rates. Photosystem I reaction centers (P700) per cell remained proportional to chlorophyll at ca. 110 chl/P700. However, phycobiliprotein content decreased as did the phycobilisome number (ca. 50%) in high light cells, whereas the phycobilisome size remained the same as in medium and low light cells. We concluded that acclimation of this red alga to varied PPFDs was manifested by the plasticity of the photosystem II antennae with little, if any, affect noted on photosystem I.

  14. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality. PMID:21161787

  15. STS-106 crew participates in activities at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the 195-foot level of Launch Pad 39B, STS-106 Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu (left) reaches for a lever to release the slidewire basket . At right is Richard A. Mastracchio (right) already seated. The basket is part of the emergency egress equipment from the orbiter. In the background can be seen Mission Specialist Boris V. Morukov in another slidewire basket. They and the rest of the STS-106 crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Activities (TCDT), which includes emergency egress training, along with opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter'''s payload bay, and a simulated launch countdown. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:31 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall.

  16. Another geography: risks to health as perceived in a deep-rural environment in Hausaland.

    PubMed

    Last, Murray

    2011-08-01

    The paper describes, for the Hausa farmers of Gidan Jatau in northern Nigeria, the distinct ways in which they see and understand (a) their close and distant environment and (b) their bodies' anatomy and physiology. These ways result in 'another geography' - of both space and being - which, however, may no longer now have the resonance it had in the early 1970s when the author lived in Gidan Jatau for two years as a guest. At that time, the spiritual dimensions of daily life were deemed important to the health and prosperity of each person and to the farmstead as a whole. The argument is made that the urban-centred literature on the bori possession-cult neglects the ordinary, anonymous spirits of house and field. Any serious archaeology of the landscape will need insights into this 'alternative geography' if it is truly to 'read' a lost countryside from the traces left by its religious past; the paper also explains why some traces, such as shrines, may not be where they are expected to be. PMID:21810038

  17. Recent progress in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truhlar, Donald

    2014-03-01

    Ongoing work involves several areas of density functional theory: new methods for computing electronic excitation energies, including a new way to remove spin contamination in the spin-flip Tamm-Dancoff approximation and a configuration-interaction-corrected Tamm-Dancoff Approximation for treating conical intersections; new ways to treat open-shell states, including a reinterpreted broken-symmetry method and multi-configuration Kohn-Sham theory; a new exchange-correlation functional; new tests of density functional theory against databases for electronic transition energies and molecules and solids containing metal atoms; and applications. A selection of results will be presented. I am grateful to the following collaborators for contributions to the ongoing work: Boris Averkiev, Rebecca Carlson, Laura Fernandez, Laura Gagliardi, Chad Hoyer, Francesc Illas, Miho Isegawa, Shaohong Li, Giovanni Li Manni, Sijie Luo, Dongxia Ma, Remi Maurice, Rubén Means-Pañeda, Roberto Peverati, Nora Planas, Prasenjit Seal, Pragya Verma, Bo Wang, Xuefei Xu, Ke R. Yang, Haoyu Yu, Wenjing Zhang, and Jingjing Zheng. Supported in part by the AFOSR and U.S. DOE.

  18. Several foundational and information theoretic implications of Bell’s theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Guruprasad; Banik, Manik

    2016-08-01

    In 1935, Albert Einstein and two colleagues, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) developed a thought experiment to demonstrate what they felt was a lack of completeness in quantum mechanics (QM). EPR also postulated the existence of more fundamental theory where physical reality of any system would be completely described by the variables/states of that fundamental theory. This variable is commonly called hidden variable and the theory is called hidden variable theory (HVT). In 1964, John Bell proposed an empirically verifiable criterion to test for the existence of these HVTs. He derived an inequality, which must be satisfied by any theory that fulfill the conditions of locality and reality. He also showed that QM, as it violates this inequality, is incompatible with any local-realistic theory. Later it has been shown that Bell’s inequality (BI) can be derived from different set of assumptions and it also find applications in useful information theoretic protocols. In this review, we will discuss various foundational as well as information theoretic implications of BI. We will also discuss about some restricted nonlocal feature of quantum nonlocality and elaborate the role of Uncertainty principle and Complementarity principle in explaining this feature.

  19. The 28 December 1908 Earthquake in the Straits of Messina (Southern Italy) and Contemporary Italian Seismology: Theories, Instruments, Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, G.

    2008-12-01

    Italian seismology has a long and prestigious tradition which has seen the contributions of many scholars ever since the earliest decades of the 18th century. In the last 25 years of the 19th century Italian seismology underwent a very strong and original development, especially from the point of view of the honing of a method of earthquake observation, which significantly influenced European seismology. Born outside the institutions in the second half of the 1870s, the first network of instrumental earthquake observations in Italy was developed and consolidated within the institutions only between the second half of the 1880s and the mid-1890s. A striking series of large earthquakes that affected southern Italy between 1894 and 1908 (1894 Calabria, Me = 6.1, 1905 Calabria Me = 6.5, 1907 Calabria, Me = 6.0 and 1908 Straits of Messina, Me = 7.1) triggered a lively debate within the seismological community and also among scholars and institutions. The early years of the 20th century are the time when, thanks also to Italian experiences, Emil Wiechert and Boris Galitzin designed and set up the first modern seismographs. The 1908 earthquake, one of the strongest earthquakes of Italian history, marked a turning point in the history of Italian seismology and in the relationships bewteen the national government and the scientific community. This work aims at presenting the scientific context of theories, instruments and observations at the time of the 1908 earthquake and discussing their impact on the Italian seismology of that period.

  20. STS-106 crew poses for photos after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Standing in front of the orbiter Atlantis after a successful landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility, the STS-106 crew greets the media and onlookers. Standing, left to right, are Mission Specialists Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov, Daniel C. Burbank and Richard A. Mastracchio; Pilot Scott D. Altman; Mission Specialist Edward T. Lu; and Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt at the microphone. Main gear touchdown occurred on-time at 3:56:48 a.m. EDT. Atlantis and crew traveled 4.9 million miles on the 11-day, 19-hour, 11-minute STS-106 mission. During the mission to the International Space Station, the crew transferred nearly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies for use by the first resident crew expected to arrive in November. STs-106 was the 99th flight in the Shuttle program and the 22nd for Atlantis. STS-106 also marked the 15th nighttime landing in Shuttle history and the 23rd consecutive landing at KSC.

  1. 3D electromagnetic simulation of spatial autoresonance acceleration of electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar-Zhabon, V. D.; González, J. D.; Orozco, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    The results of full electromagnetic simulations of the electron beam acceleration by a TE 112 linear polarized electromagnetic field through Space Autoresonance Acceleration mechanism are presented. In the simulations, both the self-sustaned electric field and selfsustained magnetic field produced by the beam electrons are included into the elaborated 3D Particle in Cell code. In this system, the space profile of the magnetostatic field maintains the electron beams in the acceleration regime along their trajectories. The beam current density evolution is calculated applying the charge conservation method. The full magnetic field in the superparticle positions is found by employing the trilinear interpolation of the mesh node data. The relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation presented in the centered finite difference form is solved using the Boris algorithm that provides visualization of the beam electrons pathway and energy evolution. A comparison between the data obtained from the full electromagnetic simulations and the results derived from the motion equation depicted in an electrostatic approximation is carried out. It is found that the self-sustained magnetic field is a factor which improves the resonance phase conditions and reduces the beam energy spread.

  2. A look behind the arms control agenda at the US-Russian and Sino-US summits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    When President Bill Clinton met in New York with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on October 23 and Chinese President Jiang Zemin the following day, the leaders discussed a broad spectrum of arms control issues-including START II ratification, limits on Russian conventional weapons in the Caucasus, the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear exports to Iran and NATO expansion. The crisis in Bosnia, however, dominated the administration`s pre- and post-summit briefings as well as the media`s coverage of the meetings. On October 20, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference to highlight the key arms control issues involved in the two sets of talks. Because these vital national security issues were virtually ignored by the press, the ACA press briefing remains the most comprehensive coverage of the full range of issues that were, in fact, addressed at the mini-summits. Panel speakers included Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., ACA president and executive director and former deputy director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Jack Mendelsohn, ACA deputy director and a former member of the US SALT II and START I delegations; Stanley Resor, ACA board chairman and former chief US delegate to the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, former defense undersecretary for policy and former secretary of the Army; and William Dircks, director of the Atlantic Council`s Program on Nuclear Policy and former deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Extended excerpts from their remarks follow.

  3. Avoiding the {open_quotes}definition{close_quotes} pitfall to a comprehensive test ban

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, G.; Timerbaev, R.

    1993-05-01

    Recently approved US legislation and a new US administration have brought an end to 12 years of American opposition to a comprehensive test ban (CTB). Signed by President Bush on October 2, 1992, the new law imposes a moratorium on US nuclear tests until July and possibly longer, permits up to 15 nuclear tests to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons from the end of this moratorium until October 1996, and prohibits US tests after that unless another country tests. It also calls on the president to submit a plan for resumption of negotiations to end testing. President Bill Clinton, in his February 12, 1993 letter to Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME) supporting this legislation, said his administration was now reviewing questions {open_quotes}of forum and modalities for negotiating a CTB...{close_quotes} Moreover, Presidents Clinton and Boris Yeltsin, at their April summit in Vancouver, {open_quotes}agreed that negotiations on a multilateral nuclear test ban should commence at an early date.{close_quotes}

  4. Paring down the arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von

    1997-05-01

    The Helsinki Summit in March gave a much needed impulse-albeit a modest one-to the long-dormant nuclear arms reduction process. There had been no negotiations since the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) had been signed four years earlier. Although the treaty had been ratified by the US Senate, it had not been ratified by the Russian Duma, where opposition was intense. By the time the summit convened, it looked as if the treaty might simply unravel, the victim of lingering Cold War-era distrust. But President Boris Yeltsin said at the conclusion of the summit that enough progress had been made to {open_quotes}prepare grounds so that the Duma could positively look at ratifying START II.{close_quotes} That progress included a commitment by President Bill Clinton to begin negotiating a START III agreement after the Duma ratifies START II. The aim of START III, according to Clinton and Yeltsin, would be to reduce the ceiling on the number of deployed strategic warheads on each side to 2,000-2,500 by the end of the year 2007. In contrast, START II called for a limit of 3,500 deployed strategic warheads by 2003.

  5. A two-dimensional, finite-element, flux-corrected transport algorithm for the solution of gas discharge problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georghiou, G. E.; Morrow, R.; Metaxas, A. C.

    2000-10-01

    An improved finite-element flux-corrected transport (FE-FCT) scheme, which was demonstrated in one dimension by the authors, is now extended to two dimensions and applied to gas discharge problems. The low-order positive ripple-free scheme, required to produce a FCT algorithm, is obtained by introducing diffusion to the high-order scheme (two-step Taylor-Galerkin). A self-adjusting variable diffusion coefficient is introduced, which reduces the high-order scheme to the equivalent of the upwind difference scheme, but without the complexities of an upwind scheme in a finite-element setting. Results are presented which show that the high-order scheme reduces to the equivalent of upwinding when the new diffusion coefficient is used. The proposed FCT scheme is shown to give similar results in comparison to a finite-difference time-split FCT code developed by Boris and Book. Finally, the new method is applied for the first time to a streamer propagation problem in its two-dimensional form.

  6. Einstein studies in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Yuri; Vizgin, Vladimir

    This volume presents a selection of the best contributions by Russian scholars - historians and philosophers of science - to the Einstein Studies industry, broadly construed. Many of the papers were first published in Russian, in the Einshteinovskiy Sbornik series (Einstein Studies) initiated by I. Tamm in 1966. This book explores the historical and foundational issues in general relativity and relativistic cosmology, Einstein's contributions to quantum theory of radiation, and the rise of Dirac's quantum electrodynamics. It also includes a detailed description of the physics colloquium Einstein established and coordinated in 1912- 1914 in Zürich. The contributors draw extensively on documentation previously unavailable to most scholars. Materials from various Russian archives shed new light on the famous exchange (regarding the first evolutionary cosmological models) between Einstein and Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920's and on the role of Boris Podolsky and Vladimir Fock in the emergence of quantum electrodynamics. The little-known correspondence between Einstein and a famous German pilot Paul Erhardt suggests that during World War I, the former was involved with aero- and hydrodynamics research and ways of improving airplane design. Other articles introduce new approaches to important foundational questions in general relativity and cosmology. Historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science will find much new and unexpected material in this engaging volume presenting the best of recent Russian scholarship in the field. The book is also very accessible to the general reader.

  7. Can anthropogenic aerosol concentrations effect the snowfall rate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Zhang, J.; Pi, J.

    2003-04-01

    The mesoscale model GESIMA is used to simulate microphysical properties of Arctic clouds and their effect on radiation. Different case studies during the FIRE.ACE/SHEBA project show that GESIMA is able to simulate the cloud boundaries, ice and liquid water content and effective radii in good agreement with observations. For two different aerosol scenarios, the simulation results show that the anthropogenic aerosol can alter microphysical properties of Arctic clouds, and consequently modify surface precipitation. Borys et al. (2000) proposed that anthropogenically-induced decreases in cloud droplet size inhibit the riming process. On the contrary, we find that the accretion of snow crystals with cloud droplets is increased in the polluted cloud due to its higher cloud droplet number concentration. Instead the autoconversion rate of cloud droplets and accretion of drizzle by snow decreases caused by the shut-down of the collision-coalescence process in the polluted cloud. The amount of precipitation reaching the surface as snow depends crucially on the crystal shape. If aggregates are assumed, then a 10-fold increase in aerosol concentration leads to an increase in accumulated snow by 40% after 7 hours of simulation whereas the snow amount decreases by 30% when planar crystals are assumed because of the larger accretion efficiency of snow crystals with cloud droplets in case of aggregates. We will also perform climate model simulations to estimate the importance of this effect globally.

  8. Have guns, will travel

    SciTech Connect

    Khripunov, I.

    1997-05-01

    In the latter decades of the Cold War, defense industries were at the heart of the Soviet economy, absorbing one-third of the country`s industrial force; 60 percent of the machine-building industry; 80 percent of all research and development personnel; and 20 percent of Soviet energy output. Today, the Russian defense economy is near collapse. In 1996, Russia`s air force could not buy a single combat plane. President Boris Yeltsin admitted in his State of the Union address on March 6 that {open_quotes}the Russian armed forces are five to 10 years, sometimes 15 years, behind the world`s most powerful armies in the general level of {open_quote}technical equipment.{close_quote}{close_quotes} The only {open_quotes}bright{close_quotes} spot in the Russian military-industrial complex-the arms trade. Russia is desperately pushing weapons in the international market in an attempt to salvage its defense industrial base. Russia`s enormous arms complex includes about 2,000 enterprises directly engaged in military production, a host of subcontractors, 920 research organizations, and a work force of roughly 5 million.

  9. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  10. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., STS-101 crew members check out some of the cargo that will be carried on their mission. From left are Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz (Ph.D.) and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.), Jeffrey N. Williams, and Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Other crew members are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.) and Yuri Malenchenko, also with RSA. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  11. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., STS-101 crew members check out some of the cargo that will be carried on their mission. From left are Mission Specialists Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA), Jeffrey N. Williams, and Yuri Malenchenko, also with RSA. Other crew members are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz (Ph.D.) and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.). The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  12. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-101 crew learn how to manipulate the Russian crane Strela. At left is Yuri Malenchenko, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA); in the center is Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.); at right is Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams. Other crew members are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov (RSA). The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  13. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At SPACEHAB, in Titusville, Fla., STS-101 Mission Specialists Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.), Mary Ellen Weber (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA), stand inside the SPACEHAB Logistics Double Module, part of the payload for their mission. They and other crew members Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz (Ph.D.), and Mission Specialists Jeffrey N. Williams, and Yuri Malenchenko (also with RSA), are taking part in a Crew Equipment Interface Test. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  14. STS-101 crew take part in CEIT at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) at SPACEHAB, in Cape Canaveral, Fla., STS-101 crew members Edward Tsang Lu (Ph.D.) and Yuri Malenchenko, who is with the Russian Space Agency (RSA) check out part of the Russian crane Strela. Other crew members are Commander James Donald Halsell Jr., Pilot Scott Horowitz, and Mission Specialists Jeffrey N. Williams, Mary Ellen Weber, (Ph.D.) and Boris W. Morukov, also with RSA. The primary objective of the STS-101 mission is to complete the initial outfitting of the International Space Station, making it fully ready for the first long-term crew. The seven-member crew will transfer almost two tons of equipment and supplies from SPACEHAB's Logistics Double Module. Additionally, they will unpack a shipment of supplies delivered earlier by a Russian Progress space tug and begin outfitting the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. Three astronauts will perform two space walks to transfer and install parts of the Russian Strela cargo boom that are attached to SPACEHAB's Integrated Cargo Container, connect utility cables between Zarya and Zvezda, and install a magnetometer/pole assembly on the Service Module. Additional activities for the STS-101 astronauts include working with the Space Experiment Module (SEM-06) and the Mission to America's Remarkable Schools (MARS), two educational initiatives. STS-101 is scheduled for launch no earlier than March 16, 2000.

  15. The genus Mytilina in China, with description of a new species (Rotifera: Monogononta: Mytilinidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

    2014-08-05

    During our study of biodiversity of Rotifera in PR China, as model taxon of freshwater Micrometazoa, we came across several records that warrant revision regarding species of genus Mytilina Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 (Rotifera, Monogonta, Mytilinidae). In addition to this review we describe a new species encountered during examination of freshwater habitats of Inner Mongolia, P.R.China. This new species, Mytilina wangi n. sp., appears to belong to the Mytilina mucronata - ventralis complex but differs from the known taxa in the group by its domed lorica and relatively short toes. We provide an annotated checklist of the Chinese representatives of the genus and discuss the species of the M. mucronata-ventralis group. We suggest treating M. brevispina (Ehrenberg, 1830) and M. ventralis (Ehrenberg, 1830)(synonym: M. macracantha (Gosse, 1886)) as separate species-level taxa rather than as two infrasubspecific variants of the same species, and argue that Mytilina trigona var. bispinosa Wang, 1961 is a misidentified M. acanthophora Hauer, 1938 rather than an infrasubspecific variant of M. trigona (Gosse, 1851). 

  16. Reintroduction of the European Capercaillie from the Capercaillie Breeding Centre in Wisła Forest District: Genetic Assessments of Captive and Reintroduced Populations

    PubMed Central

    Strzała, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is a specific bird species, which, despite its very broad distribution and large global population size, is highly endangered in many Western and Central European countries. According to the species situation, in many countries (including Poland), breeding and reintroduction programmes have been started. One of the most complex and large-scale reintroduction programmes was started in Bory Dolnośląskie Forest, and the Capercaillie Breeding Centre in Wisła Forest District was used as one of the sources of individuals for reintroduction. As genetic tools provide essential knowledge about species biodiversity, which is crucially important during the breeding process and reintroduction, both captive and reintroduced grouse populations were genetically analysed. We were particularly interested in genetic diversity of the individuals in both populations and the genetic relationship between them, as well as between them and other capercaillie representatives from their current range. To fulfil these goals we determined nine microsatellite loci along with a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Genetic diversity parameters were moderate to high compared to populations from other Central and Western European countries. Both populations were clustered into three distinct genetic clades based on microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis placed all mitochondrial haplotypes we revealed in the Eurasian clade. The present results will play an important role as they will help to preserve and maximize genetic diversity in captive populations, and will provide a basis for future monitoring of the reintroduction process. PMID:26682897

  17. Simulations of impact features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as imaged by OSIRIS/ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, G.; Lucchetti, A.; Marchi, S.; Martellato, E.; Massironi, M.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Vincent, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The images obtained by OSIRIS on board the ESA Rosetta mission during the approaching phase and during the orbit around the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko allowed to map the cometary surface with the very high resolution of the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Further important products have been realized with the nucleus images as the shape model and the Digital Terrain Model allowing to derive the profile of some features possibly identified as impact craters. Impact craters have been simulated with the iSALE hydrocode, one of the multi-rheology and multi-material extension of the SALE hydrocode (Amsden et al., 1980, Collins et al., 2004; Wünnemann et al., 2006), specifically developed to model impact crater formation. The structure and composition of the projectile was simplified to spherical and homogeneous dunite impacting at an angle of 90°, while we have assumed different target composition from dunite to water ice changing the porosity and the strength. A further important parameter to take into account is the temperature of the region where the crater is formed and we will adopt an updated thermal model of the nucleus in order to better define it. We will show the preliminary results of the impact simulations performed in 2D, including some insights on the nucleus structure. AcknowledgementsWe gratefully acknowledge the developers of iSALE-2D, including Gareth Collins, Kai Wünnemann, Dirk Elbeshausen, Boris Ivanov and Jay Melosh (see www.iSALE-code.de).

  18. A neurochemical basis for an epigenetic vision of psychiatric disorders (1994-2009).

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Alessandro; Grayson, Dennis R

    2011-10-01

    In 1996, Dr. Costa was invited by Prof. Boris Astrachan, Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to direct the research of the "Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, at the University of Illinois at Chicago." He was asked to develop a seminal research program on psychiatric disorders. Viewed in retrospect, Dr. Costa met and surpassed the challenge, as was usual for him. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby nurture (epigenetic factors) and nature (genetic factors) interact to cause major psychiatric disorders was at the center of Dr. Costa's mission for the last 15 years of his research at the Psychiatric Institute. The challenge for Dr. Costa and his colleagues (Auta, Caruncho, Davis, Grayson, Guidotti, Impagnatiello, Kiedrowski, Larson, Manev, Pappas, Pesold, Pinna, Sharma, Smalheiser, Sugaya, Tueting, Veldic [1-111]) had always been to find new ways to prevent and treat psychiatric disorders with pharmacological agents that failed to have major unwanted side effects. In this list, we have quoted the first authors of the papers pertaining to the field of research highlighted in the title. As you know, Dr. Costa was an eclectic scientist and in his 15 years of studies at UIC, he touched many other aspects of neuroscience research that are not discussed in this overview.

  19. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    PubMed

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  20. BOREAS RSS-14 Level 1a GOES-7 Visible, IR, and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. The level-1a BOREAS GOES-7 image data were collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and processed to level-1a products by BORIS personnel. The data cover the period of 01-Jan-1994 through 08-Jul-1995 with partial to complete coverage on the majority of the days. The data include three bands with eightbit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  1. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1 GOES-7 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. The level-1 BOREAS GOES-7 image data were collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and delivered to BORIS. The data cover the period of 01-Jan-1994 through 08-Jul-1995, with partial to complete coverage on the majority of the days. The data include three bands with eight-bit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1 GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1 GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1 GOES-8 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. The level-1 BOREAS GOES-8 images are raw data values collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and delivered to BORIS. The data cover 14-Jul-1995 to 21-Sep-1995 and 01-Jan-1996 to 03-Oct-1996. The data start out containing three 8-bit spectral bands and end up containing five 10-bit spectral bands. No major problems with the data have been identified. The data are contained in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1 GOES-8 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1 GOES-8 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. BOREAS Level-3s SPOT Imagery: Scaled At-sensor Radiance in LGSOWG Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Nickeson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3s Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) data, along with the other remotely sensed images, were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). The SPOT images acquired for the BOREAS project were selected primarily to fill temporal gaps in the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image data collection. CCRS collected and supplied the level-3s images to BOREAS Information System (BORIS) for use in the remote sensing research activities. Spatially, the level-3s images cover 60- by 60-km portions of the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the images cover the period of 17-Apr-1994 to 30-Aug-1996. The images are available in binary image format files. Due to copyright issues, the SPOT images may not be publicly available.

  4. BOREAS Hardcopy Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nelson, Elizabeth; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) hardcopy maps are a collection of approximately 1,000 hardcopy maps representing the physical, climatological, and historical attributes of areas covering primarily the Manitoba and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada. These maps were collected by BOREAS Information System (BORIS) and Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) staff to provide basic information about site positions, manmade features, topography, geology, hydrology, land cover types, fire history, climate, and soils of the BOREAS study region. These maps are not available for distribution through the BOREAS project but may be used as an on-site resource. Information is provided within this document for individuals who want to order copies of these maps from the original map source. Note that the maps are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of the maps that are available. This inventory listing is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). For hardcopies of the individual maps, contact the sources provided.

  5. BOREAS HYD-2 Estimated Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) from Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Hugh; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The surface meteorological data collected at the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) tower and ancillary sites are being used as inputs to an energy balance model to monitor the amount of snow storage in the boreal forest region. The BOREAS Hydrology (HYD)-2 team used Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) derived from an energy balance model and in situ observed SWE to compare the SWE inferred from airborne and spaceborne microwave data, and to assess the accuracy of microwave retrieval algorithms. The major external measurements that are needed are snowpack temperature profiles, in situ snow areal extent, and SWE data. The data in this data set were collected during February 1994 and cover portions of the Southern Study Area (SSA), Northern Study Area (NSA), and the transect areas. The data are available from BORIS as comma-delimited tabular ASCII files. The SWE data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. COMMITTEES: SQM 2007 - International Conference On Strangeness In Quark Matter SQM 2007 - International Conference On Strangeness In Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organising Committee Ivan Králik (IEP SAS, Košice) Vojtěch Petráček (Czechoslovakia Technical University, Prague) Ján Pišút (Comenius University, Bratislava) Emanuele Quercigh (CERN) Karel Šafařík (CERN), Co-chair Ladislav v Sándor (IEP SAS, Košice), Co-chair Boris Tomášik (Mateja Bela University, Banská Bystrica) Jozef Urbán (UPJŠ Košice) International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin, Nantes Federico Antinori, Padova Tamás Biró, Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger, GSI Jean Cleymans, Cape Town László Csernai, Bergen Timothy Hallman, BNL Huan Zhong Huang, UCLA Sonja Kabana, Nantes Roy A Lacey, Stony Brook Carlos Lourenço, CERN Yu-Gang Ma, Shanghai Jes Masden, Aarhus Yasuo Miake, Tsukuba Berndt Müller, Duke Grazyna Odyniec, LBNL Helmut Oeschler, Darmstadt Jan Rafelski, Arizona Hans Georg Ritter, LBNL Jack Sandweiss, Yale George S F Stephans, MIT Horst Stöcker, Frankfurt Thomas Ullrich, BNL Orlando Villalobos-Baillie, Birmingham William A Zajc, Columbia

  7. STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  8. Remote sensing of hydrologic variables in boreal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carroll, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    During Phase 2 airborne Gamma Radiation measurements were conducted over 48 BOREAS flight lines. Ground measurements of the soil moisture (SM) of the mineral soil and of the depth and water content (WC) of the moss/humus layer were collected for calibration of the flight lines. Special attention has been given to the flight lines over and near the primary tower sites in the southern study area (SSA): Old Black Spruce (OBS), Old Jack Pine, Old Aspen, and Young Aspen. Multiple ground surveys (September 1993; July, August, and September 1994) show the variation of the water content of the moss/humus layers and changes in the amount of standing water near the SSA, OBS tower during the period September 1993 to September 1994. All ground data, airborne estimates and locations of flight lines and ground sampling points have been submitted to BORIS (Boreas Information System). On 8-10 September 1994 exceptionally high values of cosmic radiation were observed by the airborne gamma radiation system over the SSA. Follow-up investigation has not determined the source of, or what caused, the high cosmic count rates.

  9. Remote sensing of hydrologic variables in boreal areas, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carroll, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    During Phase 2 airborne Gamma Radiation measurements were conducted over 48 BOREAS (boreal ecosystem atmosphere study) flight lines. Ground measurements of the soil moisture (SM) of the mineral soil and the depth and water content (WC) of the moss/humus layer were collected for calibration of the flight lines. Special attention has been given to the flight lines over, and near, the primary tower sites in the southern study area (SSA); Old Black Spruce (OBS), Old Jack Pine, Old Aspen, and Young Aspen. Multiple ground surveys (September 1993, July, August, and September 1994) show the variation of the water content of the moss/humus layers and changes in the amount of standing water near the SSA OBS tower during the period September 1993 to September 1994. All ground data, airborne estimates and locations of flight lines and ground sampling points have been submitted to BORIS (BOREAS Information System). On 8-10 September 1994 exceptionally high values of cosmic radiation were observed by the airborne gamma radiation system over the SSA. Follow up investigation has not determined the source of, or what caused, the high cosmic count rates.

  10. [MRSA clones identified in outpatient dermatology clinics].

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Shino; Ito, Teruyo; Misawa, Shigeki; Yoshiike, Takashi; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To know the characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains disseminating through the Japanese community, we have determined types of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), and carriages of four exotoxin genes (toxic-shock syndrome toxin, Panton-Valentine Leukocidine, and exfoliative toxins a and b) using 54 MRSA strains isolated from outpatients attending dermatology clinics at the four university hospitals of Juntendo University. Ten clonal complexes and 12 SCCmec types have been identified. As a result, more than 15 MRSA clones that were defined by the combination of genotype and SCCmec type, were identified. Among them, Clonal Complex (CC) 5-type IIa SCCmec strains were the most major (16 strains). In contrast to the fact that CC5- type IIa SCCmec strains known as a hospital-associated MRSA clone in Japan carried toxic-shock syndrome toxin gene (tst), only 2 of 16 strains have been shown to carry tst. Thirty-eight (70.4%) of isolates belonged to the clones distinct from the CC5-type IIa SCCmec strains. Among them, CC8 strains were major (12 strains), which contained 9 tst-positive CC8-type IVl SCCmec clones and a CC8-type IVa SCCmec strain carrying the Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene (lukS, F-PV). Clones related to impetigo were also identified: 7 exfoliative toxin b (etb) -positive clones, CC89-type IIa SCCmec and CC89-type V SCCmec strains; and 2 exfoliative toxin a (eta) -positive CC121-type V SCCmec strains. Other clones were as follows: CC1-type IVa SCCmec, CC8-type I SCCmec, CC81-type IVg SCCmec, CC97-type IVc SCCmec, CC91-type IVa SCCmec, CC59-type IVg SCCmec, CC45-type IIn SCCmec, CC89-SCCmec nontypeable, and CC8-type IVm, novel subtype of type IV SCCmec were identified in this study. Our data showed that many novel MRSA clones have emerged in the community. PMID:25764806

  11. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  12. Evolved massive stars in W33 and in GMC 23.3-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, Michael; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, Rosie; Davies, Ben; MacKenty, John W.

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted an infrared spectroscopic survey for massive evolved stars and/or clusters in the Galactic giant molecular clouds G23.3-0.3 and W33. A large number of extraordinary sub-clumps/clusters of massive stars were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of these massive stars yields information on the star formation history of the clouds.In G23.3-0.3, we discovered a dozen massive O-type stars, one candidate luminous blue variable, and several red supergiants. The O-type stars have masses from 25 to 50 Msun and ages of 5-8 Myr, while the RSGs belong to a burst that occurred 20-30 Myr ago. Therefore, GMC G23.3-0.3 has had one of the longest known histories of star formation (20-30 Myr). GMC G23.3-0.3 is rich in HII regions and supernova remnants; we detected massive stars in the cores of SNR W41 and of SNR G22.7-0.2.In W33, we detected a few evolved O-type stars and one Wolf-Rayet star, but none of the late-type objects has the luminosity of a red supergiant. W33 is characterized by discrete sources and has had at least 3-5 Myr of star formation history, which is now propagating from west to east. While our detections of massive evolved stars in W33 are made on the west side of the cloud, several dense molecular cores that may harbor proto clusters have recently been detected on the east side of the cloud by Immer et al. (2014).Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine 2014A&A...569A..20MMessineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Francisco, Najarro; Rich, R. Michael; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C.H. Rosie; Davies, Ben; submitted to ApJ.

  13. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens

    PubMed Central

    Flammier, Sacha; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Badiou, Cédric; Henry, Thomas; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frédéric; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs). Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections. PMID:26934588

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Hemolysins, bi-component Leukocidins, and Cytolytic Peptides: A Redundant Arsenal of Membrane-Damaging Virulence Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Vandenesch, François; Lina, G.; Henry, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One key aspect of the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins (which include the Panton Valentine leukocidin, LukAB/GH, and LukED), and the cytolytic peptides (phenol soluble modulins). While at first glance, all of these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific roles in certain S. aureus life stages and diseases or target specific cell types or species. In this review, we present an update of the literature on toxin receptors and their cell type and species specificities. Furthermore, we review epidemiological studies and animal models illustrating the role of these membrane-damaging factors in various diseases. Finally, we emphasize the interplay of these factors with the host immune system and highlight all their non-lytic functions. PMID:22919604

  15. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health.

  16. Waves and Patterns in Chemical and Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinney, Harry L.; Krinsky, Valentin I.

    1991-12-01

    These 28 contributions by leading researchers - from such diverse disciplines as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, and physiology - describe recent experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical analyses of the formation of spatial patterns in chemical and biological systems. Chemical patterns have been systematically studied since the field was established by Alan Turing's landmark 1952 paper, "The chemical basis for morphogenesis," yet only recently have new experimental techniques and numerical analyses of reaction-diffusion equations opened the way to understanding stationary and traveling wave patterns. This collection summarizes the exciting developments in this rapidly growing field. It shows that some biological patterns have been found to be strikingly similar to patterns found in simple, well-controlled laboratory chemical systems, that new chemical reactor designs make it possible to sustain chemical patterns and to study transitions between different kinds of patterns, and that nearly 40 years after Turing's paper, the patterns predicted by Turing have finally been observed in laboratory experiments. Harry L. Swinney is Sid Richardson Foundation Regents Chair, Department of Physics, and Director of the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin. Valentin I. Krinsky is Head of the Autowave Laboratory, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, USSR. Chapters cover: Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Experiments. Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Theory and Simulations. Fronts and Turing Patterns. Waves and Patterns in Biological Systems.

  17. Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI.

    PubMed

    Conceição, T; Tavares, A; Miragaia, M; Hyde, K; Aires-de-Sousa, M; de Lencastre, H

    2010-05-01

    In order to obtain insights into the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population structure in the Azores archipelago, 106 MRSA isolates were collected from patients attending an Azorean central hospital between January 2007 and February 2008. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for all isolates. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The majority of the isolates (87%, n = 92) belonged to the EMRSA-15 clone (ST22, SCCmec-IVh), followed by the Pediatric clone (ST5-VI/IVc) (11%, n = 12). The Berlin clone (ST45-IVa) and a new clone (spa type t1839, ST1339 and SCCmec V variant) were represented by single isolates. All of the isolates carried SCCmec types IV, V or VI and a non-multiresistant antibiotic profile, resembling the currently emerging community MRSA. Moreover, PVL was described for the first time to be associated with the Pediatric clone carrying SCCmec type VI. We provided the first description of the population structure of MRSA in the Azores islands, which seems to be shaped by genetic events occurring locally, as well as by the regular population exchange between the islands, continental Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. PMID:20229224

  18. [Community associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SAMR-AC): comunication of the first four pediatric cases in the Roberto del Rio Children's Hospital].

    PubMed

    Acuña, Mirta; Benadof, Dona; Jadue, Carla; Hormazábal, Juan C; Alarcón, Pedro; Contreras, Julio; Torres, Ramón; Mülchi, Cristóbal; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Araya, Pamela

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen in pediatric patients that produces skin infections, cutaneous abscess, cellulitis and osteoarticular infections. Most of these infections are produced by a meticilin susceptible strain. The community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was published for the first time in 1993, ever since then is has been recognized as a cosmopolite pathogen. The first report in Latin America was published in 2003, and in Chile in 2008 from adult patients that have reported traveling to other countries. The following series describes four pediatric cases, all school-aged children, diagnosed since 2012 with clinical followups and molecular studies. Two cases presented as osteomyelitis of the lower extremity; and one presented as arm cellulitis. These three cases had Panton Valentine leukocidine (PV-L) negative strains from the clone complex 8. The last case presented a renal abscess, the strain was PV-L positive from the clone complex 30. This case series constitutes the first pediatric case report in Chile. PMID:26230445

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans in contact with farm animals, in livestock, and in food of animal origin, Switzerland, 2009.

    PubMed

    Huber, H; Koller, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2010-04-22

    A total of 2,662 samples, collected from March to September 2009 in Switzerland, were tested for the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The collection comprised nasal swabs from 148 pig farmers, 133 veterinarians, 179 slaughterhouse employees, 800 pigs, 300 calves, 400 cattle, 100 pooled neck skin swabs from chicken carcasses, and 460 food samples of animal origin. Moreover, 142 S. aureus strains, isolated from bovine mastitis milk, were included in the study. Twenty samples (< 1%; four veterinarians, 10 pigs, three calves, one young bull, and two mastitis milk samples) tested positive for MRSA. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing, spa- and SCCmec-typing, and revealed ST398 (n=18), ST8 (n=1), ST 1 (n=1), spa types t011 (n=7), t034 (n=11), t064 (n=1), t127 (n=1), and SCCmec types IV (n=4) and V (n=16). The 20 MRSA strains were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme EagI. Supplementary PCR reactions were performed to investigate the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin and staphylococcal enterotoxins A to D. PMID:20430001

  20. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  1. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health. PMID:25016468

  2. Paleo- and Neoproterozoic magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of the Isla Cristalina de Rivera (Nico Pérez Terrane, Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Wagner-Eimer, Martin; Wemmer, Klaus; Schulz, Bernhard; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    The Isla Cristalina de Rivera crystalline complex in northeastern Uruguay underwent a multistage magmatic and metamorphic evolution. Based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon, Th-U-Pb monazite (CHIME-EPMA method) and K-Ar age data from key units several events can be recognized: (1) multistage magmatism at 2,171-2,114 Ma, recorded on zircon of the granulitic orthogneisses and their 2,093-2,077 Ma overgrowths; (2) a distinct amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~1,980 Ma, recorded by monazite; (3) greenschist facies reworking and shearing at ca. 606 Ma (monazite and K-Ar on muscovite) along the Rivera Shear Zone, and finally (4) intrusion of the post-tectonic Sobresaliente and Las Flores granites at around 585 Ma. Lithological similarities, geographic proximity and coeval magmatic and metamorphic events indicate a similar tectonometamorphic evolution for the Isla Cristalina de Rivera, the Valentines Block in Uruguay and the Santa María Chico Granulitic Complex in southern Brazil, since at least 2.1 Ga.

  3. Size-to-charge dispersion of collision-induced dissociation product ions for enhancement of structural information and product ion identification.

    PubMed

    Zinnel, Nathanael F; Russell, David H

    2014-05-20

    Ion mobility is used to disperse product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the basis of charge state and size-to-charge ratio. We previously described an approach for combining CID with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) for dispersing fragment ions along charge state specific trend lines (Zinnel, N. F.; Pai, P. J.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3390; Sowell, R. A.; Koeniger, S. L.; Valentine, S. J.; Moon, M. H.; Clemmer, D. E. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15, 1341; McLean, J. A.; Ruotolo, B. T.; Gillig, K. J.; Russell, D. H. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 240, 301), and this approach was used to assign metal ion binding sites for human metallothionein protein MT-2a (Chen, S. H.; Russell, W. K.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 3229). Here, we use this approach to distinguish b-type N-terminal fragment ions from both internal fragment ions and y-type C-terminal fragment ions. We also show that in some cases specific secondary structural elements, viz., extended coils or helices, can be obtained for the y-type fragment ions series. The advantage of this approach is that product ion identity can be correlated to gas-phase ion structure, which provides rapid identification of the onset and termination of extended coil structure in peptides.

  4. The δ Subunit of RNA Polymerase Guides Promoter Selectivity and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Ibarra, J. Antonio; Paoletti, Jessica; Carroll, Ronan K.

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, and particularly the Firmicutes, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex contains an additional subunit, termed the δ factor, or RpoE. This enigmatic protein has been studied for more than 30 years for various organisms, but its function is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated its role in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We showed conservation of important structural regions of RpoE in S. aureus and other species and demonstrated binding to core RNAP that is mediated by the β and/or β′ subunits. To identify the impact of the δ subunit on transcription, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and observed 191 differentially expressed genes in the rpoE mutant. Ontological analysis revealed, quite strikingly, that many of the downregulated genes were known virulence factors, while several mobile genetic elements (SaPI5 and prophage ϕSA3usa) were strongly upregulated. Phenotypically, the rpoE mutant had decreased accumulation and/or activity of a number of key virulence factors, including alpha toxin, secreted proteases, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We further observed significantly decreased survival of the mutant in whole human blood, increased phagocytosis by human leukocytes, and impaired virulence in a murine model of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the δ subunit of RNAP is a critical component of the S. aureus transcription machinery and plays an important role during infection. PMID:24491578

  5. The Covariance and Biocovariance of the Stochartic Neutron Field

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The use of stochastic neutron field theory (neutron noise) for the measurement of reactor physics parameters goes back to the early work of Serber, Feynmann, and Orndoff. Since then, a large variety of methods and applications has been developed. In the majority of these methods, some form of modified one-point reactor kinetics was used for the interpretation of the measurements. In fact, the high level of sophistication of the instrumentation used was not matched by the theory. In 1965, Bell developed a general theory of the stochastic neutron field, and in 1987, Munoz-Cobo et al enlarged this treatment to include the effect of the detectors in the neutron field. In both instances, the complexity of the theoretical results were beyond the computing capabilities then available thus, the mismatch between experimental and theoretical methods remained in existence because the powerful Monte-Carlo methods then at work, were only applicable to static neutron fields. This problem was eliminated by the development of a time-dependent Monte-Carlo code specially written by T. E. Valentine for the analysis of stochastic measurements that gave them relevance to the results of the general theory. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the derivation of observables of the stochastic neutron filed from its general treatment.

  6. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19).

  7. Development of a novel multiplex electrochemiluminescent-based immunoassay for quantification of human serum IgG against 10 Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Haudenschild, Christian; Sterba, Patricia M; Sahandi, Sara; Enterlein, Sven; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Aman, M Javad

    2016-03-01

    An electrochemiluminescent (ECL)-based multiplex immunoassay using Meso-Scale Discovery (MSD) technology was developed for detecting antibody response toward 10 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exotoxins. These 10 antigens included three different groups of toxins: 1) single component pore-forming toxins such as alpha- and delta-hemolysins, 2) the bicomponent pore-forming toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV subunits, and 3) enterotoxin/superantigens - Staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB), C1 (SEC1), D (SED), K (SEK) and Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Assay development included optimization steps with a conventional SEB ELISA-based serological assay and then optimized parameters were transferred and re-optimized in a singleplex ECL format. Finally, two pentaplex solid-phase ECL formats were developed. As proof of concept, one set of pentaplex ECL data was compared with conventional ELISA results. During the assay development controls were screened and developed for both the singleplex and multiplex assays. ECL-based multiplex assays were more sensitive with a wide dynamic range and proved more time-efficient than conventional ELISAs. Using the newly developed ECL method we showed, for the first time, that delta-hemolysin toxin can induce an immune response as antibody titers could be detected.

  8. Characterization of SCCmec types, antibiotic resistance, and toxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Grabska, Katarzyna; Trawczyński, Krzysztof; Bosacka, Karolina; Kaznowski, Adam

    2013-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes serious nosocomial and community acquired infections. Resistance to methicillin is mediated by the mecA gene, which is inserted in a mobile genetic element called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We determined the SCCmec types, the occurrence of genes encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), exfoliative toxin (eta, etb), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) as well as antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates. Among 65 hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains, SCCmec types II, III and IV were identified. Type III SCCmec was the most prevalent (62%), followed by mec types II (24%) and IV (14%). Four community acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains carried SCCmec type IV and were pvl-positive. The most prevalent gene among HA-MRSA was pvl. The toxic shock syndrome toxin and exfoliative toxin genes were found only in hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The results of this study demonstrate that the SCCmec type III is predominant among strains recovered from hospitalized patients with infections and that these strains were resistant to many antibiotics used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  10. IVIG-mediated protection against necrotizing pneumonia caused by MRSA.

    PubMed

    Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Badiou, Cedric; Le, Hoan N; Pinheiro, Marcos Gabriel; Duong, Au H; Wang, Xing; Dip, Etyene Castro; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio; Basuino, Li; Marbach, Helene; Mai, Thuy T; Sarda, Marie N; Kajikawa, Osamu; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Tkaczyk, Christine; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Sellman, Bret R; Chambers, Henry F; Lina, Gerard

    2016-09-21

    New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to improve survival outcomes for patients with necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus One such approach is adjunctive treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), but clinical practice guidelines offer conflicting recommendations. In a preclinical rabbit model, prophylaxis with IVIG conferred protection against necrotizing pneumonia caused by five different epidemic strains of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as a widespread strain of hospital-associated MRSA. Treatment with IVIG, either alone or in combination with vancomycin or linezolid, improved survival outcomes in this rabbit model. Two specific IVIG antibodies that neutralized the toxic effects of α-hemolysin (Hla) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) conferred protection against necrotizing pneumonia in the rabbit model. This mechanism of action of IVIG was uncovered by analyzing loss-of-function mutant bacterial strains containing deletions in 17 genes encoding staphylococcal exotoxins, which revealed only Hla and PVL as having an impact on necrotizing pneumonia. These results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of IVIG in the treatment of severe pneumonia induced by S. aureus. PMID:27655850

  11. The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Diane E; Henderson, Deborah J; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the "Valentine" orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.

  12. Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Anca Meda; Azamfirei, Leonard; Szalman, Krisztina; Szekely, Edit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type. Case: We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review. The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome. The strains recovered from sequential blood culture sets and pericardial fluid were MSSA negative for genes encoding for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 and Panton–Valentine leukocidin. C, G, and I enterotoxin genes were detected. Conclusions: This case with unusually severe evolution underlines the limited ability of vancomycin to control some MSSA infections, possibly due to potential involvement of SA virulence factors, hence the importance of clinical vigilance for community SAB cases. PMID:27741135

  13. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  14. A decade of community MRSA in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. M. B.; Cook, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    In 1992, isolates with a distinctive phage pattern were identified amongst the 186 MRSA recovered in New Zealand. These unusual isolates were recovered in the Auckland region from individuals who came from or had visited Western Samoa, and were called Western Samoan phage pattern (WSPP) MRSA. They were almost exclusively community based and were mainly responsible for the alarming 15-fold increase in MRSA seen in New Zealand over the next 6 years. Since 2000, the number of infections attributable to WSPP MRSA appears to be declining. WSPP isolates are clonal, possess a unique type IV SCC mec element, and a distinctive multilocus sequence allelic profile (ST30). WSPP isolates are invariably not multiresistant with methicillin MICs generally Valentine leukocidin, alpha- and gamma-haemolysins) producing capabilities. Isolates are most frequently associated with cutaneous lesions in younger age groups. Since 1998, MRSA isolates belonging to the UK-derived EMRSA-15 strain (also type IV SCC mec) have continued to increase in New Zealand, and together with WSPP, these strains now dominate MRSA isolations in New Zealand. PMID:16181511

  15. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  16. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Haack, Sheridan K; Johnson, Heather E; Brennan, Angela K; Isaacs, Natasha M; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA+femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci 'excellent' recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  18. A Field Guide to Pandemic, Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Coombs, Geoffrey; Shore, Anna C.; Coleman, David C.; Akpaka, Patrick; Borg, Michael; Chow, Henry; Ip, Margaret; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Jonas, Daniel; Kadlec, Kristina; Kearns, Angela; Laurent, Frederic; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearson, Julie; Ruppelt, Antje; Schwarz, Stefan; Scicluna, Elizabeth; Slickers, Peter; Tan, Hui-Leen; Weber, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements. PMID:21494333

  19. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Bangalore, India: emergence of the ST217 clone and high rate of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in the community

    PubMed Central

    Bouchiat, C.; El-Zeenni, N.; Chakrakodi, B.; Nagaraj, S.; Arakere, G.; Etienne, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and the circulating clones in Bangalore, India. Susceptibility testing was performed for all cases of SA infections in a tertiary-care hospital. Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) encoding genes were detected, and sequence type and spa type were determined. Out of the 92 collected strains, 52.2% were methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA), isolated from community-acquired (CA) infections in 60.4% and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in 39.6%. S. aureus isolates were also highly resistant to erythromycin (54.3%) and ciprofloxacin (70.6%) in methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) and MRSA, as well as in CA and HA infections. MRSA were found to be significantly more resistant to gentamicin (p <0.001), cotrimoxazole (p <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (p 0.001) than MSSA, but no significant difference was observed between CA- and HA-SA. ST217 appeared as a new emerging and prevalent clone, but ST772 remained the predominant clone, all being PVL-positive isolates. Our study points out the high prevalence of MRSA, even in the community, and the worrying increase of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin among CA-MSSA. Emergence of clone ST217 is reported for the first time in India. PMID:26110062

  20. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  1. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  2. Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sasmita; Kar, Sarita; Choudhury, Ranginee; Sharma, Savitri; Singh, Durg V

    2014-03-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR to detect the presence of methicillin- (mecA), cadmium/zinc-(czrC) and antiseptic-resistant (qacA/B) staphylococci and to identify Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from infected and healthy eyes. The assay was validated on 177 staphylococci comprising of 55 each of S. aureus and CoNS isolated from infected eyes and five S. aureus and 62 CoNS isolated from healthy eyes and nine direct ocular samples. Nine direct ocular samples for in situ testing consisted of corneal scrapings (4), conjunctiva swabs (2) and others (3). Multiplex PCR result was correlated with genotype data obtained with single PCR and dot-blot assay. The control strains that were positive in multiplex PCR for 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes were also positive in the dot-blot assay. The specificity of amplified genes obtained with reference strains was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The single step-hexaplex PCR method can be used for rapid detection of mecA, nuc, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes in staphylococci with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative S. aureus and CoNS from a variety of ocular samples.

  3. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    PubMed

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  5. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lacking PVL, as a Cause of Severe Invasive Infection Treated with Linezolid

    PubMed Central

    Gavino, Alexandra; Miragaia, Maria; Varandas, Luis; de Lencastre, Herminia; Brito, Maria Joao

    2013-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Severe invasive infections have been described, mostly associated with the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In Portugal limited information exists regarding CA-MRSA infections. In this study we describe the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old female, sport athlete, who presented to the hospital with acetabulofemoral septic arthritis, myositis, fasciitis, acetabulum osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. The MRSA isolated from blood and synovial fluid was PVL negative and staphylococcal enterotoxin type P (SEP) and type L (SEL) positive, with a vancomycin MIC of 1.0 mg/L and resistant to clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. The patient was submitted to multiple surgical drainages and started on vancomycin, rifampicin, and gentamycin. Due to persistence of fever and no microbiological clearance, linezolid was started with improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of severe invasive infection caused by CA-MRSA in Portugal, which was successfully treated with linezolid. In spite of the severity of infection, the MRSA isolate did not produce PVL. PMID:23509655

  6. International report Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Valentin Shashin, the world's first dynamically positioned ice-class drillship for Arctic conditions, has been completed by Rauma-Repola Oy's Mantyluoto Works in Pori, Finland and delivered to V/O Sudoimport, the Soviet Union. This drillship is the first of three such vessels ordered by the Soviet Union in 1979 for oil exploration in Russia's Arctic waters. All three drillships will be capable of operating in water depths to 300 m and of drilling to 20,000 ft in winds of 23 m/sec, in significant wave heights to 4.7 m and currents to 1 m/sec. Since the vessels are to be used in hostile Arctic conditions, the design incorporates a great deal of sophisticated equipment for operating in heavy seas and avoiding hazards, such as icebergs, that may exist in the drilling area. Included is a quick disconnect system that will allow the ship to detach from the drilling mode in approximately three minutes.

  7. Typing of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Using DNA Fingerprints by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Rebic, Velma; Budimir, Ana; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Vranic, Sabina Mahmutovic; Rebic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. Methods: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection. Results: Antimicrobial susceptibility: all MRSA isolates were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics tested, and all isolates were susceptible trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, rifampicin, fusidic acid, linezolid and vancomycin. Sixty-eight per cent of the MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin, 5% to clindamycin, 5% to gentamicin and 4% to ciprofloxacin. After the PFGE analysis, the isolates were grouped into five similarity groups: A-E. The largest number of isolates belonged to one of two groups: C: 60 (60%) and D: 27 (27%). In both groups C and D, SCCmec type IV was predominant (60% and 88, 8%, respectively). A total of 24% of the isolates had positive expression of PVL genes, while 76% showed a statistically significantly greater negative expression of PVL genes. Conclusion: SCCmec type IV, together with the susceptibility profile and PFGE grouping, is considered to be typical of CA-MRSA PMID:27708486

  8. Assessment of body concepts and beliefs regarding reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Shedlin, M G

    1979-01-01

    Instruments for depicting the way rural women experience and perceive their bodies were administered in an anthropological study in Central Mexico. Body outlines were filled in or finished by the women and concepts of reproductive physiology were shown during the drawing process which showed various degrees of knowledge or accuracy. The organs most frequently drawn were the stomach, intestines, heart, liver, uterus, and lungs. Ribs were the only bones spontaneously included. The external structures most often drawn were breasts, vagina, and umbilicus. All structures were represented as circles of varying sizes except for the intestines, which were lines, and the heart, which was a valentine. Accurate placement of internal organs was unusual. When the names used for the bodily parts were elicited, the breast had 5 different terms. Multiple names were also given to the stomach, uterus, and vagina. The heart is believed to the origin of feeling and emotion and has religious as well as physical meaning. It was often thought that from 2-10 coital incidents were needed to become pregnant since it was believed that the blood of man must mix with the blood of the woman. In this type of survey it is important that the women can identify with the basic body outline; in pretesting certain figures were rejected.

  9. Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy has afflicted humanity during most of the extent of documented history. The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments that were sent from a furious goddess. In particular, epilepsy was considered in Aztec culture as a "sacred disease", and convulsions were traditionally associated with a deified woman who had died at childbirth. As the goddess Shiva and Apasmâra in ancient India and Saint Valentine in Germany, Tlazolteotl was considered able to bring about and send away epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive review to identify Tlazolteotl depictions and its historical context related with epilepsy. Tlazolteotl is one of the most endearing and complex goddesses of the Mesoamericans. She was the deity of the black fertile and fecund earth that gains its energy from death and in turn feeds life. Associated with purification, expiation, and regeneration, she embodied fertility and turned all garbage, physical and metaphysical, into rich life. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with Tlazolteotl. We also present a modern depiction of the Aztec goddess of epilepsy from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino, displaying the supernatural view of epilepsy in America.

  10. The Physics of Cardiac Fibrillation: Strings that kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2009-03-01

    Fibrillation is a state of spatio-temporal chaos in a 3d-biological excitable medium, namely the heart muscle. The building blocks are wave-emitting three-dimensional topological singularities in the electric excitation field of the tissue. These string like singularities send out a rotating wave fields with very fast frequencies (up to 10 times normal heart rate) and thus dominate over the pacemaker. The incoherent electrical excitation of the spatio-temporal chaotic dynamics leads to an unsynchronized contraction of the cardiac muscle and to the loss of the pumping action, and if untreated to death. Due to the topological nature of the spatio-temporal chaotic state it is very difficult to control. Current defibrillation technologies use strong electric field pulses (1 kV, 30 A, 12 ms) to reset the whole muscle. Here we report that natural muscle heterogeneities act as wave emitting sites when a weak electric field pulse is applied across the tissue. We report theoretical predictions on the physics and support the findings by results from experiment. This work was conducted in collaboration with Stefan Luther (MPIDS), Falvio Fenton ( Cornell), Amgad Squires (Cornell), Robert Gilmour (Cornell), Valentin Krinsky (MPIDS), Alain Pumir (NIce).

  11. Identification of virulence factors in 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer genotyped Staphylococcus aureus isolated from water buffaloes and small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Zottola, T; Locatelli, C; Pollera, C; Castiglioni, B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Moroni, P

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and animal pathogen, and is regarded as an important cause of intramammary infection (IMI) in ruminants. Staphylococcus aureus genetic variability and virulence factors have been well studied in veterinary medicine, especially in cows as support for control and management of IMI. The aim of the present study was to genotype 71 Staph. aureus isolates from the bulk tank and foremilk of water buffaloes (n=40) and from udder tissue (n=7) and foremilk (n=24) from small ruminants. The method used was previously applied to bovine Staph. aureus and is based on the amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The technique applied was able to identify different Staph. aureus genotypes isolated from dairy species other than the bovine species, and cluster the genotypes according to species and herds. Virulence gene distribution was consistent with genotype differentiation. The isolates were also characterized through determination of the presence of 19 virulence-associated genes by specific PCR. Enterotoxins A, C, D, G, I, J, and L were associated with Staph. aureus isolates from buffaloes, whereas enterotoxins C and L were linked to small ruminants. Genes coding for methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, exfoliative toxins A and B, and enterotoxins B, E, and H were undetected. These findings indicate that RNA template-specific PCR is a valid technique for typing Staph. aureus from buffaloes and small ruminants and is a useful tool for understanding udder infection epidemiology.

  12. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology. PMID:25260577

  13. Foucault on methadone: beyond biopower.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This essay reviews four texts which critically analyse methadone maintenance therapy using Foucault as a key theoretical framework: [Friedman, J., & Alicea, M. (2001). Surviving heroin: Interviews with women in methadone clinics. Florida: University Press of Florida], [Bourgois, P. (2000). Disciplining addictions: The bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 24, 165-195], [Bull, M. (2008). Governing the heroin trade: From treaties to treatment. Ashgate: Aldershot], and [Fraser, S., & valentine, k. (2008). Substance & substitution: Methadone subjects in liberal societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan]. Taken together these works demonstrate one trajectory in the development of critical drug studies over the past decade. While all four view MMT as a regulatory technology which aims to create productive and obedient subjects, their understandings of the power relations of the clinic are quite distinct. The first two texts emphasise the social control of drug users, the third, issues of governmentality and liberal political practice, while the fourth engages with ontological questions about substances themselves. Thus while Foucauldian analysis has become familiar in social studies of drugs and alcohol, new uses for its conceptual tools continue to emerge.

  14. Virulence factors produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Baba-Moussa, L; Anani, L; Scheftel, J M; Couturier, M; Riegel, P; Haïkou, N; Hounsou, F; Monteil, H; Sanni, A; Prévost, G

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are widely prevalent in West Africa and are often associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Virulence factors from S. aureus have rarely been described for such infections. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of toxins and adhesion factors obtained from S. aureus isolated from presumed primary UTIs at the Cotonou University Hospital (CUH) in Benin as compared with the Strasbourg University Hospital (SUH) in France. Both ambulatory and hospitalised patients were included in the study. Sixty-five independent strains of S. aureus from CUH and 35 strains from SUH were obtained over a four-month period. Virulence factors were characterised by immunodetection or multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and meticillin susceptibility was recorded. Approximately 50% of all isolates produced at least one enterotoxin. No isolate from SUH produced Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL), whereas 21.5% of the S. aureus isolates from CUH produced PVL (P<0.01). Six of 14 (43%) PVL-positive isolates were meticillin-resistant. At SUH, the incidence of MRSA (57%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than at CUH (14%). Genes encoding clumping factor B, and elastin and laminin binding proteins were detected in almost all isolates (80%), irrespective of the geographical origin. The results for elastin binding protein differed significantly from published data regarding isolates from other clinical origins. Staphylococcal toxins and adhesion factors may be important in the physiopathology of UTI.

  15. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin production and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections. Results A total of 136 S. aureus strains were collected from five different types of infection: furuncles, pyomyositis, abscesses, Buruli ulcers, and osteomyelitis, from hospital admissions and out-patients in Benin. All strains were resistant to benzyl penicillin, while 25% were resistant to methicillin, and all showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was the most commonly produced virulence factor (70%), followed by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (44%). Exfoliative toxin B was produced by 1.3% of the strains, and was only found in isolates from Buruli ulcers. The tsst-1, sec, and seh genes were rarely detected (≤1%). Conclusions This study provides new insight into the prevalence of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus strains responsible for skin, soft tissue, and bone infections. Our results showed that PVL was strongly associated with pyomyositis and osteomyelitis, and that there is a high prevalence of PVL-MRSA skin infections in Benin. PMID:23924370

  16. Variable expressions of Staphylococcus aureus bicomponent leucotoxins semiquantified by competitive reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bronner, S; Stoessel, P; Gravet, A; Monteil, H; Prévost, G

    2000-09-01

    A competitive reverse transcription-PCR method was developed for the semiquantitation of the expression of genes encoding bicomponent leucotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus, e.g., Panton-Valentine leucocidin (lukPV), gamma-hemolysin (hlgA and hlgCB), and LukE-LukD (lukED). The optimization procedure included RNA preparation; reverse transcription; the use of various amounts of enzymes, antisense primer, and RNA; and the final amplification chain reaction. Reproducible results were obtained, with sensitivity for detection of cDNA within the range of 1 mRNA/10(4) CFU to 10(2) mRNA/CFU, depending on the gene. Both specific mRNAs were more significantly expressed at the late-exponential phase of growth. Expression was about 100-fold higher in yeast extract-Casamino Acids-pyruvate medium than in heart infusion medium. Expression of the widely distributed gamma-hemolysin locus in the NTCC 8178 strain was around 10-fold diminished compared with that in the ATCC 49775 strain. Because of the lower level of hlgA expression, the corresponding protein, which is generally not abundant in culture supernatant, should be investigated for its contribution to the leucotoxin-associated virulence. The agr, sar, and agr sar mutant strains revealed a great dependence with regard to leucotoxin expression on the global regulatory system in S. aureus, except that expression of hlgA was not affected in the agr mutant.

  17. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology.

  18. Fatal cases of Staphylococcus aureus pleural empyema in infants.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Buteau, Chantal; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Bergeron, Cybèle; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée

    2009-01-01

    Community-associated infections and especially pleural empyema due to Staphylococcus aureus are increasing worldwide. The virulence of staphylococcal strains is notably determined by different toxin expressing-genes, such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene found in S. aureus isolates obtained from pediatric necrotizing pneumonia samples. We describe 2 similar cases of infants with severe respiratory distress and death after an upper respiratory tract infection, having occurred in the same urban area during the same winter time. Necropsies performed between November 2006 and March 2007 revealed bronchopneumonia and an important pleural empyema, justifying the review of clinical charts and laboratory exams. A methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolate carrying the PVL gene was identified in both cases. We have subsequently cared for an additional case in the same time interval with sudden death and similar pathological findings. No positive microbiological results were obtained, a negative finding possibly related to a 5-day antibiotics regimen. This report describes the pathological features of these cases and stresses the need to recognize PVL-positive S. aureus infections in young children. Finally, we believe that all lethal infections due to PVL-positive S. aureus, independently of the methicillin resistance profile, deserve a mandatory report to the provincial public health authorities. PMID:19192951

  19. A Big Year for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Erickson, K.

    2013-10-01

    2013 is a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system’s unsung heroes, small bodies. The Cosmic Valentine of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which passed within ~ 3.5 Earth radii of the Earth's surface (February 15, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS and the Thanksgiving 2013 pass of Comet ISON, which will pass less than 0.012 AU (1.8 million km) from the solar surface and could be visible during the day. All this in addition to Comet Lemmon and a host of meteor showers makes 2013 a landmark year to deliver the excitement of planetary science to the audiences worldwide. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system’s small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA’s JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like “Eyes on the Solar System” and more culminating in the Thanksgiving Day Comet ISON perihelion passage. This talk will highlight NASA’s focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  20. Cross-modality priming for people's adjectivized names: failure to support the adjectivization hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Akira

    2005-04-01

    This experiment tested a prediction derived from Hollis and Valentine's 2001 adjectivization hypothesis, that having an adjectival form is the key factor that makes certain classes of proper names, i.e., country names, exhibit a common name-like pattern of long-term priming. The hypothesis predicted that, when adjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., William Shakespeare/Shakespearean, were compared with nonadjectivized historical celebrity names, e.g., Emile Zola, cross-modality long-term priming in a familiarity decision task would occur only for nonadjectivized name stimuli. 32 students of literature, history, or philosophy (21 women and 11 men; age range 18-41 years, M age = 22.4 yr.) were tested. Priming was measured by latency of response. Analysis showed that the mean RT to primed items was faster than the mean RT to unprimed items when the prime task was presented in both visual and auditory modalities both for the adjectivized and nonadjectivized names. Contrary to the hypothesis, cross-modality priming was observed regardless of the adjectivization of name stimuli. The findings of the present experiment did not support the adjectivization hypothesis. PMID:15941119

  1. Relative faces: encoding of family resemblance relative to gender means in face space.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Harry John; McOwan, Peter William; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological (W. A. Freiwald, D. Y. Tsao, & M. S. Livingstone, 2009; D. A. Leopold, I. V. Bondar, & M. A. Giese, 2006) and psychophysical (D. A. Leopold, A. J. O'Toole, T. Vetter, & V. Blanz, 2001; G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery, 2006; R. Robbins, E. McKone, & M. Edwards, 2007) evidence suggests that faces are encoded as differences from a mean or prototypical face, consistent with the conceptual framework of a mean-centered face space (T. Valentine, 1991). However, it remains unclear how we encode facial similarity across classes such as gender, age, or race. We synthesized Caucasian male and female cross-gender "siblings" and "anti-siblings" by projecting vectors representing deviations of faces from one gender mean into another gender. Subjects perceived male and female pairings with similar vector deviations from their gender means as more similar, and those with opposite vector deviations as less similar, than randomly selected cross-gender pairings. Agreement in relative direction in a space describing how facial images differ from a mean can therefore provide a basis for perceived facial similarity. We further demonstrate that relative coding for male and female faces is based on the activation of a shared neural population by the transfer of an identity aftereffect between a face and its cross-gender sibling. These results imply whereas structural similarity may be reflected in the Euclidean distance between points in face space configural similarity may be coded by direction in face space.

  2. Short communication: Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk fresh cheese in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Fanny C; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of a collection of 8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, obtained from samples of fresh cheese (Doble Crema) produced from raw cow milk in small dairies in Colombia. All the isolates harbored the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, presented with SCCmec type IV, and belonged to multilocus sequence type 8 and spa type 024. Seven isolates presented 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Three of them carried the staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene. The isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, oxacillin, penicillin, and ampicillin and susceptible to all non-β-lactams antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values for oxacillin of 4 to 8mg/L. The isolates belonged to the community-acquired MRSA group, suggesting a human source of contamination. The risk of human infection by MRSA via contaminated foods is considered low, but contaminated food commodities can contribute to the worldwide dissemination of clones of community-acquired MRSA. PMID:27423957

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Buffalo, Bovine, Ovine, and Caprine Milk Samples Collected in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil▿

    PubMed Central

    Aires-de-Sousa, Marta; Parente, Carlos E. S. R.; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Bonna, Isabel C. F.; Silva, Denise A.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four staphylococcal isolates were obtained from milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, and buffalo with subclinical mastitis and from colonization samples from ostriches. The animals were hosted in 18 small dairy herds and an ostrich breeding located in 10 municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Thirty isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by biochemical and molecular techniques and were comparatively characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The molecular characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed five clonal types (PFGE A, spa type t359, sequence type 747 [ST747]; PFGE B, spa type t1180, ST750; PFGE C, spa type t605, ST126; PFGE D, spa type t127, ST751; and PFGE F, spa type t002, ST5). None of the isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine leukocidin or exfoliative toxin D gene. The detection of major clone A (in 63% of the isolates) in different herds, among all animal species studied, and in infection and colonization samples evidenced its geographical spread among Rio de Janeiro State and no host preference among the animal species. Comparison with S. aureus from a human origin suggested that all but one clone found in the present study might be animal specific. PMID:17449696

  4. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic discrimination of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hamid, Marwa I; Bendary, M M

    2015-09-26

    The present study was designed to elucidate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. aureus isolates in Egypt. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of 133 identified S. aureus isolates revealed that over 70% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Fifty MDR isolates were characterized using antibiotyping and different molecular typing methods. Amplification of mecA gene confirmed 30 strains as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 20 as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Generally, 22 MRSA (73.33%) and ten MSSA (50%) harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene with no statistically significant difference (p=0.093). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing revealed that 48% of the typeable MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec type IV. SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility typing signified the presence of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA in Egypt. Surprisingly, all isolates of SCCmec types I, II and III and 50% of both MRSA isolates of SCCmec types IV and V possessed pvl gene. It was clear that staphylococcal protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) typing discriminated the isolates into eight different groups, whilst polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of coagulase gene yielded ten distinct RFLP banding patterns. This study presented the first baseline information on the characterization of MRSA and MSSA in Egypt.

  5. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Drougka, E.; Foka, A.; Posantzis, D.; Giormezis, N.; Anastassiou, E.D.; Petinaki, E.; Spiliopoulou, I.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred. PMID:26623381

  6. Evolution and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus: lessons learned from genotyping and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Chen, Chih-Jung; Su, Lin-Hui; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen and the major causative agent of numerous hospital- and community-acquired infections. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a highly clonal structure for S. aureus. Although infrequently occurring across clonal complexes, homologous recombination still contributed to the evolution of this species over the long term. agr-mediated bacterial interference has divided S. aureus into four groups, which are independent of clonality and provide another view on S. aureus evolution. Genome sequencing of nine S. aureus strains has helped identify a number of virulence factors, but the key determinants for infection are still unknown. Comparison of commensal and pathogenic strains shows no difference in diversity or clonal assignments. Thus, phage dynamics and global transcriptome shifts are considered to be responsible for the pathogenicity. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (C-MRSA) is characterized by a short SCCmec and the presence of a Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus, but no studies have proven their exact biologic roles in C-MRSA infection, indicating the existence of other mechanisms for the genesis of C-MRSA. PMID:17983441

  7. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide.

    PubMed

    Abushahba, Mostafa Fn; Mohammad, Haroon; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27434684

  8. Mass Spectrometry and Multiplex Antigen Assays to Assess Microbial Quality and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical and Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Attien, Paul; Sina, Haziz; Moussaoui, Wardi; Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Dadié, Thomas; Keller, Daniel; Riegel, Philippe; Edoh, Vincent; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Djè, Marcellin; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the microbial quality of meat products and on some clinical samples in Abidjan focused on Staphylococcus genus and the toxin production profile of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated. Bacteria were collected from 240 samples of three meat products sold in Abidjan and 180 samples issued from clinical infections. The strains were identified by both microbiological and MALDI-TOF-MS methods. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, LukE/D, and epidermolysins was screened using radial gel immunodiffusion. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 was screened by a Bio-Plex Assay. We observed that 96/240 of meat samples and 32/180 of clinical samples were contaminated by Staphylococcus. Eleven species were isolated from meats and 4 from clinical samples. Forty-two S. aureus strains were isolated from ours samples. Variability of resistance was observed for most of the tested antibiotics but none of the strains displays a resistance to imipenem and quinolones. We observed that 89% of clinical S. aureus were resistant to methicillin against 58% for those issued from meat products. All S. aureus isolates issued from meat products produce epidermolysins whereas none of the clinical strains produced these toxins. The enterotoxins were variably produced by both clinical and meat product samples. PMID:24987686

  9. Human Monocyte-Derived Osteoclasts Are Targeted by Staphylococcal Pore-Forming Toxins and Superantigens.

    PubMed

    Flammier, Sacha; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Badiou, Cédric; Henry, Thomas; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frédéric; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bone and joint infections (BJIs). Staphylococcal pathogenesis involves numerous virulence factors including secreted toxins such as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and superantigens. The role of these toxins on BJI outcome is largely unknown. In particular, few studies have examined how osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, respond to exposure to staphylococcal PFTs and superantigens. We investigated the direct impact of recombinant staphylococcal toxins on human primary mature monocyte-derived osteoclasts, in terms of cytotoxicity and cell activation with cell death and bone resorption assays, using macrophages of the corresponding donors as a reference. Monocyte-derived osteoclasts displayed similar toxin susceptibility profiles compared to macrophages. Specifically, we demonstrated that the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, known as one of the most powerful PFT which lyses myeloid cells after binding to the C5a receptor, was able to induce the death of osteoclasts. The archetypal superantigen TSST-1 was not cytotoxic but enhanced the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which superantigen-producing S. aureus can accelerate the destruction of bone tissue during BJI. Altogether, our data indicate that the diverse clinical presentations of BJIs could be related, at least partly, to the toxin profiles of S. aureus isolates involved in these severe infections. PMID:26934588

  10. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA. PMID:26338130

  11. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, E; Foka, A; Posantzis, D; Giormezis, N; Anastassiou, E D; Petinaki, E; Spiliopoulou, I

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst-negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred. PMID:26623381

  12. Sequencing of leucocidin R from Staphylococcus aureus P83 suggests that staphylococcal leucocidins and gamma-hemolysin are members of a single, two-component family of toxins.

    PubMed

    Supersac, G; Prevost, G; Piemont, Y

    1993-02-01

    A 2,813-bp HincII-ClaI DNA fragment encodes the two S and F components (LukS-R and LukF-R) of leucocidin R (Luk-R) which are secreted by Staphylococcus aureus P83. The two genes (lukS-R and lukF-R) belong to a single operon. Two peptidic sequences were deduced: LukS-R is a 35,721-Da polypeptide of 315 amino acids, including a signal sequence of 29 residues, and LukF-R is a 36,838-Da polypeptide of 325 amino acids, including a signal sequence of 25 residues. LukS-R and LukF-R were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from the periplasmic space. Luk-R exerts biological activities on polymorphonuclear cells and on erythrocytes from various animals. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of LukF-R with that of the B component of gamma-hemolysin (HlgB), those of the F and S components of another recently sequenced staphylococcal leucocidin, and those of a few peptides of the F component from Panton-Valentine leucocidin suggests that all four toxins belong to a single, two-component family of toxins.

  13. Short communication: Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk fresh cheese in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Fanny C; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of a collection of 8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, obtained from samples of fresh cheese (Doble Crema) produced from raw cow milk in small dairies in Colombia. All the isolates harbored the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, presented with SCCmec type IV, and belonged to multilocus sequence type 8 and spa type 024. Seven isolates presented 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Three of them carried the staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene. The isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, oxacillin, penicillin, and ampicillin and susceptible to all non-β-lactams antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values for oxacillin of 4 to 8mg/L. The isolates belonged to the community-acquired MRSA group, suggesting a human source of contamination. The risk of human infection by MRSA via contaminated foods is considered low, but contaminated food commodities can contribute to the worldwide dissemination of clones of community-acquired MRSA.

  14. Characteristics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Strains Isolated from Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Lorena; Machado, Virginia; Mollerach, Marta; Mota, María Inés; Tuchscherr, Lorena P. N.; Gadea, Pilar; Gardella, Noella; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Vola, Magdalena; Schelotto, Felipe; Varela, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed 90 nonduplicates community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections. All strains were mecA positive. Twenty-four of the 90 strains showed inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance. All strains produced α-toxin; 96% and 100% of them displayed positive results for lukS-F and cna genes, respectively. Eigthy-five strains expressed capsular polysaccharide serotype 8. Six different pulsotypes were discriminated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and three predominant groups of CA-MRSA strains (1, 2, and 4) were identified, in agreement with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Strains of group 1 (pulsotype A, CP8+, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+) were the most frequently recovered and exhibited a PFGE band pattern identical to other CA-MRSA strains previously isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Three years after the first local CA-MRSA report, these strains are still producing skin and soft-tissue infections demonstrating the stability over time of this community-associated emerging pathogen. PMID:20016669

  15. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA.

  16. Molecular Typing of MRSA and of Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Iaşi, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV (“USA300”) and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings. PMID:24846009

  17. Interactions of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in polymicrobial wound infection.

    PubMed

    Pastar, Irena; Nusbaum, Aron G; Gil, Joel; Patel, Shailee B; Chen, Juan; Valdes, Jose; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Lisa R; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Davis, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections.

  18. Selenium levels and Glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    González de Vega, Raquel; Fernández-Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Álvarez Menéndez, Francisco Vicente; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress through selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and other selenoproteins. Because of its antioxidant properties, selenium or its selenospecies at appropriate levels could hinder oxidative stress and so development of diabetes. In this vein, quantitative speciation of selenium in human plasma samples from healthy and diabetic patients (controlled and non-controlled) was carried out by affinity chromatography (AF) coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Similarly, it is well known that patients with diabetes who exhibit poor control of blood glucose show a decreased total antioxidant activity. Thus, we evaluated the enzymatic activity of GPx in diabetic and healthy individuals, using the Paglia and Valentine enzymatic method, observing a significant difference (p<0.05) between the three groups of assayed patients (healthy (n=24): 0.61±0.11U/ml, controlled diabetic (n=38): 0.40±0.12U/ml and non-controlled diabetic patients (n=40): 0.32±0.09U/ml). Our results show that hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. What is more, glycation of GPx experiments demonstrated that it is the degree of glycation of the selenoenzyme (another species of the Se protein) what actually modulates its eventual activity against ROS in type II diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27473831

  19. Use of a multiplex molecular beacon platform for rapid detection of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sinsimer, Daniel; Leekha, Surbhi; Park, Steven; Marras, Salvatore A E; Koreen, Larry; Willey, Barbara; Naidich, Steve; Musser, Kimberlee A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2005-09-01

    Drug resistance, particularly vancomycin and methicillin resistance, in Staphylococcus aureus continues to emerge as a significant public health threat in both the hospital and community settings. In addition to the limited treatment options, S. aureus strains acquire and express numerous virulence factors that continue to increase its ability to cause a wide spectrum of human disease. As a result, empirical treatment decisions are confounded and there is a heightened need for a diagnostic test (or assay) to rapidly identify antibiotic resistance and specific virulence determinants and indicate the appropriate treatment. To that end we developed a platform using multiplex molecular beacon probes with real-time PCR for the rapid detection of drug resistance-determining genes and virulence factors in S. aureus. In this study, we demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of our platform for detection of the genes conferring methicillin (mecA) and vancomycin (vanA) resistance as well as a gene encoding the virulence factor Panton-Valentine leucocidin (lukF) in S. aureus isolates.

  20. High-resolution melting analysis of the spa locus reveals significant diversity within sequence type 93 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, S Y C; Lilliebridge, R A; Holt, D C; McDonald, M I; Currie, B J; Giffard, P M

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis is an inherently robust, easy and inexpensive approach to the examination of genomic regions containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hypervariable loci. Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 93 is a singleton, Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive clone unique to Australia. A high-resolution melting-based method for the identification of ST93 was developed, and a similar approach was used to reveal diversity within the spa locus of this lineage. Statistical and graphical methods that account for instrumental and operator-dependent variation in high-resolution melting curves were developed, to allow greater confidence and reproducibility in deciding whether another curve is truly different from the baseline curve of an amplicon with known sequence. The data support a very early acquisition, or multiple independent acquisitions, of SCCmec by ST93 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and the coexistence of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus versions of the same lineage within northern Australia.

  1. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H; Coller, Barry S; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most-46 of the 63-wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing.

  2. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H.; Coller, Barry S.; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most—46 of the 63–wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL+) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26063853

  3. Recurrent Furunculosis Caused by a Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Strain Belonging to the USA300 Clone

    PubMed Central

    Balachandra, Shirish; Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Salvato, Scott; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Khalida, Chamanara; Kost, Rhonda G.; Evering, Teresa H.; Pastagia, Mina; D'Orazio, Brianna M.; Tomasz, Alexander; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Background: A 24-year-old female with recurrent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) was enrolled as part of a multicenter observational cohort study conducted by a practice-based research network (PBRN) on community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Methods: Strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. MRSA strains were analyzed for SCCmec type and the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) using PCR. Results: In the first episode, S. aureus was recovered from the wound and inguinal folds; in the second, S. aureus was recovered from a lower abdomen furuncle, inguinal folds, and patellar fold. Molecular typing identified CA-MRSA clone USA300 in all samples as spa-type t008, ST8, SCCmecIVa, and a typical PFGE pattern. The strain carried virulence genes pvl and ACME type I. Five SSTI episodes were documented despite successful resolution by antibiotic treatment, with and without incision and drainage. Conclusions: The source of the USA300 strain remains unknown. The isolate may represent a persistent strain capable of surviving extensive antibiotic pressure or a persistent environmental reservoir may be the source, possibly in the patient's household, from which bacteria were repeatedly introduced into the skin flora with subsequent infections. PMID:25668150

  4. Surface energy of zinc. [Effective cleavage surface energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, J.C.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Pucino, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of temperature and associated dislocation microstructure on the energetics of basal plane cleavage in zinc crystals has been investigated using the method of Hull, Beardmore and Valentine (HBV). A marked temperature dependence was observed in the zinc surface energy, over the range 77 to 298/sup 0/K, contrary to previous expectations. Plastic relaxation was associated with crack initiation at 77/sup 0/K, but not propagation, while at room temperature a plastic zone of 1200-1500 ..mu..m in depth was produced by crack extension. The surface energy could be estimated, independent of the usual Griffith analysis, by measuring the energy dissipation in a fully relaxed deformed zone associated with an explosively formed precursor crack. This method yielded surface energies of 0.066 to 0.079 J-m/sup -2/ which was in good agreement with previous work. It is demonstrated that the cleavage surface energy of zinc is well below the thermodynamic surface energy and that this discrepancy is not related to plastic deformation. 7 figures, 1 table.

  5. Surface energy of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, J.C.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Pucino, A.T.

    1983-04-01

    The influence of temperature and associated dislocation microstructure on the energetics of basal plane cleavage in zinc crystals has been investigated using the method of Hull, Beardmore, and Valentine (HBV). A marked temperature dependence was observed in the zinc surface energy, over the range 77--298 /sup 0/K, contrary to previous expectations. Plastic relaxation was associated with crack initiation at 77 /sup 0/K, but not propagation; while at room temperature a plastic zone of 1200--1500 ..mu..m in depth was produced by crack extension. The surface energy could be estimated, independent of the usual Griffith analysis, by measuring the energy dissipation in a fully relaxed deformed zone associated with an explosively formed precursor crack. This method yielded surface energies of 0.066 to 0.079 J m/sup -2/ which was in good agreement with previous work. It is demonstrated that the cleavage surface energy of zinc is well below the thermodynamic surface energy and that this discrepancy is not related to plastic deformation.

  6. Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy has afflicted humanity during most of the extent of documented history. The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments that were sent from a furious goddess. In particular, epilepsy was considered in Aztec culture as a "sacred disease", and convulsions were traditionally associated with a deified woman who had died at childbirth. As the goddess Shiva and Apasmâra in ancient India and Saint Valentine in Germany, Tlazolteotl was considered able to bring about and send away epilepsy. We performed a comprehensive review to identify Tlazolteotl depictions and its historical context related with epilepsy. Tlazolteotl is one of the most endearing and complex goddesses of the Mesoamericans. She was the deity of the black fertile and fecund earth that gains its energy from death and in turn feeds life. Associated with purification, expiation, and regeneration, she embodied fertility and turned all garbage, physical and metaphysical, into rich life. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with Tlazolteotl. We also present a modern depiction of the Aztec goddess of epilepsy from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino, displaying the supernatural view of epilepsy in America. PMID:26921600

  7. The historical seismicity and prediction of ground motion in northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Ramírez, Iván N.; Montalvo-Arrieta, Juan C.

    2008-02-01

    This work constitutes the first attempt to understand the seismic hazard in northeast Mexico. We present a compilation of regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24-31°N, 97-106°W), finding 148 earthquakes for the 1787-2006 period. The study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin, Range, and Rio Grande rift; Sierra Madre Oriental; and Gulf coastal plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua ( MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas ( MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila. Ground motion values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range provinces. The earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because most buildings were constructed without seismic criteria. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo, and Monclova are between 30 and 70 cm/s 2. This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located on the mountain range.

  8. [Revealing the structure of the nervous tissue III: From Jan Evangelista Purkyne (1787-1869) to Ludwig Mauthner (1840-1894)].

    PubMed

    Chvátal, A

    2015-01-01

    The works of Jan Evangelista Purkyne, Gabriel Valentin and Robert Remak showed that the nervous system contains not only nerve fibers, but also cellular elements. The use of microscopes and new fixation techniques have enabled the retrieval of accurate data on the structure of nervous tissue and in many European universities microscopes began to be widely used for histological and morphological studies. The present review summarizes the discoveries of the structure of predominantly vertebrate nerve tissue during the period from 1838 to 1865, made by prominent scholars who described the structure of fibers and cells of the nervous system and demonstrated that some nerve fibers are enwrapped by a sheath. In addition, the first attempts were made to make a cytoarchitectonic description of the spinal cord and brain. During the same time the concept of a neuroglial tissue was introduced, first as a tissue for "gluing" nerve fibers, cells and blood capillaries into one unit, but later some glial cells were described for the first time. Microscopic techniques started to be used for examination of physiological as well as pathological nerve tissues. The overall state of knowledge was just a step away from the emergence of the concept of neurons and glial cells. PMID:26852523

  9. Staphylococcus aureus formyl-methionyl transferase mutants demonstrate reduced virulence factor production and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; Demarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin and Pus Samples of Outpatients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Okamura, Sakiko; Miura, Yuri; Koyama, Shinobu; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now endemic in the United States. In Japan, CA-MRSA infections and CA-MRSA surveillance have been scarcely reported. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of CA-MRSA in Japan. We collected MRSA strains isolated from outpatients with skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) at 107 medical facilities from 24 prefectures in 2010 and 2012. Among 10,385 clinical samples from SSTI patients, 3,581 S. aureus isolates (35%) were obtained and 673 of the S. aureus strains (19%) were identified as MRSA. Among 625 MRSA strains tested in this study, 266 strains (43%) and 114 strains (18%) were classified as SCCmec types IV and V, respectively. Detection of virulence genes was as follows: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (57 strains, 9%), exfoliative toxin (ET) gene (179 strains, 29%), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene (195 strains, 31%), or none. PVL-positive strains were classified into eight sequence types (STs) (i.e., ST1, ST5, ST8, ST22, ST30, ST452, ST59, and ST154) and six clonal complexes (i.e., CC1, CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, and CC59). Only 10 PVL-positive strains (2%) were pulsed-field type USA300 clone. There were a wide variety of CA-MRSA clones in Japan, which were different from the situation in the United States.

  11. [Molecular epidemiological study of community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) - an examination of commercially distributed meat as a possible vehicle for CA-MRSA].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kikuyo; Narimatsu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has occupied an important position in public health as a cause of food poisoning and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections. The spread of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has also recently become a concern. However, the sources of this infection remain unclear, and there are few reports of epidemiology information. In order to understand MRSA spread in the community, we investigated the distribution of MRSA strains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n=305) and stool samples from outpatients with diarrhea (n=1,543) from the same meat distribution region in Oita Prefecture, Japan. 301 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and 18 of them were MRSA (2 from chicken meat, 1 from duck meat, 1 from pork meat, and 14 from patients with diarrhea). All 18 MRSA strains were negative for Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene. In this study conducting a comparison of properties and a molecular epidemiological analysis of MRSA isolated from commercially distributed meat and diarrhea patient stools, the results suggest that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community.

  12. Systemic CA-MRSA infection following trauma during soccer match in inner Brazil: clinical and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; da Cunha, Fabiana Picoli; Barbosa, Alexandre Naime; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2013-07-01

    Even though community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was described a decade ago, reports from Brazil are scarce and cases occurred in large urban centers. We report MRSA sepsis in a 16-year-old male from a small town and who had no history of exposure to healthcare or recent travel. After trauma during a soccer match, he presented swelling in the right thigh, which evolved in a month to cellulitis complicated by local abscess, orchitis and pneumonia. The patient presented severe sepsis, with fever and respiratory failure. Laboratory findings included blood leukocyte counts above 40,000/mm(3) and thrombocytopenia. He was submitted to mechanical ventilation and therapy with vancomycin and imipenem. He had a slow but favorable response to therapy and was discharged after six weeks of hospitalization. MRSA grew from blood cultures and respiratory aspirates obtained before antimicrobial therapy. The isolate belonged to sequence type 5, spa type t311, harbored SCCmec type IV and genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and Enterotoxin A. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was distinct from North American classic CA-MRSA clones. However, the sequence type and the spa type revealed that the clone belong to the same clonal complex isolated in Argentina. This is the first CA-MRSA infection reported in that region, with significant epidemiologic and clinical implications.

  13. The first report in Brazil of severe infection caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, R; Sampaio, M G; Batista, G S; Garibaldi, A M; Terra, G M F; Souza, M J; Vieira, E N; Silva-Carvalho, M C; Teixeira, L A; Figueiredo, A M S

    2009-08-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emergent pathogen in Brazil. However, there are no data on the prevalence of CA-MRSA. We report here the first well-characterized case of severe life-threatening CA-MRSA infection in a child living in Rio de Janeiro city. The patient had many complications including hematogenous osteomyelitis and involvement of multiple sites requiring drainage of soft-tissue abscess, and pleural and pericardial empyema. The MRSA isolates recovered were genotyped using PFGE, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing. Disk diffusion tests were performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In addition, the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was assessed by PCR amplification, using specific primers for lukF-pv (encoding for the F subunit of the PVL). The bacterial isolates were related to the ST30-SCCmecIV lineage (Oceania Southwest Pacific clone), a PVL producer CA-MRSA previously detected in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Also, the isolates analyzed were susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics tested. The present report demonstrates that disseminated CA-MRSA disease is also occurring in Rio de Janeiro. Thus, the empirical treatment of moderate or severe infections suspected of being associated with CA-MRSA needs to be reviewed in order to allow prompt initiation of an effective therapy that also covers these microorganisms.

  14. A Study of Sympathetic Flaring Using a Full-Sun Event Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.; Bloomfield, D.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a trove of papers published on the statistics of flare occurrence. These studies are trying to answer the question of whether or not subsequent solar flares are related. The majority of these works have not included both flare location information and the physical properties of the regions responsible for the eruptions, and none have taken advantage of full-Sun event coverage. Now that SDO/AIA is available and the STEREO spacecraft have progressed past 90 degrees from Earth's heliographic longitude, this new information is available to us. This work aims to quantify how common sympathetic events are, and how important they are in the forecasting of solar flares. A 3D plot of detected and clustered flare events for a full solar rotation, including the Valentine's Day Event of 2011. A full-Sun image in the EUV (304A) including both STEREO view points and AIA. The GOES X-ray light curves during the February period of 2011 are shown in the bottom panel. Detected flare events are indicated by the green dashed lines and the time stamp of this image is denoted by the red line.

  15. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  16. Reminders Through Association.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. PMID:27207873

  17. Robert Bentley Todd's contribution to cell theory and the neuron doctrine.

    PubMed

    Binder, Devin K; Rajneesh, Kiran F; Lee, Darrin J; Reynolds, Edward H

    2011-04-01

    Robert Bentley Todd, who is best remembered for "Todd's paralysis," made many more important contributions to neurology and neuroscience, including the concept of brain electricity and electrical discharges in epilepsy. He was also a pioneering microscopist and we here review his neurohistological studies and his contributions to the application of Schwann's (1839) cell theory to the nervous system and the later neuron doctrine, as described in his textbook The Descriptive and Physiological Anatomy of the Brain, Spinal Cord and Ganglions (Todd, 1845), his Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology (1847) and his joint textbook with William Bowman The Physiological Anatomy and Physiology of Man (1845). Writing in the mid-1840s, Todd acknowledged that the "vesicles" he observed corresponded to the earlier descriptions of "globules" or "kugeln" by Valentin and which Schwann first interpreted as cell bodies. Todd was among the first to recognize that nerve cell bodies were in continuity with axons ("axis cylinders"), sometimes associated with "the white substance of Schwann" ("tubular" fibers), or sometimes without ("gelatinous" fibers). He also described continuous nerve cell branching processes, later called dendrites. He was the first to recognize the insulating properties of Schwann's "white substance" (myelin) to facilitate conduction. Influenced by his contemporary, Faraday, Todd was also the first to develop the functional concept of dynamic polarization ("nervous polarity") to explain nerve cell conduction. PMID:21480036

  18. An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus infections at a military medical center using the PLEX-ID combined polymerase chain reaction-mass spectrometry system.

    PubMed

    Washington, Michael A; Agee, Willie A; Kajiura, Lauren; Staege, Catherine M; Uyehara, Catherine Ft; Barnhill, Jason C

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of morbidity in the military health care setting. Culture-based methods are the most common means of identifying infections caused by this agent. However, culture-based methods lack sensitivity and specificity. The Abbott PLEX-ID instrument uses a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry for the identification of bacterial isolates. We investigated whether the Abbott PLEX-ID system could identify S. aureus in clinical material and facilitate the epidemiological analysis of individual isolates. The PLEX-ID system positively identified 100% of isolates previously found to be methicillin resistant S. aureus by culture. In addition, analysis using the PLEX-ID software revealed that the majority of S. aureus isolates at Tripler Army Medical Center derive from clonal complex 8 and nearly 100% of these strains express the R-variant of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin virulence factor. These results demonstrate the utility of the PLEX-ID system in identifying clinical isolates and reveal an unexpected level of homogeneity among clinical S. aureus isolates recovered at Tripler Army Medical Center. These results also demonstrate the utility of the PLEX-ID system in identifying the resistance patterns, predicting the virulence properties, and tracking the migration of bacterial pathogens in the clinical setting.

  19. Effective Theories Of The Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ubirajara van Kolck

    2004-07-31

    This is the final report corresponding to the full funding period (08/01-07/04) in the Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator Grant DE-FG03-01ER41196. The development of an understanding of the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative effects in strong-interacting systems forms the broad context of this research. The main thrust is the application of effective theories to QCD. Topics included a new power counting in the pionful effective theory, low-energy Compton scattering, charge-symmetry breaking in pion production and in the two-nucleon potential, parity violation, coupled-channel scattering, shallow resonances and halo nuclei, chiral symmetry in the baryon spectrum, existence of a tetraquark state, and molecular meson states. DOE grant DE-FG03-01ER41196 was used to partially support in the period 08/01-07/04 the research activities of the Principal Investigator, Dr. Ubirajara van Kolck, one post-doctoral research associate, Dr. Boris A. Gelman, and one graduate student, Mr. Will Hockings. During the grant period the PI was first Assistant then Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Arizona (UA), and a RHIC Physics Fellow at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center (RBRC). The association with RBRC ended in the Summer of 2004. Since September of 2002 the PI has also been partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship. Dr. Boris Gelman was supported by the grant from September 2002 to May 2004. He joined the UA after receiving a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland in the Summer of 2002. He left to take a research associate position in the nuclear theory group of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The support of a post-doctoral researcher on this grant for two years was only possible by carrying over first- and second-year funds to later years. In addition, Mr. William Hockings started doing research under the PI's guidance. Mr. Hockings took Independent Study courses with the PI, while working as a teaching

  20. The GNSS network at Piton de la Fournaise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudacher, Thomas; Peltier, Aline; Boissier, Patrice; Di Muro, Andrea; Kowalski, Philippe; Lauret, Frederic

    2013-04-01

    The Piton de la Fournaise volcano at La Réunion Island in the western Indian Ocean is amongst the most active volcanoes in the world with a mean over 2 centuries of one eruption every 9 month. Since 1998 up to 4 eruptions occurred per year. The volcanological observatory, which is a branch of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, is in charge of the monitoring of the volcanic activity and the prediction of eruptions by means of several networks: deformation, seismicity and gas emission. We will focus here on the GNSS network. The permanent GNSS network consist in 25 stations, 5 stations around the summit craters "Bory" and "Dolomieu", 5 stations at the base of the central cone at about 2 km away from the summit, 6 stations on the eastern flank in the Grandes Pentes and Grand Brûlé area. Two stations are situated north and south outside of the Enclos Fouqué Caldera. Four basis stations are situated farther away outside of the caldera Fouqué at high and low elevation. Very first GPS measurements at Piton de la Fournaise were attempted since 1994 between Bory (BORG) and "Enclos Zéro" (ENCG). The present permanent network was built up since 2004; the central network, covering the volcanic cone was upgraded till 2006. Between end 2009 and early 2010 the eastern flank, which is difficult to access, was equipped in the frame of the "Undervolc program". Data acquisition is usually done every 30 seconds, but can be incremented to 1Hz and even to 20 Hz for the most recent NetR9 receivers. Data files were transmitted by radio every day and evaluated. Presently we move the daily evaluation of the data from Winprism to Gamit, which shows in some cases more precise results, in particular when we compare stations at low and high elevation. The cinematic GPS network consist today in 78 sites, equipped with stainless steel rods cemented in the rock or fixed on metallic tripods. These sites are measured routinely one or two times per year, or more often in case of

  1. Processing data streams from an instrumented small pond: visualizing processes and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, B.; Torgersen, T.

    2006-12-01

    It is estimated that there are 0.5 million man-made ponds and 277 million natural ponds (order 100mx100m) worldwide. These ponds offer stock watering and irrigation opportunities, stormwater runoff mitigation, suspended sediment control and some degree of contaminant sequestration. Such ponds are also typically associated with first and second order streams and thus represent a primary biogeochemical and hydrologic control on uplands watersheds. We have developed an in situ instrument (BORIS) that profiles ponds (six levels) on the half-hour timescale using off the shelf components to investigate the fundamental variability and controls on pond biogeochemical processes. The instrument provides standard measures of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and specific conduction, etc. and data are streamed directly to a website with as little as 0.5hr delay. Standard data stream presentation indicates that daily stratification/destratification, random rainfall events and variable weather contribute to significant changes in water quality measures and exert strong controls on the pond processing of terrestrial organic material and (primarily) recycled nutrients. However, the data stream can also be presented as gas-exchange-corrected total CO2 and total O2 that quantify net ecosystem productivity, minimum microbial carbon metabolism and process vectors that reflect in situ redox controls and microbial decomposition pathways. Because of their high temporal and spatial sampling capability, instrumented shallow aquatic systems, even at a simple level, can be used to fundamentally change the means by which we view process geochemistry of hydrologic systems and can provide near real time (<0.5hr) indicators to guide specific water column sampling and collection strategies.

  2. Chinese mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosol inter-continental transport: a Greenland perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bory, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.; Svensson, A.; Biscaye, P.

    2012-04-01

    Impurities contained in snow and ice layers in Greenland provide a record of the history of atmospheric dustiness and pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. The source of the particles deposited onto the ice cap may be investigated using specific intrinsic tracers. Provenance discrimination may then provide valuable constraints for the validation of atmospheric transport models as well as for the monitoring of natural and anthropogenic aerosols emissions at a global scale. Clay mineralogy combined with the strontium and neodymium isotope composition of the insoluble particles extracted from recent snow deposits at NorthGRIP (75.1°N, 042.3°W), for instance, enabled us to demonstrate that the Taklimakan desert of North-western China was the main source of mineral dust reaching central Greenland at present [Bory et al., EPSL, 2002 ; GRL, 2003a]. Here we report the lead isotopic signature of these snow-pit samples, covering the 1989-1995 and 1998-2001 time periods. Unradiogenic lead isotopic composition of our Greenland samples, compared to Asian dust isotopic fingerprints, implies that most of the insoluble lead reaching the ice cap is of anthropogenic origin. Lead isotopes reveal likely contributions from European/Canadian and, to a lesser extent, US sources, as well as a marked overprinted signature typical of Chinese anthropogenic lead sources. The relative contribution of the latter appears to have been increasing steadily over the last decade of the 20th century. Quantitative estimates suggest that, in addition to providing most of the dust, China may have already become the most important supplier of anthropogenic lead deposited in Greenland by the turn of the 20th to the 21st century. The close timing between dust and anthropogenic particles deposition onto the ice cap provides new insights for our understanding of Chinese aerosols transport to Greenland.

  3. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  4. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems.

  5. Annotated features of domestic cat – Felis catus genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats enjoy an extensive veterinary medical surveillance which has described nearly 250 genetic diseases analogous to human disorders. Feline infectious agents offer powerful natural models of deadly human diseases, which include feline immunodeficiency virus, feline sarcoma virus and feline leukemia virus. A rich veterinary literature of feline disease pathogenesis and the demonstration of a highly conserved ancestral mammal genome organization make the cat genome annotation a highly informative resource that facilitates multifaceted research endeavors. Findings Here we report a preliminary annotation of the whole genome sequence of Cinnamon, a domestic cat living in Columbia (MO, USA), bisulfite sequencing of Boris, a male cat from St. Petersburg (Russia), and light 30× sequencing of Sylvester, a European wildcat progenitor of cat domestication. The annotation includes 21,865 protein-coding genes identified by a comparative approach, 217 loci of endogenous retrovirus-like elements, repetitive elements which comprise about 55.7% of the whole genome, 99,494 new SNVs, 8,355 new indels, 743,326 evolutionary constrained elements, and 3,182 microRNA homologues. The methylation sites study shows that 10.5% of cat genome cytosines are methylated. An assisted assembly of a European wildcat, Felis silvestris silvestris, was performed; variants between F. silvestris and F. catus genomes were derived and compared to F. catus. Conclusions The presented genome annotation extends beyond earlier ones by closing gaps of sequence that were unavoidable with previous low-coverage shotgun genome sequencing. The assembly and its annotation offer an important resource for connecting the rich veterinary and natural history of cats to genome discovery. PMID:25143822

  6. MIMA: Mars Infrared MApper - The Fourier spectrometer for the ESA Pasteur/ExoMars rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, G. A.; Bellucci, G.; Fonti, S.; Saggin, B.; Alberti, E.; Altieri, F.; Politi, R.; Zasova, L.; Mima Team

    The MIMA team is developing a FT-IR miniaturized spectrometer to be mounted on the mast of the ExoMars rover Such instrument shall make remote measurements typically a few tens of meters away searching for evidence of water and of water-related processes e g carbonates sulfates clay minerals and if possible organics A survey instrument of this type will be extremely important for any rover mission on Mars especially for the Pasteur payload on the ExoMars mission whose scientific objective is to search for life and or hazards to humans Survey instruments on rover mast could provide necessary guidance if they can identify water evidence of long standing-water clay minerals carbonates sulfates so that detailed studies and drilling can be conducted at the right location The MIMA design is based on the peculiar pendulum optical design already successfully used on ESA PFS for Mars Express and Venus Express missions The wide spectral range 2-25 micron is not covered by means of a double channel as in PFS but using an innovative architecture two different detectors on the same focal plane sharing the same optical path in order to strongly reduce mass and size In this work MIMA technical and scientific issues will be discussed The MIMA team is Giancarlo Bellucci Team Coordinator Francesca Altieri Maria Blecka Roberto Bonsignori Sergio Fonti Giuseppe A Marzo Sandro Meli Jose Juan Lopez Moreno Boris Moshkin GianGabriele Ori Vincenzo Orofino Romolo Politi Giampaolo Preti Andrea Romoli Ted L Roush Bortolino Saggin Maria

  7. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  8. A Novel Colonial Ciliate Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and Its Ectosymbiont Candidatus Navis piranensis gen. nov., sp. nov. from Shallow-Water Wood Falls

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Lukas; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Symbioses between ciliate hosts and prokaryote or unicellular eukaryote symbionts are widespread. Here, we report on a novel ciliate species within the genus Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent, 1824, isolated from shallow-water sunken wood in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), proposed as Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. We found this ciliate species to be associated with a novel genus of bacteria, here proposed as “Candidatus Navis piranensis” gen. nov., sp. nov. The descriptions of host and symbiont species are based on morphological and ultrastructural studies, the SSU rRNA sequences, and in situ hybridization with symbiont-specific probes. The host is characterized by alternate microzooids on alternate branches arising from a long, common stalk with an adhesive disc. Three different types of zooids are present: microzooids with a bulgy oral side, roundish to ellipsoid macrozooids, and terminal zooids ellipsoid when dividing or bulgy when undividing. The oral ciliature of the microzooids runs 1¼ turns in a clockwise direction around the peristomial disc when viewed from inside the cell and runs into the infundibulum, where it makes another ¾ turn. The ciliature consists of a paroral membrane (haplokinety), three adoral membranelles (polykineties), and one stomatogenic kinety (germinal kinety). One circular row of barren kinetosomes is present aborally (trochal band). Phylogenetic analyses placed Z. ignavum sp. nov. within the clade II of the polyphyletic family Zoothamniidae (Oligohymenophorea). The ectosymbiont was found to occur in two different morphotypes, as rods with pointed ends and coccoid rods. It forms a monophyletic group with two uncultured Gammaproteobacteria within an unclassified group of Gammaproteobacteria, and is only distantly related to the ectosymbiont of the closely related peritrich Z. niveum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838. PMID:27683199

  9. Production of volatiles by the red seaweed Gelidium arbuscula (Rhodophyta): emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Pilar; Brito-Romano, Olegario; Robaina, Rafael R

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different light conditions and exogenous ethylene on the emission of volatile compounds from the alga Gelidium arbuscula Bory de Saint-Vincent were studied. Special emphasis was placed on the possibility that the emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are related through the action of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase. The conversion of DMSP to DMS and acrylate, which is catalyzed by DMSP lyase, can indirectly support the synthesis of ethylene through the transformation of acrylate to ethylene. After mimicking the desiccation of G. arbuscula thalli experienced during low tides, the volatile compounds emitted were trapped in the headspace of 2 mL glass vials for 1 h. Two methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the range of organic volatile compounds released was affected by abiotic factors, such as the availability and spectral quality of light, salinity, and exogenous ethylene. Amines and methyl alkyl compounds were produced after exposure to white light and darkness but not after exposure to exogenous ethylene or red light. Volatiles potentially associated with the oxidation of fatty acids, such as alkenes and low-molecular-weight oxygenated compounds, accumu-lated after exposure to exogenous ethylene and red light. Ethylene was produced in all treatments, especially after exposure to exogenous ethylene. Levels of DMS, the most abundant sulfur-compound that was emitted in all of the conditions tested, did not increase after incubation with ethylene. Thus, although DMSP lyase is active in G. arbuscula, it is unlikely to contribute to ethylene synthesis. The generation of ethylene and DMS do not appear to be coordinated in G. arbuscula.

  10. Cataclysmic variables to be monitored for HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-09-01

    Drs. Boris Gaensicke (Warwick University), Joseph Patterson (Columbia University, Center for Backyard Astrophysics), and Arne Henden (AAVSO), on behalf of a consortium of 16 astronomers, requested the help of AAVSO observers in monitoring the ~40 cataclysmic variables in support of Hubble Space Telescope observations in the coming months. The HST COS (Cosmic Origins Spectrograph) will be carrying out far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of ~40 CVs sequentially, with the aim to measure the temperatures, atmospheric compositions, rotation rates, and eventually masses of their white dwarfs. The primary purpose of the monitoring is to know whether each target is in quiescence immediately prior to the observation window; if it is in outburst it will be too bright for the HST instrumentation. Based on the information supplied by the AAVSO, the HST scheduling team will make the decision (usually) the evening before the scheduled observing time as to whether to go forward with the HST observations. For CCD observers, simultaneous photometry [shortly before, during, and after the HST observations] would be ideal. B filter would be best for a light curve, although for the magnitude estimates, V would be best. Finder charts may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. If the target is seen in outburst, please contact the AAVSO immediately and post a message to the Observations and Campaigns & Observations Reports forum (http://www.aavso.org/forum). This campaign will run the better part of a year or longer. See full Alert Notice for more details and list of objects.

  11. Estimation of out-of-pocket costs of patients at the methadone maintenance therapy clinic in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Ali, Salmiah Mohd; Khan, Muhammad Anwar Nawab; Jafarian, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments may burden Methadone Maintenance Clinic patients. Since treatment is fully subsidized by the government, financial constraint might lead to patients being made to pay or be given incentive for inconvenience of therapy. This study thus evaluates the characteristic and commitment of methadone therapy patient's in terms of OOP cost, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) and Willingness-To-Accept (WTA) concept. This survey utilizes the questionnaire by Boris ova & Goodman (2003) on the OOP, WTP and WTA. The forty adult patient's selected medical records from year 2009-2011 were from an urban government methadone clinic. Subject's selection was by convenient sampling based on the predetermined criteria. Most were male (95%) and Malay (60%) was the predominant group. Patients were group into three income groups; ≤ RM1000, ≥ RM1000 -≤ RM2000 and ≥ RM3000. The average OOP cost per month was RM391.30 (s.d RM337.50), which is about 35% of employed patient's monthly income. The wide variation could be attributed by high inter-individual and significant differences between patients in terms of transport, times taken to clinic, cost per trip and weekly household income (p=<0.05). Patients with income of less than RM1000 showed the highest tendency to pay for treatment, asked for the least money for inconvenience and many are unwilling to accept any payments. These findings showed that WTP and WTA is less of a concern for patients in the low-income group. To conclude, OOP payment is not a treatment barrier for most of the urban MMT patients. PMID:26408891

  12. Of blood, inflammation and gunshot wounds: the history of the control of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Thurston, A J

    2000-12-01

    Galen (AD 129-199) propounded the notion that all wounds healed by second intention and the concept of laudable pus became unshakeable for almost 15 centuries. But William of Saliceto (AD ca 1210-1280) held quite firmly that pus formation was bad for both wound and patient and proclaimed that wounds should heal by first intention. The first rational theory of the nature of infection was by Fracastoro (1478-1553), a physician of Verona who regarded infection as being due to the passage of minute bodies from one person to another. But it was not until the work of Pasteur (1822-1895) that bacteriology took a significant leap forward. The association between bacteria and infection was slow to be accepted. The work of Semmelweis (1818-1865) is notable for his association between bacterial infection and puerperal fever. Lister (1827-1912) began the modern movement to control infection with his pioneering work in antiseptic surgery. Other contributions came from von Bergman (1836-1907; steam sterilization of instruments) and Halstead (1852-1922; rubber gloves for surgeons). The aseptic system has changed very little since then except for the innovations of Sir John Charnley (1911-1982; the laminar flow enclosure). The development of safe antibacterial drugs has been confined to the 20th century. This was led by Domagk (1895-1964; sulfonamides) and was followed by Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Sir Howard Walter Florey (1898-1968) and Sir Ernest Boris Chain (1906-1979; penicillin) and Selman Waksman (1888-1973; actinomycin).

  13. Physics of Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  14. Thermography of volcanic areas on Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island : Mapping surface properties and possible detection of convective air flow within volcanic debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, R.; Baratoux, D.; Rabinowicz, M.; Saracco, G.; Bachelery, P.; Staudacher, T.; Fontaine, F.

    2007-12-01

    We report on the detection of air convection in a couple of quasi circular cavities forming the 300 years old volcanically inactive cone of Formica Leo (Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island) [1]. Infrared thermal images of the cone have been acquired in 2006 from a hand held camera at regular time interval during a complete diurnal cycle. During night and dawn, the data display hot rims and cold centers. Both the conductivity contrasts of the highly porous soils filling the cavities and their 30° slopes are unable to explain the systematic rim to center temperature drop. Accordingly, this signal could be attributed to an air convection dipping inside the highly porous material at the center of each cavity, then flowing upslope along the base of the soil layer, before exiting it along the rims. Anemometrical and electrical data acquired in 2007 allow for the first time the direct detection of this air flow on the field: dipping gas velocities are measured at the center of the cone and self-potentials anomalies [2] generated by the humid air flow in the porous medium are detected. To quantify this process, we present 2D/3D numerical models of air convection in a sloped volcanic soil with a surface temperature evolving between day and night and taking into account electrical phenomena created by the air flow. At this present stage, this work constitutes a first step to investigate the deep structure of the active caldera of Bory-Dolomieu. The detection of the air flow at the surface could be of paramount importance for the understanding of volcanic hazards of the Reunion volcano. [1] Antoine et. al, submitted to G-Cubed [2] Darnet, PhD, Université Louis Pasteur (2003)

  15. An isolated tornadic supercell of 14 July 2012 in Poland - A prediction technique within the use of coarse-grid WRF simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taszarek, Mateusz; Czernecki, Bartosz; Walczakiewicz, Szymon; Mazur, Andrzej; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    On 14 July 2012 a shortwave trough with a cold front passed through Poland. A few tornadoes were reported in the north central part of the country within an isolated cyclic supercell. The cell moved along the thermal and moisture horizontal gradients and the support of a synoptic scale lift. An analysis allowed for setting up four tornado damage tracks in a distance of 100 km and with a total length of 60 km. Tornadoes damaged 105 buildings with predominant intensity of F1-F2/T3-T4 (maximum F3/T6) in Fujita/TORRO scale, caused 1 fatality, 10 injures and felled 500 hectares of Bory Tucholskie forest. The main aim of this article was to analyze this event and assess the possibilities of its short-term prediction. In order to achieve this, a model forecast data derived from WRF-ARW simulation with a spatial resolution of 15 km and initial conditions extracted from 0000 UTC GFS was used. An analysis yielded that the cell moved in the environment of a low lifting condensation level, rich boundary layer's moisture content and a steepening vertical lapse rates that provided the presence of a thermodynamic instability. A wind vectors tilting with height and an increased vertical wind shear occurred as well. A forecasting method that combined a Universal Tornadic Index composite parameter with a convective precipitation filter showed that convective cells at 1500 UTC in the north central Poland had a potential to become tornadic. Within the use of a proposed methodology, it was possible to issue a tornado forecast for the areas where an index pointed the risk.

  16. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  17. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    PubMed

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. PMID:27110977

  18. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada.

    PubMed

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes.

  19. Method of the Particle-in-Cell Simulation for the Y-Point in the Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umizaki, Mitsuhiro; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-02-01

    Recent observations in the X-ray and Gamma-ray suggest that the emission region of the pulsar magnetosphere can be multifold. In particular, the open-close boundary of the magnetic field, so-called the Y-point, can be a new candidate place where magnetic field energy converts into plasma heat and/or flow energy. Here, we present a new Particle-in-Cell code, which can be applied to the Y-point of the pulsar magnetosphere in axisymmetric geometry. The electromagnetic solver is used in two-dimensional grid points with cylindrical coordinates (R, z), while the particle solver operates in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), where the Buneman-Boris method is used. The particle motion is treated in special relativity. The inner boundary conditions are set up to generate rotation of the magnetosphere by use of the force-free semi-analytic solution given by Uzdensky (2003, ApJ, 598, 446). The code has been verified by dispersion relations of all wave modes in electron-positron plasmas. The initial test run is also presented to demonstrate the Y-shaped structure at the top of the dead zone on the light cylinder. We suggest that the structure is variable with quasi-periodicity with magnetic reconnection, and that plasma will be accelerated and/or heated. In a time-averaged point of view, the break up of the ideal-MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) condition takes place in the vicinity of the Y-point.

  20. Lift outs: how to acquire a high-functioning team.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Abrahams, Robin

    2006-12-01

    More and more, expanding companies are hiring high-functioning groups of people who have been working together effectively within one company and can rapidly come up to speed in a new environment. These lifted-out teams don't need to get acquainted with one another or to establish shared values, mutual accountability, or group norms; their long-standing relationships and trust help them make an impact very quickly. Of course, the process is not without risks: A failed lift out can lead to loss of money, opportunity, credibility, and even native talent. Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams studied more than 40 high-profile moves and interviewed team leaders in multiple industries and countries to examine the risks and opportunities that lift outs present. They concluded that, regardless of industry, nationality, or size of the team, a successful lift out unfolds over four consecutive, interdependent stages that must be meticulously managed. In the courtship stage, the hiring company and the leader of the targeted team determine whether the proposed move is, in fact, a good idea, and then define their business goals and discuss strategies. At the same time, the team leader discusses the potential move with the other members of his or her group to assess their level of interest and prepare them for the change. The second stage involves the integration of the team leader with the new company's top leadership. This part of the process ensures the team's access to senior executives-the most important factor in a lift out's success. Operational integration is the focus of the third stage. Ideally, teams will start out working with the same or similar clients, vendors, and industry standards. The fourth stage entails full cultural integration. To succeed, the lifted-out team members must be willing to re-earn credibility by proving their value and winning their new colleagues' trust.

  1. The early internationalization of safety culture: The impact of Yugoslavia`s Vinca reactor accident of 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, L.M.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1996-06-01

    The radiation exposure accident in October 1958 at the experimental zero-power reactor of the Boris Kidric Institute in Vinca, Yugoslavia, presented one of the first opportunities for the newly-created International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to oversee multinational cooperation in radiological safety analysis and dose reconstruction. IAEA involvement developed from initiatives by the U.S. State Department and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in the post-accident period, including an offer by U.S. AEC to exchange U.S. radiation exposure case histories for information on the doses received by and the bioeffects exhibited by the technicians exposed during the Vinca incident. U.S. intelligence sources estimated that the dose equivalents received ranged between 6-8 Sv; official Yugoslavian estimates put the average dose equivalent at 6.8 Sv. Through an agreement between the Yugoslav Federal Nuclear Commission and IAEA, U.S. AEC`s Oak Ridge Health Physics Division personnel were given access to the Vinca reactor in early 1960. A gamma and neutron dose reconstruction experiment, featuring anthropomorphic phantoms with approximately tissue-equivalent liquid and an array of internal detectors for neutron dose measurements, was conducted at the Kidric Institute. The reconstruction project`s dose calculations were compared with the estimates developed by French scientists based upon clinical observation of the Vinca technicians. This dose reconstruction study was evaluated simultaneously with studies of the June 1958 Y-12 accident and the January 1960 SLA accident. Studies of these incidents provoked an intensive U.S. AEC re-evaluation of reactor safety engineering and operations which had important ramifications for IAEA`s international standards for operational safety and radiological risk assessment.

  2. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleicher, Markus; Caines, Helen; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, Manuel; de Falco, Alessandro; Fries, Rainer; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Hippolyte, Boris; Mischke, Andre; Nardi, Marzia; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The 4th Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2010) was held in La Londe-Les-Maures, France, from June 21-26, 2010. Following the traditions of the conference, this meeting gathered more than 70 participants in the first years of their scientific careers. The present issue contains the proceedings of this workshop. The articles published in this volume clearly show the presence of a dynamic new generation of physicists interested in the different aspects of high energy nuclear collisions. The newest results from RHIC at Brookhaven and SPS at CERN were presented, as well as the latest results from the proton-proton programme from the LHC at CERN, while waiting for the data of the lead-lead collisions only available some months after the meeting. Along with these experimental findings, the corresponding theoretical research was also extensively discussed as well as the new perspectives for future facilities like FAIR, EIC and LHeC. We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2010 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: IN2P3/CNRS (France), EMMI (Germany), Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (France), National Science Foundation (USA), CERN (Switzerland), Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), Xunta de Galicia (Spain) and the Journal of Physics G. Markus Bleicher (Frankfurt (HIC4FAIR), Germany)Helen Caines (Yale University, USA)Manuel Calderon de la Barca Sanchez (UC Davis, USA)Alessandro de Falco (Cagliari/INFN, Italy)Rainer Fries (Texas A & M University, USA) Raphael Granier de Cassagnac (Ecole Polytechnique, France)Boris Hippolyte (IPHC, Strasbourg, France)Andre Mischke (Utrecht University, The Netherlands)Marzia Nardi (Torino/INFN, Italy)Carlos A Salgado (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain)

  3. Coronal extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code: From quiet sun to flare simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code, which includes a treatment of the solar corona in terms of MHD, optically thin radiative loss and field-aligned heat conduction. In order to relax the severe time-step constraints imposed by large Alfven velocities and heat conduction we use a combination of semi-relativistic MHD with reduced speed of light ("Boris correction") and a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction. We apply the numerical setup to 4 different setups including a mixed polarity quiet sun, an open flux region, an arcade solution and an active region setup and find all cases an amount of coronal heating sufficient to maintain a corona with temperatures from 1 MK (quiet sun) to 2 MK (active region, arcade). In all our setups the Poynting flux is self-consistently created by photospheric and sub-photospheric magneto-convection in the lower part of our simulation domain. Varying the maximum allowed Alfven velocity ("reduced speed of light") leads to only minor changes in the coronal structure as long as the limited Alfven velocity remains larger than the speed of sound and about 1.5-3 times larger than the peak advection velocity. We also found that varying details of the numerical diffusivities that govern the resistive and viscous energy dissipation do not strongly affect the overall coronal heating, but the ratio of resistive and viscous energy dependence is strongly dependent on the effective numerical magnetic Prandtl number. We use our active region setup in order to simulate a flare triggered by the emergence of a twisted flux rope into a pre-existing bipolar active region. Our simulation yields a series of flares, with the strongest one reaching GOES M1 class. The simulation reproduces many observed properties of eruptions such as flare ribbons, post flare loops and a sunquake.

  4. SEX RATIO VARIATION IN THE LESSONIA NIGRESCENS COMPLEX (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE): EFFECT OF LATITUDE, TEMPERATURE, AND MARGINALITY(1).

    PubMed

    Valeria Oppliger, Luz; Correa, Juan A; Faugeron, Sylvain; Beltrán, Jessica; Tellier, Florence; Valero, Myriam; Destombe, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about variation of sex ratio, the proportion of males to females, in natural populations of seaweed, though it is a major determinant of the mating system. The observation of sexual chromosomes in kelps suggested that sex is partly genetically determined. However, it is probably not purely genetic since the sex ratio can be modified by environmental factors such as salinity or temperature. In this paper, sex ratio variation was studied in the kelp Lessonia nigrescens Bory complex, recently identified as two cryptic species occurring along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of the biogeographic boundary at latitude 29°-30° S. The life cycle of L. nigrescens is characterized by an alternation of microscopic haploid gametophytic individuals and large macroscopic fronds of diploid sporophytes. The sex ratio was recorded in progenies from 241 sporophytic individuals collected from 13 populations distributed along the Chilean coast in order (i) to examine the effect of an environmental gradient coupled with latitude, and (ii) to compare marginal populations to central populations of the two species. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that the sex ratios of the two cryptic species would be affected differently by temperature. First, our results demonstrate that sex ratio seems to be mainly genetically determined and temperature can significantly modify it. Populations of the northern species showed a lower frequency of males at 14°C than at 10°C, whereas populations of the southern species showed the opposite pattern. Second, both species displayed an increased variation in sex ratio at the range limits. This greater variation at the margins could be due either to differential mortality between sexes or to geographic parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction).

  5. Lift outs: how to acquire a high-functioning team.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Abrahams, Robin

    2006-12-01

    More and more, expanding companies are hiring high-functioning groups of people who have been working together effectively within one company and can rapidly come up to speed in a new environment. These lifted-out teams don't need to get acquainted with one another or to establish shared values, mutual accountability, or group norms; their long-standing relationships and trust help them make an impact very quickly. Of course, the process is not without risks: A failed lift out can lead to loss of money, opportunity, credibility, and even native talent. Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams studied more than 40 high-profile moves and interviewed team leaders in multiple industries and countries to examine the risks and opportunities that lift outs present. They concluded that, regardless of industry, nationality, or size of the team, a successful lift out unfolds over four consecutive, interdependent stages that must be meticulously managed. In the courtship stage, the hiring company and the leader of the targeted team determine whether the proposed move is, in fact, a good idea, and then define their business goals and discuss strategies. At the same time, the team leader discusses the potential move with the other members of his or her group to assess their level of interest and prepare them for the change. The second stage involves the integration of the team leader with the new company's top leadership. This part of the process ensures the team's access to senior executives-the most important factor in a lift out's success. Operational integration is the focus of the third stage. Ideally, teams will start out working with the same or similar clients, vendors, and industry standards. The fourth stage entails full cultural integration. To succeed, the lifted-out team members must be willing to re-earn credibility by proving their value and winning their new colleagues' trust. PMID:17183798

  6. Molecular attraction of condensed bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Abrikosova, I. I.; Lifshitz, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    From the Editorial Board. As a contribution to commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, it was found appropriate by the Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal that the materials of the jubilee-associated Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences published in this issue (pp. 877-905) be augmented by the review paper "Molecular attraction of condensed bodies" reproduced from a 1958 UFN issue. Included in this review, in addition to an account by Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz of his theory of molecular attractive forces between condensed bodies (first published in Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (ZhETF) in 1955 and in its English translation Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP) in 1956), is a summary of a series of experimental studies beginning in 1949 by Irina Igorevna Abrikosova at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in a laboratory led by Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin (1902-1994), a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1958, however, UFN was not yet available in English translation, so the material of the review is insufficiently accessible to the present-day English-speaking reader. This is the reason why the UFN Editorial Board decided to contribute to celebrating the 100th anniversary of E M Lifshitz's birthday by reproducing on the journal's pages a 1958 review paper which contains both E M Lifshitz's theory itself and the experimental data that underpinned it (for an account of how Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz was enlisted to explain the experimental results of I I Abrikosova and B V Derjaguin, see the letter to the editors N P Danilova on page 925 of this jubilee collection of publications).

  7. Palaeoceanographic significance of sedimentary features at the Argentine continental margin revealed by multichannel seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The thermohaline circulation in the Argentine Basin today is characterized by the interaction of northward flowing Antarctic water masses (Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; Circumpolar Deep Water, CDW; Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW) and southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The transfer of heat and energy via both AABW and NADW constitutes an important component in maintaining the global conveyor belt. We aim at a better understanding of both paths and intensity of this current system in the past by investigating an extensive (> 11000 km) set of high quality seismic reflection profiles from the Argentine continental margin. The profiles show a significant contourite system containing both erosive and depositional features that formed through the evolution of water masses and their modifications (path, physical and chemical properties) due to plate tectonic events such as the opening of the Drake Passage or the extensive emplacement of volcanic flows at the Rio Grande Rise. Overall the depositional features indicate that along slope (contour current) transport dominates over down slope (turbiditic) processes at the southern Argentine margin south of 45° S. Further to the North down slope transport was more extensive as indicated by the presence of submarine canyons crossing the slope down to a depth of ~3500 m. Here we present preliminary results from the southern part of the continental margin (42°-50° S) where we focus on a set of ~50 km wide terraces on the slope and rise separated by contouritic channels. The terraces developed over time in alternating constructional (depositional) and erosive phases. An initial age frame was developed by mapping regional reflectors and seismic units known from previous studies. The sedimentary layer between regional reflectors AR 4 and AR 5 spanning roughly the time interval from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the early middle Miocene is thin (0.1 - 0.4 s TWT) below the Valentine Feilberg Terrace but

  8. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  9. The varying effects of age of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Catling, Jonathan C; Johnston, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of theories that suggest that age of acquisition (AoA) effects are not uniform across different tasks. Catling and Johnston (2006a) found greater AoA effects within an object-naming task than in a semantic classification task. They explained these findings by suggesting that AoA effects might accumulate according to how many levels of representation a task necessitates access to. Brysbaert and Ghyselinck (2006) explain the difference in AoA effects by proposing two distinct types of AoA (frequency dependent and frequency independent), the first accounted for by a connectionist-type mechanism and the latter situated at the interface between semantics and word production. Moreover, Moore, Smith-Spark, and Valentine (2004) and Holmes and Ellis (2006) have suggested that there are two loci of AoA effects: at the phonological level and somewhere within the perceptual level of representation. Again, this could account for the varying degrees of AoA effects. This study sets about testing these ideas by assessing the effect size of AoA across a series of different tasks that necessitate access to various levels of representation. Experiments 1-4 demonstrate significant effects of AoA in a novel picture-picture verification task, an object classification task, a picture verification task, and an object-naming task. Experiment 5 showed no effects of initial phoneme on the naming of the critical objects used within Experiments 1-4. The implication of the varying AoA effect sizes found within Experiments 1-4 in relation to explanations of AoA are discussed.

  10. High prevalence of toxic shock syndrome toxin-producing epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 (EMRSA-15) strains in Kuwait hospitals.

    PubMed

    Udo, E E; Boswihi, S S; Al-Sweih, N

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized EMRSA-15 isolates obtained from patients in Kuwait hospitals for their genotypic relatedness, antibiotic resistance and carriage of virulence genes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), coagulase serotyping, SCCmec subtyping, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing and DNA microarray. The isolates were resistant to trimethoprim (75.6%), ciprofloxacin (29.7%), erythromycin and clindamycin (24.3%), tetracycline (19.0%), and gentamicin and kanamycin (21.6%). All 37 isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 22, coagulase type XI, three PFGE types and eight subtypes, ten spa types including t223 (51.3%), t852 (13.5%), t032 (8.1%), t790 (8.1%), t3107 (5.4%) and one each of t309, t2251, t3935, t5708 and t5983. Twenty-six isolates (70.2%) carried SCCmec IVa, eight isolates carried SCCmec IV and three isolates carried SCCmec IVh. All isolates carried agr1, cap5 and egc gene cluster (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and selu). tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) was detected in 23 isolates. Eight isolates (21.6%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Genotypic analysis revealed that 62.1% of the isolates comprising ST22-IVa-t223 (51.3%) and ST22-IVa-t309/t2251/t3935/t5708 (10.8%) were CC22-[tst1(+)] UK EMRSA-15/Middle Eastern variant, 21.6% were CC22-PVL(+) EMRSA-15 variant and 16.2% were CC22-UK EMRSA-15/Barnim clone. These results show that the tst1 positive-ST22-IVa-t223 (Middle Eastern variant) and the CC22-PVL(+) EMRSA-15 variant were the dominant EMRSA-15 variants in Kuwait hospitals. PMID:27222714

  11. Epidemiological typing of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Pakistan and India.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Sahida; Hardy, Katherine J; Abbasi, Waseem S; McMurray, Claire L; Malik, Salman A; Wattal, Chand; Hawkey, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    The levels of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Pakistan and India are known to be high, but few studies have described the epidemiology of the different MRSA clones present. In order to gain an understanding of the epidemiology of MRSA within this region, 60 MRSA isolates from Pakistan (49) and India (11) were genotyped. All isolates were typed using PFGE, staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs), a restriction-modification method and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. A subset of isolates that were distinct by PFGE and SIRUs were typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Clonal complex (CC) 8 was the dominant clonal complex (57/60) and was present in both Pakistan and India. Within CC8, there were 10 SIRU profiles and 24 PFGE profiles. Two SIRU profiles were present in isolates from both India and Pakistan, whilst seven were distinct for Pakistan and one for India. All PFGE profiles were distinct for each of the two countries. Thirty-four of the 57 isolates carried SCCmec type III/IIIa and the remainder carried type IV SCCmec. MLST analysis of 14 CC8 isolates with diverse SIRU and PFGE profiles showed that all were single-locus variants, with nine belonging to sequence type (ST) 239, three to ST8 and two to ST113. From a single hospital in Pakistan, three isolates belonged to CC30 and all were indistinguishable by PFGE and SIRUs and carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Thus, epidemiological typing of strains from three distinct locations in India and Pakistan revealed the predominance of one clonal complex and highly related STs. The ability of SIRUs and PFGE to differentiate within ST239 demonstrates their utility in defining local epidemiology in these countries. PMID:19926728

  12. Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus Isolate Genotypes and Infections from the Dawn of the Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Epidemic Era in Chicago, 1994 to 1997

    PubMed Central

    Acree, Mary Ellen; Sieth, Julia J.; Boxrud, Dave J.; Dobbins, Ginette; Lynfield, Ruth; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread infections with community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred in the United States with the dissemination of the USA300 strain beginning in 2000. We examined 105 isolates obtained from children treated at the University of Chicago from 1994 to 1997 (75 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 30 MRSA isolates) in order to investigate for possible evidence of USA300 during this period. Infections were defined epidemiologically based on medical record review. The isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), as well as assays for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, the protein A gene (spa), and arcA and opp3, proxy markers for the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), characteristic of USA300 MRSA. MRSA isolates also underwent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping. MSSA isolates belonged to 17 sequence type (ST) groups. The 12 epidemiologically defined CA-MRSA infection isolates were either ST1 (n = 4) or ST8 (n = 8). They belonged to 3 different PFGE types: USA100 (n = 1), USA400 (n = 5), and USA500 (n = 6). Among the CA-MRSA infection isolates, 8 (67%) were PVL+. None of the MRSA or MSSA isolates contained arcA or opp3. Only one MRSA isolate was USA300 by PFGE. This was a health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolate, negative for PVL, that carried SCCmec type II. USA300 with its characteristic features was not identified in the collection from the years 1994 to 1997. PMID:26019202

  13. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Licka, Theresia; Simhofer, Hubert; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, resistance gene patterns and genetic relatedness of a collection of Austrian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 89 non-repetitive MRSA isolates collected during routine veterinary microbiological examinations from April 2004 to the end of 2012, and one isolate from 2013 were used for this study. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Isolates were genotyped by spa typing, two multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) analyses, SCCmec typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR targeting Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) was performed using PCR assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Five sequence types (STs-ST398, ST254, ST22, ST5 and ST1), SCCmec types II, IVa, V, and non-type-abele, 8 spa-types (t003, t011, t036, t127, t386, t1348, and t4450), and two isolates could not be assigned, 21 MLVA-14Orsay types Multiplex-PCR MLVA (mMLVA) displayed 17 different MLVA types. The present study is the most comprehensive dealing with MRSA from Austrian companion animals and horses. The results confirm that MRSA ST398 is present in a wide range of animal species and is predominant especially in horses. In other companion animals it is unclear whether the infections with the different MRSA isolates investigated in the present study truly represents a rare phenomenon or may be an emerging problem in companion animals.

  14. Characterization of PVL/ACME-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (genotypes ST8-MRSA-IV and ST5-MRSA-II) isolated from a university hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Yamamoto, Dai; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Watanabe, Naoki; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-02-01

    The ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, known as USA300, is a prevalent community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone in the United States and has been spreading worldwide. The USA300 characteristically harbors Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME, type I). Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL(+) and/or ACME(+) S. aureus were investigated in a university hospital located in northern Japan, for 1,366 S. aureus isolates, including 601 MRSA strains derived from clinical specimens collected from 2008 to 2010. The PVL gene was identified in three MRSA strains with SCCmec IV, which belonged to ST8, spa type t008, coagulase type III, and agr type I. Two PVL-positive MRSA strains had also type I ACME, and were isolated from skin abscess of outpatients who have not travelled abroad recently. One of these PVL(+)/ACME(+) strains carried tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, showing resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, suggesting acquisition of more resistance than ST8 CA-MRSA reported in Japan previously. In contrast, another PVL(+)/ACME(+) strain and a PVL(+)/ACME(-) strain were susceptible to more antimicrobials and had less virulence factors than PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains. Besides the two PVL(+) MRSA strains, ACME (type-ΔII) was identified into seven MRSA strains with SCCmec II belonging to ST5, one of the three spa types (t002, t067, and t071), coagulase type II, and agr type II. These PVL(-)/ACME(+) MRSA strains showed multiple drug resistance and harbored various toxin genes as observed for ST5 PVL(-)/ACME(-) MRSA-II. The present study suggested the spread of ST8-MRSA-IV in northern Japan, and a potential significance of ACME-positive ST5-MRSA-II as an emerging MRSA clone in a hospital.

  15. Microarray-based genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from camels.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Wernery, Renate; Johnson, Bobby; Jose, Sherry; Wernery, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of mastitis and other diseases in camels. In order to obtain data on population structure as well as on the carriage of toxin genes and resistance markers, a collection of 45 isolates from dromedaries of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were genotyped. These isolates belonged to clonal complexes CC6 (twenty isolates; 44.44%), CC30 (sixteen isolates; 35.56%), CC188 (five isolates; 11.11%), CC152 (1 isolate, 2.2%) and to a previously un-described sequence type (ST1755: arcc-18, aroe-115, glpf-6, gmk-2 pta-109, tpi-50 and yqil-2; three isolates; 6.67%). Resistance genes proved to be rare. Only three out of 45 isolates (6.67%) carried the beta-lactamase operon. The tetracycline resistance gene tetK was also detected in three isolates (6.67%). Neither the mecA gene, defining MRSA, nor other resistance genes were found. Common virulence markers included leukocidin genes lukD+lukE (in twenty-five isolates; 55.56%), the staphylokinase gene sak (twenty-two isolates; 48.89%), the enterotoxin gene cluster egc (fifteen isolates; 33.33%), and a distinct variant of the enterotoxin A gene (sea-320E, GenBank AY196686.1; thirteen isolates; 28.89%). One CC152 isolate was positive for genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukF-PV+lukS-PV). This study provides first genotyping data on the population structure and the presence of toxin genes and resistance markers of S. aureus strains in Middle Eastern camels.

  16. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Resistant to Tetracycline at a Spanish Hospital over 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Camoez, Mariana; Sierra, Josep M.; Pujol, Miquel; Hornero, Ana; Martin, Rogélio; Domínguez, M. Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398, associated with livestock animals, was described in 2003 as a new lineage infecting or colonizing humans. We evaluated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of MRSA ST398 isolated in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from January 2000 to June 2011. Tetracycline resistant (Tet-R) MRSA isolates from single patients (pts) were screened by SmaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Nontypable MRSA strains by SmaI (NTSmaI)-MRSA were further analysed by ApaI-PFGE, spa, SCCmec, agr, MLST typing, and by DNA microarray hybridization. Among 164 pts harboring Tet-R MRSA, NTSmaI-MRSA ST398-agrI was found in 33 pts (20%). Although the first pt was detected in 2003, 22/33 pts (67%) were registered in the 2010–2011 period. Ten pts (30%) were infected and cancer was the most frequent underlying disease. In one case, death was due to MRSA-ST398-related infection. Five pulsotypes (A–E) were detected using ApaI-PFGE, with type A accounting for 76% of the strains. The majority of the studied isolates presented spa type t011 (70%) and SCCmec type V (88%). One strain was spa negative both by PCR and microarray analysis. Forty-nine percent of the studied isolates showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes, in addition to beta-lactams. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 67%. Tet-R was mediated by tet(M) and tet(K) in 26 isolates. All isolates lacked Panton-Valentine Leukocidin production, as well as other significant toxins. This study displays the molecular features of MRSA-ST398 clone and shows the increase in tetracycline resistance together with arise in MRSA-ST398 isolates infecting or colonizing patients in our clinical setting. PMID:24039806

  17. Rapid Probabilistic Source Inversion Using Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaeufl, P.; Valentine, A. P.; Trampert, J.

    2013-12-01

    Determination of earthquake source parameters is an important task in seismology. For many applications, it is also valuable to understand the uncertainties associated with these determinations, and this is particularly true in the context of earthquake early warning and hazard mitigation. We present a framework for probabilistic centroid moment tensor point source inversions in near real-time, applicable to a wide variety of data-types. Our methodology allows us to find an approximation to p(m|d), the conditional probability of source parameters (m) given observations, (d). This approximation is obtained by smoothly interpolating a set of random prior samples, using a machine learning algorithm able to learn the mapping from d to m. The approximation obtained can be evaluated within milliseconds on a standard desktop computer for a new observation (d). This makes the method well suited for use in situations such as earthquake early warning, where inversions must be performed routinely, for a fixed station geometry, and where it is important that results are obtained rapidly. This is a major advantage over traditional sampling based techniques, such as Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods, where a re-sampling of the posterior is necessary every time a new observation is made. We demonstrated the method by applying it to a regional static GPS displacement data set for the 2010 MW 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake in Baja California and obtained estimates of logarithmic magnitude, centroid location and depth, and focal mechanism (Käufl et al., submitted). We will present an extension of this approach to the inversion of full waveforms and explore possibilities for jointly inverting seismic and geodetic data. (1) P. Käufl, A. P. Valentine, T.B. O'Toole, J. Trampert, submitted, Geophysical Journal International

  18. Probing the face-space of individuals with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mayu; Doyle, Jaime; Humphreys, Kate; Behrmann, Marlene

    2010-05-01

    A useful framework for understanding the mental representation of facial identity is face-space (Valentine, 1991), a multi-dimensional cognitive map in which individual faces are coded relative to the average of previously encountered faces, and in which the distance among faces represents their perceived similarity. We examined whether individuals with prosopagnosia, a disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces despite normal visual acuity and intellectual abilities, evince behavior consistent with this underlying representational schema. To do so, we compared the performance of 6 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), with a group of age- and gender-matched control participants in a series of experiments involving judgments of facial identity. We used digital images of male and female faces and morphed them to varying degrees relative to an average face, to create caricatures, anti-caricatures, and anti-faces (i.e. faces of the opposite identity). Across 5 behavioral tasks, CP individuals' performance was similar to that of the control group and consistent with the face-space framework. As a test of the sensitivity of our measures in revealing face processing abnormalities, we also tested a single acquired prosopagnosic (AP) individual, whose performance on the same tasks deviated significantly from the control and CP groups. The findings suggest that, despite an inability to recognize individual identities, CPs perceive faces in a manner consistent with norm-based coding of facial identity, although their representation is likely supported by a feature-based strategy. We suggest that the apparently normal posterior cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, serve as the neural substrate for at least a coarse, feature-based face-space map in CP and that their face recognition impairment arises from the disconnection between these regions and more anterior cortical sites.

  19. Epidemiology of emerging methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a nationwide study in a country with low prevalence of MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Faria, Nuno A; Oliveira, Duarte C; Westh, Henrik; Monnet, Dominique L; Larsen, Anders R; Skov, Robert; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2005-04-01

    Strict infection control measures introduced during the 1970s have kept the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections extremely low in Denmark. Nevertheless, similarly to other countries, MRSA infections began to appear in the community in the late 1990s. A nationwide surveillance program has collected and stored all MRSA isolates since 1988 and, since 1999, clinical information has been also recorded. We used this information and isolates in a detailed epidemiological and molecular analysis of the 81 MRSA infections identified in Denmark in 2001. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. Comparison of the 45 community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) infections with the 36 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections showed several striking contrasts. Most CO-MRSA were recovered from skin and soft tissue infections caused by isolates carrying the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin genes, and the majority (84%) of isolates belonged to a single clonal type, ST80-IV, which has been found in the community in other European countries. Clone ST80-IV could be traced in Denmark back to 1993. ST80-IV was rarely found in HA-MRSA infections, which belonged to a large number of clonal types, including some pandemic MRSA clones. The low number of HA-MRSA infections and the diversity of MRSA clones in Danish hospitals may be the result of successful infection control measures that prevent spread of clones in hospitals. The mechanism of spread of the ST80-IV clone in the Danish community is not known, and new control measures are needed to control further spread of this and other CA-MRSA clones. PMID:15815005

  20. Adaptive change inferred from genomic population analysis of the ST93 epidemic clone of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Timothy P; Holt, Kathryn E; Chua, Kyra; Stepnell, Justin; Tuck, Kellie L; Coombs, Geoffrey; Harrison, Paul Francis; Seemann, Torsten; Howden, Benjamin P

    2014-02-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as a major public health problem around the world. In Australia, ST93-IV[2B] is the dominant CA-MRSA clone and displays significantly greater virulence than other S. aureus. Here, we have examined the evolution of ST93 via genomic analysis of 12 MSSA and 44 MRSA ST93 isolates, collected from around Australia over a 17-year period. Comparative analysis revealed a core genome of 2.6 Mb, sharing greater than 99.7% nucleotide identity. The accessory genome was 0.45 Mb and comprised additional mobile DNA elements, harboring resistance to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Phylogenetic inference revealed a molecular clock and suggested that a single clone of methicillin susceptible, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive, ST93 S. aureus likely spread from North Western Australia in the early 1970s, acquiring methicillin resistance at least twice in the mid 1990s. We also explored associations between genotype and important MRSA phenotypes including oxacillin MIC and production of exotoxins (α-hemolysin [Hla], δ-hemolysin [Hld], PSMα3, and PVL). High-level expression of Hla is a signature feature of ST93 and reduced expression in eight isolates was readily explained by mutations in the agr locus. However, subtle but significant decreases in Hld were also noted over time that coincided with decreasing oxacillin resistance and were independent of agr mutations. The evolution of ST93 S. aureus is thus associated with a reduction in both exotoxin expression and oxacillin MIC, suggesting MRSA ST93 isolates are under pressure for adaptive change. PMID:24482534

  1. Adaptive Change Inferred from Genomic Population Analysis of the ST93 Epidemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Stinear, Timothy P.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Chua, Kyra; Stepnell, Justin; Tuck, Kellie L.; Coombs, Geoffrey; Harrison, Paul Francis; Seemann, Torsten; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as a major public health problem around the world. In Australia, ST93-IV[2B] is the dominant CA-MRSA clone and displays significantly greater virulence than other S. aureus. Here, we have examined the evolution of ST93 via genomic analysis of 12 MSSA and 44 MRSA ST93 isolates, collected from around Australia over a 17-year period. Comparative analysis revealed a core genome of 2.6 Mb, sharing greater than 99.7% nucleotide identity. The accessory genome was 0.45 Mb and comprised additional mobile DNA elements, harboring resistance to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Phylogenetic inference revealed a molecular clock and suggested that a single clone of methicillin susceptible, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive, ST93 S. aureus likely spread from North Western Australia in the early 1970s, acquiring methicillin resistance at least twice in the mid 1990s. We also explored associations between genotype and important MRSA phenotypes including oxacillin MIC and production of exotoxins (α-hemolysin [Hla], δ-hemolysin [Hld], PSMα3, and PVL). High-level expression of Hla is a signature feature of ST93 and reduced expression in eight isolates was readily explained by mutations in the agr locus. However, subtle but significant decreases in Hld were also noted over time that coincided with decreasing oxacillin resistance and were independent of agr mutations. The evolution of ST93 S. aureus is thus associated with a reduction in both exotoxin expression and oxacillin MIC, suggesting MRSA ST93 isolates are under pressure for adaptive change. PMID:24482534

  2. Some NACA Muroc personnel with snowman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The late 1940s saw increased flight activity, and more women computers were needed at the NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit than the ones who had originally arrived in 1946. A call went out to the NACA Langley, Lewis, and Ames laboratories for more women computers. Pictured in this photograph with the Snowman are some of the women computers who responded to the call for help in 1948 along with Roxanah, Emily, Dorothy, who were already here. Standing left to right: Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth, from Langley; Lilly Ann Bajus, Lewis; Roxanah Yancey, Emily Stephens, Jane Collons (Procurement), Leona Corbett (Personnel), Angel Dunn, Langley. Kneeling left to right: Dorothy (Dottie) Crawford Roth, Lewis; Dorothy Clift Hughes, and Gertrude (Trudy) Wilken Valentine, Lewis. In National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) terminology of 1946, computers were employees who performed laborious and time-consuming mathematical calculations and data reduction from long strips of records generated by onboard aircraft instrumentation. Virtually without exception, computers were female; at least part of the rationale seems to have been the notion that the work was long and tedious, and men were not thought to have the patience to do it. Though equipment changed over the years and most computers eventually found themselves programming and operating electronic computers, as well as doing other data processing tasks, being a computer initially meant long hours with a slide rule, hunched over illuminated light boxes measuring line traces from grainy and obscure strips of oscillograph film. Computers suffered terrible eyestrain, and those who didn't begin by wearing glasses did so after a few years. But they were initially essential employees at the Muroc Flight Test Unit and NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, taking the oscillograph flight records and 'reducing' the data on them to make them useful to research engineers, who analyzed the data.

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Site of Acquisition and Strain Variation in High-Risk Nursing Home Residents with Indwelling Devices

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kristen E.; McNamara, Sara E.; Cassone, Marco; Perri, Mary Beth; Zervos, Marcus; Mody, Lona

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Characterize the clinical and molecular epidemiology of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisitions at nasal and extranasal sites among high-risk nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN Multicenter prospective observational study. SETTING Six NHs in southeast Michigan. PARTICIPANTS A total of 120 NH residents with an indwelling device (feeding tube and/or urinary catheter). METHODS Active surveillance cultures from the nares, oropharynx, groin, perianal area, wounds (if present), and device insertion site(s) were collected upon enrollment, at day 14, and monthly thereafter. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction for SCCmec, agr, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin were performed. RESULTS Of 120 participants observed for 16,290 device-days, 50 acquired MRSA (78% transiently, 22% persistently). New MRSA acquisitions were common in extranasal sites, particularly at device insertion, groin, and perianal areas (27%, 23%, and 17.6% of all acquisitions, respectively). Screening extranasal sites greatly increases the detection of MRSA colonization (100% of persistent carriers and 97.4% of transient carriers detected with nares, groin, perianal, and device site sampling vs 54.5% and 25.6%, respectively, for nares samples alone). Colonization at suprapubic urinary catheter sites generally persisted. Healthcare-associated MRSA (USA100 and USA100 variants) were the dominant strains (79.3% of all new acquisition isolates). Strain diversity was more common in transient carriers, including acquisition of USA500 and USA300 strains. CONCLUSION Indwelling device insertion sites as well as the groin and perianal area are important sites of new MRSA acquisitions in NH residents and play a role in the persistency of MRSA carriage. Clonal types differ among persistent and transient colonizers. PMID:25419767

  4. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Botucatu, Brazil: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fabiana Venegas; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Abraão, Lígia Maria; Martins, Patrícia Y F; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the incidence and severity of staphylococcal infections renewed interest in studies that assess the burden of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the community setting. We conducted a population-based survey in the city of Botucatu, Brazil (122,000 inhabitants), in order to identify the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains). Nasal swabs were obtained from 686 persons over one year of age. Resistance to methicillin was assessed through phenotypic methods, identification of the mecA gene and typing of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette mec (SCCmec). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and spa typing. Polymerase chain reaction was applied to identify genes coding for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) in isolates. The prevalence of overall S. aureus carriage was 32.7% (95%CI, 29.2%-36.2%). Carriers were significantly younger (mean age, 28.1 versus 36.3 for non-carriers; OR for age, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.97-0.99) and likely to report recent skin infection (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.03-3.34). Carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 0.9% of study subjects (95%CI, 0.4%-1.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IV, and belonged to spa types t002 or t021, but none among them harbored genes coding for PLV. In MLST, most isolates belonged to clones ST5 or ST1776. However, we found one subject who carried a novel clone, ST2594. Two out of six MRSA carriers had household contacts colonized with isolates similar to theirs. Our study pointed to dissemination of community-associated MRSA among the Brazilian population. PMID:24663818

  5. Survey of community-associated-methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Slovenia: identification of community-associated and livestock-associated clones.

    PubMed

    Dermota, U; Mueller-Premru, M; Švent-Kučina, N; Petrovič, Ž; Ribič, H; Rupnik, M; Janežič, S; Zdovc, I; Grmek-Košnik, I

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Slovenia is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to investigate susceptibility patterns, virulence gene profile and clonality among MRSA isolates with positive screened resistance phenotype for CA-MRSA collected from patients in Slovenia, from January 2010 to December 2010. We included only MRSA isolates that were resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin, and susceptible to at least two of the following four antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin or gentamicin (presumptive CA-MRSA). Altogether 151 isolates fulfilled our screening phenotypic definition, 126 MRSA isolates were classified as CA-MRSA and 25 as HA-MRSA. Thirty-six per cent of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 24% to clindamycin, 33% to erythromycin and 13% to gentamicin. The mecA gene was detected in 150 isolates, while the mecC gene only in 1 isolate. The MRSA isolates were classified to 19 different clones. The most prevalent sequence types were ST5 (26.4%), ST45 (25.2%), ST22 (10.6%), ST398 (9.9%), ST8 (5.9%), ST7 (4.6%), ST1 (3.9%), ST152/377 (3.3%), ST228 (2.6%) and ST2883 (1.3%). The ST6, ST9, ST30, ST72, ST88, ST111, ST130, ST225 and ST772 were identified sporadically. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected in 13 (8.6%) isolates that belonged to ST5, ST7, ST8, ST22, ST72, ST88, ST 152/377 and ST772. Our results show high variability of CA-MRSA circulating in Slovenia and also the presence of LA-MRSA clones.

  6. Epidemiology of Emerging Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a Nationwide Study in a Country with Low Prevalence of MRSA Infection

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno A.; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Westh, Henrik; Monnet, Dominique L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Skov, Robert; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2005-01-01

    Strict infection control measures introduced during the 1970s have kept the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections extremely low in Denmark. Nevertheless, similarly to other countries, MRSA infections began to appear in the community in the late 1990s. A nationwide surveillance program has collected and stored all MRSA isolates since 1988 and, since 1999, clinical information has been also recorded. We used this information and isolates in a detailed epidemiological and molecular analysis of the 81 MRSA infections identified in Denmark in 2001. MRSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. Comparison of the 45 community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) infections with the 36 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) infections showed several striking contrasts. Most CO-MRSA were recovered from skin and soft tissue infections caused by isolates carrying the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin genes, and the majority (84%) of isolates belonged to a single clonal type, ST80-IV, which has been found in the community in other European countries. Clone ST80-IV could be traced in Denmark back to 1993. ST80-IV was rarely found in HA-MRSA infections, which belonged to a large number of clonal types, including some pandemic MRSA clones. The low number of HA-MRSA infections and the diversity of MRSA clones in Danish hospitals may be the result of successful infection control measures that prevent spread of clones in hospitals. The mechanism of spread of the ST80-IV clone in the Danish community is not known, and new control measures are needed to control further spread of this and other CA-MRSA clones. PMID:15815005

  7. A correlative analysis of epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones from diverse geographic locations with virulence measured by a Caenorhabditis elegans host model.

    PubMed

    Wu, K; Zhang, K; McClure, J; Zhang, J; Schrenzel, J; Francois, P; Harbarth, S; Conly, J

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from different geographic areas have different genetic backgrounds, suggesting independent clonal evolutions. To better understand the virulence of MRSA strains and the relationship to their clonal and geographic origins, we undertook an analysis of epidemiologic, molecular, and virulence characteristics of a large number of MRSA isolates from geographically diverse origins, in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. A total of 99 MRSA isolates collected between 1993 and 2010 at the Geneva University Hospitals from diverse global origins were characterized with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), accessory gene regulator (agr) group, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), S. aureus protein A (spa), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Epidemiologic data were provided from clinical records. The bacterial virulence was tested in a C. elegans host model. The inter-relationships of epidemiological/molecular characteristics in association with nematocidal activities were analyzed with univariate and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains were more virulent than hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), with higher nematocidal activities in CA-MRSA strains (0.776 vs. 0.506, p = 0.0005). All molecular characteristics (PVL, TSST, spa, SCCmec, MLST, and PFGE types) showed a significant association with nematocidal activities on univariate analysis (p < 0.005). PVL was not a significant predictor after adjusting for genomic backgrounds using spa, MLST, or PFGE typing. The dominant CA-MRSA strains in North America showed higher nematocidal activities than strains from other regions (p < 0.0001). Strains with global origins containing distinct genetic backgrounds have different virulence in the C. elegans model. Nematocidal activities were most highly correlated with SCCmec, spa, MLST

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation. PMID:26866374

  9. Dissemination of multiple MRSA clones among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections from Japanese children with impetigo.

    PubMed

    Hisata, Ken; Ito, Teruyo; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Jin, Jingxun; Li, Shanshuang; Watanabe, Shinya; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    The proportion of MRSA strains that cause skin and soft infections has recently increased. In 3 months we have characterized 17 MRSA strains isolated from children with impetigo at a Japanese hospital. Seventeen MRSA strains belonged to 7 clones defined by clonal complex (CC) in MLST genotype and type of SCCmec, which were rarely identified among healthcare-associated MRSA: CC 91-SCCmecIIb (4 strains); CC91-SCCmecIIn (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecIVa (2 strains); CC91-SCCmecV (4 strains); CC88-SCCmecIVg (3 strains); CC1-SCCmecIVc (1 strain); and CC5-SCCmecIVn (1 strain). Although one strain belonged to CC5, which has been commonly identified in healthcare-associated MRSA, it did not carry type II SCCmec, but carried type IV SCCmec. Fourteen of the 17 strains carried exfoliative toxin a or b gene, and none carried Panton-Valentine leukocidine gene. Furthermore, we determined the entire nucleotide sequences of two type V SCCmec elements carried by strains JCSC5952, a CC91 strain, and TSGH17, a Taiwanese CC59 strain. The structure of SCCmecJCSC5952 was more than 99% homologous in nucleotide identity with those of Taiwanese PVL-positive ST59 MRSA strains TSGH17 and PM1, which were designated as type V (5C2&5). Identification of multiple MRSA clones distinct from those disseminating at the hospital suggests that MRSA strains might be emerging in the community from MSSA strains by acquiring SCCmec elements on various occasions. Carriage of the similar type V(5C2&5) SCCmec element by strains of distinct genetic backgrounds, CC91 and CC59, suggested horizontal transfer of the SCCmec element.

  10. Genotypic Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered at Baseline from Phase 3 Pneumonia Clinical Trials for Ceftobiprole.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Costello, Andrew J; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Baseline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia collected during Phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole were characterized. Eighty-four unique isolates from patients enrolled in Europe (50.0%), Asia-Western Pacific region (APAC; 20.2%), North America (19.0%), Latin America (8.3%), and South Africa (2.4%) were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and isolates screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. SCCmec and agr types were determined. Strains were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on spa and/or multilocus sequence typing. Most isolates were CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (44.0%; 37/84), followed by CC8-MRSA-IV (22.6%; 19/84) and CC239-MRSA-III (21.4%; 18/84). Other MRSA formed seven clonal clusters. Isolates from North America were associated with USA100, while those from South America belonged to the Cordobes/Chilean CC. A greater clonal diversity was observed in Europe; however, each country had CC5, CC8, or CC239 as prevalent lineages. Isolates from APAC were CC5-MRSA-II (47.1%; 8/17) or CC239-MRSA-III (47.1%; 8/17). Isolates carrying SCCmec I and III had ceftobiprole MIC50 values of 2 μg/ml, while those isolates with SCCmec II and IV had MIC50 values of 1 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole inhibited 96% and 100.0% of the isolates at ≤ 2 and ≤ 4 μg/ml, respectively. These isolates represented common circulating MRSA clones. Ceftobiprole demonstrated in vitro activity with a slight variation of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) according to SCCmec or clonal type.

  11. Microbiological and molecular epidemiological analyses of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinya; Yano, Hisakazu; Tokuda, Koichi; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Ishizawa, Chiyuki; Ogawa, Miho; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Shimojima, Masahiro; Kakuta, Risako; Ozawa, Daiki; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Gu, Yoshiaki; Hatta, Masumitsu; Oshima, Kengo; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular characterization of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is generally conducted referred to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV or V. CA-MRSA is now a cause of concern since such strains have been isolated not only from individuals in a community but also from patients in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to analyze microbiological and molecular epidemiological features of CA-MRSA strains at a Japanese tertiary care hospital using PCR based-open reading frame typing (POT). This technique allows for molecular classification into CA-MRSA (POT-CA) and hospital-associated (HA-) MRSA (POT-HA) with clonal discrimination. Clinical MRSA isolates obtained from consecutive patients between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2013 at the hospital were analyzed in combination with the clinical definition for CA-MRSA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and POT. Of 219 isolates (76 clonal groups), 64 (29.3%) were clinical-HA/POT-CA isolates (22 clonal groups). Some clones of them accumulated in this hospital and might be involved in nosocomial transmission. Virulent factors of the isolates were analyzed, and only one (1.6%) Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene positive isolate but no arginine catabolic mobile element genes positive isolate were found in clinical-HA/POT-CA. Additionally, clinical-HA/POT-CA isolates showed higher antimicrobial susceptibility than clinical-HA/POT-HA, especially to minocycline, doxycycline, and amikacin. The most frequent genotype of molecular CA-MRSA was multi-locus sequence type 5-SCCmecIV, previously not detected in Japan. Although CA-MRSA at this hospital showed low virulence and higher antimicrobial susceptibility, the risk of nosocomial infection from them should be recognized, requiring stricter infection control measures.

  12. Spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Clinical Specimens of Patients With Nosocomial Infections in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infection is increasing annually and becoming a true global challenge. The pattern of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) types in different geographic regions is diverse. Objectives This study determined the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and different spa types in S. aureus clinical isolates. Materials and Methods During a six-month period, 90 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 320 clinical specimens. The in vitro susceptibility of various S. aureus isolates to 16 antibiotic discs was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Molecular typing was carried out with S. aureus protein A typing via polymerase chain reaction. Results The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in our study was 88.9%. Twenty-three (25.5%) isolates were positive for panton-valentine leukocidin encoding genes. S. aureus presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (100%). No resistance was observed to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The rates of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested varied between 23.3% and 82.2%. The rate of multidrug resistance among these clinical isolates was 93.3%. The 90 S. aureus isolates were classified into five S. aureus protein A types: t037 (33.3%), t030 (22.2%), t790 (16.7%), t969 (11.1%), and t044 (7.7%). Eight (8.9%) isolates were not typable using the S. aureus protein A typing method. Conclusions We report a high methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate in our hospital. Additionally, t030 and t037 were the predominant spa-types among hospital-associated S. aureus. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous surveillance to prevent the dissemination of multidrug resistance among different S. aureus protein A types in Iran. PMID:27679706

  13. High incidence of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus (OS-MRSA) associated with bovine mastitis in China.

    PubMed

    Pu, WanXia; Su, Yang; Li, JianXi; Li, ChunHui; Yang, ZhiQiang; Deng, HaiPing; Ni, ChunXia

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6%) were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA). These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests) to accurately identify MRSA.

  14. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Luanda, Angola: first description of the spread of the MRSA ST5-IVa clone in the African continent.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; Santos-Silva, Isabel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen worldwide, and although surveillance studies are available in the most developed countries, data from Angola are inexistent. In June 2012, 295 inpatients and 199 healthcare workers from three hospitals in Luanda, Angola were nasal swabbed for S. aureus and MRSA carriage. A total of 117 individuals (23.7%) were S. aureus nasal carriers, out of which 68 (58.1%) were colonized with MRSA. The majority of the MRSA isolates (74%) belonged to a single clonal lineage, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) A-ST5-IVa associated with three spa types (spa types t105/t311/t11657), followed by PFGE C-ST88-IVa (spa types t186/t325/t786/t1951/t3869) (n=9; 12%); the other 11 MRSA isolates were representatives of 4 additional lineages. Almost half (49%) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates belonged to three major clones: PFGE B-ST508 (spa types t050/t861/t1346/t1574/t2626/t12218), PFGE D-ST45 (spa types t939/t11656), and PFGE E-ST30 (spa types t1202/t9118). MSSA isolates presented a high variability of virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidine (7.9%). MRSA carriage in Luanda is considerably high, and the major clone corresponds to a worldwide epidemic lineage, so far scarcely reported in Africa. Additional infection control measures in this metropolis are mandatory for a global MRSA control.

  15. A New Approach for the Discovery of Antibiotics by Targeting Non-Multiplying Bacteria: A Novel Topical Antibiotic for Staphylococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanmin; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Liu, Yingjun; Coates, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates. PMID:20676403

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Beefpacking Workers in a Midwestern United States Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Leibler, Jessica H; Jordan, Jeanne A; Brownstein, Kirsten; Lander, Lina; Price, Lance B; Perry, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.

  17. Book reviews.

    PubMed

    Dein, S; Dein, S; Littlewood, R; Oloyede, Y; Krause, I B; Argenti, N

    1998-04-01

    Millennialism and violence Michael Barkun (Ed.) London, Frank Cass, 1996, 177 pp. Evil and suffering in Jewish philosophy Oliver Leaman Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 157 pp. Religion and the clinical practice of psychology Edward P. Shafranski (ed.) Washington DC, American Psychological Association, 1996, 619 pp., index, bibliographies, figures. Beyond reason: art and psychosis: works from the Prinzhorn Collection London, Hayward Gallery, 1997, £12.95, 195 pp., index, bibliography Madness and art: the life and works of Adolf Wölfli Walter Morgenthaler Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1992, $35.00, xviii, 127 pp., index, bibliography. The encyclopaedia of cultural anthropology David Levinson & Melvin Ember (Eds) New York, Holt/London, Macmillan, 1996, £299, 1486 pp., index, figures, 4 volumes Encyclopaedia of social and cultural anthropology Alan Barnard & Jonathan Spencer (Eds) London, Routledge, 1996, £25, 658 pp., index, figures Hystories: hysterical epidemics and modern culture Elaine Showalter London, Picador, 1997, £16.99 x + 244 pp., index, notes. Charred lullabies: chapters in an anthropology of violence E. Valentine Daniel Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1997, £17.95 (pbk), £35.00 (hbk), xii + 252 pp., maps, notes, bibliog., index Women in pain: gender and morbidity in Mexico Kaja Finkler University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, xvii + 238 pp., index, bibliog. Reason and necessity in the specification of the multiple self Roland Littlewood. Occasional Paper No. 43. London, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1996 £10.00 (pbk), 75 pp., notes index, bibliog. Mental illness and bodily cures: psychiatric treatment in the first half of the twentieth century Joel Braslow Berkeley, California University Press, 1997, £30.00 xiv + 240pp., ind., notes, tables Mimesis: culture, art, society. Gunter Gebauer & Christoph Wulf Translated from German by Don Reneau Berkeley, University of California Press, 1995.

  18. Structure-function analysis of heterodimer formation, oligomerization, and receptor binding of the Staphylococcus aureus bi-component toxin LukGH.

    PubMed

    Badarau, Adriana; Rouha, Harald; Malafa, Stefan; Logan, Derek T; Håkansson, Maria; Stulik, Lukas; Dolezilkova, Ivana; Teubenbacher, Astrid; Gross, Karin; Maierhofer, Barbara; Weber, Susanne; Jägerhofer, Michaela; Hoffman, David; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The bi-component leukocidins of Staphylococcus aureus are important virulence factors that lyse human phagocytic cells and contribute to immune evasion. The γ-hemolysins (HlgAB and HlgCB) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL or LukSF) were shown to assemble from soluble subunits into membrane-bound oligomers on the surface of target cells, creating barrel-like pore structures that lead to cell lysis. LukGH is the most distantly related member of this toxin family, sharing only 30-40% amino acid sequence identity with the others. We observed that, unlike other leukocidin subunits, recombinant LukH and LukG had low solubility and were unable to bind to target cells, unless both components were present. Using biolayer interferometry and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence we detected binding of LukH to LukG in solution with an affinity in the low nanomolar range and dynamic light scattering measurements confirmed formation of a heterodimer. We elucidated the structure of LukGH by x-ray crystallography at 2.8-Å resolution. This revealed an octameric structure that strongly resembles that reported for HlgAB, but with important structural differences. Structure guided mutagenesis studies demonstrated that three salt bridges, not found in other bi-component leukocidins, are essential for dimer formation in solution and receptor binding. We detected weak binding of LukH, but not LukG, to the cellular receptor CD11b by biolayer interferometry, suggesting that in common with other members of this toxin family, the S-component has the primary contact role with the receptor. These new insights provide the basis for novel strategies to counteract this powerful toxin and Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis.

  19. Five birds, one stone: neutralization of α-hemolysin and 4 bi-component leukocidins of Staphylococcus aureus with a single human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Rouha, Harald; Badarau, Adriana; Visram, Zehra C; Battles, Michael B; Prinz, Bianka; Magyarics, Zoltán; Nagy, Gábor; Mirkina, Irina; Stulik, Lukas; Zerbs, Manuel; Jägerhofer, Michaela; Maierhofer, Barbara; Teubenbacher, Astrid; Dolezilkova, Ivana; Gross, Karin; Banerjee, Srijib; Zauner, Gerhild; Malafa, Stefan; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Maier, Sabine; Mabry, Robert; Krauland, Eric; Wittrup, K Dane; Gerngross, Tillman U; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen associated with high mortality. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability of antibiotics to counteract bacterial cytotoxins involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus call for novel therapeutic approaches, such as passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The complexity of staphylococcal pathogenesis and past failures with single mAb products represent considerable barriers for antibody-based therapeutics. Over the past few years, efforts have focused on neutralizing α-hemolysin. Recent findings suggest that the concerted actions of several cytotoxins, including the bi-component leukocidins play important roles in staphylococcal pathogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to isolate mAbs that bind to multiple cytolysins by employing high diversity human IgG1 libraries presented on the surface of yeast cells. Here we describe cross-reactive antibodies with picomolar affinity for α-hemolysin and 4 different bi-component leukocidins that share only ∼26% overall amino acid sequence identity. The molecular basis of cross-reactivity is the recognition of a conformational epitope shared by α-hemolysin and F-components of gamma-hemolysin (HlgAB and HlgCB), LukED and LukSF (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin). The amino acids predicted to form the epitope are conserved and known to be important for cytotoxic activity. We found that a single cross-reactive antibody prevented lysis of human phagocytes, epithelial and red blood cells induced by α-hemolysin and leukocidins in vitro, and therefore had superior effectiveness compared to α-hemolysin specific antibodies to protect from the combined cytolytic effect of secreted S. aureus toxins. Such mAb afforded high levels of protection in murine models of pneumonia and sepsis.

  20. Oxacillin alters the toxin expression profile of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rudkin, Justine K; Laabei, Maisem; Edwards, Andrew M; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Otto, Michael; Lennon, Katrina L; O'Gara, James P; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Massey, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing cause for concern. These strains are more virulent than health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) due to higher levels of toxin expression. In a previous study, we showed that the high-level expression of PBP2a, the alternative penicillin binding protein encoded by the mecA gene on type II staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements, reduced toxicity by interfering with the Agr quorum sensing system. This was not seen in strains carrying the CA-MRSA-associated type IV SCCmec element. These strains express significantly lower levels of PBP2a than the other MRSA type, which may explain their relatively high toxicity. We hypothesized that as oxacillin is known to increase mecA expression levels, it may be possible to attenuate the toxicity of CA-MRSA by using this antibiotic. Subinhibitory oxacillin concentrations induced PBP2a expression, repressed Agr activity, and, as a consequence, decreased phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) secretion by CA-MRSA strains. However, consistent with other studies, oxacillin also increased the expression levels of alpha-toxin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). The net effect of these changes on the ability to lyse diverse cell types was tested, and we found that where the PSMs and alpha-toxin are important, oxacillin reduced overall lytic activity, but where PVL is important, it increased lytic activity, demonstrating the pleiotropic effect of oxacillin on toxin expression by CA-MRSA.

  1. Levels of alpha-toxin correlate with distinct phenotypic response profiles of blood mononuclear cells and with agr background of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Mairpady Shambat, Srikanth; Haggar, Axana; Vandenesch, Francois; Lina, Gerard; van Wamel, Willem J B; Arakere, Gayathri; Svensson, Mattias; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of Staphylococcus aureus have shown a relation between certain clones and the presence of specific virulence genes, but how this translates into virulence-associated functional responses is not fully elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by analyses of community-acquired S. aureus strains characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance, ST types, agr types, and virulence gene profiles. Supernatants containing exotoxins were prepared from overnight bacterial cultures, and tested in proliferation assays using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The strains displayed stable phenotypic response profiles, defined by either a proliferative or cytotoxic response. Although, virtually all strains elicited superantigen-mediated proliferative responses, the strains with a cytotoxic profile induced proliferation only in cultures with the most diluted supernatants. This indicated that the superantigen-response was masked by a cytotoxic effect which was also confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. The cytotoxic supernatants contained significantly higher levels of α-toxin than did the proliferative supernatants. Addition of α-toxin to supernatants characterized as proliferative switched the response into cytotoxic profiles. In contrast, no effect of Panton Valentine Leukocidin, δ-toxin or phenol soluble modulin α-3 was noted in the proliferative assay. Furthermore, a significant association between agr type and phenotypic profile was found, where agrII and agrIII strains had predominantly a proliferative profile whereas agrI and IV strains had a predominantly cytotoxic profile. The differential response profiles associated with specific S. aureus strains with varying toxin production could possibly have an impact on disease manifestations, and as such may reflect specific pathotypes.

  2. Application of a Propionyl Coenzyme A Synthetase for Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate-co-3-Hydroxybutyrate) Accumulation in Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Henry E.; Mitsky, Timothy A.; Mahadeo, Debbie A.; Tran, Minhtien; Gruys, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic operon for propionic acid degradation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contains an open reading frame designated prpE which encodes a propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) synthetase (A. R. Horswill and J. C. Escalante-Semerena, Microbiology 145:1381–1388, 1999). In this paper we report the cloning of prpE by PCR, its overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the substrate specificity of the enzyme. When propionate was utilized as the substrate for PrpE, a Km of 50 μM and a specific activity of 120 μmol · min−1 · mg−1 were found at the saturating substrate concentration. PrpE also activated acetate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and butyrate to their corresponding coenzyme A esters but did so much less efficiently than propionate. When prpE was coexpressed with the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthetic genes from Ralstonia eutropha in recombinant E. coli, a PHA copolymer containing 3HP units accumulated when 3HP was supplied with the growth medium. To compare the utility of acyl-CoA synthetases to that of an acyl-CoA transferase for PHA production, PHA-producing recombinant strains were constructed to coexpress the PHA biosynthetic genes with prpE, with acoE (an acetyl-CoA synthetase gene from R. eutropha [H. Priefert and A. Steinbüchel, J. Bacteriol. 174:6590–6599, 1992]), or with orfZ (an acetyl-CoA:4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA transferase gene from Clostridium propionicum [H. E. Valentin, S. Reiser, and K. J. Gruys, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 67:291–299, 2000]). Of the three enzymes, PrpE and OrfZ enabled similar levels of 3HP incorporation into PHA, whereas AcoE was significantly less effective in this capacity. PMID:11097899

  3. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; dos Santos, K.R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD. PMID:25992644

  4. Cartographic Production for the FLaSH Map Study: Generation of Rugosity Grids, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Hansen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Project Summary This series of raster data is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Series release from the Florida Shelf Habitat Project (FLaSH). This disc contains two raster images in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) raster grid format, jpeg image format, and Geo-referenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF). Data is also provided in non-image ASCII format. Rugosity grids at two resolutions (250 m and 1000 m) were generated for West Florida shelf waters to 250 m using a custom algorithm that follows the methods of Valentine and others (2004). The Methods portion of this document describes the specific steps used to generate the raster images. Rugosity, also referred to as roughness, ruggedness, or the surface-area ratio (Riley and others, 1999; Wilson and others, 2007), is a visual and quantitative measurement of terrain complexity, a common variable in ecological habitat studies. The rugosity of an area can affect biota by influencing habitat, providing shelter from elements, determining the quantity and type of living space, influencing the type and quantity of flora, affecting predator-prey relationships by providing cover and concealment, and, as an expression of vertical relief, can influence local environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture. In the marine environment rugosity can furthermore influence current flow rate and direction, increase the residence time of water in an area through eddying and current deflection, influence local water conditions such as chemistry, turbidity, and temperature, and influence the rate and nature of sedimentary deposition. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic

  5. Prevalence of MRSA strains among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from outpatients, 2006.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Nimmo, Graeme R; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn J; Bell, Jan M; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    Biennial community-based Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial surveillance programs have been performed by the Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) since 2000. Over this time the percentage of S. aureus identified as methicillin resistant has increased significantly from 10.3% in 2000 to 16% in 2006. This increase has occurred throughout Australia and has been due to the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clones. However, healthcare associated MRSA were still predominant in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and Victoria/Tasmania. In the 2006 survey CA-MRSA accounted for 8.8% of community-onset S. aureus infections. Although multiple CA-MRSA clones were characterised, the predominate clone identified was Queensland (Qld) MRSA (ST93-MRSA-IV) a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive MRSA that was first reported in Queensland and northern New South Wales in 2003 but has now spread throughout Australia. Several international PVL-positive CA-MRSA clones were also identified including USA300 MRSA (ST8-MRSA-IV). In addition, PVL was detected in an EMRSA-15 (ST22-MRSA-IV) isolate; a hospital associated MRSA clone that is known to be highly transmissible in the healthcare setting. With the introduction of the international clones and the transmission of Qld MRSA throughout the country, over 50% of CA-MRSA in Australia are now PVL positive. This change in the epidemiology of CA-MRSA in the Australian community will potentially result in an increase in skin and soft tissue infections in young Australians. As infections caused by these strains frequently results in hospitalisation their emergence is a major health concern.

  6. Structure-Function Analysis of Heterodimer Formation, Oligomerization, and Receptor Binding of the Staphylococcus aureus Bi-component Toxin LukGH*

    PubMed Central

    Badarau, Adriana; Rouha, Harald; Malafa, Stefan; Logan, Derek T.; Håkansson, Maria; Stulik, Lukas; Dolezilkova, Ivana; Teubenbacher, Astrid; Gross, Karin; Maierhofer, Barbara; Weber, Susanne; Jägerhofer, Michaela; Hoffman, David; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    The bi-component leukocidins of Staphylococcus aureus are important virulence factors that lyse human phagocytic cells and contribute to immune evasion. The γ-hemolysins (HlgAB and HlgCB) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL or LukSF) were shown to assemble from soluble subunits into membrane-bound oligomers on the surface of target cells, creating barrel-like pore structures that lead to cell lysis. LukGH is the most distantly related member of this toxin family, sharing only 30–40% amino acid sequence identity with the others. We observed that, unlike other leukocidin subunits, recombinant LukH and LukG had low solubility and were unable to bind to target cells, unless both components were present. Using biolayer interferometry and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence we detected binding of LukH to LukG in solution with an affinity in the low nanomolar range and dynamic light scattering measurements confirmed formation of a heterodimer. We elucidated the structure of LukGH by x-ray crystallography at 2.8-Å resolution. This revealed an octameric structure that strongly resembles that reported for HlgAB, but with important structural differences. Structure guided mutagenesis studies demonstrated that three salt bridges, not found in other bi-component leukocidins, are essential for dimer formation in solution and receptor binding. We detected weak binding of LukH, but not LukG, to the cellular receptor CD11b by biolayer interferometry, suggesting that in common with other members of this toxin family, the S-component has the primary contact role with the receptor. These new insights provide the basis for novel strategies to counteract this powerful toxin and Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. PMID:25371205

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A1 and A2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF6, for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues (192OsO4, 190OsO4, 189OsO4, 188OsO4), by considering the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues (187OsO4, 186OsO4, 184OsO4). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  8. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  9. Cytoplasmic replication of Staphylococcus aureus upon phagosomal escape triggered by phenol-soluble modulin α

    PubMed Central

    Grosz, Magdalena; Kolter, Julia; Paprotka, Kerstin; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Schäfer, Daniel; Chatterjee, Som Subra; Geiger, Tobias; Wolz, Christiane; Ohlsen, Knut; Otto, Michael; Rudel, Thomas; Sinha, Bhanu; Fraunholz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is readily internalized by professional phagocytes such as macrophages and neutrophils but also by non-professional phagocytes such as epithelial or endothelial cells. Intracellular bacteria have been proposed to play a role in evasion of the innate immune system and may also lead to dissemination within migrating phagocytes. Further, S. aureus efficiently lyses host cells with a battery of cytolytic toxins. Recently, phenol-soluble modulins (PSM) have been identified to comprise a genus-specific family of cytolytic peptides. Of these the PSMα peptides have been implicated in killing polymorphonuclear leukocytes after phagocytosis. We questioned if the peptides were active in destroying endosomal membranes to avoid lysosomal killing of the pathogen and monitored integrity of infected host cell endosomes by measuring the acidity of the intracellular bacterial microenvironment via flow cytometry and by a reporter recruitment technique. Isogenic mutants of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains USA300 LAC, USA400 MW2 as well as the strongly cytolytic methicillin-sensitive strain 6850 were compared to their respective wild type strains. In all three genetic backgrounds, PSMα mutants were unable to escape from phagosomes in non-professional (293, HeLa, EAhy.926) and professional phagocytes (THP-1), whereas mutants in PSMβ and δ-toxin as well as β-toxin, phosphatidyl inositol-dependent phospholipase C and Panton Valentine leukotoxin escaped with efficiencies of the parental strains. S. aureus replicated intracellularly only in presence of a functional PSMα operon thereby illustrating that bacteria grow in the host cell cytoplasm upon phagosomal escape. PMID:24164701

  10. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: community transmission, pathogenesis, and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Nishiyama, Akihito; Takano, Tomomi; Yabe, Shizuka; Higuchi, Wataru; Razvina, Olga; Shi, Da

    2010-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is able to persist not only in hospitals (with a high level of antimicrobial agent use) but also in the community (with a low level of antimicrobial agent use). The former is called hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and the latter community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). It is believed MRSA clones are generated from S. aureus through insertion of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and outbreaks occur as they spread. Several worldwide and regional clones have been identified, and their epidemiological, clinical, and genetic characteristics have been described. CA-MRSA is likely able to survive in the community because of suitable SCCmec types (type IV or V), a clone-specific colonization/infection nature, toxin profiles (including Pantone-Valentine leucocidin, PVL), and narrow drug resistance patterns. CA-MRSA infections are generally seen in healthy children or young athletes, with unexpected cases of diseases, and also in elderly inpatients, occasionally surprising clinicians used to HA-MRSA infections. CA-MRSA spreads within families and close-contact groups or even through public transport, demonstrating transmission cores. Re-infection (including multifocal infection) frequently occurs, if the cores are not sought out and properly eradicated. Recently, attention has been given to CA-MRSA (USA300), which originated in the US, and is growing as HA-MRSA and also as a worldwide clone. CA-MRSA infection in influenza season has increasingly been noted as well. MRSA is also found in farm and companion animals, and has occasionally transferred to humans. As such, the epidemiological, clinical, and genetic behavior of CA-MRSA, a growing threat, is focused on in this study. PMID:20336341

  11. Development of a new pentaplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of poly-microbial specimens containing Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci, with simultaneous detection of staphylococcal virulence and methicillin resistance markers.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles E; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P; Cockayne, Alan; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains harbouring genes encoding virulence and antibiotic resistance are of public health importance. In clinical samples, pathogenic S. aureus is often mixed with putatively less pathogenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), both of which can harbour mecA, the gene encoding staphylococcal methicillin-resistance. There have been previous attempts at distinguishing MRSA from MRCoNS, most of which were based on the detection of one of the pathognomonic markers of S. aureus, such as coa, nuc or spa. That approach might suffice for discrete colonies and mono-microbial samples; it is inadequate for identification of clinical specimens containing mixtures of S. aureus and CoNS. In the present study, a real-time pentaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects markers for bacteria (16S rRNA), coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), S. aureus (spa), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) and methicillin resistance (mecA). Staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacterial strains (n = 283) were used to validate the new assay. The applicability of this test to clinical samples was evaluated using spiked blood cultures (n = 43) containing S. aureus and CoNS in mono-microbial and poly-microbial models, which showed that the 5 markers were all detected as expected. Cycling completes within 1 h, delivering 100% specificity, NPV and PPV with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(1) to 3.0 × 10(1) colony forming units (CFU)/ml, suggesting direct applicability in routine diagnostic microbiology. This is the most multiplexed real-time PCR-based PVL-MRSA assay and the first detection of a unique marker for CoNS without recourse to the conventional elimination approach. There was no evidence that this new assay produced invalid/indeterminate test results.

  12. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community.

  13. Changing Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a Challenge to Current Guidelines ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Hardardottir, Hjördis; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Westh, Henrik; Valsdottir, Freyja; Boye, Kit; Karlsson, Sigfus; Kristinsson, Karl Gustaf; Gudlaugsson, Olafur

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is continuously changing. Iceland has a low incidence of MRSA. A “search and destroy” policy (screening patients with defined risk factors and attempting eradication in carriers) has been implemented since 1991. Clinical and microbiological data of all MRSA patients from the years 2000 to 2008 were collected prospectively. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the repeat region of the Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and screening for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Two hundred twenty-six infected (60%) or colonized (40%) individuals were detected (annual incidence 2.5 to 16/100,000). From 2000 to 2003, two health care-associated outbreaks dominated (spa types t037 and t2802), which were successfully controlled with extensive infection control measures. After 2004, an increasing number of community-associated (CA) cases without relation to the health care system occurred. A great variety of clones (40 PFGE types and 49 spa types) were found, reflecting an influx of MRSA from abroad. The USA300 and Southwest Pacific (SWP) clones were common. SCCmec type IV was most common (72%), and 38% of the isolates were PVL positive. The incidence of MRSA in Iceland has increased since 1999 but remains low and has been stable in the last years. The search and destroy policy was effective to control MRSA in the health care setting. However, MRSA in Iceland is now shifting into the community, challenging the current Icelandic guidelines, which are tailored to the health care system. PMID:20844224

  14. Carriage of Staphylococcus species in the veterinary visiting dog population in mainland UK: molecular characterisation of resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates.

  15. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (p<0.05). Twenty-six pets and five VP carried PVL-positive S. aureus. In total, 60 S. aureus strains were recovered (53 from pets, seven from VP) of which 16 were MRSA (26.7%), 12 mecA- and four mecC-positive. MRSA showed higher resistance rates against other antimicrobials as compared to methicillin-susceptible ones. Strains were classified by MLST in 13 STs, with the predominance of ST80 and ST15. In MRSA, SCCmec types II, IV and XI were identified. The most frequent spa types were t5559 and t7558. Fifty-six strains were classified into 15 PFGE types. Comparison of genetic markers shows that identical or very similar strains disseminate among animals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans.

  16. Quaternary faults near the proposed Eagle Flat low-level radioactive waste repository, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Eagle Flat basin, an intermontane basin in Trans-Pecos Texas, is being considered as a possible site for the Texas repository of low-level radioactive wastes. Intermontane basins and associated normal faults formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. The most active late Tertiary and Quaternary faults occur within the Hueco Bolson (HB) and the Salt Basin/Salt Flat/Lobo Valley, west and east, respectively, of the proposed repository. Several faults of the southeast HB which are within 50 km of the site, displace middle Pleistocene deposits 10 to 24 m. The most recent surface rupture in the southeast HB probably occurred on the Amargosa fault during the Holocene. Upper Pleistocene deposits are offset 2.5 to 4.5 m, and middle Pleistocene deposits are displaced 24 m. Fault scarps within 50 km east of the proposed repository are associated with faults bounding the Salt Basin/Salt Flat/Lobo Valley. In the southern Salt Basin and northern Salt Flat, faults offset probable upper Pleistocene to Holocene deposits as much as 1.5 m. A scarp in Red Light Bolson, 13.5 km south of the site, is the closest Quaternary fault scarp to the proposed site. Only 7 km long, this scarp is part of a mostly covered, probably multisegmented, 40-km-long fault that bounds the northeastern margin of Red Light Bolson. Offsets associated with single-rupture events range from 0.6 to 3 m, and average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since middle Pleistocene are about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. The largest historical earthquake of the region, the 1931 Valentine earthquake, which had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture, occurred about 95 km southeast of the proposed repository.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abdulgader, Shima M.; Shittu, Adebayo O.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a serious global problem, with considerable impact on patients and substantial health care costs. This systematic review provides an overview on the clonal diversity of MRSA, as well as the prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive MRSA in Africa. A search on the molecular characterization of MRSA in Africa was conducted by two authors using predefined terms. We screened for articles published in English and French through to October 2014 from five electronic databases. A total of 57 eligible studies were identified. Thirty-four reports from 15 countries provided adequate genotyping data. CC5 is the predominant clonal complex in the healthcare setting in Africa. The hospital-associated MRSA ST239/ST241-III [3A] was identified in nine African countries. This clone was also described with SCCmec type IV [2B] in Algeria and Nigeria, and type V [5C] in Niger. In Africa, the European ST80-IV [2B] clone was limited to Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia. The clonal types ST22-IV [2B], ST36-II [2A], and ST612-IV [2B] were only reported in South Africa. No clear distinctions were observed between MRSA responsible for hospital and community infections. The community clones ST8-IV [2B] and ST88-IV [2B] were reported both in the hospital and community settings in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, and São Tomé and Príncipe. The proportion of PVL-positive MRSA carriage and/or infections ranged from 0.3 to 100% in humans. A number of pandemic clones were identified in Africa. Moreover, some MRSA clones are limited to specific countries or regions. We strongly advocate for more surveillance studies on MRSA in Africa. PMID:25983721

  18. [Helicobacter pylori infection (13C-UBT), and its relationship with nutritional and socioeconomic factors in low income school children from Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Páez Valery, M C; Barón, M A; Solano, L; Nadaff, G; Boccio, J; Barrado, A

    2006-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp) is widely spread around the world, and it is considered one of the main causes of chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Recent research has shown that it can be associated with nutritional disorders, mainly with iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Hp infection, and infection pattern according to age, sex, nutritional status, and socioeconomic conditions in children who attended the Unidad Educativa "Valentin Espinal" in the city of Valencia. 170 children, between 3 and 14 years of age were studied to assess Hpylori infection (13C-urea breath test), age, nutritional status according to BMI and Height for age, hemoglobin (cianometahemoglobin), serum ferritin (ELISA), socioeconomic status (Graffar-Méndez-Castellano), housing conditions, number of families and of people cohabitating in the same household, and quality of services. 78.8% of the children were infected with Hp, witch was significantly correlated with age but not gender. 25.9% of the sample had undernutrition, and 46.5% were stunted. 98.1% of the families lived in poverty, and 98% of the households showed sanitary deficiencies. A mean of 6.0 +/- 2.4 persons lived in each household (range: 2-15), and an average of 3.2 person shared bedrooms. The odds of being infected were higher in those children who were stunted. Also, socioeconomic status, mother's education level, and poor hosing conditions were significantly associated to being infected. Hpylori is highly prevalent among socially and economically deprived children, and age, overcrowding, and a low education level of the mother increases the risk of being infected.

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Joseph, Sam W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest wastewater treatment plants between October 2009 and October 2010. Samples were analyzed for MRSA and MSSA using membrane filtration. Isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) screening, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to further characterize the strains. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and analysis of variance. Results: We detected MRSA (n = 240) and MSSA (n = 119) in 22 of 44 (50%) and 24 of 44 (55%) wastewater samples, respectively. The odds of samples being MRSA-positive decreased as treatment progressed: 10 of 12 (83%) influent samples were MRSA-positive, while only one of 12 (8%) effluent samples was MRSA-positive. Ninety-three percent and 29% of unique MRSA and MSSA isolates, respectively, were multidrug resistant. SCCmec types II and IV, the pvl gene, and USA types 100, 300, and 700 (PFGE strain types commonly found in the United States) were identified among the MRSA isolates. Conclusions: Our findings raise potential public health concerns for wastewater treatment plant workers and individuals exposed to reclaimed wastewater. Because of increasing use of reclaimed wastewater, further study is needed to evaluate the risk of exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in treated

  20. List of Organizing Committees and Conference Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Organizers Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Romanian Neutron Scattering Society Sponsors Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, Czech Republic Programme Committee Valentin Gordely (chairman)Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Heinrich StuhrmannGermany Jose TeixeiraLaboratoire Leon Brillouin, France Pavel ApelJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Pavol BalgavyComenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia Alexander BelushkinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Georg BueldtInstitute of Structural Biology and Biophysics (ISB), Germany Leonid BulavinTaras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine Emil BurzoBabes-Bolyai University, Romania Vadim CherezovThe Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, USA Ion IonitaRomanian Society of Neutron Scattering, Romania Alexei KhokhlovMoscow State University, Russia Aziz MuzafarovInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Alexander OzerinInstitute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Gerard PepyResearch Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungary Josef PlestilInstitute of Macromolecular Chemistry CAS, Czech Republic Aurel RadulescuJuelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Germany Maria BalasoiuJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Alexander KuklinJoint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia Local Organizing Committee Alexander Kuklin - Chairman Maria Balasoiu - Co-chairman Tatiana Murugova - Secretary Natalia Malysheva Natalia Dokalenko Julia Gorshkova Andrey Rogachev Oleksandr Ivankov Dmitry Soloviev Lilia Anghel Erhan Raul The PDF also contains the Conference Programme.