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Sample records for born mineral density

  1. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  2. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    ... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

  3. Quantifying Mineralization Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Microcomputed Tomography (μCT) is an efficient method for quantifying the density and mineralization of mandibular microarchitecture. Conventional radiomorphometrics such as Bone and Tissue Mineral Density are useful in determining the average, overall mineral content of a scanned specimen; however, solely relying on these metrics has limitations. Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD), the complex array of mineralization densities within a bone sample can be portrayed. This information is particularly useful as a computational feature reflective of the rate of bone turnover. Here we demonstrate the utility of BMDD analyses in the rat mandible and generate a platform for further exploration of mandibular pathology and treatment. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=8) underwent μCT and histogram data was generated from a selected volume of interest. A standard curve was derived for each animal and reference criteria were defined. An average histogram was produced for the group and descriptive analyses including the means and standard deviations are reported for each of the normative metrics. Results Mpeak (3444 Hounsfield Units, SD =138) and Mwidth (2221 Hounsfield Units SD =628) are two metrics demonstrating reproducible parameters of BMDD with minimal variance. A total of eight valuable metrics quantifying biologically significant events concerning mineralization are reported. Conclusion Here we quantify the vast wealth of information depicted in the complete spectrum of mineralization established by the BMDD analysis. We demonstrate its potential in delivering mineralization data that encompasses and enhances conventional reporting of radiomorphometrics. Moreover, we explore its role and translational potential in craniofacial experimentation. PMID:22976646

  4. The long-term effect of early mineral, vitamin D, and breast milk intake on bone mineral status in 9- to 11-year-old children born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Backström, M C; Mäki, R; Kuusela, A L; Sievänen, H; Koivisto, A M; Koskinen, M; Ikonen, R S; Mäki, M

    1999-11-01

    Although the short-term benefits of mineral supplementation in preterm infants has been established, the long-term benefits are less clear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of early-life mineral, vitamin D, and breast milk intake on bone mineral status in children 9 to 11 years of age who were born prematurely. Seventy preterm infants born 1985 through 1987 were randomized into four groups: to receive a vitamin D dose of 500 or 1000 IU/day and calcium- and phosphorus-supplemented or unsupplemented breast milk. At 3 months of age, radial bone mineral content was determined by single-photon absorptiometry and vitamin D metabolites were assessed. At 9 to 11 years of age, the bone mineral status of the radius and lumbar spine was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. At the age of 3 months, the preterm infants with diets supplemented with minerals had 36% higher bone mineral content than the preterm infants whose diet was not supplemented with minerals. At the age of 9 to 11 years, in contrast, bone mineral status was comparable among the groups, irrespective of different mineral supplementation during the neonatal period. Interestingly, the lumbar bone mineral apparent density was positively related to lactation in mineral-supplemented children. There was neither short-term nor long-term benefit to bone mineral status of a vitamin D dose of 1000 IU/day compared with 500 IU/day. The short-term benefit to bone mineral density in preterm infants of mineral supplementation of the early diet is obvious, but, in the long term, the effects seem to disappear. The results also imply that a relatively long period of breast-feeding may be needed to optimize long-term bone mineral acquisition in the lumbar spine.

  5. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated.

  6. Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Marsh, A G; Sanchez, T V; Michelsen, O; Chaffee, F L; Fagal, S M

    1988-09-01

    The amount and type of dietary protein affect bone mineral loss after the menopause. This observation was substantiated in 10 y of studies by direct photon absorptiometry, four results of which follow. 1) Studies of 1600 women in southwestern Michigan revealed that those who had followed the lactoovovegetarian diet for at least 20 y had only 18% less bone mineral by age 80 whereas closely paired omnivores had 35% less bone mineral. 2) A study of self-selected weighed food intake showed no statistical difference in nutrient intakes but a difference in Ca:P ratio and acid-base formation of diet, each significant to p less than 0.001. 3) When sulfur intake of a fixed diet was increased, the titratable acidity of the urine increased proportionately. 4) Bone mineral densities of 304 older women from the continental United States closely paralleled those from earlier Michigan studies.

  7. [Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Noriaki

    2002-11-01

    Renal osteodystrophy can be classified into several disorders, which is now major problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Most of studies reported that the bone mineral density of HD patients decreased, but there exist the differences depending on many factors such as sex, bone site, years of HD, the type of disorders. The clinical usefulness of bone densitometry has been evaluated in many studies.

  8. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  9. Rocket-borne Langmuir probe for plasma density irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, H. S. S.

    2013-11-01

    Ionospheric plasma density exhibits very large spatial and temporal variations known as ionosphere irregularities. These irregularities are generated by a number of processes related to plasma as well as neutral dynamics. The rocket- or satellite-borne Langmuir probe (LP) is very simple and yet a very powerful tool to measure spatial variation of plasma density enabling one to study ionosphere irregularities. This article describes how a rocket-borne LP can be used to study ionosphere irregularities. It begins with the basic principle of the LP, the ionospheric regions where it can be used, various sizes and shapes of the LP sensors, the effect of geomagnetic field and vehicle wake on LP measurements. Mechanical and electronic details of typical LP instrument are given next. Strengths, weaknesses and specifications of LP instrument are also given. Rocket-borne LP has been used by a large number of scientists in the world to study ionospheric irregularities produced through plasma instabilities in the equatorial electrojet region, in spread F and those produced by neutral turbulence. Highlights of such irregularity measurements are presented to give the reader a flavor of the type of studies which can be undertaken using a rocket-borne LP. The present capability of rocket-borne LP is to detect vertical scale sizes of ionospheric irregularities from a few km down to about 10 cm with percentage amplitudes as small as 0.001%. Finally, a few suggestions are given for the improvement the LP instrumentation for future use.

  10. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years.

  11. Mineral density of hypomineralised and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Garot, Elsa; Rouas, Patrick; D'Incau, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Nicolas; Manton, David; Couture-Veschambre, Christine

    2016-06-28

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown. The purpose of the present study is to compare the mineral density of hypomineralised and normal enamel. The sample included eight MIH teeth from seven patients. MIH teeth were scanned using high resolution microtomography. Non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon test for paired samples) were carried out. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (mean 19%; p < 0.0001) compared to normal enamel. This weak enamel has implications in clinical management of MIH lesions.

  12. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  13. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  14. Axon density and axon orientation dispersion in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Claire E; Thompson, Deanne K; Chen, Jian; Leemans, Alexander; Adamson, Christopher L; Inder, Terrie E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT, <32 weeks' gestation) is associated with altered white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), the biological basis of which is uncertain but may relate to changes in axon density and/or dispersion, which can be measured using Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI). This study aimed to compare whole brain white matter FA, axon dispersion, and axon density between VPT children and controls (born ≥37 weeks' gestation), and to investigate associations with perinatal factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes. FA, neurite dispersion, and neurite density were estimated from multishell diffusion magnetic resonance images for 145 VPT and 33 control 7-year-olds. Diffusion values were compared between groups and correlated with perinatal factors (gestational age, birthweight, and neonatal brain abnormalities) and neurodevelopmental outcomes (IQ, motor, academic, and behavioral outcomes) using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Compared with controls, VPT children had lower FA and higher axon dispersion within many major white matter fiber tracts. Neonatal brain abnormalities predicted lower FA and higher axon dispersion in many major tracts in VPT children. Lower FA, higher axon dispersion, and lower axon density in various tracts correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT children. FA and NODDI measures distinguished VPT children from controls and were associated with neonatal brain abnormalities and neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study provides a more detailed and biologically meaningful interpretation of white matter microstructure changes associated with prematurity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3080-3102, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bone mineral density in weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M K; Johnell, O; Obrant, K J

    1993-03-01

    The effect of intense physical training on the bone mineral content (BMC) and soft tissue composition, and the development of these values after cessation of the active career, was studied in 40 nationally or internationally ranked male weight lifters. Nineteen were active and 21 had retired from competition sports. Fifty-two age- and sex-matched nonweight lifters served as controls. The bone mineral density (BMD) in total body, spine, hip, and proximal tibial metaphysis was measured with a Lunar Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus and the BMD of the distal forearm was measured with single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Seventeen of the lifters had been measured earlier with SPA in the forearm and 23 in the tibial condyle during their active career in 1975. The BMD was significantly higher in the weight lifters compared with the controls (10% in the total body P < 0.001, 12% in the trochanteric region P < 0.001, and 13% in the lumbar spine P < 0.001). All measured regions except the head showed significant higher bone mass in the weight lifters compared with the controls. In older lifters, the difference from the controls seemed to increase in total body and lumbar vertebrae (BMD), but remained unchanged in the hip. Significant correlation was found between the SPA measurements in 1975 and the corresponding measurements 15 years later in both the forearm (r = 0.51, P < 0.05 at the 1-cm level and r = 0.87, P < 0.001 at the 6-cm level) and in the tibial condyle (r = 0.61, P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Oberfield, S.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.; Zemel, B. S.; Hangartner, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. Introduction Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. Methods We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined. Results At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. Conclusions If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. PMID:25311106

  17. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  18. Bone mineral density testing in social context.

    PubMed

    Kazanjian, A; Green, C J; Bassett, K; Brunger, F

    1999-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) testing of healthy women continues to increase, despite widespread discrediting of this test as a valid means to predict fracture risk. To find an explanation for this expanding utilization, we turn to the literature of sociology and political science. Two interdisciplinary approaches proved particularly useful in critical examination of technologies related to women and aging: feminist analysis and cross-cultural analysis. BMD testing has grown because it is marketed in ways that draw upon and perpetuate two trends in western popular culture: a) the medical model of the aging female body; and b) the fear of aging, with its associated disability, dependency, and immobility. The feedback loop between popular and scientific knowledge has created and perpetuated the notion that the aging female body is a diseased body. The trend toward defining osteoporosis entirely on the basis of BMD diagnostic criteria has resulted in the transformation of a risk factor into a disease entity. As the onus for managing risk falls increasingly on women as individuals, and as they strive to reach the preferred ideal of normality, the area that defines normality on the continuum is shrinking, while that defining abnormality is increasing. The power relations and private interests served by this altered continuum remain largely unexamined. The effect, however, is to encourage the demand for screening and diagnostic technologies, giving rise to the rapid diffusion of such technologies, even where the research evidence does not support their use.

  19. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  20. Bone mineral density in healthy Tunisian women.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hela; Testouri, Nedia; Chihaoui, Manel Ben; Salah, Afef Hadj; Cheour, Elhem; Meddeb, Nihel; Zouari, Bechir; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2009-07-20

    Interpretation of densitometric results requires a comparison with reference bone mineral density (BMD) values of normal age and sex-matched persons. Thus the aim of this study was to determine these values for healthy Tunisian women, to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and to compare our findings with other populations. A cross-sectional study of 1378 Tunisian women aged between 20 and 96 years was carried out using DXA (GE-Lunar Prodigy). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism were excluded. Measurements were taken at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These values were expressed at T-scores, with reference to the mean BMD values of the group aged 20-40 years. The peak bone mass, estimated in this age group was 1.174+0.127 g/cm(2) at the lumbar spine and 1.016+/-0.118 g/cm(2) at the femoral site. It was attained respectively within the age of 25 years and 36 years. For both sites, the expected decline in BMD was shown when the successive age groups [40-49 years] and [50-59 years] were compared. Bone loss was rapid during the first 5 years after menopause. Thereafter BMD declined slowly but continually. The prevalence of osteoporosis in the women over 50 years of age, taking account of peak bone mass observed in our cohort, was 23.3% at the spine and 17.3% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 23.4%. These rates attained respectively 30.4%, 11.8% and 32.9% when we considered the Italian values, which demonstrate the variability of osteodensitometric depending to the reference population adopted.

  1. Bone mineral density in professional female dancers.

    PubMed

    Keay, N; Fogelman, I; Blake, G

    1997-06-01

    To measure the long term effects of dance training and the contribution of the timing and duration of any menstrual disruption on bone mineral density (BMD). Measurement of BMD in 57 premenopausal, previously professionally dance trained women and the relationship to menstrual and training history. Bone density measurements at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The average Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine in the amenorrhoeic dancers was significantly below that for the normal population. The average Z score for BMD at the femoral neck in the eumenorrhoeic dancers was significantly above that for the normal population. There was a significant difference between the average Z score for BMD at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the amenorrhoeic and eumenorrhoeic dancers. Significant negative relationships were found between BMD at the lumbar spine and (1) age at menarche, (2) duration of amenorrhoea, (3) BMD at the femoral neck, and (4) the variable of ideal minus lowest weight, which was independent of amenorrhoea. No significant relationships were found between duration of oral contraceptive pill usage and BMD at either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck in eumenorrhoeic or amenorrhoeic dancers. In order to quantify the effect of a combination of these significant factors, a model of BMD was constructed using multiple regression incorporating the variables duration of amenorrhoea, age at menarche, and ideal minus lowest body weight. In this model R2 was 33.6%, in other words 33.6% of the total variation in the Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine could be accounted for by these factors. Professional female dancers with a history of delayed menarche and amenorrhoea have been identified as another group of premenopausal women potentially at risk of developing osteoporosis because of a decrease in BMD at the lumbar spine. The femoral neck in dancers with a history of amenorrhoea was partially protected from loss of BMD by

  2. Bone mineral density in professional female dancers.

    PubMed Central

    Keay, N; Fogelman, I; Blake, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the long term effects of dance training and the contribution of the timing and duration of any menstrual disruption on bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: Measurement of BMD in 57 premenopausal, previously professionally dance trained women and the relationship to menstrual and training history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone density measurements at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The average Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine in the amenorrhoeic dancers was significantly below that for the normal population. The average Z score for BMD at the femoral neck in the eumenorrhoeic dancers was significantly above that for the normal population. There was a significant difference between the average Z score for BMD at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck between the amenorrhoeic and eumenorrhoeic dancers. Significant negative relationships were found between BMD at the lumbar spine and (1) age at menarche, (2) duration of amenorrhoea, (3) BMD at the femoral neck, and (4) the variable of ideal minus lowest weight, which was independent of amenorrhoea. No significant relationships were found between duration of oral contraceptive pill usage and BMD at either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck in eumenorrhoeic or amenorrhoeic dancers. In order to quantify the effect of a combination of these significant factors, a model of BMD was constructed using multiple regression incorporating the variables duration of amenorrhoea, age at menarche, and ideal minus lowest body weight. In this model R2 was 33.6%, in other words 33.6% of the total variation in the Z score for BMD at the lumbar spine could be accounted for by these factors. CONCLUSION: Professional female dancers with a history of delayed menarche and amenorrhoea have been identified as another group of premenopausal women potentially at risk of developing osteoporosis because of a decrease in BMD at the lumbar spine. The femoral neck in dancers with a

  3. Bone density and body composition on the Pacific rim: a comparison between Japan-born and U.S.-born Japanese-American women.

    PubMed

    Kin, K; Lee, J H; Kushida, K; Sartoris, D J; Ohmura, A; Clopton, P L; Inoue, T

    1993-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, and proximal femur and the percentage of body fat in 151 U.S.-born Japanese-American women and 137 Japan-born immigrant Japanese-American women living in San Diego, California were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. These data were compared with unpublished data from Japanese women obtained in previous studies in Hamamatsu, Japan. The age-adjusted BMD for the spinal level, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and total body, respectively, of U.S.-born Japanese-American women were 10.2, 9.8, 9.9, 9.2, and 2.7% higher than those of native Japanese women. The U.S.-born Japanese-American women had significantly higher body fat than immigrant Japanese-American women. Furthermore, the immigrant women had higher BMD and higher body fat than their native Japanese counterparts; however, no significant total-body BMD differences were found among the three groups after age, height, and weight were adjusted. The U.S.-born Japanese-American women had BMD values equivalent to those of white normals at the spine and femur. Significant life-style differences between U.S.-born and immigrant Japanese-American women were noted. Weight, exercise, early menarche, and years of lifetime estrogen exposure correlated positively with BMD. The significant negative correlates of BMD were age, smoking, and percentage of body fat. Our study presents data suggesting that immigration to the United States has produced a higher BMD in Japanese-American women that is attributable to changes in life-style and diet.

  4. Does bone mineral density affect hip fracture severity?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Simon J; Blyth, Mark J G; Lovell, Frances; Holt, Graeme

    2012-06-01

    The association between hip fracture and reduced bone mineral density is well documented, with reduced bone mineral density predisposing to fracture. However, it is unknown whether an association exists between the magnitude of bone density lost and the severity of the hip fracture sustained. One hundred forty-two patients (96 women, 46 men) with a mean age of 74 years (range, 49-92 years) who sustained a hip fracture following a simple ground-level fall and were treated for this injury were reviewed. All patients had undergone dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scanning of the contralateral hip and lumbar spine. Fractures were classified as intra- or extracapsular or subtrochanteric and then subclassified by degree of severity as simple (stable) or multifragmentary (unstable) fracture patterns.Although a low hip bone mineral density (T- or Z score <2.5) was associated with an increased risk of extracapsular fracture (P=.025) compared with other fracture types, no association existed between bone mineral density and the severity of the resultant hip fracture. Although an association exists between bone mineral density and the risk of fragility fractures, the results of the current study suggest that the severity of hip fractures does not follow this correlation. Therefore, no assumption can be made about bone mineral density of the proximal femur based on the severity of the fracture observed on plain radiographs. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Change of bone mineral density with valgus knee bracing.

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Y; Fukui, N; Nakamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the clinical knee score and bone mineral density of the proximal tibia in an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of valgus knee bracing. The knee score improved after 3 months, and increases in bone mineral density were seen more in the lateral tibial condyle than in the medial. These results suggest that the brace acts by transferring the forces across the knee joint from the medial to the lateral side.

  6. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  7. Strontium ranelate normalizes bone mineral density in osteopenic patients.

    PubMed

    Malaise, Olivier; Bruyere, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2007-08-01

    To assess the capacity of strontium ranelate to restore normal bone mineral density (WHO definition: T-score >or=-1) in post-menopausal osteopenic women (T-score between -1 and -2.5) at baseline. Post-hoc analysis from SOTI and TROPOS studies of 1428 patients randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of strontium ranelate a day or placebo for three years. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline and each year for three years. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. At lumbar spine, after one, two and three years of treatment with strontium ranelate, 26.4, 42.1 and 58.2% respectively of osteopenic patients normalized their bone mineral density, compared with 6.6, 8.9 and 11.9% in the placebo group (all p<0.001). At total hip, the percentage of patients normalizing their bone mineral density was 5.4, 10.0 and 19.6% in the strontium ranelate group and 1.8, 1.4 and 1.6% in the placebo one (all p<0.001). Strontium ranelate is able to normalize bone mineral density in a significant proportion of osteopenic patients after one, two and three years of treatment. The clinical relevance of these results should be confirmed by direct demonstration of the anti-fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in osteopenic patients.

  8. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Jen-Fen; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients. PMID:24501586

  9. Plasma copper and bone mineral density in osteopenia: an indicator of bone mineral density in osteopenic females.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, M Anwar; Kemmler, W; Harsch, Igor; Watling, R J

    2009-01-01

    Copper concentrations in blood plasma have been determined in 25 osteopenic females using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A high degree of correlations has been demonstrated between the copper concentrations in plasma and the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine as measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computerized tomography. Results clearly indicate the involvement of copper in bone health and osteopenia. It is further suggested that plasma copper might be useful as a cheap and simple method indicative of bone mineral density in osteopenic postmenopausal females.

  10. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  11. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  12. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  13. Hypophosphatasia: Evaluation of Size and Mineral Density of Exfoliated Teeth.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Sakai, S; Numa-Kinjoh, N; Sakamoto, M; Sakai, J; Matsuyama, J; Mitomi, T; Sano-Asahito, T; Kinoshita-Kawano, S

    Most cases of hypophosphatasia (HPP) exhibit early loss of primary teeth. Results of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of teeth with HPP have not yet been reported. The purpose of the present study was to describe the size and mineral density distribution and mapping of exfoliated teeth with HPP using micro CT. Seven exfoliated teeth were obtained from a patient with HPP. Exfoliated teeth sizes were measured on micro CT images and mineral densities of the mandibular primary central incisors were determined. Partial dentures were fabricated for the patient to replace the eight primary teeth which had exfoliated. Most primary teeth sizes were within the normal range. The mean values of enamel and dentin mineral densities in teeth with HPP were 1.35 and 0.88 g/cm(3), respectively, in the mandibular primary central incisors. Mineral density distribution and mapping revealed that the values in teeth with HPP were lower than the homonymous teeth controls in all regions from the crown to apex. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the differences between HPP and controls were larger on the crown side and the differences tended to converge on the apex side. These results suggested that the present patient showed mild hypomineralization in the primary dentition.

  14. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  15. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process.

  16. Evaluation of bone mineral density in chronic glue sniffers.

    PubMed

    Dündaröz, M Ruşen; Sarici, S Umit; Türkbay, Tümer; Baykal, Barboros; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Aydin, H Ibrahim; Gökçay, Erdal

    2002-01-01

    Although acute and chronic toxic effects of inhalant (glue) abuse have been well demonstrated on many organ systems, the effects on the skeletal system and bone mineral content of young people with this addiction have, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated by bone mineral density measurement. In the present study bone mineral density was measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method in 25 children and adolescents with inhalant abuse and compared with that of a control group (n=30) to detect whether there was any delay in bone development or any decrease in bone mass. Chronological age, height and weight, serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels of the study group were not significantly different from those of the control group (p>0.05), whereas bone mineral density was significantly reduced in the study group (p=0.001). Teenagers with glue vapor abuse may carry an increased risk of future fracture even though the exact mechanism(s) responsible for the toxicitiy of glue vapor on bone metabolism remains to be determined. To ascertain the exact component of glue responsible for bone demineralisation may be of value in proposing a change in the composition of the glue. Education and/or rehabilitation programs currently have the greatest importance in preventing and overcoming the harmful effects of this public health problem which is so common in young children and adolescents.

  17. Application of Polychromatic µCT for Mineral Density Determination

    PubMed Central

    Zou, W.; Hunter, N.; Swain, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of mineral density (MD) provides information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes of calcified tissues, including bones and teeth. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of the MD of teeth has been demonstrated by relatively inaccessible synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT). While conventional desktop µCT (CµCT) technology is widely available, polychromatic source and cone-shaped beam geometry confound MD assessment. Recently, considerable attention has been given to optimizing quantitative data from CµCT systems with polychromatic x-ray sources. In this review, we focus on the approaches that minimize inaccuracies arising from beam hardening, in particular, beam filtration during the scan, beam-hardening correction during reconstruction, and mineral density calibration. Filtration along with lowest possible source voltage results in a narrow and near-single-peak spectrum, favoring high contrast and minimal beam-hardening artifacts. More effective beam monochromatization approaches are described. We also examine the significance of beam-hardening correction in determining the accuracy of mineral density estimation. In addition, standards for the calibration of reconstructed grey-scale attenuation values against MD, including K2PHO4 liquid phantom, and polymer-hydroxyapatite (HA) and solid hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms, are discussed. PMID:20858779

  18. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  19. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE PAGES

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; ...

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  20. Mineral Density Volume Gradients in Normal and Diseased Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  1. Is There an Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Mammographic Density? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Min; Holley, Susan; Appleton, Catherine; Toriola, Adetunji T

    2017-04-01

    Both bone mineral density (BMD) and breast density are related to reproductive hormone levels. This suggests that BMD and breast density could be meaningfully associated, and serve as surrogate markers for breast cancer risk. However, few studies have investigated the association of BMD with percent mammographic density, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in electronic databases till April 2016 using the following search terms: "bone density," "bone mineral density," "mammographic breast density," "breast density," and "mammographic density." We identified 203 articles, of which 8 met the inclusion criteria for this review. BMD does not appear to be associated with percent mammographic density. BMD at the spine was weakly positively associated with percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women who were not hormone users, while BMD at the hip and legs was positively associated with percent mammographic density among premenopausal women. On the other hand, one study reported an inverse association of BMD at the spine and hip with percent mammographic density among perimenopausal women. In this review, we found no evidence of an association between BMD and percent mammographic density.

  2. Bone mineral density and history of oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Feldblum, P J; Talmage, R V; Zhang, J; Godwin, S E

    1994-02-01

    To examine the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use and bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 352 white, nonsmoking, perimenopausal women aged 40-54 years. We measured bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae 2-4 with dual photon absorptiometry and mid-radius and distal radius with single photon absorptiometry. After controlling for age, body mass, current physical activity, current calcium intake and history of breastfeeding, our analysis did not find substantial differences in BMD at any site between OC ever users and never users. However, OC ever users had slightly higher lumbar BMD among premenopausal women. No significant association was identified between recency of OC use and BMD. The results of our study suggest that when other factors are accounted for, OC use is not strongly associated with BMD among perimenopausal women, although we cannot exclude a slight beneficial effect.

  3. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P < .001). The effects of rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P < .001). In children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  4. Bone mineral density in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hawy, Mahmoud Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Sally Mohamed; Mohamed, Sanaa Mansour

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex. All of the participants were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphorus [P], total and ionized calcium [Ca], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spinal region (L2-L4) in patients group using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and ionized Ca were significantly lower while, serum P, ALP, and PTH were higher in SSNS and SRNS cases than the controls. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) and osteoporosis in two patients (8%). Fracture risk was mild in six (24%), moderate in two (8%), and marked in three (12%) of patients. Bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Moser, Debra K; Clasey, Jody L; Chung, Misook L; Pressler, Susan J; Dunbar, Sandra B; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A

    2016-07-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among bone mineral density, osteopenia/osteoporosis, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in patients with heart failure (HF). A total of 119 patients (age = 61 ± 12 years, 65% male) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to determine bone mineral density and body composition. In multivariable linear regressions, BMI, relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI), and mineral-free lean mass were positively associated with total body bone mineral density. Mineral-free lean mass was most strongly associated with bone mineral density (β = .398). In multivariable logistic regressions, higher BMI, RSMI, and mineral-free lean mass were associated with lower odds for osteopenia/osteoporosis. Fat mass was not associated with total body bone mineral density or osteopenia/osteoporosis. These results suggest that muscle mass may be the important component of body mass associated with bone mineral density in patients with HF.

  6. Fitting of bone mineral density with consideration of anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Short, D. F.; Zemel, B. S.; Gilsanz, V.; Kalkwarf, H. J.; Lappe, J. M.; Mahboubi, S.; Oberfield, S. E.; Shepherd, J. A.; Winer, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A new model describing normal values of bone mineral density in children has been evaluated, which includes not only the traditional parameters of age, gender, and race, but also weight, height, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. This model may constitute a better comparative norm for a specific child with given anthropometric values. Introduction Previous descriptions of children's bone mineral density (BMD) by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and gender without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of anthropometric variables over a relatively homogeneous population. Methods Multivariate semi-metric smoothing (MS2) provides a way to describe a diverse population using a model that includes multiple effects and their interactions while producing a result that can be smoothed with respect to age in order to provide connected percentiles. We applied MS2 to spine BMD data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of gender, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population's BMD values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values and low mean square errors with clinical needs, a model using age, gender, race, weight, and percent body fat is proposed and examined. Results This model provides narrower distributions and slight shifts of BMD values compared to the traditional model, which includes only age, gender, and race. Thus, the proposed model might constitute a better comparative standard for a specific child with given anthropometric values and should be less dependent on the anthropometric characteristics of the cohort used to devise the model. Conclusions The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the model, while creating smooth output curves, makes the MS2 method attractive in modeling practically sized data sets. The clinical use of this model by the bone research community has yet to be fully established. PMID

  7. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  8. Bone mineral density in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carfì, A; Liperoti, R; Fusco, D; Giovannini, S; Brandi, V; Vetrano, D L; Meloni, E; Mascia, D; Villani, E R; Manes Gravina, E; Bernabei, R; Onder, G

    2017-07-06

    This study analyzed data of bone mineral density (BMD) from a large cohort of adults with Down syndrome (DS). BMD was found to decrease with age more rapidly in these subjects than in the general population, exposing adults with DS to an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Down syndrome (DS) in adulthood presents with a high prevalence of osteoporosis. However, in DS, bone mineral density (BMD) can be underestimated due to short stature. Furthermore, the rate of age-related decline in BMD and its association with gender in DS has been rarely evaluated or compared with the general population. The present study is aimed at assessing the variation of BMD with age and gender in a sample of adults with DS and to compare these data with those of the general population, after adjusting for anthropometric differences. Adults with DS, aged 18 or older, were assessed dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) at the femoral neck and at the lumbar spine. They were compared with the general population enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 dataset. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for each individual. DXA was evaluated in 234 subjects with DS (mean age 36.93 ± 11.83 years, ranging from 20 to 69 years; 50.4% females). In the lumbar spine both mean BMD (DS 0.880 ± 0.141 vs. NHANES 1.062 ± 0.167, p < 0.001) and BMAD (DS 0.138 ± 0.020 vs. NHANES 0.152 ± 0.020, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the DS sample than in the NAHNES cohort. The same trend was observed at the femoral neck in both BMD (DS 0.658 ± 0.128 vs. NHANES 0.835 ± 0.137, p < 0.001) and BMAD (DS 0.151 ± 0.030 vs. NHANES 0.159 ± 0.028, p<0.001). Age was associated with lower femoral neck BMAD in both samples; importantly, this association was significantly stronger in the DS sample. In the lumbar spine region, no significant association between BMAD and age could be observed in both samples. Adults with DS

  9. Bone mineral density in estrogen-deficient young women.

    PubMed

    Popat, Vaishali B; Calis, Karim A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Cizza, Giovanni; Reynolds, James C; Sebring, Nancy; Troendle, James F; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis primarily affects postmenopausal women. However, young women with estrogen deficiency also are at increased risk for low bone density. The aim of the study was to assess bone density and associated risk factors for reduced bone density in young, estrogen-deficient women using primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as the disease model. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care research center. We studied women with POI (n = 442), concurrent controls (n = 70), and matched controls from NHANES III (n = 353). We measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patients on average had 2-3% lower BMD at L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip (P < 0.01 at all sites). The modifiable risk factors for BMD below the expected range for age (Z-score <-2) were: more than 1-yr delay in diagnosis of estrogen deficiency (P = 0.018), low (<32 ng/ml) vitamin D levels (P = 0.002), estrogen replacement nonadherence (P = 0.002), low calcium intake (P = 0.005), and lack of exercise (P = 0.005). As compared to Caucasians, African-American and Asian women with POI were 3.18 and 4.34 times more likely, respectively, to have Z-scores below -2 (P = < 0.0001 for both). Race was an overall risk factor, but on regression modeling, not an independent predictor of low bone density. Women with POI have lower bone density compared to regularly menstruating women. Compared to Caucasians, minority women with estrogen deficiency are more likely to have BMD below the expected range for age. This racial disparity appears to be related to a combined effect of several modifiable risk factors. Delay in diagnosis of POI also contributes to reduced bone density by delaying proper therapy.

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values.

  11. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  12. Bone mineral density and functional measures in patients with arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Hillard T; Bowen, Richard E; Caputo, Kimberly; Green, Terri A; Lawrence, John F

    2010-01-01

    Patients with arthrogryposis often report decreased ambulation and physical activity. Given that skeletal mineralisation is responsive to force, we identified the need to characterize bone mineral density and functional measures in this population, and conducted a cross-sectional study to establish a reference for future investigations. Thirty consecutive patients aged 5 to 18 years with either the diagnosis of amyoplasia or nonsyndromic arthrogryposis with predominantly lower extremity involvement underwent bone densitometry testing, and lumbar spine Z-scores were calculated against an age and sex-matched control population as is customary in children. Pediatric outcomes data collection instrument (PODCI) and functional independence measure for Children (WeeFIM) assessment forms were completed. Mean Z-scores, PODCI, and WeeFIM scores were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare lumbar spine Z-scores between patients divided by ambulatory status and to correlate WeeFIM and PODCI scores. Mean lumbar spine Z-score was -0.47, with 73% of Z-scores being <0. Mean Z-score among nonambulators or home ambulators was -1.05, as compared to a mean Z-score among limited and unlimited community ambulators of -0.14 with a trend toward significance (P=0.10), and a dose-response relationship between higher bone density and increasing ambulatory function. Mean WeeFIM self-care and mobility quotient scores were 67.5/100 and 70.9/100, respectively. PODCI normative scores were decreased for upper extremity (10/50), transfer/basic mobility (-17/50), and sports/physical function (4/50), but normal in pain/comfort (45/50) and happiness (49/50). A linear relationship was noted between functional ambulation level and WeeFIM quotient and PODCI normative scores. There was good correlation between WeeFIM mobility and PODCI transfers and basic mobility standardised scores (R=0.86). This is the first study to measure bone mineral density in children with arthrogryposis, and

  13. Mapping of natural and man-made groundwater mineralization by helicopter-borne electromagnetics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetics (HEM) is an important tool for hydrogeological questions. HEM investigations enable the differentiation of sandy and clayey sediments as well as saltwater and freshwater saturated sediments down to about 150 meters depth. The frequency-domain HEM system operated at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the RESOLVE system manufactured by Fugro Airborne Surveys. In 2008 and 2009, BGR conducted airborne geophysical measurements for saltwater-freshwater investigation at several survey areas at the German North Sea coast. The surveys were carried out in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (LIAG) in frame of the project D-AERO. One of these survey areas covers the estuary of the Elbe river to the north-west of the city of Hamburg. Parts of the results of this survey are involved in the project KLIMZUG-NORD, where the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg investigates the environmental effects of the climate change on the estuary of the Elbe river. The HEM measurements reveal both the course of the Geest ridge (high-lying hinterland consisting of pleistocenic moraine sediments) and the swamp belt due to their elevated resistivities, whereas the Marsch land (plain holocenic wet land, alluvium) occurred more conductive. Here, an electrical conductivity anomaly was detected witch could neither be related with seawater intrusion nor with anthropogenic sources. The significant low-resistivity zone of about three square kilometers was identified as a saltwater-rising zone by water analyses of surface water and is an example for natural groundwater mineralization. A man-made groundwater mineralization was investigated by HEM in the Werra river valley in central Germany. About 1000 million cubic meters saline waste water from potash mining have been stored in a karstic limestone and dolomite bed to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river. BGR conducted surveys in

  14. Study of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hatinder Jeet; Nimarpreet, Kaur; Ashima; Das, Sibadatta; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Shesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by spine and sacroiliac joint involvement that mainly affects young male subjects. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) loss occurs in AS disease course. Bone loss in AS appears to be multifactorial and perhaps involves different mechanisms at different stages of disease. The disease typically affects young males and is associated with progressive functional impairment, increased work disability and decreased quality of life. Osteoporosis is frequent in AS and there is a close association of bone mineral density, bone metabolism and inflammatory activity. Osteoporosis is frequently associated with AS and BMD decreased predominantly in patients with active disease. Aims & Objectives: The aim of the present study was to study bone mineral density in cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) in comparison to age and sex matched controls. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 established cases of AS based on modified New York criteria and 150 controls healthy, age, race, socio-economic matched controls patients. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Hundred cases of AS were subjected to undergo BMD by Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan of different age groups in cases 35.19± 8.23(min age 23- max age 67years) and controls 33.27±5.22(min age 22years - max age 44years) with height observed in cases is 169.67±6-87 and controls 170.99±7.16 with weight varied in cases 65.63±10.27 and controls 70.14±10.67. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is a significant complication in ankylosing spondylitis and needs to be monitored and managed at the earliest. Significant osteoporosis can occur even in early disease. Osteoporosis of spine is much more prevalent than femur.BMD spine is still the most important site to define osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis. Rise in BMD in LS spine with duration, is not exclusive for subjects with radiologically evident syndesmophytes

  15. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone).

  16. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, V; Lupoli, G; Esposito Del Puente, A; Rampone, E; Carpinelli, A; Del Puente, A E; Oriente, P

    1998-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well-known complication of thyrotoxicosis. Prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment has been associated with reduced bone mass and thus with the potential risk of premature development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a chronic L-thyroxine suppressive treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of premenopausal women. Forty consecutive patients (mean age +/- SE = 40.95 +/- 1.56 years) affected by non-toxic goiter underwent bone mineral densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DEXA) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right femoral neck. At the time of the study the patients had been under thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy for 74.95 +/- 10.34 months (range 17-168 months). Baseline levels of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), TSH, calcium and phosphorus were measured and correlated with BMD. The age of starting, duration of treatment, main daily dose, cumulative dose of treatment and body mass index (BMI) were also correlated with BMD. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple linear regression. BMD among female patients was not significantly different from that of the general population matched for age and sex. With the use of the regression model, no significant correlation was found between BMD and the variables considered. In conclusion, our data suggest that L-thyroxine suppressive therapy, if carefully carried out and monitored, has no significant effect on bone mass.

  17. Bone mineral density-affecting genes in Africans.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Haynatzka, Vera; Howell, Ryan; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Fu, Yun-Xin; Yu, Fei; Gallagher, John C.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently reported the role of environmental exposure in the ethnic diversity of bone mineral density (BMD). Potential genetic difference has not been adequately assessed. PURPOSE: To determine allele frequencies of BMD-affecting genes and their association with BMD in Africans. METHODS: Allele frequencies at 18 polymorphic sites in 13 genes that affect BMD in Asians and/or Caucasians were determined in 143 recent immigrants (55 men and 88 women, 18-51 years of age) from sub-Saharan Sudan to the United States. Genetic association studies were performed. RESULTS: Among the 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 10 were significantly different in allele frequency between Sudanese and Asians, and 10 between Sudanese and Caucasians. Only the osteocalcin gene was not significantly different in allele frequency among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. Allele frequencies in the TGFB, COL1A1 and CSR genes were extremely low (<0.04) in the Sudanese. Frequencies of microsatellite alleles in four genes were significantly different among Sudanese, Asians and Caucasians. SNPs in the VDR and ERalpha genes were associated with BMD and/or BMC (bone mineral content) at several bone sites. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic difference may play a role in the ethnic diversity in BMD and/or BMC. PMID:16895279

  18. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I2 statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Results: Four cohort, 1 case–control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47–0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00–0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02–0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss. PMID:28328853

  19. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA.

  20. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  1. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, George; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Alexander, Mathew; Thomas, Maya; Aaron, Sanjith; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months) and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI), and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007) and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05). BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm2) when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm2). Majority of the patients (61%) had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) between cases (n = 32) and controls (n = 37) (P = 0.234). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients. PMID:25221394

  2. The relationship between breast density and bone mineral density in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Inal, Hasan Ali; Gulerman, Cavidan

    2017-06-01

    Estrogen is known to affect both mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD), but there are inconsistent results about the association of these density measurements in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, there are scarce data on the relationship between breast density and BMD in never users of postmenopausal hormone therapy. In this study, we examined the relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who were never hormone replacement therapy users. A total of 293 postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mammograms and BMD measurements for screening purposes were obtained. Assessment of mammographic breast density was performed by using breast imaging reporting and data system classification. The BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Grade 1 breast density was observed in 64 women (21.8 %), grade 2 in 113 women (38.6 %) and grades 3 and 4 in 116 (39.6 %) women. Breast density decreased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in BMD measures of the hip (p = 0.14) and lumbar spine (p = 0.29) among the breast density categories. After adjusting for age and BMI, the differences in the mean BMD at the hip and lumbar spine across the breast density categories remained insignificant (p = 0.26 and 0.11, respectively). There is no evidence of a relationship between mammographic breast density and BMD in postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement therapy.

  3. The relationship between bone mineral density and mammographic density in Korean women: the Healthy Twin study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Stone, Jennifer; Lee, Kayoung

    2011-09-01

    Mammographic density is one of the strong risk factors for breast cancer. A potential mechanism for this association is that cumulative exposure to mammographic density may reflect cumulative exposure to hormones that stimulate cell division in breast stroma and epithelium, which may have corresponding effects on breast cancer development. Bone mineral density (BMD), a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, has been found to be associated with breast cancer. We examined the association between BMD and mammographic density in a Korean population. Study subjects were 730 Korean women selected from the Healthy Twin study. BMD (g/cm(2)) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mammographic density was measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Linear mixed model considering familial correlations and a wide range of covariates was used for analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was completed using SOLAR. In premenopausal women, positive associations existed between absolute dense area and BMD at ribs, pelvis, and legs, and between percent dense area and BMD at pelvis and legs. However, in postmenopausal women, there was no association between BMD at any site and mammographic density measures. An evaluation of additive genetic cross-trait correlation showed that absolute dense area had a weak-positive additive genetic cross-trait correlation with BMD at ribs and spines after full adjustment of covariates. This finding suggests that the association between mammographic density and breast cancer could, at least in part, be attributable to an estrogen-related hormonal mechanism.

  4. The structure of the second-order non-Born-Oppenheimer density matriz D2:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludena, Eduardo; Iza, Peter; Aray, Yosslen; Cornejo, Mauricio; Zambrano, Dik

    Properties of the non-Born-Oppenheimer 2-matrix are examined. Using a coordinate system formed by internal translationally invariant plus the total center-of-mass coordinates it is shown that regardless of the point of reference selected, the operator for the reduced second order density matrix, 2-RDM, solely depends upon the translationally invariant internal coordinates. We apply this result to examine the nature of the 2-RDM extracted from the exact analytical solutions for model non-Born-Oppenheimer four-particle systems of the Coulomb-Hooke and Moshinsky types. We obtain for both these models explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the electron and nuclear 2-RDM. An explicit expression is also obtained for the electron-nuclear 2-RDM in the Moshinsky case, which shows coupling between the electron and nuclear coordinates. EVL and YA acknowledge support of SENESCYT's Prometheus Program.

  5. Low bone mineral density in adult patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Waszczuk, Ewa; Jakubowska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D malabsorption in coeliac disease (CD) predispose to skeletal demineralisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium deficiencies in adult patients with CD and assess whether a gluten-free diet is sufficiently effective for BMD restoration. BMD and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were measured in 35 adult CD patients receiving (19) or not receiving (16) a gluten-free diet (GFD) and in 36 controls. Then the CD patients were treated with a GFD and calcium (1.0 g/day) plus alfacalcidol (0.25-1 μg/day) for one year. Reduced BMD was diagnosed in 57-77% of the patients. Mean calcaemia, calciuria, and 25(OH) vitamin D were lower, but serum PTH and bone-turnover markers (ALP, osteocalcin, ICTP) were significantly higher in the CD patients than in the controls. In the patients on the diet (GFD(+)), BMD was higher than in the GFD(-) patients, but lower than in the controls. The biochemical parameters were normal in the GFD(+) patients except for diminished calciuria. Mean BMD after one year of treatment significantly increased (p < 0.05), mostly in the lumbar spine (mean: 7.3%), but decreased in five patients who did not strictly adhere to the GFD. Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and BMD are very common in adult CD patients. Gluten avoidance increased BMD, although the values remained markedly lower in several patients. Because of chronic calcium deficiency despite GFD, calcium and vitamin D supplementation in most adult CD patients is proposed.

  6. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score < -2.0 standard deviation (SD) in a densitometry clinic located in the city of Blumenau (state of Santa Catarina). Anthropometric, clinical and lifestyle variables were obtained from history-taking and physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.

  7. Bone mineral density and metabolism in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Maayan, C; Bar-On, E; Foldes, A J; Gesundheit, B; Pollak, R Dresner

    2002-05-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients suffer from multiple fractures and have reduced bone pain, which defers the diagnosis. The pathogenesis of bone fragility in FD is unknown. This study aimed to characterize bone mineral metabolism and density in FD. Seventy-nine FD patients aged 8 months to 48 years (mean age 13.9 +/- 10.4 years, median 12.3) were studied. Clinical data included weight, height, bone age, weekly physical activity and history of fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (n = 43), femoral neck (n = 26), total hip (n = 22) and whole body (n = 15) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), parathyroid hormone and urinary N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen (NTx) were determined in 68 patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-two of 79 patients (53%) sustained 75 fractures. Twenty-four of 43 patients had a spine Z-score < -2.0, and 13 of 26 had a femoral neck Z-score < -2.0. Mean femoral neck BMD Z-score was lower in patients with fractures compared with those without (-2.5 +/- 0.9 vs -1.5 +/- 1.0, p = 0.01). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 16 kg/m2 in prepubertal patients and 18.4 kg/m2 in postpubertal patients. Bone age was significantly lower than chronological age (75.5 vs 99.3 months in prepubertal patients, p < 0.001; 151 vs 174 in postpubertal patients, p < 0.05). NTx and osteocalcin levels were higher in FD patients compared with controls (400 +/- 338 vs 303 +/- 308, BCE/mM creatinine p < 0.02; 90 +/- 59.5 vs 61.8 +/- 36.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). B-ALP was lower in FD patients compared with controls (44.66 +/- 21.8 vs 55.36 +/- 36.6 ng/ml, p < 0.04). Mean spine Z-score was significantly lower in physically inactive compared with active patients (-3.00 +/- 1.70 vs -1.77 +/- 1.3, respectively, p = 0.05). We conclude that fractures in FD patients are associated with reduced BMD. FD patients have increased NTx and osteocalcin

  8. Exercise Training Alters the Bone Mineral Density of Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Sandra M; Moraes, Cristiane; Barbosa, Jorge Eduardo Dos Santos Monteiro; Carraro Eduardo, José Carlos; Fouque, Denis; Pelletier, Solenne; Mafra, Denise

    2016-10-01

    Marinho, SM, Moraes, C, Barbosa, JEdSM, Eduardo, JCC, Fouqe, D, Pelletier, S, and Mafra, D. Exercise training alters the bone mineral density of hemodialysis patients. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2918-2923, 2016-Patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) frequently present low bone mineral density (BMD), and exercise may be useful for treating bone loss. This study aimed to assess the effects of an intradialytic resistance exercise training program (RETP) on BMD in HD patients. Twenty-one patients were enrolled into 2 groups; 10 patients performed exercise (80.0% men; 46.9 ± 12.1 years; 27.0 ± 3.4 kg·m) and 11 patients were in the control group (54.5% men; 50.5 ± 11.5 years; 24.1 ± 8.7 kg·m). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD, lean mass, and body fat before and after the supervised RETP (performed with elastic bands and ankle cuffs in both lower limbs 3 times a week for 24 weeks-72 sessions). In the exercise group, 30.0% of patients presented with osteopenia and 20.0% osteoporosis and in the control group, 45.5% osteopenia and 36.4% osteoporosis. Only in the exercise group, the osteoporosis percentage was reduced to 10.0% and the femoral neck BMD and T-score improved from 0.89 ± 0.1 to 0.93 ± 0.1 g·cm and from -1.3 ± 0.8 to -1.0 ± 0.8 g·cm (p ≤ 0.05), respectively, after the intervention. In contrast, these parameters were reduced in the control group. The results suggest that resistance exercise may be useful for improving the BMD in HD patients. In summary, 24 weeks of the supervised RETP played a role in improving the BMD of HD patients.

  9. Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Amorim, T; Koutedakis, Y; Nevill, A; Wyon, M; Maia, J; Machado, J C; Marques, F; Metsios, G S; Flouris, A D; Adubeiro, N; Nogueira, L; Dimitriou, L

    2017-06-27

    According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites. The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche. The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires. VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMD for potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site. Both females and males VBD have lower BMD at impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMD at impact sites in female VBD.

  10. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  11. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  12. Carbonated beverage consumption and bone mineral density among older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S H; Morton, D J; Barrett-Connor, E L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between carbonated beverage consumption and bone mineral density was examined in a community-based cohort of older White women. METHODS: One thousand women 44 to 98 years of age had bone mineral density measured at four sites and provided medical and behavioral histories, including type and quantity of carbonated beverages consumed. RESULTS: Bone mineral density levels were not associated with intake of any type of carbonated beverage after adjustment for age, obesity, calcium intake, exercise, and current use of tobacco and alcohol, thiazides, estrogen, or thyroid hormone. CONCLUSIONS: Modest intake of carbonated beverages does not appear to have adverse effects on bone mineral density in older women. PMID:9103110

  13. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  14. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  15. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Growth hormone therapy and bone mineral density in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakalov, Vladimir K; Van, Phillip L; Baron, Jeffrey; Reynolds, James C; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2004-10-01

    In a previous report, preliminary data showed a significant reduction in cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in women with Turner syndrome that had been treated with GH compared with women with Turner syndrome that had not been treated. To clarify this point, we have investigated the effects of GH treatment at multiple sites in this case-control, cross-sectional study. There were 23 women per group, who were similar in age, height, body mass index, estrogen use, and ethnic makeup. Median age (range) at start and duration of GH treatment was 9 (3-17) and 5 (2-9) yr, respectively. GH-treated women had a slightly greater ( approximately 8%, P = 0.03) width of the radial shaft, but otherwise there were no significant differences between groups in bone dimensions or BMD at the distal radius, lumbar spine, or femoral neck. Furthermore, regression analysis in a linear model including independent variables of age, age at diagnosis, body mass index, presence of spontaneous puberty, and GH use confirmed that GH use did not contribute to variation in BMD.

  17. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  18. Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Conroy, B P; Kraemer, W J; Maresh, C M; Fleck, S J; Stone, M H; Fry, A C; Miller, P D; Dalsky, G P

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD) to muscular strength in highly trained young male athletes in order to gain insights concerning the influence of heavy resistance training on BMD. Twenty-five elite junior weightlifters (age, 17.4 +/- 1.4 yr) and 11 age-matched controls (16.9 +/- 1.1 yr) volunteered for this investigation. Measurements of BMD (g.cm-2) utilizing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained for the lumbar spine (L2-4) and the proximal femur (neck; trochanter, Ward's triangle). The BMD values for the junior lifters were found to be significantly greater at all sites for the junior weightlifters compared with their age-matched control group. The BMD values of the spine and femoral neck of the junior weightlifters when compared with adult reference data (i.e., 20-39 yr old men) were found to be significantly greater. Both simple and multiple regression analyses demonstrated significant relationships of BMD with strength accounting for 30-65% of the variance. These data suggest that in elite junior weightlifters, muscle strength, highly specific to the sport of weightlifting, has a major influence on BMD due to the influence of the chronic overloads experienced in training.

  19. FRAX and fracture prediction without bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H; Odén, A; Leslie, W D; McCloskey, E V

    2015-01-01

    The major application of FRAX in osteoporosis is to direct pharmacological interventions to those at high risk of fracture. Whereas the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment, with the possible exception of alendronate, is largely independent of baseline bone mineral density (BMD), it remains a widely held perception that osteoporosis therapies are only effective in the presence of low BMD. Thus, the use of FRAX in the absence of BMD to identify individuals requiring therapy remains the subject of some debate and is the focus of this review. The clinical risk factors used in FRAX have high evidence-based validity to identify a risk responsive to intervention. The selection of high-risk individuals with FRAX, without knowledge of BMD, preferentially selects for low BMD and thus identifies a risk that is responsive to pharmacological intervention. The prediction of fractures with the use of clinical risk factors alone in FRAX is comparable to the use of BMD alone to predict fractures and is suitable, therefore, in the many countries where facilities for BMD testing are sparse. In countries where access to BMD is greater, FRAX can be used without BMD in the majority of cases and BMD tests reserved for those close to a probability-based intervention threshold. Thus concerns surrounding the use of FRAX in clinical practice without information on BMD are largely misplaced.

  20. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  1. Resistance training and bone mineral density during growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Z; Goettsch, B M; Van Ramshorst, R D; O'Brien, J A; Jaque, S V; Sumida, K D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the efficacy of two different resistance training programs in enhancing bone modeling and bone mineral density (BMD) in maturating rats. One exercise mode involved lifting a lighter weight with more repetitions (LI), while the other regimen involved lifting a heavier weight with fewer repetitions (HI) where the total volume of work between exercise programs was equivalent by design. Twenty-three male rats were randomly divided into control (Con, n = 8), LI (n = 7), and HI (n = 8) groups. The LI and HI groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 4 days/wk for 6 wks. After training, serum osteocalcin (OC) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both HI (45.2 +/- 1.7 ng/ml) and LI (39.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml) when compared to Con (29.9 +/- 0.9 ng/ml). Left tibial BMD was significantly (p < 0.05) greater for HI (0.231 +/- 0.004 g/cm (2)) when compared to both LI (0.213 +/- 0.003 g/cm (2)) and Con (0.206 +/- 0.005 g/cm (2)) with no significant difference between LI and Con. The results indicate that both HI and LI are effective in elevating serum OC, implicating an osteogenic response; however, only HI resulted in a significant elevation in BMD.

  2. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  3. Determinants of bone mineral density in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Cheung, E Y N; Ho, A Y Y; Lam, K F; Tam, S; Kung, A W C

    2005-12-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are increasing among Asian populations in both genders, but the risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in Asian men is unclear. To determine the hormonal and lifestyle risk factors for low BMD in Asian men, we studied 407 community-dwelling southern Chinese men aged 50 years and above. Medical history and lifestyle habits were obtained with a structured questionnaire. Dietary calcium and phytoestrogen intake were assessed by a semi-quantitative questionnaire. BMD at the spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting blood was analyzed for 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total and bioavailable estradiol (bio-E) and testosterone (bio-T). The mean age of the cohort was 68.42+/-10.4 (50-96) years. In the linear regression model, weight, age, body mass index (BMI), bio-E, PTH, cigarette smoking and weight-bearing exercise were significant determinants of total hip BMD. Together they explained 55% of the total variance of hip BMD, with body weight being the most important determining factor. With age and weight adjustment, height, bio-T and flavonoid intake were identified as additional determinants of total hip BMD. Strategies to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis in Asian men should include lifestyle modification and maintenance of hormonal sufficiency.

  4. Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hersberger, Martin; Fischler, Manuel; Huber, Lars C; Senn, Oliver; Treder, Ursula; Speich, Rudolf; Schmid, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in chronic lung diseases and associated with reduced quality of life. Little is known about BMD in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods: Steroid-naïve patients with PH (n=34; 19 idiopathic, 15 chronic thromboembolic) had BMD measured by DXA at the time of diagnostic right heart catheterization. Exercise capacity, quality of life and various parameters related to PH severity and bone metabolism were also assessed. 24 patients with left heart failure (LHF) were similarly assessed as controls. Results: The prevalence of osteopenia was high both in PH (80%) and in controls with LHF (75%). Low BMD was associated with lean body mass, age, lower BMI, impaired exercise capacity and in PH with higher pulmonary vascular resistance. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was elevated and considerably higher in PH than in LHF (above normal, in 55 vs 29%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was not related to impaired renal function but possibly to low vitamin D status. Conclusions: Osteopenia is common in PH and in chronically ill patients with LHF. Osteopenia is associated with known risk factors but in PH also with disease severity. Preventive measures in an increasingly chronic ill PH population should be considered. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is highly prevalent in PH and might contribute to bone and possibly pulmonary vascular disease. Whether adequate vitamin D substitution could prevent low BMD in PH remains to be determined. PMID:19461899

  5. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  6. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals.

  7. Assessing Bone Mineral Density Following Acute Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wiggin, Molly; Hemmati, Pouya; Switzer, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In older patients, bone mineral density (BMD) diminishes with age, increasing susceptibility to femoral neck fractures. Evidence has emerged that patients who should have dual x-ray absorptiometry scans to evaluate their bone health are not doing so. Because computed tomography (CT) attenuation has now been correlated with BMD thresholds relating to osteoporosis, virtually any existing CT scan that includes the L1 vertebra can be used to assess BMD. This study evaluates the utility of CT attenuation in characterizing BMD in patients after femoral neck fractures. Methods: The electronic medical records of adults who presented to a level I trauma center with hip fractures were evaluated for eligibility. Those with a CT scan of the abdomen or other CT scan with a complete view of the L1 vertebra were included. To measure attenuation, a region of interest was selected to include the body of the L1 vertebra in the axial plane and exclude the cortices and posterior venous complex. Results: Of the 589 patients reviewed, 217 met inclusion criteria; 112 were aged 18 to 64, while 105 were ≥65. Eight (7.1%) patients in the younger cohort had a mean CT attenuation below the 110-HU threshold set for 90% specificity, whereas 31 (29.5%) patients in the older cohort had a mean CT attenuation below this threshold. Using the 160-HU threshold set for 90% sensitivity, 39 (34.8%) patients of the younger cohort and 74 (70%) patients of the older cohort were osteoporotic; all differences in CT attenuation by age were strongly significant (P < .0001). Conclusions: A significantly larger proportion of older patients with hip fractures had osteoporosis, helping validate the utility of CT attenuation in this context. In addition, a large proportion of these patients already had these images available, thus potentially helping limit cost and unnecessary medical investigations. PMID:26246948

  8. Impact of pharmacist-led community bone mineral density screenings.

    PubMed

    Summers, Kelly M; Brock, Tina Penick

    2005-02-01

    Osteoporosis-associated fractures burden both individuals and the overall healthcare system. Bone mineral density (BMD) screening remains the gold standard measure for identifying patients at risk. To determine the impact of convenient, pharmacist-led BMD screening and counseling sessions on identification and education of patients at risk for or with osteoporosis. Nonpregnant persons >18 years of age were eligible for enrollment in this descriptive study. At an urban retail pharmacy, participants underwent risk factor assessment, peripheral BMD scanning, and personalized counseling. At 3 and 6 months after screening, subjects were questioned by telephone regarding any subsequent primary care provider (PCP) interactions, as well as any behaviors initiated and/or medications modified. Of the 102 subjects screened, 22.6% and 11.7% were identified as being at medium risk (T score -1.0 to -2.5) and high risk (T score -2.5 or less) for osteoporosis, respectively. By 6 months, 42.5% of the participants reported increasing their dietary intake of calcium, 29.3% began or increased calcium supplements, and 54.9% positively modified smoking status, exercise level, alcohol consumption, or caffeine intake. Additionally, 24 of 52 subjects who had discussed their results with a PCP by 6 months also received a treatment recommendation. Eighty-nine participants reported the community location increased their likelihood of receiving a BMD scan. Overall, pharmacist-led BMD screenings that include individualized counseling sessions appear convenient, accessible, and beneficial for patients. With the establishment of clinical benefit of and positive reception to such screenings, pharmacists can now look toward securing consistent reimbursement for this vital pharmaceutical care service.

  9. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  10. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Caucasian, Filipina, and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Deborah J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah L; Schneider, Diane L

    2003-02-01

    Previous bone mineral density (BMD) studies have suggested Asian women have lower BMD and Hispanic women have similar or higher BMD compared with Caucasian women, partially explained by ethnic differences in body size. This study compared the effect of different variables representing body size on BMD in postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years from three ethnic groups in San Diego County, CA: 354 Caucasians, 285 Filipinas, and 164 Hispanics. In all three groups, BMD was measured by DXA (Hologic 2000) at the hip, lumbar spine, and total body. Lifestyle variables and anthropometric measures were assessed by standard methodology; medication and supplement use were validated by a nurse. Regardless of the variables used to represent body size in the regression modelling, either body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, ethnic differences were minimal across the three groups. The only significant differences observed using the two fully adjusted models (age, height, body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, smoking, alcohol, exercise, current oestrogen and calcium supplement use, and osteoarthritis) were at the total body BMD site where Filipinas had significantly higher BMD than the Caucasians or Hispanics, whose total body BMD was similar to one another. The independent variables in the fully adjusted models explained approximately 20-40% of the variation in BMD at each of the four sites. Income or occupation did not help explain BMD differences, but a pattern of increased BMD among those with some college education in all three groups was observed. Accounting for body size using either body mass index or fat and lean tissue mass along with height and other lifestyle variables minimizes ethnic differences and explains a considerable amount of variation in mean BMD among older ethnic minority and Caucasian women.

  11. Bone mineral density predicts fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah L; Lok, Charmaine E; Langsetmo, Lisa; Cheung, Angela M; Szabo, Eva; Pearce, Dawn; Fusaro, Maria; Wald, Ron; Weinstein, Jordan; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-05-01

    Fractures are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The optimal methods by which to assess fracture risk are unknown, in part, due to a lack of prospective studies. We determined if bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and/or high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) could predict fractures in men and women ≥18 years old with stages 3 to 5 CKD. BMD was measured by DXA (at the total hip, lumbar spine, ultradistal, and 1/3 radius) and by HRpQCT (at the radius), and subjects were followed for 2 years for incident morphometric spine fractures and low-trauma clinical fractures. The mean age of the subjects was 62 years with equal numbers having stages 3, 4, and 5 CKD. Over 2 years there were 51 fractures in 35 subjects. BMD by DXA at baseline was significantly lower at all sites among those with incident fractures versus those without. For example, the mean BMD at the total hip in those with incident fractures was 0.77 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.80) and in those without fracture was 0.95 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.92 to 0.98). Almost all baseline HRpQCT measures were lower in those with incident fracture versus those without. For example, volumetric BMD in those with incident fractures was 232 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 213 to 251) and in those without fracture was 317.6 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, 306 to 329.1). Bone loss occurred in all subjects, but was significantly greater among those with incident fractures. Our data demonstrate that low BMD (by DXA and HRpQCT) and a greater annualized percent decrease in BMD are risk factors for subsequent fracture in men and women with predialysis CKD.

  12. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  13. Cow's Milk Allergy and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Mailhot, Genevieve; Perrone, Vanessa; Alos, Nathalie; Dubois, Josée; Delvin, Edgard; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Recent data suggest that cow's milk allergy (CMA) has become more persistent, prolonging treatment via strict elimination of cow's milk products into a period of skeletal growth. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D status, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D between prepubertal children with persistent CMA and those with non-cow's milk food allergies (NCMA) as control subjects and to assess the use of and compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation among children with persistent CMA. Fifty-two children with persistent CMA and 29 with NCMA were recruited. BMD was measured by using dual energy radiograph absorptiometry, and vitamin D status was assessed by using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium and vitamin D intakes, as well as compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, were recorded. Lumbar spine BMD z scores were significantly lower in children with CMA. Low bone mass was detected in 6% of the CMA group compared with none in the NCMA group. Children with CMA displayed significantly lower calcium intakes than control subjects. Vitamin D status was not reduced in children with CMA compared with control subjects. Fewer than one-half of children with CMA reported the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. However, adherence was high among supplement users, with a mean compliance rate of 5.5 days per week. These prepubertal children with persistent CMA had lower lumbar spine BMD z scores than children with NCMA, which likely resulted from lower calcium intake. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Intermittent Pneumatic Compression and Bone Mineral Density: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Almstedt, Hawley Chase; Lewis, Zakkoyya H

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a common therapeutic modality used to reduce swelling after trauma and prevent thrombosis due to postsurgical immobilization. Limited evidence suggests that IPC may decrease the time needed to rehabilitate skeletal fractures and increase bone remodeling. To establish feasibility and explore the novel use of a common therapeutic modality, IPC, on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip of noninjured volunteers. Within-subjects intervention. University research laboratory. Noninjured participants (3 male, 6 female) completed IPC treatment on 1 leg 1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 10 wk. Pressure was set to 60 mm Hg when using the PresSsion and Flowtron Hydroven compression units. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess BMD of the hip in treated and nontreated legs before and after the intervention. Anthropometrics, regular physical activity, and nutrient intake were also assessed. The average number of completed intervention sessions was 43.4 (± 3.8) at an average duration of 9.6 (± 0.8) wk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant time-by-treatment effect at the femoral neck (P = .023), trochanter (P = .027), and total hip (P = .008). On average, the treated hip increased 0.5-1.0%, while the nontreated hip displayed a 0.7-1.9% decrease, depending on the bone site. Results of this exploratory investigation suggest that IPC is a therapeutic modality that is safe and feasible for further investigation on its novel use in optimizing bone health.

  15. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  16. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral density in athletes.

    PubMed

    Dinç, H; Savci, G; Demirci, A; Sadikoğlu, M Y; Tuncel, E; Yavuz, H

    1996-06-01

    We studied the effect of different training patterns on vertebral trabecular and cortical bone mineral density (BMD) in male athletes using quantitative computed tomography. Vertebral trabecular (t) and cortical (c) BMDs of the first three lumbar vertebrae were measured using single energy quantitative computed tomography in 51 athletes including 10 weight lifters (mean age 20 years), 13 soccer players (mean age 27 years), 28 wrestlers (mean age 17 years), and 45 age-matched volunteers (mean age 21 years). Measured BMDs were correlated with age, body height and weight, training hours per week, sports years, and type of physical activity. Vertebral tBMDs were found to be 44%, 23%, and 24% higher in the weight lifters, soccer players, and wrestlers, respectively, compared with the volunteers. The corresponding cBMDs were 18%, 6%, and 11% higher than that of volunteers. There was significant correlation between the trabecular and cBMD, and height of the athletes, sports years, training hours per week, and physical activity. The most significant correlation with BMD was the type of physical activity. Both the height of the subjects and physical activity variables showed variations of 47% and 32% in trabecular and cBMD, respectively. According to the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) only the physical activity factor was effective, with a significance level of P < 0.01; the other factors and interactions were not effective (P > 0.05) on trabecular and cBMD. Different training patterns have a different anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs of the vertebrae, and this effect is more pronounced on the trabecular compartment. Weight lifting showed the highest anabolic effect on both trabecular and cBMDs compared with soccer playing and wrestling. Of the independent variables, physical activity showed the highest anabolic effect on the vertebrae. These results may have implications for devising exercise strategies to reduce the possibility of fracture in old age.

  17. Quantification of bone mineral density to define osteoporosis in rat.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M; Mandal, S K; Sengupta, S; Arshad, M; Singh, M M

    2008-05-01

    The diagnosis of osteoporosis centers on assessment of bone mass and quality. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines to assess bone status in laboratory animals and unsuitability of use of T-/Z-scores meant for clinical application in animal studies, most investigators involved in new drug research and development employ clinical biomarkers and kits to assess bone turnover rate and portray change in bone mineral density (BMD) as percentage of increase/decrease, making comparative assessment of the effect highly impractical. This study proposes threshold boundaries of BMD (rT-score) in colony-bred Sprague-Dawley rats, distinct from those used clinically. Boundaries were obtained keeping fixed Type-I error (alpha=0.025). Femur neck was considered best for defining bone status using BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Findings demonstrate that BMD-1.96 and <-0.80 rT-score as osteopenia. Performance of boundaries to ascertain bone status was examined through simulation under different physiological/ hormonal states viz. estrogen deficiency, ageing, estrus cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.98 obtained using BMD of femur neck, being close to unity, shows excellent ability of the proposed rT-score to effectively identify osteoporosis. Further studies using certain hierarchical measures of bone quality such as histomorphometry, mechanical testing etc. could supplement these findings. Since, unlike humans, most laboratory animals including rats only exhibit osteopenia and do not fracture their bones, the proposed thresholds are intended to serve as categorical tools to define bone quality and not to predict fracture risk.

  18. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  19. Bone mineral density in collegiate female athletes: comparisons among sports.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Between-groups design. University health care system. All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 +/- 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 +/- 0.055 g.cm (-2)) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 +/- 0.086 g.cm (-2)) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health.

  20. Bone Mineral Density Response from Teriparatide in Patients with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Zhang, Meng; Bockman, Richard

    2017-07-01

    A review of data from large clinical trials reported more than 90% of subjects significantly improved their bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) with teriparatide (TPTD) (bone 39:1268-1275, 1). However, our clinical experience suggests that many patients may be non-responders, raising questions as to the true efficacy of TPTD in improving BMD in osteoporotic patients. The purpose of the study is to determine the rate of improvement in BMD following 18-24 months of teriparatide (TPTD) in patients with osteoporosis within an orthopedic hospital setting. This is a retrospective chart review of patients with osteoporosis who completed 18-24 months of TPTD therapy. The primary endpoint was the change in BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and hip-femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) following treatment. Secondary endpoints included the effect of prior bisphosphonate therapy, age, body mass index (BMI) and family history of fracture on BMD response, and the changes in bone-specific markers during active treatment. Seventy-eight women and men with mean T-scores at the LS = -2.63 met the inclusion criteria. The overall group showed a 10.7% increase in LS-BMD after 24 months of TPTD. Eighty-three percent were considered responders defined as ≥3.0% increase in LS-BMD. Non-responders (16.7%) had mean LS-BMD change = -1.41%. No difference in baseline vitamin D, calcium, creatinine, BMI, age, gender, prior fracture history, or bisphosphonate use was observed between responders and non-responders. No consistent pattern of change in measures of bone markers was noted between responders and non-responders. Eighty-three percent of patients with osteoporosis showed a >3% increase in BMD after TPTD treatment. Baseline parameters, prior bisphosphonate therapy, and the changes in bone markers showed no correlation with final BMD outcome.

  1. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  2. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use, fracture and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely prescribed simple analgesic and antipyretic. It exerts its effects via cyclooxygenase and endocannabinoid pathways, which may affect signalling in bone cells and hence influence bone metabolism. Given the high rates of paracetamol use in the community and the evidence linking its mechanism of action to bone metabolism, we aimed to investigate the association between paracetamol use, fracture, and bone mineral density (BMD) in women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Cases (n = 569) were women aged ≥ 50 years identified from radiological reports as having sustained a fracture between 1994 and 1996. Controls (n = 775) were women without fracture recruited from the same region during this period. BMD was measured at the spine, hip, total body and forearm using dual energy absorptiometry. Medication use, medical history and lifestyle factors were self-reported. There were 69 (12.1%) paracetamol users among the cases and 63 (8.1%) among the controls. Paracetamol use increased the odds for fracture (OR = 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.24, p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMD at the spine, total hip and forearm did not confound the association. However, incorporating total body BMD into the model attenuated the association (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14, p = 0.051). Further adjustment for age, weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, calcium intake, medication use, medical conditions, falls and previous fracture did not explain the association. These data suggest that paracetamol use is a risk factor for fracture, although the mechanism of action remains unclear.

  3. Explore the effectors of bone mineral density in community women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Fang

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies that involve Asian women have revealed that their bone mineral density (BMD) is lower than that of European and American women. Few studies have simultaneously investigated the cognition, beliefs and behavior that affect BMD. The first aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between demographics, knowledge of osteoporosis, health beliefs about osteoporosis, health-related behavior and BMD. The secondary goal was to explore the major predictive factors that affect the BMD of women in Community. This was an exploratory, community-based, cross-sectional study. Participants (N = 98) completed the osteoporosis related questionnaire and were invited to undergo BMD examinations using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Overall, 73.4% of the participants had heard of the disease but the proportion of correct responses to the questions that tested knowledge of osteoporosis was only 44.0%. The investigation into osteoporosis-related beliefs revealed that women held quite accurate beliefs regarding the prevention of osteoporosis, but only 23.6% of them had undergone a BMD examination. An adjusted odds ratio indicated that if women had normal BMD then they were 1.57 times (95% CI: 1.08-2.29), 1.10 times (95% CI: 1.00-1.12) and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.09-6.86) times than their counterparts, respectively. The results revealed that women with normal BMD were more likely to have positively self-rated health, knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive behavior than their counterparts. The findings indicated that BMD was subjectively determined by a combination of cognitive and behavioral factors. Early detection was the key to preventing osteoporosis.

  4. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, p<0.01). The strongest exercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, p<0.01; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.59, p<0.01). There was a closer association between exercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, p<0.001) followed by petCO(2) and body mass index (R(2)=0.7 and 0.5, respectively, p<0.01). Exercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  5. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up.

  7. No change detected by DEXA in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Kold, Søren; Søballe, Kjeld

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess acetabular bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy and to examine whether bone mineral density correlates with postoperative migration of the osteotomised acetabular fragment. Twenty-five female and three male patients scheduled for periacetabular osteotomy were consecutively included. The patients were scanned by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week, 1 year, and 2 1/2 years after surgery. Radiostereometric analyses (RSA) were done at 1, 4, 8, and 24 weeks after surgery. Two and a half years after periacetabular osteotomy, no significant changes in bone mineral density or any biological effect on bone remodelling due a changed loading pattern in the acetabulum could be detected. There was no significant correlation between bone mineral density and migration of the acetabulum. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is not an appropriate method to demonstrate the changes in bone mineral density after periacetabular osteotomy or to predict postoperative acetabular migration.

  8. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  9. Comparison of bone mineral density in the jaws of patients with and without chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk Tonguç, M; Ş Büyükkaplan, U; Fentoğlu, Ö; A Gümüş, B; S Çerçi, S; Y Kırzıoğlu, F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although several studies have addressed the relationship between systemic bone mineral status and the severity of periodontitis, there is little knowledge of the relationship between periodontal disease and locally detected bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular bone mineral density of patients with chronic periodontitis with that of periodontally healthy subjects. Methods 48 systemically healthy subjects were included in the study and underwent a periodontal examination to determine their status. 24 subjects were periodontally healthy and the other 24 had moderate or severe chronic periodontitis. The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The region of interest on the body of the mandible was independently determined on the dual energy absorptiometry radiographs, and a computer calculated the bone mineral density of these regions. Results The mandibular bone mineral density of the subjects with periodontitis was significantly lower than that of the periodontally healthy subjects (p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the mandibular bone mineral density values and parameters related to the amount of periodontal destruction. Conclusions Low bone mineral density in the jaw may be associated with chronic periodontitis. PMID:22241867

  10. Calcium renal lithiasis and bone mineral density. Importance of bone metabolism in urinary lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, M Á; Sierra Girón-Prieto, M; Orgaz-Molina, J; Zuluaga-Gómez, A; Arias-Santiago, S; Arrabal-Martín, M

    2013-06-01

    Calcium Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease; in its pathophysiology is involved various minerals and metabolic factors that may be altered, including bone and phosphor-calcium metabolism. To establish the scientific evidence and demonstrate the relationship between calcium nephrolithiasis and bone mineral density loss, through the use of bone turnover markers, serum and urinary metabolites. We performed a PubMed literature review using different MeSH Terms like "Nephrolithiasis", "Bone mineral density", "Urinary stones", "Calcium", Bone resorption" and "Bone formation", with different combinations. We only selected articles with abstracts in English or Spanish and discarded clinical cases and articles with inappropriate statistical study. A total of 40 articles were selected. In different studies reviewed have been observed that patients with hypercalciuria have a higher bone mineral density loss with respect to normocalciuric. Among patients with calcium stones (normocalciuric or hypercalciuric), there is loss of bone mineral density, being more evident in patients with stones and hypercalciuria. This mineral density loss is marked and important in patients with recurrent calcium stones. Increased markers like fasting calcium/creatinine and β-CrossLaps are determinant of nephrolithiasis and mineral density loss in these patients. We recommend perform markers of bone turnover and fasting calcium/creatinine in patients with recurrent calcium stones by the significant presence of bone mineral density loss, with a level of evidence III. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  12. Tibial subchondral bone mineral density: sources of variability and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Boudenot, A; Pallu, S; Toumi, H; Loiseau Peres, S; Dolleans, E; Lespessailles, E

    2013-10-01

    It has been shown that subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) measurement may be a relevant parameter of osteoarthritis (OA) progression. However, factors implicating the reproducibility and contributing to the variability of the measurement have not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the reproducibility of sBMD by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and to further examine its sources of variability. In this study, short-term, intra and inter-observer reproducibility of sBMD was examined on knee images obtained on DXA scans. The influence of software (lumbar spine and forearm modes), knee positioning (flexion or extension), site and size of regions of interest (ROI) and use of rice, on both lateral and medial tibial sBMD, were assessed. Root mean square coefficient of variation (RMS CV) and least significant changes (LSC) were calculated. The short-term precision of sBMD ranged between 2.24% and 5.12% for RMS CV and between 0.053 and 0.135 g/cm(2) for LSC. Good intra-observer precision was found for knee flexion conditions whatever the software used (RMS CV ranging from 0.43 to 1.41%). The reproducibility was dependant from the ROI size (the ROI including joint space exhibiting better precision results than ROI including solely the subchondral plate). For a constant size of the ROI, the precision results were site-dependant. Inter-observer RMS CV results ranged from 0.59 to 5.01% according to ROI and software used. For the specific task of monitoring medial sBMD in the ROI including solely subchondral plate, forearm flexion condition produced the highest intra-observer and short-term precision (respectively RMS CV: 0.45% and 2.77%; LSC: 0.013 and 0.080 g/cm(2)). Taking account into the excellent precision of the sBMD measurements expressed as RMS CV with the protocol proposed in the present study, clinical application of these measurements might be envisaged. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  13. Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Nickols-Richardson, S M; O'Connor, P J; Shapses, S A; Lewis, R D

    1999-06-01

    Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and related factors, in female child artistic gymnasts (n = 9) and their age- (+/-0.3 years), height- (+/-2.8 cm), and weight- (+/-1.7 kg) matched controls (n = 9) were prospectively examined. It was hypothesized that gymnasts would possess higher BMD at baseline, 6, and 12 months later and have greater gains in BMD over 1 year compared with controls. BMD (g/cm2) of the total proximal femur (TPF), Ward's triangle (WT), trochanter (Troch), femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS, L1-L4), and total body (TB) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was measured by a 7-day recall; daily dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated from 3-day records. Serum osteocalcin and urinary pyridinium cross-links were measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Gymnasts versus controls possessed significantly higher BMD at all sites measured. Although not significantly different (p > 0.05), gymnasts compared with controls had moderately larger percentage changes in Troch (% Delta = 8.6 +/- 3.0 vs. 3.8 +/- 5.1%, d = 0.41), FN (% Delta = 6.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.55), LS (% Delta = 7.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.26), and TB BMD (% Delta = 5.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.7%, d = 0.98) as evidenced by the magnitude of the effect sizes (d). Gymnasts versus controls possessed a lower percentage body fat (p < 0.01) and engaged in more hours of very hard activity (p < 0.0001). Calcium, as a percentage of adequate intake, decreased over 12 months (p < 0.01), and urinary cross-links significantly decreased over 6 months in both groups. Female child gymnasts possess higher BMD at the TPF and related sites, LS, and TB compared with nongymnast controls, and 1 year of gymnastics training moderately increases Troch, FN, LS, and TB BMD for gymnasts compared with controls. These findings lend support to the idea that gymnastics training in childhood helps maximize peak BMD.

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm −2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm −2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and

  15. Peri-acetabular bone mineral density in total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, L.; Dinh, L.; Beaulé, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare peri-acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) between a monoblock acetabular component using a metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing and a modular titanium shell with a polyethylene (PE) insert. The secondary outcome was to measure patient-reported clinical function. Methods A total of 50 patients (25 per group) were randomised to MoM or metal-on-polyethlene (MoP). There were 27 women (11 MoM) and 23 men (14 MoM) with a mean age of 61.6 years (47.7 to 73.2). Measurements of peri-prosthetic acetabular and contralateral hip (covariate) BMD were performed at baseline and at one and two years’ follow-up. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, Harris hip score, and RAND-36 were also completed at these intervals. Results At two years, only zone 1 showed a loss in BMD (-2.5%) in MoM group compared with a gain in the MoP group (+2.2%). Zone 2 showed loss in both groups (-2.2% for MoM; -3.9% for MoP) and zones 3 and 4 a gain in both groups (+0.1% for MoM; +3.3% for MoP). No other between-group differences were detected. When adjusting for BMD of the contralateral hip, no differences in BMD were observed. The only significant differences in functional scores at two years were higher UCLA activity (7.3 (sd 1.2) vs 6.1 (sd 1.5); p = 0.01) and RAND-36 physical function (82.1 (sd 13.0) vs 64.5 (sd 26.4); p = 0.02) for MoM bearings versus MoP. One revision was performed in the MoM group, for aseptic acetabular loosening at 11 months. Conclusions When controlling for systemic BMD, there were no significant differences between MoM and MoP groups in peri-acetabular BMD. However, increasing reports of adverse tissue reactions with large head MoM THR have restricted the use of the monoblock acetabular component to resurfacing only. PMID:23913361

  16. Mandibular bone mineral density as a predictor of skeletal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Horner, K; Devlin, H; Alsop, C W; Hodgkinson, I M; Adams, J E

    1996-11-01

    A considerable amount of work has been performed on methods of detecting individuals with low bone mass at an early stage. Some researchers have considered if dental radiographs could have a role in the detection of individuals with osteoporosis. A basic requirement for this would be that bone mass in the jaw relates significantly to that of other skeletal sites in which osteoporosis is a significant problem. The first aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) and that of other skeletal sites commonly used for bone densitometry in the detection of osteoporosis. The second aim was to assess the validity of mandibular BMD as a predictor of BMD in these other sites. 40 edentulous females underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), DXA of the right femoral neck, single photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the proximal and distal forearm and DXA of the mandible. Significant correlations were observed between BMD in the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis and all other skeletal sites (p < 0.02). Five patients (12.5%) had age matched Z-scores of -1.0 or lower in all three non-mandibular sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck and forearm). Using these patients as the proportion of the population with a positive finding of "low bone mass", the sensitivity and specificity of mandibular BMD in predicting low bone mass for these patients was determined. Where a diagnostic threshold for low mandibular BMD was set at one standard deviation below the mean, the mandibular body BMD measurement gave high sensitivity (0.8) and specificity (0.97), the symphysis BMD low sensitivity (0.4) but a high specificity (0.77), while the ramus BMD had a moderate level of sensitivity (0.6) and high specificity (0.91). It is concluded that mandibular BMD assessed by DXA correlates significantly with BMD measurements of other important skeletal sites. The higher correlation coefficients and the greater sensitivity and

  17. Rocket-borne measurements of electron temperature and density with the Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, I. J.; Widholm, M.; Lessard, M. R.; Riley, P.; Heavisides, J.; Moen, J. I.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Bekkeng, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Determining electron temperature in the ionosphere is a fundamentally important measurement for space science. Obtaining measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (>700 km) is difficult because of limitations on ground-based radar and classic spacecraft instrumentation. In light of these limitations, the rocket-borne Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer (ERPA) was developed to allow for accurate in situ measurement of ionospheric electron temperature with a simple and low-resource instrument. The compact ERPA, a traditional retarding potential analyzer with multiple baffle collimators, allows for a straightforward calculation of electron temperature. Since its first mission in 2004, it has amassed significant flight heritage and obtained data used in multiple studies investigating a myriad of phenomena related to magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In addition to highlighting the scientific contributions of the ERPA instrument, this paper outlines its theory and operation, the methodology used to obtain electron temperature measurements, and a comparative study suggesting that the ERPA can also provide electron density measurements.

  18. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Perrie E.; Dunn, Winston; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether NAFLD influences bone health is unknown. AIM To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. METHODS Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and total percent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analyzed in children with NAFLD. RESULTS Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (p<0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (−1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five percent of children with NAFLD had low bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (p < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (p< 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (−2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (−1.58). CONCLUSIONS NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralization in children with NAFLD. PMID:22111971

  19. Impaired Vestibular Function and Low Bone Mineral Density: Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Anson, Eric; du Lac, Sascha; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that experimentally induced vestibular ablation leads to a decrease in bone mineral density, through mechanisms mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Loss of bone mineral density is a common and potentially morbid condition that occurs with aging, and we sought to investigate whether vestibular loss is associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. We evaluated this question in a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a large, prospective cohort study managed by the National Institute on Aging (N = 389). Vestibular function was assessed with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs), a measure of saccular function. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In two-way t test analysis, we observed that individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density. In adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, we observed that older individuals with reduced vestibular physiologic function had significantly lower bone mineral density, specifically in weight-bearing hip and lower extremity bones. These results suggest that the vestibular system may contribute to bone homeostasis in older adults, notably of the weight-bearing hip bones at greatest risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further longitudinal analysis of vestibular function and bone mineral density in humans is needed to characterize this relationship and investigate the potential confounding effect of physical activity.

  20. Bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.

    PubMed

    Minarich, Laurie A; Kirpich, Alexander; Fiske, Laurie M; Weinstein, David A

    2012-04-05

    Purpose:The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogenesis of low bone mineral density in glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib.Methods:A retrospective chart review performed at the University of Florida Glycogen Storage Disease Program included patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia and Ib for whom dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis was performed. A Z-score less than -2 SD was considered low. Analysis for association of bone mineral density with age, gender, presence of complications, mean triglyceride and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy, and history of corticosteroid use was performed.Results:In glycogen storage disease Ia, 23/42 patients (55%) had low bone mineral density. Low bone mineral density was associated with other disease complications (P = 0.02) and lower mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (P = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower mean triglyceride concentration in the normal bone mineral density group (P = 0.1).In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ib, 8/12 (66.7%) had low bone mineral density. We did not detect an association with duration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy (P = 0.68), mean triglyceride level (P = 0.267), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.3), or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P = 0.63) concentration, and there was no evidence that corticosteroid therapy was associated with lower bone mineral density (P = 1).Conclusion:In glycogen storage disease type Ia, bone mineral density is associated with other complications and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. In glycogen storage disease type Ib, bone mineral density was not associated with any covariates analyzed, suggesting multifactorial etiology or reflecting a small sample.Genet Med advance online publication 5 April 2012.

  1. New efforts using helicopter-borne and ground based electromagnetics for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Siemon, B.; Noell, U.; Gutzmer, J.; Spitzer, K.; Becken, M.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the last decades mineral resources, especially rare earth elements, gained a steadily growing importance in industry and therefore as well in exploration. New targets for mineral investigations came into focus and known sources have been and will be revisited. Since most of the mining for mineral resources in the past took place in the upper hundred metres below surface new techniques made deeper mining economically feasible. Consequently, mining engineers need the best possible knowledge about the full spatial extent of prospective geological structures, including their maximum depths. Especially in Germany and Europe, politics changed in terms not to rely only on the global mineral trade market but on national resources, if available. BGR and partners therefore started research programs on different levels to evaluate and develop new technologies on environmental friendly, non-invasive spatial exploration using airborne and partly ground-based electromagnetic methods. Mining waste heaps have been explored for valuable residual minerals (research project ROBEHA), a promising tin bearing ore body is being explored by airborne electromagnetics (research project E3) and a new airborne technology is aimed at to be able to reach investigation depths of about 1 km (research project DESMEX). First results of the projects ROBEHA and E3 will be presented and the project layout of DESMEX will be discussed.

  2. Calcium phosphate metabolism and bone mineral density with nocturnal hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nigel; Boddington, Janeane; Simmonds, Rosemary; Waldron, Claire; Somerville, Christine; Agar, John

    2006-07-01

    An elevated calcium x phosphate product (Ca x P) is an independent risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular death in dialysis patients. More physiological dialysis in patients undergoing nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) has been shown to produce biochemical advantages compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD) including superior phosphate (P) control. Benefits of dialysate with greater calcium (Ca) concentration are also reported in NHD to prevent Ca depletion and subsequent hyperparathyroidism, but there are concerns that a higher dialysate Ca concentration may contribute to raised serum Ca levels and greater Ca x P and vascular disease. The NHD program at our unit has been established for 4 years, and we retrospectively analyzed Ca and P metabolism in patients undergoing NHD (8-9 h/night, 6 nights/week). Our cohort consists of 11 patients, mean age 49.3 years, who had been on NHD for a minimum of 12 months, mean 34.3 months. Commencement was with low-flux (LF) NHD and 1.5 mmol/L Ca dialysate concentration, with conversion to high-flux (HF) dialyzers after a period (mean duration 18.7 months). We compared predialysis serum albumin, intact parathyroid hormone, P, total corrected Ca, and Ca x P at baseline on CHD, after conversion to LF NHD and during HF NHD. We also prospectively measured bone mineral density (BMD) on all patients entering the NHD program. Bone densitometry (DEXA) scans were performed at baseline (on CHD) and yearly after commencement of NHD. With the introduction of HF dialyzers, the Ca dialysate concentration was concurrently raised to 1.75 mmol/L after demonstration on DEXA scans of worsening osteopenia. Analysis of BMD, for all parameters, revealed a decrease over the first 12 to 24 months (N = 11). When the dialysate Ca bath was increased, the median T and Z scores subsequently increased (data at 3 years, N = 6). The mean predialysis P levels were significantly lower on LF NHD vs. CHD (1.51 vs. 1.77 mmol/L, p = 0.014), while on

  3. Rocket-borne instrument for measuring vibrational-rotational temperature and density in the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Junichi; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro

    2005-08-15

    We applied the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique to measure the vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, and number density of atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) in the altitude range of 100-150 km. The atmospheric N{sub 2} is excited and ionized by electron beam of the energy of 1 keV and the subsequent fluorescence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is detected by a sensitive spectrometer, which covers the 360-440 nm wavelength range. In contrast to previous rocket-borne photometric measurements using the EBF technique, the spectrometric measurement provides the above three parameters simultaneously and more accurately. Preflight laboratory experiments were carried out in order to test the spectral sensitivity over the whole spectral range, to calibrate the number density from the band intensity, and to know the accuracy of the rotational temperature measurement. Finally, we tried to calibrate the vibrational temperature measurement by using heated N{sub 2} gas which is ejected from the small nozzle.

  4. Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, P D; Chrusch, M J; Chad, K E; Shawn Davison, K; Burke, D G

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation combined with resistance training on bone mineral content and density in older men. Twenty-nine older men (age 71 y) were randomized (double blind) to receive creatine (0.3 g/kg creatine for 5 d and 0.07 g/kg thereafter) or placebo while participating in resistance training (12 weeks). Bone mineral content and density were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after training. There was a time main effect for whole-body and leg bone mineral density (p < or = 0.05) with these measures increasing by approximately 0.5%, and 1%, respectively in the combined groups. There was a group by time interaction for arms bone mineral content, with the group receiving creatine increasing by 3.2% (p < 0.01) and the group receiving placebo decreasing by 1.0% (not significant). Changes in lean tissue mass of the arms correlated with changes in bone mineral content of the arms (r = 0.67; p < 0.01). Resistance training of 12 weeks increases bone mineral density in older men and creatine supplementation may provide an additional benefit for increasing regional bone mineral content. The increase in bone mineral content may be due to an enhanced muscle mass with creatine, with potentially greater tension on bone at sites of muscle attachment.

  5. Low bone mineral density and decreased bone turnover in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, Ann-Charlott; Magnusson, Per; Ahlander, Anne-Christine; Karlsson, Jón; Kroksmark, Anna-Karin; Tulinius, Már; Swolin-Eide, Diana

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined bone mineral density, bone turnover, body composition and calciotropic hormones in 24 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (2.3-19.7 years), most of whom were being treated with prednisolone, and 24 age-matched healthy boys. Our study demonstrated lower bone mineral density in the DMD group for total body, spine, hip, heel and forearm measurements. These differences between DMD patients and controls increased with increasing age. Biochemical markers of both bone formation and resorption revealed reduced bone turnover in DMD patients. The fracture rate was not higher in DMD patients. The DMD group had low vitamin D levels but high leptin levels in comparison with the control group. Muscle strength correlated with bone mineral density assessed at the hip and heel in the DMD group. Interventions that increase bone formation should be considered, as DMD patients have reduced bone turnover in addition to their low bone mineral density.

  6. Differences by sex and handedness in right and left femur bone mineral densities.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ali; Dane, Senol; Seven, Bedri; Akar, Sedat; Yildirim, Serap

    2009-12-01

    Left-handedness was reported to be a risk factor for accident-related injuries, head injuries, traumatic brain injuries, sport-related injuries, and bone breaks and fractures. As decreased bone mineral density is a good marker of bone fractures, the femoral bone mineral densities of normal left-handed university students were compared with those of right-handed students. Hand preference of 66 men and 47 women was assessed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of bone mineral density with a Hologic QDR-4500W (S/N 48403) densitometer showed bone mineral densities of both right and left proximal femur regions were higher in right-handed than in left-handed students. These results are consistent with the claim that left-handed participants had higher trauma and injury risk. Also, these results may explain the sex-related differences by handedness for susceptibility in accident-related injuries such as bone fractures.

  7. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    PubMed

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with low bone mineral density in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pardee, P E; Dunn, W; Schwimmer, J B

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Liver disease can be a cause of low bone mineral density. Whether or not NAFLD influences bone health is not known. To evaluate bone mineral density in obese children with and without NAFLD. Thirty-eight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were matched for age, gender, race, ethnicity, height and weight to children without evidence of liver disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and gender-specific bone mineral density Z-scores were calculated and compared between children with and without NAFLD. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity and total per cent body fat, the relationship between bone mineral density and the severity of histology was analysed in children with NAFLD. Obese children with NAFLD had significantly (P < 0.0001) lower bone mineral density Z-scores (-1.98) than obese children without NAFLD (0.48). Forty-five per cent of children with NAFLD had low-bone mineral density for age, compared to none of the children without NAFLD (P < 0.0001). Among those children with NAFLD, children with NASH had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower bone mineral density Z-score (-2.37) than children with NAFLD who did not have NASH (-1.58). The NAFLD was associated with poor bone health in obese children. More severe disease was associated with lower bone mineralisation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of poor bone mineralisation in children with NAFLD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    PubMed

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  11. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone mineral density among male university students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Egami, Isuzu; Wakai, Kenji; Kunitomo, Hirotada; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ando, Masahiko; Nakayama, Toshiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    To investigate associations of lifestyle factors with bone mineral density among young men in Japan, we measured bone mineral density of the second metacarpal bone in 143 male university students, aged 18-22 years, by the computed X-ray densitometry. The subjects completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Their mean+/-standard deviation of bone mineral density was 2.61+/-0.23 mmAl. Body mass index (Spearman's rho=0.232, p=0.006), daily walking time (rho=0.186, p=0.028), and milk consumption at junior (rho=0.250, p=0.003) and senior (rho=0.195, p=0.020) high school were significantly correlated with the bone mineral density. For nutritional variables, the bone mineral density was positively correlated with energy-adjusted intakes of calcium (Pearson's r=0.302, p=0.0002), potassium (r=0.265, p=0.001), saturated fatty acids (r=0.211, p=0.011), and magnesium (r=0.173, p=0.039), and with those of milk and dairy products (r=0.228, p=0.006) and fruits (r=0.205, p=0.014), while being negatively associated with energy-adjusted noodle consumption (r=-0.185, p=0.027). The positive correlation of milk consumption at junior high school with the bone mineral density was not materially altered by adjustment for the body mass index, calcium intake, and walking time. Single-life students had lower bone mineral density compared with those lived with families (p=0.044). Bone mineral density could be increased by modifying dietary habits in young men.

  12. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  13. Density functional theory: Non-Born-Oppenheimer Legendre transforms and Maxwell relations, equilibrium and stability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalewajski, Roman F.; Capitani, Joseph F.

    1982-09-01

    The Legendre-transformed representations of the non-Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) density functional theory are analyzed and the corresponding Maxwell relations are derived. These relations exhibit various couplings between parameters of the NBO ground-state energy hypersurfaces: ɛ[{Ni, Zi, Mi}] and ɛφ[{Ni, Zi, Mi},φ], where Ni, Zi, and Mi denote, respectively, the number of particles i, their charge and mass, while φ stands for an external electric field. The criteria for intrinsic equilibrium and stability of molecular systems are formulated and discussed within both the BO and NBO approximations. The physical content of stability criteria is interpreted in terms of the Le Châtelier and the Le Châtelier-Braun principles. The classical nature of these criteria is revealed through the introduction of internal partial scalar pressures of the system components (groups of identical particles) within the local formulation of the theory. It is then shown that the criteria of equilibrium and stability in isolated molecular systems become the classical criteria of the ''mechanical''-electrostatic equilibrium and stability.

  14. Efficient parallel linear scaling construction of the density matrix for Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mniszewski, S M; Cawkwell, M J; Wall, M E; Mohd-Yusof, J; Bock, N; Germann, T C; Niklasson, A M N

    2015-10-13

    We present an algorithm for the calculation of the density matrix that for insulators scales linearly with system size and parallelizes efficiently on multicore, shared memory platforms with small and controllable numerical errors. The algorithm is based on an implementation of the second-order spectral projection (SP2) algorithm [ Niklasson, A. M. N. Phys. Rev. B 2002 , 66 , 155115 ] in sparse matrix algebra with the ELLPACK-R data format. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm within self-consistent tight binding theory by total energy calculations of gas phase poly(ethylene) molecules and periodic liquid water systems containing up to 15,000 atoms on up to 16 CPU cores. We consider algorithm-specific performance aspects, such as local vs nonlocal memory access and the degree of matrix sparsity. Comparisons to sparse matrix algebra implementations using off-the-shelf libraries on multicore CPUs, graphics processing units (GPUs), and the Intel many integrated core (MIC) architecture are also presented. The accuracy and stability of the algorithm are illustrated with long duration Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations of 1000 water molecules and a 303 atom Trp cage protein solvated by 2682 water molecules.

  15. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Kari; Søgaard, Anne J; Falch, Jan A; Meyer, Haakon E

    2007-01-01

    Background Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Methods Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions – East and West, were used. Results Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score ≤ -1) was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.22–2.87) in women in Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. Conclusion We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. PMID:18036226

  16. Does Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Concentrations Adequately Reflect Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis?

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Somaye Ansari; Zakeri, Zahra; Fakour, Sirous Risbaf; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2016-10-01

    Periodontitis is the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues. The response of periodontal tissues to local bacteria leads to bone resorption and destruction of periodontal junction. Given the possible association between periodontitis and low bone mineral density, the aim of present study was to find if measurement of salivary biomarkers as a less invasive method, can provide an appropriate screening method for assessment of bone mineral density in patients with chronic periodontitis? A case-control study was conducted on 53 people, including 28 patients with severe chronic periodontitis and 25 healthy people between April 2014 to March 2015 in Zahedan (southeast of Iran). Following Periodontal examination, salivary samples were collected, and the concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate were measured and reported as mg/dl. Bone mineral density of participants was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and reported as gr/cm2. No significant association was found between concentrations of salivary calcium and phosphate levels with bone mineral density in either healthy people or in patients with severe chronic periodontitis, despite a significant bone density reduction (in the femur neck and lumbar spine L2-L4) in the periodontitis group compared to healthy people (P=0.006, and P=0.009 respectively). Concentration of salivary calcium and phosphate do not appear to be good indicators of bone mineral density. Further prospective studies with larger sample size are recommended.

  17. Hounsfield units for assessing bone mineral density and strength: a tool for osteoporosis management.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Joseph J; Anderson, Paul A; Rosas, Humberto G; Buchholz, Avery L; Au, Anthony G

    2011-06-01

    Measurements obtained from clinical computed tomography examinations may yield information leading to the diagnosis of decreased bone mineral density, without added expense to the patient. The purpose of the present study was to determine if Hounsfield units, a standardized computed tomography attenuation coefficient, correlate with bone mineral density and compressive strength. Twenty-five patients (including eighteen female and seven male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine dual x-ray absorptiometry scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if Hounsfield units correlated with bone mineral density and T-scores. Normative data were generated from lumbar spine computed tomography examinations for eighty consecutive trauma patients and were stratified by age and sex. Separately, polyurethane foam blocks of varying densities were imaged with computed tomography and were subjected to mechanical testing to determine compressive strength. Compressive strength values and Hounsfield units were analyzed for correlation. Significant correlations were found between Hounsfield units and bone mineral density, age, and T-scores and between Hounsfield units and compressive strength (p < 0.001). Hounsfield units obtained from clinical computed tomography scans that are made for other purposes correlate with dual x-ray absorptiometry scores as well as compressive strengths based on osseous models and potentially provide an alternative method for determining regional bone mineral density at no additional cost to the patient. The information could conceivably be applied toward fracture risk assessment, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and early initiation of needed treatment.

  18. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  19. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm(2))], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  20. Relationship between Urinary Calcium and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, Khashayar; Maalouf, Naim M; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Moe, Orson W

    2017-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Hypercalciuria has been assumed to be pathogenic for bone loss in kidney stone formers, although this association was shown in small cross-sectional studies. We explored the association of urine calcium with bone mineral density in kidney stone formers. We retrospectively studied bone mineral density in kidney stone formers. Excluded were subjects with hypercalcemia, chronic bowel disease, primary hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis or endogenous creatinine clearance less than 40 ml per minute. We included 250 males and 182 females subdivided into 145 who were estrogen treated and postmenopausal, and 37 who were nonestrogen treated and postmenopausal. We assessed the association of lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density with 24-hour urine calcium on random and restricted diets, and while fasting using univariable and multivariable models adjusting for body mass index, urine sodium and sulfate. On multivariable analysis no significant association was found between urine calcium on a random or a restricted diet, or during fasting conditions and femoral neck or lumbar spine bone mineral density in men and estrogen treated women. In estrogen untreated women lumbar spine bone mineral density inversely correlated with urine calcium on the restricted diet (r = -0.38, p = 0.04 and adjusted r = -0.45, p = 0.02) and in the fasting state (r = -0.42, p = 0.05). Unlike in previous small cross-sectional studies we found no significant relationship between urine calcium and bone mineral density in a large group of calcium kidney stone formers. However, a significant inverse relationship was found in estrogen untreated kidney stone formers only. This study suggests that mechanism(s) other than hypercalciuria explain the lower bone mineral density and the higher fracture risk in patients who are kidney stone formers. It also highlights the role of estrogen on bone

  1. Association between dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQs) and bone mineral density in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A; Romero, A; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Monteagudo, C; López, G; Lorenzo, Ma L; Ocaña-Peinado, F M; Olea-Serrano, F

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a tight association between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans. The intake of antioxidants may influence Bone Mineral Density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women. A total of 280 women were grouped into three major groups: women aged ≤ 35 years; women aged 36-45, and finally women aged >45 years. Calcaneous Bone Mineral Density (g/cm²) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on the eating habits of each participant were collected with a structured 24-hour diet recall questionnaire. A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was used to calculate antioxidant-nutrient intake. A significant and positive association was observed among Bone Mineral Density and dietary intake of vitamin C and selenium. Zinc intake was significantly related to Bone Mineral Density in the youngest group. Low antioxidant consumers were considered individuals whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was lower or equal than the median (3.5), and high antioxidant consumers were those whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score were higher than 3.5. Bone Mineral Density was higher in the participants defined as high antioxidant consumers in all aged groups. The study showed that there is an association between Bone Mineral Density and the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score in all the women studied. Therefore, new therapies for osteoporosis based on higher dietary antioxidant intakes might be developed basing on the results obtained in this study.

  2. [Bone mineral density in children. Association with musculoskeletal pain and/or joint hypermobility].

    PubMed

    Roberto, Adriana Madureira; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Szejnfeld, Vera; Hilário, Maria Odete E

    2002-01-01

    Joint hypermobility can be associated with benign musculoskeletal pain. The relation between hypermobility and low bone mineral density is still unknown. Osteoporosis can be observed in some genetic syndromes associated with joint hypermobility. The aim of our study was to detect the possible relation between joint hypermobility, benign musculoskeletal pain and bone mineral density in children. Ninety-three children from 5 to 10 years of age were evaluated concerning the presence of joint hypermobility and the presence of musculoskeletal pain based on a questionnaire directed to parents. We also performed densitometry to measure bone mineral density. All children underwent an L2-L4 lumbar bone densitometry. Children were distributed into four groups according to the presence or not of joint hypermobility associated or not with musculoskeletal pain: 29 (31.2%) with hypermobility and pain, 20 (21.5%) with hypermobility and without pain, 22 (23.6%) without hypermobility and with pain and 22 (23.6%) without hypermobility and without pain (control group). Twenty-four children (25.8%) presented reduction in bone mineral density over 10% related to the adequate bone mineral density for age and gender. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in relation to the controls in the following groups: with hypermobility (independently of the presence of pain), with pain (independently of the presence of hypermobility), with hypermobility and without pain and without hypermobility and with pain. Bone mineral density may be lower in children with joint hypermobility (independently of musculoskeletal pain) and in children with pain (independently of hypermobility) when compared to controls.

  3. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  4. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes: selective measurement of bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Hauffa, B; Möhlmann, C; Jeken, C; Reiners, C

    1995-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in 21 children and adolescents with type I diabetes and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. BMD was selectively measured in trabecular and total bone using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Cortical bone density was calculated. There was a decrease of trabecular bone density (-18.9%, p < 0.01), total bone density (-9.0%, NS) and cortical bone density (-5.1%, NS) in diabetes. Trabecular bone density was inversely correlated with the duration of diabetes and the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) (r = -0.48, p = 0.027 and r = -0.63, p = 0.002, respectively). Total BMD correlated inversely with HbA1 (r = -0.52, p = 0.017). pQCT allows the selective measurement of metabolically active trabecular bone where changes of mineralization first occur. We conclude that pQCT is a useful method for investigating BMD in diabetes.

  5. Positive relationship between bone mineral density and low back pain in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Takashi; Takasugi, Shin-ichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    There have been a large number of epidemiological studies demonstrating various primary factors that cause musculoskeletal disorders in middle-aged and older women. However, the relationship between low back pain and bone mineral density is not well documented, and no evidence for any direct relationship between the two has been found. To investigate the relationship, we conducted a cross-sectional study, on a population of 2,244 Japanese women aged 25-85 years who were participating in a regional health screening program. Information on lifestyle, reproductive characteristics and the presence of current low back pain was collected by self-administered questionnaires, and bone mineral density at the distal radius was measured. We found increasing bone mineral density to be significantly associated with low back pain in middle-aged women using a logistic regression analysis. Exercise and smoking were also significantly associated with low back pain. This association remained even after entering other lifestyle and reproductive factors into the final model. Accordingly, high bone mineral density would seem to be as important a public health problem as low bone mineral density and osteoporosis when considering the musculoskeletal symptoms and disabilities that appear in middle-aged women.

  6. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia Alves Junior, Paulo Alonso; Schueftan, Daniel Luis Gilban; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Beserra, Izabel Calland Ricarte

    2014-01-01

    Chronic glucocorticoid therapy is associated with reduced bone mineral density. In paediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, increased levels of androgens could not only counteract this effect, but could also advance bone age, with interference in the evaluation of densitometry. We evaluate bone mineral density in paediatric patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia taking into account chronological and bone ages at the time of the measurement. Patients aged between 5 and 19 years underwent radiography of the hand and wrist followed by total body and lumbar spine densitometry. Chronological and bone ages were used in the scans interpretation. In fourteen patients, mean bone mineral density Z-score of total body to bone age was -0.76 and of lumbar spine to bone age was -0.26, lower than those related to chronological age (+0.03 and +0.62, resp.). Mean Z-score differences were statistically significant (P = 0.004 for total body and P = 0.003 for lumbar spine). One patient was classified as having low bone mineral density only when assessed by bone age. We conclude that there was a reduction in the bone mineral density Z-score in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia paediatric patients when bone age was taken into account instead of chronological age.

  7. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  8. Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Status Among African American Children With Forearm Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Teach, Stephen J.; Singer, Steven A.; Wood, Rachel; Freishtat, Robert; Wright, Joseph L.; McCarter, Robert; Tosi, Laura; Chamberlain, James M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether African American children with forearm fractures have decreased bone mineral density and an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≤20 ng/mL) compared with fracture-free control patients. METHODS: This case-control study in African American children, aged 5 to 9 years, included case patients with forearm fracture and control patients without fracture. Evaluation included measurement of bone mineral density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for associations between fracture status and 2 measures of bone health (bone mineral density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level) while controlling for other potential confounders. RESULTS: The final sample included 76 case and 74 control patients. There were no significant differences between case and control patients in age, gender, parental education level, enrollment season, outdoor play time, height, or mean dietary calcium nutrient density. Cases were more likely than control patients to be overweight (49.3% vs 31.4%, P = .03). Compared with control patients, case patients had lower whole body z scores for bone mineral density (0.62 ± 0.96 vs 0.98 ± 1.09; adjusted odds ratio 0.38 [0.20–0.72]) and were more likely to be vitamin D deficient (47.1% vs 40.8%; adjusted odds ratio 3.46 [1.09–10.94]). CONCLUSIONS: These data support an association of lower bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency with increased odds of forearm fracture among African American children. Because suboptimal childhood bone health also negatively impacts adult bone health, interventions to increase bone mineral density and correct vitamin D deficiency are indicated in this population to provide short-term and long-term benefits. PMID:22926174

  9. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birch's law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Earth's interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6, 770

  10. Bone mineral density in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Ozaltin, Fatih; Ozon, Alev; Besbas, Nesrin; Topaloglu, Rezan; Ozen, S; Bakkaloglu, A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), serum and urinary bone turnover parameters in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of serous membranes. Demographic characteristics and MEFV mutations were defined in 48 children diagnosed with FMF (23 F, 25 M; median age 7.0 years (3.0-10.0)). We evaluated the blood counts, acute-phase proteins and serum and urinary bone turnover parameters during attack-free periods. The BMC and BA (bone area) of vertebrae L1-L4 were measured by DEXA. Thirty-eight age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Mean L1-L4 BMC in Group I (patients with two mutations) and II (patients with no or single mutations) were 15.49+/-5.99 g and 15.68+/-4.89 g, respectively, both significantly lower than the mean L1-L4 BMC of control patients, which was 19.59+/-6.7 g (p<0.05). Mean L1-L4 BMD in Group I, Group II and the control group were 0.466+/-0.066 g/cm(2), 0.487+/-0.085 g/cm(2 )and 0.513+/-0.079 g/cm(2), respectively. Mean z-scores in Group I, Group II and the control group were -1.87+/-0.74, -1.55+/-0.92 and -1.39+/-0.84, respectively. Mean L1-L4 BMD and z-score of Group I were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). ESR and SAA (serum amyloid A) levels were higher in Group I patients: 28.3+/-14.5 mm/h and 350+/-62 mg/l in Group I; and 20.5+/-11.7 mm/h and 190+/-68 mg/l in Group II, respectively. In conclusion, FMF patients had lower BMC, BMD and z-scores than a control group. We suggest that decreased BMD, BMC and z-score in FMF patients may be secondary to subclinical inflammation.

  11. [Bone mineral density disminution post Roux-Y bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Papapietro, Karin; Massardo, Teresa; Riffo, Andrea; Díaz, Emma; Araya, A Verónica; Adjemian, Daniela; Montesinos, Gustavo; Castro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía bariátrica tiene complicaciones metabólicas importantes como la pérdida de masa ósea. Objetivo: Evaluar la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) posterior a by-pass gástrico en Y de Roux (BPYR) en pacientes con indicación de suplemento estándar de calcio y vitamina D. Método: En pacientes con BPYR por obesidad mórbida, 76 mujeres y 22 hombres de diversa edad, con instrucción nutricional, suplemento de calcio y vitamina D, se midió la DMO en columna lumbar y caderas con densitómetro radiológico de doble haz 2 a 3 años post-cirugía. Veinte mujeres fueron seguidas con DMO hasta 54 meses en promedio. Según criterios de Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), se comparó con población control joven y de su edad según sexo, evaluando osteopenia y osteoporosis. Resultados: Hubo correlación negativa de DMO con edad; positiva de DMO con índice de masa corporal y con exceso de peso preoperatorio. En mujeres menores de 45 años, se observó disminución de DMO en 26,8%, sin casos de osteoporosis y en 65,7% en las mayores de 45 años (p = 0,0011), correspondiendo a 45,7% de osteopenia y 20% de osteoporosis, predominantemente en columna lumbar. El subgrupo de mujeres con mayor seguimiento, presentó disminución progresiva de DMO, especialmente en cadera izquierda. En hombres se observó 36% de osteopenia y 14% de osteoporosis. Conclusión: Pacientes de ambos sexos y diversa edad, despues de un BPYR, presentaron osteopenia y osteoporosis, a pesar de suplemento precoz de calcio y vitamina D. Consideramos importante medir DMO seriada, individualizando terapias y controlando factores de riesgo.

  12. Influence of bone mineral density measurement on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Daswani, Bhavna; Desai, Meena; Mitra, Sumegha; Gavali, Shubhangi; Patil, Anushree; Kukreja, Subhash; Khatkhatay, M Ikram

    2016-03-01

    Fracture risk assessment tool® calculations can be performed with or without addition of bone mineral density; however, the impact of this addition on fracture risk assessment tool® scores has not been studied in Indian women. Given the limited availability and high cost of bone mineral density testing in India, it is important to know the influence of bone mineral density on fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. Therefore, our aim was to assess the contribution of bone mineral density in fracture risk assessment tool® outcome in Indian women. Apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women (n = 506), aged 40-72 years, without clinical risk factors for bone disease, were retrospectively selected, and their fracture risk assessment tool® scores calculated with and without bone mineral density were compared. Based on WHO criteria, 30% women were osteoporotic, 42.9% were osteopenic and 27.1% had normal bone mineral density. Fracture risk assessment tool® scores for risk of both major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture significantly increased on including bone mineral density (P < 0.0001). When criteria of National Osteoporosis Foundation, US was applied number of participants eligible for medical therapy increased upon inclusion of bone mineral density, (for major osteoporotic fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 0 and with bone mineral density was 1, P > 0.05, whereas, for hip fracture risk number of women eligible without bone mineral density was 2 and with bone mineral density was 17, P < 0.0001). Until the establishment of country-specific medication intervention thresholds, bone mineral density should be included while calculating fracture risk assessment tool® scores in Indian women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Muriel; Ndangang, Marie; Riaudel, Typhaine; de Decker, Laure; Benichou, Jacques; Berrut, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Changes in body composition, including a decrease in muscle and bone mass, accompany aging. Analyse the influence of lean mass on bone mineral density, related to physical activity, in elderly women. 37 women were included in this study via an osteoporosis consultation. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methodology (DXA). The BMD was measured at the femoral neck. Each participant had a physical activity test to respond and had to perform handgrip, a four meter walk and one leg balance. Simple regression analyze showed a positive association between lean masse et BMD; after multiple linear regression analysis, we found a positive association between BMD, lean mass, and one leg balance; lean masse and one leg balance were two independent variable. Bone Mineral density was signicantly associated to lean mass and one leg balance.

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  15. Mass Density Measurement of Mineralized Tissue with Grating-Based X-Ray Phase Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Regine; Zanette, Irene; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Dierolf, Martin; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the mineral content distribution in highly mineralized tissues, such as bones and teeth, is fundamental in understanding a variety of structural questions ranging from studies of the mechanical properties to improved pathological investigations. However, non-destructive, volumetric and quantitative density measurements of mineralized samples, some of which may extend several mm in size, remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate the potential of grating-based x-ray phase tomography to gain insight into the three-dimensional mass density distribution of tooth tissues in a non-destructive way and with a sensitivity of 85 mg/cm3. Density gradients of 13 − 19% over 1 − 2 mm within typical samples are detected, and local variations in density of 0.4 g/cm3 on a length scale of 0.1 mm are revealed. This method proves to be an excellent quantitative tool for investigations of subtle differences in mineral content of mineralized tissues that can change following treatment or during ageing and healing. PMID:28002416

  16. Mass Density Measurement of Mineralized Tissue with Grating-Based X-Ray Phase Tomography.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Regine; Zanette, Irene; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Dierolf, Martin; Rack, Alexander; Zaslansky, Paul; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the mineral content distribution in highly mineralized tissues, such as bones and teeth, is fundamental in understanding a variety of structural questions ranging from studies of the mechanical properties to improved pathological investigations. However, non-destructive, volumetric and quantitative density measurements of mineralized samples, some of which may extend several mm in size, remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate the potential of grating-based x-ray phase tomography to gain insight into the three-dimensional mass density distribution of tooth tissues in a non-destructive way and with a sensitivity of 85 mg/cm3. Density gradients of 13 - 19% over 1 - 2 mm within typical samples are detected, and local variations in density of 0.4 g/cm3 on a length scale of 0.1 mm are revealed. This method proves to be an excellent quantitative tool for investigations of subtle differences in mineral content of mineralized tissues that can change following treatment or during ageing and healing.

  17. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  18. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Takeaki

    2008-09-01

    This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength.

  19. Application of quantitative computed tomography for assessment of trabecular bone mineral density, microarchitecture and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song Shou; Li, Dong; Luo, Yanting; Syed, Younus Saleem; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease, causing increased skeletal fragility characterized by a low bone mass and trabecular microarchitectural deterioration. Assessment of the bone mineral density (BMD) is the primary determinant of skeletal fragility. Computed tomography (CT)-based trabecular microarchitectural and mechanical assessments are important methods to evaluate the skeletal strength. In this review, we focus the feasibility of QCT BMD measurement using a calibration phantom or phantomless. The application of QCT could extend the bone mineral density assessment to all patients who underwent a heart, lung, whole-body, and as well as all routine clinical implications of CT scan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dietary patterns in college freshmen and its relation to bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Mu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shu, Long; Li, Qingyan; Li, Yingchun

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the bone density of freshmen, and to analyze the association between dietary pattern and bone mineral density (BMD). A questionnaire survey on the situation of dietary pattern was conducted in 1414 freshmen. Effective dietary survey questionnaires and bone mineral density measurements were completed for 1319 participants. Bone mass was assessed by using an Ultrasound Bone Densitometer on the right calcaneus (CM-200, Furuno Electric Corporation, Japan), and the speed of sound (SOS, m/s) was used as an indicator for bone density. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify the dietary patterns. After adjusting for confounders, covariance with Bonferroni's was used to further examine the associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD). (1) Four major dietary patterns were noticed. Western food pattern (high consumption in hamburger, fried food, nuts, biscuit, chocolate, cola, coffee, sugars). Animal protein pattern (high consumption in pork, mutton, beef, poultry meat, animal liver). Calcium pattern (high consumption in fresh fruits, eggs, fish and shrimps, kelp laver and sea fish, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products). Traditional Chinese pattern (high consumption in rice and grain, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, pork). (2) No association was observed between the western food pattern and bone mineral density. High animal protein pattern showed lower SOS value compared with low animal protein pattern. High calcium pattern showed higher SOS value compared with low calcium pattern. High traditional Chinese pattern showed higher SOS value compared with the low traditional Chinese pattern. Dietary patterns are closely related with bone mineral density (BMD) of freshmen.

  1. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  2. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  3. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  4. Bone mineral density and perceived menopausal symptoms: factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sukhee; Song, Rhayun

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between the factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women (i.e. menopausal symptoms, bone mineral density, duration of menopause, hormonal therapy, obesity, inactivity during leisure time, parity, osteoarthritis and drinking coffee). Previous studies have shown that low back pain in postmenopausal women is associated with bone mineral density, menopausal symptoms and lifestyle factors, yet the factors influencing low back pain are not clear and vary with ethnicity. A survey was conducted with postmenopausal women (n = 134) in Korea in 2006. Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, back pain status, menopausal symptoms and health habits were assessed. Participants' mean age was 59 years. About 70% experienced back pain on more than 1 day during the week prior to the survey and 35% suffered back pain daily. Women with back pain reported more severe menopausal symptoms than those without back pain. Based on bone mineral density scores, 26.9% of the women were considered to be at risk of osteoporosis. However, there was no association between back pain status and fracture risk status. Based on a multiple logistic regression model, menopausal symptoms, drinking coffee and inactivity during leisure time were statistically significant influencing factors for low back pain in this sample. The prevalence of low back pain in postmenopausal women should be recognized in association with menopausal symptoms and health habits. Further research is needed to develop interventions for the management of low back pain in postmenopausal women.

  5. Osteoprotective effect of hormone therapy on bone microarchitecture before impaired bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Hasan; Çırpan, Teksin; Terzi, Rabia; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Aktuğ, Hüseyin; Bilgin, Onur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Material and Methods: In the Animal Ethics Committee approved-study, the effect of treatment with 17 β-estradiol 50 μg/kg and medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg/kg on bone architecture and bone mineral density in rats versus ovariectomized control rats over the course of 20 days were evaluated. Femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels and morphometric measurements were performed. Results: There were no significant differences in the femoral and lumbar bone mineral density levels between the groups. In the intact control group, the trabecular structures were significantly superior to those in the other groups. Additionally, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in all other groups. Two parameters reflecting trabecular bone microarchitecture, which include the trabecular count and the trabecular area, demonstrated significant improvement in the hormone replacement group when compared to the ovariectomized control group. In the hormone replacement groups, the osteoblast count was significantly higher while the osteoclast count was significantly lower than in the ovariectomized control group. Conclusion: We suggest that offering estrogen alone or in combination with progestogen can be a beneficial approach in preventing early postmenopausal bone loss regardless of bone mineral density. PMID:24592053

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  8. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  9. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  10. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of cola drinks on bone mineral density and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ogur, Recai; Uysal, Bulent; Ogur, Torel; Yaman, Halil; Oztas, Emin; Ozdemir, Aysegul; Hasde, Metin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone mineral density changes caused by consumption of cola drinks and the associated factors. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2, consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, respectively, were provided with as much food, water and cola drinks as they wanted. Groups 3 and 4, consisting of five rats each, received only rat chow and water. The bone mineral density of the rats was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the end of 30 days. The blood values and weights of the animals were also determined. The oesophagus and kidneys were removed for histopathological examination. The weight gain was higher in the groups consuming cola drinks than the control group rats (P < 0.05). Water consumption decreased 5.9 times while total fluid consumption increased 1.6-1.9 times in the group consuming cola drinks. No significant change was detected in the blood calcium levels. There was a significant decrease in the bone mineral density of test groups when compared to the control groups (P < 0.05). While we did not detect any pathological oesophageal changes in the rats consuming cola drinks, examination of the kidneys revealed general glomerular congestion and intertubular bleeding. We suggest that the decrease in bone mineral density might be related to the renal damage caused by cola drinks in addition to other related factors.

  12. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  13. Bone mineral density evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Adil, Camli; Aydın, Teoman; Taşpınar, Özgür; Kızıltan, Huriye; Eriş, Ali Hikmet; Hocaoglu, Ilknur Turk; Poşul, Sevde; Kepekci, Muge; Denizli, Ebru; Güler, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. A consequence of this is chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. We investigated whether there is any difference among DM patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur BMD (bone mineral density), and standard deviation scores (Z score and T score). [Subjects and Methods] This randomized, prospective, controlled, single-blind study was conducted in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Faculty of Medicine, Bezm-i Alem Vakıf University. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the patient groups. Healthy individuals were included in the control group. [Results] A total of 126 patients completed the study (63 in the study group, 63 in the control group). There was no significant difference in the results of the laboratory examinations of the cases. The bone mineral densities of the cases were found to be significantly low in terms of the lumbar (L1-4) T scores in the type 2 diabetes group. [Conclusion] Although osteoporosis is one of the potential complications of type 1 diabetes, its effect on bone mineral density in type 2 DM is controversial. In different studies, the bone mineral density values have increased, decreased or remained normal. With the exception of the lumbar (L1-4) T score, similar results were obtained in this study.

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  15. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  16. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. Strong familial association of bone mineral density between parents and offspring: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Park, J H; Kim, S H; Shin, S; Park, M J

    2017-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of offspring was significantly associated with their parents' BMD. Parental BMD Z-score ≤-1 was a significant predictor for BMD Z-score ≤-1 in their offspring. Peak bone mass acquisition during early adulthood is more substantially influenced by genetic factors rather than lifestyle or environmental factors.

  18. Association between staining by caries detector dye and the corresponding mineral density in dentin caries.

    PubMed

    Sunago, Miho; Nakashima, Syozi; Tagami, Junji

    2009-02-01

    To examine an association between coloration (red, pink) resulting from staining with Caries Detector Dye (CDD) and the corresponding mineral density in dentin caries lesions determined by transverse microradiography (TMR). CDD coloration of the lesion sections (approx. 190 microm) prepared from extracted caries teeth was photographed, and the corresponding relative mineral densities (RMD: relative values to the sound dentin) were obtained by TMR. A parallel study was performed using artificially demineralized and then remineralized dentin lesions. The mean RMD values in the naturally black-pigmented, red- and pink-stained portions were 46 +/- 26.7%, 64 +/- 24.5%, and 80 +/- 15.1%, respectively. There were statistical differences in the RMD values among the three portions, as well as a wider range of RMD value distributions in the red and black-pigmented portions than in the pink portion.Even among the black-pigmented and red portions, much higher RMD values more than 90% were observed in several lesions, which were close to the mineral density of the sound (unaffected) dentin tissue. On the other hand, the remineralized surface layer of artificially demineralized lesions did not show the red coloration, and there seemed a threshold value of mineral density (approx. 21%), beyond which the red coloration was not observed. Similar threshold value was noted in the remineralized lesion body. This study showed a remarkable discrepancy regarding the RMD value for the red staining behavior between the naturally occurring caries and artificial carious lesion.

  19. Associations of APOE gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and fracture risk: a meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been studied for its potential role in osteoporosis risk. It is hypothesized that genetic variation at common APOE loci, known as E2, E3, and E4, may modulate bone mineral density (BMD) through its effects on lipoproteins and vitamin K transport. To determine the associa...

  20. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ludena, E. V.; Echevarria, L.; Lopez, X.; Ugalde, J. M.

    2012-02-28

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  1. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, E. V.; Echevarría, L.; Lopez, X.; Ugalde, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  2. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Ludeña, E V; Echevarría, L; Lopez, X; Ugalde, J M

    2012-02-28

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  3. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  4. Increased fracture risk and low bone mineral density in patients with loeys-dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Offoha, Roosevelt U; Oswald, Gretchen L; Skolasky, Richard L; Dewan, Ashvin K; Zhen, Gehua; Shapiro, Jay R; Dietz, Harry C; Cao, Xu; Sponseller, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a recently recognized connective tissue disorder with widespread systemic involvement. Little is known about its skeletal phenotype. Our goal was to investigate the risk of fracture and incidence of low bone mineral density in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive, survey-based study with subsequent chart review from July 2011 to April 2012. Fifty-seven patients (26 men, 31 women) with Loeys-Dietz syndrome confirmed by genetic testing completed the survey (average age, 25.3 years; range, 0.9-79.6 years). There were a total of 51 fractures (33 patients): 35 fractures in the upper extremities, 14 in the lower extremities, and two in the spine. Fourteen patients (24.6%) reported two or more fractures. There was a 50% risk of fracture by age 14 years. The incidence of any fracture in this cohort was 3.86 per 100 person-years. Seventeen patients had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans available for review, 11 (64.7%) of whom had at least one fracture. Thirteen included lumbar spine absorptiometry reports; eight (61.5%) indicated low or very low bone mineral density. In the left hip, ten of 14 participants (71.4%) had low or very low bone mineral density. In the left femoral neck, nine of 13 participants (69.2%) had low or very low bone mineral density. The lowest Z- and T-scores were not associated with an increased number of fractures. Patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have a high risk of fracture and a high incidence of low bone mineral density.

  5. Protein intake, weight loss, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Tang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Higher protein diets are promoted for effective weight loss. Striated tissues in omnivorous diets contain high-quality protein, but limited data exist regarding their effects on bone. To examine the effects of energy restriction-induced weight loss with higher protein omnivorous diets versus lower protein vegetarian diets on bone mineral density in overweight postmenopausal women, two randomized controlled feeding studies were conducted. In Study 1, 28 women consumed 750 kcal/day energy deficit diets with 18% energy from protein via lacto-ovo vegetarian sources (normal protein, n = 15) or 30% energy from protein with 40% of protein from lean pork (higher protein, n = 13, omnivorous) for 12 weeks. In Study 2, 54 women consumed their habitual diet (control, n = 11) or 1,250 kcal/day diets with 16% energy from nonmeat protein sources (n = 14) or 26% energy from protein, including chicken (n = 15) or beef (n = 14) for 9 weeks. Study 1: With weight loss (normal protein -11.2%, higher protein -10.1%), bone mineral density was not significantly changed in normal protein (-0.003 ± 0.003 g/cm(2), -0.3%) but decreased in higher protein (-0.0167 ± 0.004 g/cm(2), -1. 4%, group-by-time p < .05). Study 2: The control, nonmeat, chicken, and beef groups lost 1.5%, 7.7%, 10.4%, and 8.1% weight and 0.0%, 0.4%, 1.1%, and 1.4% bone mineral density, respectively. The change of bone mineral density was significant for chicken and beef compared with the control (group-by-time, p < .05). Markers of calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis in blood and urine were not changed over time or differentially affected by diet. Consumption of higher protein omnivorous diets promoted decreased bone mineral density after weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women.

  6. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity.

  7. Bone mineral density of skeletal remains: Discordant results between chemical analysis and DXA method.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Boric, Igor; Sliskovic, Livia; Popovic, Marijana; Knezovic, Zlatka; Nikolic, Ivana; Vucinovic, Ana; Vucinovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is a gold standard for bone mineral density measurement and diagnosis of primary and secondary osteoporosis in living persons. DXA is becoming widespread when analysing archaeological material, and is considered to provide an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis in skeletal samples. The aim of this study was to explain the differences in results between bone mineral density (obtained with DXA) and chemical determination of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in skeletal remains. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral content of femoral bone samples exhumed from mass graves of the Second World War. BMD was determined by Hologic QDR 4500 C (S/N 48034) Bone Densitometer. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined with AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) and UV/VIS (Ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study do not support the hypothesis according to which BMD measured by DXA scan has positive correlation with chemically determined concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in bones, especially in acidic soils where there was significant impact of diagenesis observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Badescu, Laurentiu; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Magda; Ciocoiu, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and fat (%Fat) in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA) increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS) dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:23024697

  9. Development of phantom for quantitative analyses of human dentin mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Yuto; Sakamoto, Makoto; Endo, Hideaki; Sakai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel-designed phantom that could be scanned with a sample in the same image, that specialize for quantitative analyses of human dentin mineral density using the X-ray attenuation method. A further attempt was made to demonstrate the intracoronal dentin mineral density using this phantom in mandibular incisors. The phantom prepared with a 15 mm hole in the center of an acrylic resin bar having an outside diameter of 25 mm and 8 small holes (diameter, 3 mm) were made at equal intervals around the center. Liquid dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) solutions were established at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/cm3, and were arranged to these holes. The mean value of the intracoronal dentin mineral density was 1.486 ± 0.016 g/cm3 in the present study. As the results of the present study corresponded to previous reports, this new phantom was considered to be useful. This phantom enables the analysis of samples that are not readily available by conventional mechanical tests and may facilitate biomechanical investigations using X-ray images. It was suggested that this system is a simple, accurate and novel mineralization measuring system.

  10. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  11. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  12. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  13. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  14. Heavy Cannabis Use Is Associated With Low Bone Mineral Density and an Increased Risk of Fractures.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Robertson, Roy; Ferreira, Nuno B; McKenzie, James; Fraser, William D; Ralston, Stuart H

    2017-02-01

    To investigate possible associations between recreational cannabis use and bone health in humans. Cross-sectional study of individuals recruited from primary care in the UK between 2011 and 2013. Cases were regular smokers of cannabis divided into moderate (n = 56) and heavy user (n = 144) subgroups depending on whether they reported fewer or more than 5000 cannabis smoking episodes during their lifetime. Controls comprised 114 cigarette smokers. Heavy cannabis users had lower total hip bone mineral density (mean ± SD Z-score: -0.20 ± 0.9 vs +0.2 ± 0.9, P < .0005), lower spine bone mineral density (-0.5 ± 1.2 vs 0.0 ± 1.2, P < .0005), and lower body mass index (BMI; 26.5 ± 6.0 vs 29.0 ± 7.0, P = .01) than controls. Fracture rate was also increased in heavy users (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.95; P < .001). When compared with controls, serum cross-linked C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) concentrations were raised in heavy cannabis users (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 0.2 ± 0.1 pg/mL, P = .045), as were serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) concentrations (47.1 ± 19.2 vs 41.2 ± 17.8 pg/mL, P = .01). Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were reduced in heavy users compared with controls (25.3 ± 16.8 vs 36.9 ± 26.7 nmol/L, P = .002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that heavy cannabis use was an independent predictor of spine bone mineral density, accounting for 5.4% of the variance (P = .035), and total hip bone mineral density, accounting for 5.8% of the variance (P = .001), but mediation analysis suggested that the effect on spine bone mineral density was indirect and mediated through low body mass index. Heavy cannabis use is associated with low bone mineral density, low BMI, high bone turnover, and an increased risk of fracture. Heavy cannabis use negatively impacts on bone health both directly and indirectly through an effect on BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Assessment of lipid profiles and bone mineral density in renal transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernández Gallegos, Ruth; Peña Amaro, María Pilar; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael José

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and bone mineral metabolism disturbances are common disorders among renal transplant patients, contributing to the apparition of oxidative metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that threaten the integrity of the graft. Describe and observe the evolution of alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and lipid abnormalities in a population of kidney transplant patients. The samples consisted of 119 kidney transplant patients of both sexes, measurements were performed pretransplant and posttransplant for five years of biochemical parameters, anthropometric measurements and measurement of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femur and radioulnar. During the five years after transplantation a significant increase in biochemical parameters, BMI, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension occurs. At six months there is a high percentage of patients with pathologic BMD increase by 4.1% per year of transplantation. After kidney transplantation, a large increase of hyperlipidemia associated with a characteristic pattern of altered lipid with elevated total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and the resulting increase in triglycerides, occurs despite statin therapy, leading to an increase in risk factors for diabetes, hypertension, diseases and cardiovascualres further loss of bone mass which carries a high risk of serious fractures occurs, threatening kidney graft and quality of life of patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary modifications alone do not improve bone mineral density in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Schwaderer, A L; Srivastava, T; Schueller, L; Cronin, R; Mahan, J D; Hains, D

    2011-11-01

    Prior cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an association between hypercalciuria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adults. However, the natural history of BMD in children with hypercalciuria and its response to therapy has not been evaluated. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the change over time in lumbar (L1 - L4) BMD Z-score measured on sequential DXA scans in 19 children with hypercalciuria treated with dietary recommendations without (n = 12, Group A) and with citrate (n = 7, Group B). The mean lumbar bone density Z-score/year decreased in Group A (-0.11 ±/0.41) indicating that children with hypercalciuria lose L1 - L4 BMD over time. In contrast, the L1 - L4 BMD Zscore/ year increased in Group B (0.19 ± 0.38) suggesting that pharmacologic therapy may reverse this trend. Similarly 75% of patients in Group A, but only 29% patients in Group B had a decrease in L1 - L4 BMD. There was a definite, although not significant, trend towards improved mean bone mineral density Z-score per year and a lower percentage of patients with a decreased Z-score in hypercalciuric children treated with potassium citrate. Our findings suggest the possibility that dietary recommendations alone is not adequate as the bone mineral density of children with hypercalciuria will decrease over time, potentially increasing the risk for osteoporosis as an adult.

  17. Relationship between serum albumin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and in patients with hypoalbuminemia.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D; Ragno, A; Raejntroph, N; Letizia, C; Acca, M

    1999-06-01

    Some discrepancies exist about the relationship between serum albumin level and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis; moreover, most of the studies available have especially concerned patients with osteoporosis, often associated with fractures. Our study, therefore, aims to investigate the presence of a relationship between serum albumin level and bone mineral density in a group of healthy women (n=650; mean age 59.0 +/- 7.4 years) who voluntarily underwent screening for osteoporosis only because they were menopausal (11.2 +/- 7.4 years since menopause) and, for comparison, in a group of outpatients (n = 44; mean age 57.6 +/- 7.0 years; 9.1 +/- 6.7 years since menopause) with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases. The results show a lack of any relationship in healthy women between serum albumin value and bone mineral density; the lack of correlation was also shown when the postmenopausal women were down into normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic (WHO criteria) or in hypo, normal and hyperalbuminemic. The only significant parameters associated with lower bone mineral density, in fact, were age and years since menopause (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001 respectively at lumbar spine and p<0.02 and p<0.001 at femoral neck level). In the group of patients with hypoalbuminemia associated with diseases, on the other hand, a relationship between reduced bone mineral density and hypoalbuminemia was found (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively at lumbar spine and femoral neck). In conclusion, in healthy postmenopausal women the serum albumin level does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of bone density reduction, which is mainly due to the number of years since menopause and advancing age. The hypoalbuminemia may be related to the reduction of bone mass only in the subjects affected by diseases associated with a significant albumin reduction.

  18. Europium-Doped Gd2O3 Nanotubes Increase Bone Mineral Density in Vivo and Promote Mineralization in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Jin, Yi; Ge, Kun; Jia, Guang; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Xinjian; Chen, Shizhu; Ge, Min; Sun, Wentong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Jinchao

    2017-02-22

    Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs) have been extensively applied in the field of bioscience for their photostability and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the distribution and interaction between Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs and metabolism of bone are not yet sufficiently understood. In this study, a systematic study of the toxicity and distribution of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in mice after oral administration was carried out. The results showed that a small number of the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs could pass through biological barriers into the lung, liver, and spleen, but a high concentration was observed in bone. Furthermore, the effects of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs on bone metabolism were systematically studied in vitro and in vivo when accumulating in bone. After being administered to mice, the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs extremely enhanced the bone mineral density and bone biomechanics. In vitro the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization and promoted the expression of osteogenesis genes in preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1 through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. This study will be significant for appropriate application of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NTs in the biomedical field and expounding the molecular mechanism of bone metabolism.

  19. Local calibrated bone mineral density in the mandible presented using a color coding scheme.

    PubMed

    Homolka, P; Beer, A; Birkfellner, W; Gahleitner, A; Nowotny, R; Bergmann, H

    2001-11-01

    Calibrated information on bone mineral density (BMD) may be used in dental implantology to measure "bone quality". It can be used to estimate the expected primary implant stability preoperatively and to guide the surgeon in selecting optimum implant types and operation techniques. Using a preoperative dental computed tomography (Dental-CT) scan, all of this information can be obtained without additional examinations and thus without additional X-ray exposure of the patient. In contrast to bone mineral determination in other body regions, local BMD values are important in the jaw bone. Therefore, a regimen where color-coded information on local bone mineralization is superimposed on Dental-CT images is proposed using the original CT volumes as well as reformatted views.

  20. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  1. Effect of exercise and bisphosphonate on mineral balance and bone density during 360 day antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Morukov, B V; Oganov, V S; Rakhmanov, A S; Buravkova, L B

    1992-12-01

    As we enter a phase of space exploration that will involve long-duration flights, there is a need to use ground-based models to study the long-term effects of countermeasures to prevent the loss of bone mineral in microgravity. Mineral balances, hormone levels, and bone density were measured for 360 days in nine bed rest subjects treated with an exercise program used by cosmonauts. Four of these subjects received the bisphosphonate, ethane-1-hydroxy-1-disphosphonate, 900 mg daily, a drug known to inhibit bone resorption. Compared to a 120 day control period, the bisphosphonate combined with exercise reduced negative calcium balances by 50% for the first 120 days, 80% for the second 120 days, and 69% during the third 120 days. Exercise alone had no effect until the second 120 day period, when calcium balance improved 52%. Negative phosphorus balances were not affected by either treatment. Magnesium balances were negative during the first 120 days and returned to nearly normal during the last 240 days in both groups. The combined exercise and bisphosphonate treatment prevented increases in serum ionized calcium and decreases in plasma calcitonin during the first 120 days, as well as trends toward decreases in the mineral density of the femoral neck. These results suggest that bisphosphonates can be efficiently used together with exercise to reduce calcium loss and prevent some of the changes in mineral metabolism during long-term simulated microgravity.

  2. Comparative investigation of bone mineral density using CT and DEXA in a canine femoral model.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Karin; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Nolte, Ingo; Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; Betancur, Stefanie; Almohallami, Amer; Bouguecha, Anas; Mostafa, Ayman; Lerch, Matthias; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2017-04-07

    Bone density measurements using computed tomography (CT) instead of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are currently of great interest in human and veterinary medical research as it would be beneficial to use CT scans obtained for other indications also for determining bone density. For Hounsfield units (HU) measured with CT in specific regions of interests (ROIs) in one or several slice/s a corrrelation with bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA in humans and dogs of between 0.44 and 0.77 is reported in the literature. In the present study instead certain volumes of interest (VOIs) obtained by CT scan and the corresponding HU to the respective VOIs were compared with the bone mineral density of the corresponding areas measured by DEXA. The aim of the study was to investigate whether this procedure gives more accurate information about bone density of the bones as 3-dimensional objects of the respective patient. Correlation between measured HU in the respective VOI and BMD measured with DEXA in the corresponding ROI showed a very good correlation of 0.93. Linear regression with R(2) = 0.85 (p = 0.0262) was calculated. Except for VOI5, similar distribution of values and significant differences (p < 0.0001-0.0087) between ROIs/VOIs were detected. Determining HU for assessing bone mineral density in a certain volume provides more accurate results than those previously reported from 2-dimensional (2D) CT measurements. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of bone mineral density in the jaws and its relationship to radiomorphometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Gulsahi, A; Paksoy, CS; Ozden, S; Kucuk, NO; Cebeci, ARI; Genc, Y

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate maxillary, mandibular and femoral neck bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine any correlation between the bone mineral density of the jaws and panoramic radiomorphometric indices. Methods 49 edentulous patients (18 males and 31 females) aged between 41 and 78 years (mean age 60.2 ± 11.04) were examined by panoramic radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws and femoral neck was measured with a DXA; bone mineral density was calculated at the anterior, premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible. Results The mean maxillary molar BMD (0.45 g cm−2) was significantly greater than the maxillary anterior and premolar BMD (0.31 g cm−2, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean mandibular anterior and premolar BMD (1.39 g cm−2 and 1.28 g cm−2, respectively) was significantly greater than the mean mandibular molar BMD (1.09 g cm−2, P < 0.01). Although BMD in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were correlated, BMD in all the mandibular regions were highly correlated. Maxillary and mandibular BMD were not correlated with femoral BMD. In addition, mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, mental index (MI) or panoramic mandibular index (PMI) values were not significantly correlated with the maxillary and mandibular BMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions The BMD in this study was highest in the mandibular anterior region and lowest in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions. The BMD of the jaws was not correlated with either femoral BMD or panoramic radiomorphometric indices. PMID:20587652

  5. [EFFECTS IN BODY COMPOSITION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF SIMULATE ALTITUDE PROGRAM IN TRIATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Campo, Domingo Jesús; Rubio Arias, Jacobo Ángel; Jiménez Diaz, José Fernando

    2015-09-01

    body composition is an important factor to improve athletic performance. Futhermore, bone mineral density informs about the bone stiffness of the skeletal system. the aim of the present research was to analyze modifications on body composition and bone mineral density parameters after a seven week intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) program. eighteen male trained triathletes were divided in two groups: an intermittent hypoxia training group (GIHT: n: 9; 26.0 ± 6.7 years; 173.3 ± 5.9 cm; 66.4 ± 5.9 kg; VO2 max: 59.5 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min) that conducted a normoxic training plus an IHT and a control group (GC: n: 9; 29.3 ± 6.8 years; 174.9 ± 4.6 cm; 59.7 ± 6.8 kg; VO2 max: 58.9 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min) that performed only a normoxic training. Training process was standardized across the two groups. The IHT program consisted on two 60 minutes sessions per week at intensities over the anaerobic threshold and atmospheric conditions between 14.5 and 15% FiO2. Before and after the seven week training, body composition and bone mineral density were analyzed. After this training program, the GIHT showed lower values in free fat mass in upper limbs and fat mass in lower limbs (p < 0.05) than before the program. In terms of bone mineral density variables, between the two groups no changes were found. the addition of an IHT program to normoxic training caused an improvement in body composition parameters compared to similar training under normoxic conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lau, E M; Kwok, T; Woo, J; Ho, S C

    1998-01-01

    To compare the bone mineral density and dietary intake of elderly Chinese vegetarian women with omnivores, to compare the bone mineral density of Chinese 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians', and to study the relationship between nutrient intake and BMD in vegetarians. A cross-sectional survey. A community-based study. The vegetarian women (aged 70-89 y) (n = 76) were non-institutionalized subjects. All of them were Buddhists. Their bone mineral density were compared to normal elderly volunteers (aged 70-89 y) (n = 109) who were recruited to establish normal BMD ranges. Their dietary intake was compared to omnivorous subjects from a previous dietary survey (n = 250). Dietary assessment was by the 24 h recall method, and bone mineral density was measured by dual-X-ray-densitometry. The analysis of co-variance was used to compare the BMD between vegetarians and omnivores, with adjustment for potential confounders. The BMD in 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians' were compared by similar methods. The t-test was used to compare dietary intake between omnivores and vegetarians. The relationship between nutrient intake and BMD was studied by correlation and multiple regression. The dietary calorie, protein and fat intake were much lower, but the sodium/creatinine ratio was much higher in vegetarians than omnivores. The BMD at the spine was similar between vegetarians and omnivores. However, the BMD at the hip was significantly lower in vegetarians at some sites (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in BMD between 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians'. BMD in vegetarians appeared to be positively correlated with energy, protein and calcium intake; and negatively associated with urinary sodium/creatinine levels. There is a relationship between diet and BMD. The BMD at the hip was lower in vegetarians than omnivores, but no difference was observed between 'vegans' and 'lactovegetarians'. There is a complex relationship between the intake of various nutrient and BMD in vegetarians.

  7. [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Morales, Beatriz Eugenia; Pérez Campos, Eduardo; Gatica Valdez, Noé

    2004-03-01

    With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause. To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period. A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed. We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD). Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

  8. Ethnic Density and Preterm Birth in African-, Caribbean-, and US-Born Non-Hispanic Black Populations in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Susan M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Emch, Michael E.; Hogan, Vijaya K.; Savitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Segregation studies suggest that the health of blacks in the United States is poorer in majority-black compared with mixed-race neighborhoods. However, segregation studies have not examined black immigrants, who may benefit from social support and country-of-origin foods in black immigrant areas. The authors used 1995–2003 New York City birth records and a spatial measure of ethnic density to conduct a cross-sectional investigation of the risks of preterm birth for African-, Caribbean-, and US-born non-Hispanic black women associated with neighborhood-level African-, Caribbean-, and US-born non-Hispanic black density, respectively. Preterm birth risk differences were computed from logistic model coefficients, comparing neighborhoods in the 90th percentile of ethnic density with those in the 10th percentile. African black preterm birth risks increased with African density, especially in more deprived neighborhoods, where the risk difference was 6.1 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.9, 10.2). There was little evidence of an ethnic density effect among non-Hispanic black Caribbeans. Among US-born non-Hispanic blacks, an increase in preterm birth risk associated with US-born black density was observed in more deprived neighborhoods only (risk difference = 12.5, 95% confidence interval: 6.6, 18.4). Ethnic density seems to be more strongly associated with preterm birth for US-born non-Hispanic blacks than for non-Hispanic black immigrants. PMID:20801865

  9. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players

    PubMed Central

    Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare whole and segmental body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players by playing positions. Forty collegiate American football players voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were categorized by playing positions into one of five categories i.e., defensive linemen, offensive linemen, defensive secondary players, offensive secondary players and receivers. Whole body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Offensive and defensive linemen had higher body mass, a body mass index, lean mass and a fat mass index compared to the remaining three positions and a higher lean mass index compared to offensive secondary players and receivers. Offensive linemen had a higher body fat percentage and lower values of upper to lower lean mass than offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers, and higher total mass to the lean mass ratio and fat mass to the lean mass ratio compared to the other players. Offensive linemen had a higher fat mass index and fat mass to the lean mass ratio than defensive linemen. However, in all other measures they were similar. Offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers were similar with respect to the measured variables. Bone mineral density of the players was within the normal range and no difference in lean mass was observed between the legs. In conclusion, findings of this study showed that the total and segmental body composition profile of collegiate American football players reflected the demands of particular playing positions. PMID:28149373

  10. Cadmium and lead in blood in relation to low bone mineral density and tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Alfvén, Tobias; Järup, Lars; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to cadmium may cause kidney and bone damage. Urinary cadmium is commonly used as the dose estimate for the body burden of cadmium. However, elevated levels of cadmium in the urine may reflect not only high levels of cadmium dose but also renal dysfunction. In this study we used blood cadmium as the dose estimate. In addition, we analyzed blood lead. We examined 479 men and 542 women, ages 16-81 years, who were environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium and lead. We used urinary protein alpha 1-microglobulin as a marker for tubular proteinuria and measured forearm bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between blood cadmium and tubular proteinuria was strong, even when we excluded occupationally exposed participants. The subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels had a 4-fold risk of tubular proteinuria compared to the subgroup with the lowest blood cadmium levels. In the older age group (age > 60), the risk of low bone mineral density (z-score < -1) for the subgroup with the highest blood cadmium levels was almost 3-fold compared to the group with lowest blood cadmium levels. We found no similar associations for lead. The observed effects may be caused by higher cadmium exposure in the past. This study strengthens previous evidence that cadmium exposure may affect both bone mineral density and kidney function. PMID:12117647

  11. Nondestructive Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Mineral Density in Exfoliated Teeth with Hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Makoto; Sakai, Jun; Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Nishiyama, Hideyoshi; Katsura, Kouji; Ike, Makiko; Nikkuni, Yutaka; Nakayama, Miwa; Soga, Marie; Kobayashi, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Most cases of hypophosphatasia (HPP) exhibit early loss of primary teeth. Results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of teeth with HPP have rarely been reported. The purpose of the present study was to describe the mineral density distribution and mapping of exfoliated teeth from an HPP patient using micro-CT. Four exfoliated teeth were obtained from a patient with HPP. Enamel and dentin mineral densities of exfoliated teeth were measured on micro-CT. The mean values of enamel and dentin mineral densities in mandibular primary central incisors with HPP were 1.61 and 0.98 g/cm3, respectively. The corresponding values in the mandibular primary lateral incisors were 1.60 and 0.98 g/cm3, respectively. Enamel hypoplasia was seen in the remaining teeth, both maxillary and mandibular primary canines and first and second molars. Micro-CT enables nondestructive, noninvasive evaluation and is useful for studying human hard tissues obtained from patients. PMID:27847653

  12. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  14. Timing of low bone mineral density and predictors of bone mineral density trajectory in children on long-term warfarin: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Avila, M L; Pullenayegum, E; Williams, S; Shammas, A; Stimec, J; Sochett, E; Marr, K; Brandão, L R

    2016-04-01

    We studied bone mineral density (BMD) of children exposed to long-term warfarin. BMD Z-scores ≤ -2.0 were estimated to occur in less than one fifth of the patients after 10 years of warfarin exposure, and BMI and growth hormone deficiency predicted BMD changes over time. These predictors can help identify high-risk patients. Children with chronic diseases are at increased risk of developing thrombosis, which may require long-term warfarin therapy. Warfarin could further jeopardize the bone health of a population already at risk for bone fragility. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence and timing of low bone mineral density (BMD) and the predictors that influence BMD trajectory in children receiving warfarin for >1 year. We analyzed the results of an institutional protocol that includes dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with or without spinal X-rays and laboratory biomarkers, as required. Low BMD (age, sex, race, and height-for-age-Z-score adjusted BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0) was detected in 13 % (9/70) of the patients at some point during their follow-up; these patients were more likely to have complex underlying medical conditions and low body mass index (BMI) percentile. BMD Z-scores remained within normal range in 87 % of children. Survival analysis showed that the estimated 10-year abnormal BMD-free rate for the entire group was 81 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 69 to 93 %). Trajectory analysis revealed that BMI percentiles at baseline and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were associated with lower BMD Z-scores at the first assessment, whereas baseline BMI percentile was the only predictor of BMD Z-score over time. Our findings identified BMI and GHD as risk factors influencing BMD in children exposed to long-term warfarin, creating an opportunity for early detection and intervention in these patients.

  15. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  16. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon; Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals' mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults' immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (<15 years in the U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities.

  17. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2004–2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals’ mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults’ immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (<15 years in the U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities. PMID:26910461

  18. Variation of the mineral density in cortical bone may serve to keep strain amplitudes within a physiological range.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W C; van Ruijven, L J; Brugman, P; Langenbach, G E J

    2013-08-01

    Within-bone variation in mineral density could be functional. A heterogeneous mineral-density distribution might serve to maintain habitual amplitudes of bone strain within a non-harmful, i.e., physiological range. Regions of a bone that would be strained the most on the basis of architecture alone might have a higher mineral density to make them more stiff and resistant to strain. We hypothesised that the cortical bone of the rabbit mandible contains such a functional distribution of mineral density. We thereby expected similar mineral-density patterns in the mandibles of different individuals due to the shared masticatory function. Secondly, we hypothesised that the highest mineral densities occur in mandibular regions predicted to be exposed to the largest amplitudes of strain-when taking into account bone architecture only. Mineral-density maps of the cortical bone of rabbit mandibles were obtained using micro-computed tomography (μCT). The μCT scans of two rabbits were converted into finite-element models (FEMs). To predict mandibular deformation during biting, these models were loaded by muscle forces and reaction forces. The forces acted on the condyles and on either the incisal or molar bite point. The FEMs were assigned a homogeneous material stiffness to calculate the strain amplitudes that would occur when only the architecture of the mandibular bone would be of influence. We found the cortical bone-mineral density patterns to be similar in all six mandibles. The mineral density of the corpus was higher than that of the ramus. A second consistent feature of the mandibular mineral-density distribution was that the medial ridge of the temporal-muscle insertion groove contained more mineral than its surrounding regions. The strain amplitudes calculated with the FEMs were variable and did not feature clear corpo-ramal differences. However, specific mandibular bone sites calculated to be exposed to the largest amplitudes of strain, including the medial

  19. Tensile properties of rat femoral bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and volumetric bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Araiza Arroyo, Francisco J; Rosso, Claudio; Aran, Shima; Snyder, Brian D

    2011-09-02

    Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. Tensile properties of cancellous and cortical bone have been reported previously; however, no relationships describing these properties for rat bone as a function of volumetric bone mineral density (ρ(MIN)), apparent density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) have been reported in the literature. We have shown that at macro level, compression and torsion properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone can be well described as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) using non-destructive micro-computed tomographic imaging and mechanical testing to failure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and osteomalacic animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial tension to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 74-77% of the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ρ(MIN) over a range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity to provide a non-invasive method to assess the tensile behavior of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options.

  20. Effects of genistein on vertebral trabecular bone microstructure, bone mineral density, microcracks, osteocyte density, and bone strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruchun; Ma, Yulin; Sheng, Zhifeng; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Yuhai; Fang, Lingna; Fan, Huijie; Liao, Eryuan

    2008-01-01

    Until now, the effects of phytoestrogen on bone in both women and ovarian hormone-deficient animal models of osteoporosis have remained uncertain. We have aimed here to investigate the effect of genistein (GEN) on trabecular bone quality in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty 7-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: OVX, sham-operated (SHAM), treated with 17beta-estradiol (EST, 10 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), and GEN (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). At 15 weeks postoperation, the compressive test was performed on the L5 vertebral body; additionally, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment was performed to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure parameters of the L6 vertebral body. After fatigue damage testing, the L6 vertebral body was bulk-stained in 1% basic fuchsin and embedded in methylmethacrylate. The L4 vertebral body was embedded in methylmethacrylate for dynamic histomorphometry analysis without staining. Mounted bone slices were used to measure microcrack parameters, empty osteocyte lacuna density (e.Lc.Dn), and osteocyte density (Ot.N/T.Ar). Maximum loading (ML) and Ot.N/T.Ar were significantly lower in the OVX group than in the other groups. E.Lc.Dn was significantly decreased in GEN and EST groups compared to the OVX group. ML was significantly decreased in the GEN group compared to the SHAM group. Microcrack density, microcrack surface density, and microcrack length were significantly increased in the OVX group compared to the other groups. Mineral apposition rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to the SHAM and GEN groups. Bone formation rate was significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to other groups. There were no significant differences with regard to mineralizing surface among the four groups. Volumetric BMD at organ was significantly lower in OVX, EST, and GEN groups than in the SHAM group. Bone mineral content was significantly lower in the OVX

  1. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures.

  2. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  3. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  4. The effects of +Gz force on the bone mineral density of fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Naumann, F L; Bennell, K L; Wark, J D

    2001-03-01

    Bone is a metabolically active tissue which responds to high strain loading. The purpose of this study was to examine the bone response to high +Gz force loading generated during high performance flying. The bone response to +Gz force loading was monitored in 10 high performance RAAF pilots and 10 gender-, age-, height-, weight-matched control subjects. The pilots were stationed at the RAAF base at Pearce, Western Australia, all completing the 1-yr flight training course. The pilots flew the Pilatus PC-9 aircraft, routinely sustaining between 2.0 and 6.0 +Gz. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured at baseline and 12 mo, using the Hologic QDR 2000+ bone densitometer. After controlling for change in total body weight and fat mass, the pilots experienced a significant increase in BMD and BMC for thoracic spine, pelvis, and total body, in the magnitude of 11.0%, 4.9%, and 3.7%, respectively. However, no significant changes in bone mineral were observed in the pilots lumbar spine, arms or legs. The control group experienced a significant decrease in pelvic BMC, with no other bone mineral changes observed at any site. These findings suggest that site specific BMD is increased in response to high +Gz forces generated during high performance flying in a PC-9.

  5. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  6. Magnesium intake mediates the association between bone mineral density and lean soft tissue in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Monteiro, Cristina P; Vasco, Ana M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B; Laires, Maria J; Silva, Analiza M

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with bone disorders. Physical activity is also crucial for bone mineralization. Bone mass loss has been observed to be accelerated in subjects with low Mg intake. We aim to understand if Mg intake mediates the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST) in elite swimmers. Seventeen elite swimmers (eight males; nine females) were evaluated. Bone mineral content, BMD, LST, and fat mass were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed during a seven-day period and analyzed with Food Processor SQL. Males presented lower values than the normative data for BMD. Mg, phosphorus (P) and vitamin D intake were significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. A linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between LST and BMD. When Mg intake was included, we observed that this was a significant, independent predictor of BMD, with a significant increase of 24% in the R(2) of the initial predictive model. When adjusted for energy, vitamin D, calcium, and P intake, Mg remained a significant predictor of BMD. In conclusion, young athletes engaged in low impact sports, should pay special attention to Mg intake, given its potential role in bone mineral mass acquisition during growth.

  7. Mineral Nutritional Yield and Nutrient Density of Locally Adapted Wheat Genotypes under Organic Production

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Ascarrunz, Sergio Daniel; Larsson, Hans; Prieto-Linde, Maria Luisa; Johansson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the nutritional yield, nutrient density, stability, and adaptability of organically produced wheat for sustainable and nutritional high value food production. This study evaluated the nutritional yield of four minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg) in 19 wheat genotypes, selected as being locally adapted under organic agriculture conditions. The new metric of nutritional yield was calculated for each genotype and they were evaluated for stability using the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) stability analysis and for genotypic value, stability, and adaptability using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP procedure). The results indicated that there were genotypes suitable for production under organic agriculture conditions with satisfactory yields (>4000 kg·ha−1). Furthermore, these genotypes showed high nutritional yield and nutrient density for the four minerals studied. Additionally, since these genotypes were stable and adaptable over three environmentally different years, they were designated “balanced genotypes” for the four minerals and for the aforementioned characteristics. Selection and breeding of such “balanced genotypes” may offer an alternative to producing nutritious food under low-input agriculture conditions. Furthermore, the type of evaluation presented here may also be of interest for implementation in research conducted in developing countries, following the objectives of producing enough nutrients for a growing population. PMID:28231184

  8. Increasing fluid milk favorably affects bone mineral density responses to resistance training in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Sharman, Matthew J; French, Duncan N; Rubin, Martyn R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; McGuigan, Michael M; Kraemer, William J

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the effects of increasing milk on bone and body composition responses to resistance training in adolescents. Twenty-eight boys (13 to 17 years of age) were randomly assigned to consume, in addition to their habitual diet, 3 servings/day of 1% fluid milk (n=14) or juice not fortified with calcium (n=14) while engaged in a 12-week resistance-training program. For all subjects combined, there were significant (Pmineral content (+3.6%), bone mineral density (+1.8%), and maximal strength in the squat (+43%) and bench press (+23%). Compared with juice, the milk group had a significantly greater increase in bone mineral density (0.014 vs 0.028 g/cm(2)). Increasing intake of milk in physically active adolescent boys may enhance bone health.

  9. The Progression of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities After Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vitanza, Nicholas A; Hogan, Laura E; Zhang, Guangxiang; Parker, Robert I

    2015-07-01

    Although reduced bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well documented, the degree of demineralization and relation to age are not well described. This is a retrospective chart analysis of 58 patients consecutively treated for ALL without relapse, cranial irradiation, or transplantation. Bone mineral densities were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and patients were divided by sex and age (≤5, 6 to 10, and >10 y) at diagnosis. Serial scans for 6 years after therapy were analyzed as Z-scores. Over 6 years after therapy, 93.1% of patients exhibited a decreased Z-score in at least 1 anatomic site. The difference in Z-score among the age cohorts was significant at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Patients older than 10 years at diagnosis had the lowest Z-scores: -2.78 and -2.87 for boys and -2.39 and -2.91 for girls at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. Children after ALL therapy exhibit a significant bone mineral deficit shortly after completion of therapy that persists for at least 6 years. The degree of bone demineralization can be followed up by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan and is most severe in patients older than 10 years at the initiation of therapy.

  10. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore.

    PubMed

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 - 60 years. About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample.

  11. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. Methods: It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 – 60 years. Results: About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. Conclusion: The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample. PMID:26430440

  12. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels.

  13. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  14. Is bone mineral density advantage maintained long-term in previous weight lifters?

    PubMed

    Karlsson, M K; Johnell, O; Obrant, K J

    1995-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was done in order to ascertain whether there is a lifelong beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) of early, long-lasting, and intense physical exercise. Forty-eight male ex-weight lifters, mean age 64 years (range 50-79) participated. They had followed a training program of an average of 10 hours/week (range 4-20) for an average of 13 years (range 1-34). They had all retired from competitive sport an average of 30 years (range 7-50) ago. Sixty-six age-matched volunteers served as controls. The bone mineral density (BMD, areal density, g/cm2) in the total body, spine, and hips and the fat content and lean body mass were measured with the LUNAR DPX bone mass scanner. In ex-weight lifters 50-64 years of age, the BMD was greater than in controls. After 65 years, no difference was found between the former weight lifters and their controls.

  15. [Effect of multiparity on bone mineral density, evaluated with bone turnover markers].

    PubMed

    Terzi, Hasan; Terzi, Rabia; Kale, Ebru; Kale, Ahmet

    2015-09-07

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of parity on osteoporosis by evaluating bone mineral density, markers of bone turn-over and other factors that are effective in osteoporosis in multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and nulliparous women in the post-menopausal period. A total of 91 multiparous (5 deliveries or more) and 31 nulliparous postmenopausal women were included in this study. All patients were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, gynecologic history, personal habits, levels of physical activity, and life-long intake of calcium. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar (L1-4) and femoral neck regions with Dexa. The mean age of multiparous women was 58.79±7.85 years, and the mean age of nulliparous women was 55,84±7,51. The femoral BMD was 0,94±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,01±0,16 in multiparous women, femoral BMD was 0,99±0,16 and lumbar BMD 1,07±0,14 in nulliparous women. There were no statistical differences between the femoral and lumbar T scores and BMD values of the two groups. Lumbar T scores and lumbar BMD showed a decrease with increasing total duration of breast-feeding in multiparous women. The independent risk factors for osteoporosis in the regression analysis of multiparous women were found to be the duration of menopause and body weight of 65kg and less. There is no difference between the bone mineral densities of multiparous and nulliparous women. Females with lower body-weight and longer duration of menopause should be followed-up more carefully for development of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary pseudopurpurin effects on bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group.

  17. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, P<0.001), 2.5% higher at the lumbar spine (0.022 g/cm2, P<0.001), and 1.9% lower at the distal radius (0.007 g/cm2, P=0.002). In women with continuous exposure the multivariable adjusted risk of hip fracture was slightly reduced (risk ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.96, P=0.028) as was the risk of vertebral fracture (0.73, 0.55 to 0.97, P=0.033). There was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of wrist fracture (1.32, 1.00 to 1.71, P=0.051) and no difference in risk of humerus fracture (0.85, 0.58 to 1.23, P=0.378). Conclusions Long term exposure to fluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  18. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  19. Quantification of the relative contribution of estrogen to bone mineral density in men and women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study quantified the relative contributions of estrogen (E2) and total testosterone (TT) to variation in bone mineral density in men and women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study which involved 200 men and 415 women aged 18 to 89 years. BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) was measured by DXA. Serum levels of E2 and TT were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. The association between E2, TT, and BMD was analyzed by the multiple linear regression model, adjusting for age and BMI. The contribution of each hormone to the variation in BMD was quantified by the bootstrap method. Results In women, higher serum levels of E2, but not TT, were significantly associated with greater BMD at the FN (P = 0.001) and LS (P < 0.0001). In men, higher serum levels of E2 were independently associated with greater FNBMD (P = 0.008) and LSBMD (P = 0.086). In the multiple linear regression model, age, body weight and E2 accounted for 50-55% variance in FNBMD, and 25% (in men) and 48% (in women) variance in LSBMD. Variation in E2 accounted for 2.5% (95% CI 0.4 - 7.8%) and 11.3% (95% CI 8.1 - 15.3%) variation in FNBMD in men and women, respectively. Moreover, E2 contributed 1.2% (95% CI 0.1 - 5.8%) and 11.7% (95% CI 8.5 - 15.9%) variation in LSBMD in men and women, respectively. Conclusions Estrogen is more important than testosterone in the determination of age-related bone mineral density men and women of Vietnamese background. However, the relative contributions of estrogen to bone mineral density in men are likely modest. PMID:24364861

  20. Prevalence of bone mineral density testing and osteoporosis management following low- and high-energy fractures.

    PubMed

    Angthong, Chayanin; Rodjanawijitkul, Santi; Samart, Supawat; Angthong, Wirana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of post-fracture bone mineral density (BMD) testing and osteoporosis treatment in patients admitted to the orthopedic department for low-energy or high-energy fractures and to identify factors affecting prevalence of post-fracture BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment. A total of 265 patients aged 45 years or older admitted with low-energy or high-energy fractures were reviewed between January 2010 and May 2011. Information regarding age, gender, fracture site and history of post-fracture BMD testing and osteoporosis treatment, including data reporting experiences of attending orthopedists (young: <10, senior: >10 years of experience) were recorded. Of the 265 patients (175 female, 90 male), 259 (97.7%) patients had low-energy fractures and 6 (2.3%) suffered high-energy fractures. Of 259 low-energy fractures, 99 (38.2%) underwent BMD testing and had mean total T-scores of -2.04±1.01 (proximal-femur) and -2.12±1.27 (lumbar-spine). Only one high-energy fracture patient (16.7%) underwent BMD testing, with a T-score of -1.1 (proximal-femur) and -2.7 (lumbar-spine). Eighty-six (32.5%) patients (85 low-energy fractures; 1 high-energy fracture) with diagnosis of osteopenia/osteoporosis from BMD testing were treated with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates. Bone mineral density testing was significantly higher in low-energy fracture patients who were treated by a young orthopedist, a common fracture site (proximal-femur, distal-radius, vertebrae) or were female (p<0.05). Bone mineral density investigation and treatment rates are currently suboptimal. The current gap in adequate care necessitates multidisciplinary intervention in order to lessen the incidence of future fractures, particularly in patients over the age of 45.

  1. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  2. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2. Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. PMID:27578881

  3. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, C H

    2016-12-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m(2), were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m(2) Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m(2) than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m(2) stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m(2) stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m(2) elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens.

  4. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  5. Can acetazolamide be used to treat diseases involving increased bone mineral density?

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Juan David; Luis-Yanes, María Isabel; Inglés-Torres, Esther; Arango-Sancho, Pedro; Cabrera-Sevilla, José Eugenio; Duque-Fernández, María Rosario; Gil-Sánchez, Salvador; García-Nieto, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases. PMID:27904825

  6. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  7. Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Miyahara, Tatsuro; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Seto, Hikaru; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2003-01-01

    The effects of berberine in senescence accelerated mice P6 (SAMP6) were investigated to learn whether the alkaloid affects bone mineral density (BMD). Oral administration of berberine (10 mg/kg/d) to male and female mice for 22 weeks resulted in an increase in BMD in both sexes. A decreased concentration of deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) in urine was only observed in female mice. There was no effect on body or tibia weight or on the concentration of procollagen type I carboxyterminal extension peptide (PICP) in serum.

  8. Lower Serum Creatinine Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Subjects without Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Choi, Soo In; Lim, Jung Soo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Lee, Mi Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with deterioration of bone mineral density. Because serum creatinine can serve as a marker of muscle mass, we evaluated the relationship between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in an older population with normal renal function. Methods Data from a total of 8,648 participants (4,573 men and 4,075 postmenopausal women) aged 45–95 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were analyzed from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010). Bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular muscle mass (ASM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the cut points of serum creatinine for sarcopenia were below 0.88 mg/dl in men and 0.75 mg/dl in women. Subjects were divided into two groups: low creatinine and upper normal creatinine according to the cut point value of serum creatinine for sarcopenia. Results In partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, serum creatinine was positively associated with both BMD and ASM. Subjects with low serum creatinine were at a higher risk for low BMD (T-score ≤ –1.0) at the femur neck, total hip and lumbar spine in men, and at the total hip and lumbar spine in women after adjustment for confounding factors. Each standard deviation increase in serum creatinine was significantly associated with reduction in the likelihood of low BMD at the total hip and lumbar spine in both sexes (men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.74−0.96] at the total hip, OR = 0.8 [95% CI = 0.68−0.96] at the lumbar spine; women: OR = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.73–0.95] at the total hip, OR=0.81 [95% CI = 0.67–0.99] at the lumbar spine). Conclusions Serum creatinine reflected muscle mass, and low serum creatinine was independently associated with low bone mineral density in subjects with normal kidney function. PMID:26207750

  9. Bone mineral density is decreased in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects. Fibromyalgia was diagnosed in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pooled mean difference (MD) of BMD at each site and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. The between-study heterogeneity of effect size was quantified using the Q statistic and I (2). Data were extracted from four observational studies involving 680 subjects. At lumbar spine (L2-L4), BMD is significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of -0.02 (95% CI -0.03 to -0.01, P value = 0.003, I (2) = 0%) (Fig. 1). At femoral neck, BMD is not significantly decreased in patients with FMS compared with controls with pooled MD of 0.01 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.01, P value = 0.23, I (2) = 0%) (Fig. 2). In this meta-analysis, we observe that BMD at lumbar spine is decreased in FMS compared with normal individuals. Patients with FMS should be assessed for risk of osteoporosis. Fig. 1 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, for patients with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. CI-confidence interval Fig. 2 Forest plot of bone mineral density at the femoral neck, for patients with and without

  10. Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, L T; Nguyen, P L T; Le, T T T; Doan, T A T; Tran, N T; Le, T A; Nguyen, T V

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition. Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women. One hundred and five Mahayana Buddhist nuns and 105 omnivorous women (average age = 62, range = 50-85) were randomly sampled from monasteries in Ho Chi Minh City and invited to participate in the study. By religious rule, the nuns do not eat meat or seafood (i.e., vegans). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and whole body (WB) was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). Lean mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass were also obtained from the DXA whole body scan. Dietary calcium and protein intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. There was no significant difference between vegans and omnivores in LSBMD (0.74 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2); mean +/- SD; P = 0.18), FNBMD (0.62 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.11 g/cm(2); P = 0.35), WBBMD (0.88 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.12 g/cm(2); P = 0.31), lean mass (32 +/- 5 vs. 33 +/- 4 kg; P = 0.47), and fat mass (19 +/- 5 vs. 19 +/- 5 kg; P = 0.77) either before or after adjusting for age. The prevalence of osteoporosis (T scores < or = -2.5) at the femoral neck in vegans and omnivores was 17.1% and 14.3% (P = 0.57), respectively. The median intake of dietary calcium was lower in vegans compared to omnivores (330 +/- 205 vs. 682 +/- 417 mg/day, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between dietary calcium and BMD. Further analysis suggested that whole body BMD, but not lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD, was positively correlated with the ratio of animal protein to vegetable protein. These

  11. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  12. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  13. Bone mineral density in adolescents with eating disorders exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer; Sy, Alice; Johnson, Natasha; Findlay, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective chart review was used to collect data from adolescents seen in a specialized eating disorder program over an 11-year period in order to investigate any association between exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and bone mineral density (BMD). SSRI users were matched with controls based on age (within 1.5 years), gender, eating disorder diagnosis, and percent ideal body weight (within 5%), resulting in a sample of 31 pairs. SSRI users had significantly lower BMD z-scores, compared to controls (-1.094 vs. -0.516, p < .035), suggesting that exposure to SSRIs may be a risk factor for lowered BMD.

  14. [Secondary anticoagulant prophylaxis with low molecular heparins or oral anticoagulants and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Przedlacki, J; Hajduk, B; Tomkowski, W; Fijałkowska, A; Ostrowski, K; Torbicki, A

    2000-11-01

    A broad spectrum of indications for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) requires an assessment of side effects especially during prolonged administration. There are common risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and osteoporosis; heparin is "the drug of choice" for VTE treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of treatment and prophylaxis with LMWH (enoxaparine sodium) and oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol) for bone structure. Material consists of in- and outpatients. 49 densitometries were performed in 31 patients (in 15 cases double examination). We observed a decrease of bone mineral density in comparison to the initial examination in most cases: mean change of bone mass for examined areas was 3.05%.

  15. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modern video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  16. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modem video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  17. Influence of weight gain on spine mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Trovas, G; Lyritis, G P; Galanos, A; Raptou, P; Katsiri, M

    1999-05-01

    We studied the relationships between weight variables and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in 183 postmenopausal women aged 34-76 years. There was a significant positive correlation of current body mass index (cBMI) and % of ideal body weight (IBW) with BMD. Moreover, the increase in BMI and % IBW was also positively and significantly associated with a higher age-adjusted lumbar BMD. Weight gain, estimated as the difference between current body weight and past "ideal" body weight, was associated with significant age-adjusted BMD with a threshold of 17%, and postmenopausal women with a gain of over 17% had significantly higher spine BMD.

  18. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modem video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  19. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modern video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  20. [Effect of vitamin D on bone mineral density; bone strength and fracture prevention].

    PubMed

    Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Atsushi

    2006-07-01

    Although vitamin D improves bone mineral density 0.66% per year at spine site and 1.23% per year at femoral neck site, respectively, vitamin D is useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures, especially hip fractures in the elderly. Vitamin D affects microstructure and bone turnover for osteoporotic bone to become strong bone. And vitamin D improves muscle function to prevent falls in the elderly. Moreover the appropriate amount and treatment target of vitamin D must be considered for the elderly with many different diseases.

  1. Bone mineral density and body composition in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, A B; Ames, R W; Matthews, R D; Reid, I R

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease characterised by chronic pulmonary sepsis and malnutrition. To ascertain whether osteoporosis is a feature of cystic fibrosis in adult patients, total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in a group of eight men and eight women aged 17-42 years. METHODS--Total body and regional BMD (lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck, trochanteric, and Ward's triangle), as well as total body fat and lean mass, were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. A range of biochemical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables was also assessed. RESULTS--Patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly reduced bone density at all sites compared with normal young adults. The mean reductions ranged from 7% at Ward's triangle to 13% at the trochanter. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with BMD at four sites and disease severity negatively correlated with BMD at two sites. Other biochemical and anthropometric variables were not predictive of bone density. Total body fat mass was reduced by 30% compared with normal young adults. CONCLUSIONS--Bone density is decreased in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and BMI and disease severity are independent predictors of bone density. PMID:8346485

  2. Is antipsychotic treatment linked to low bone mineral density and osteoporosis? A review of the evidence and the clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Matthieu P K; Howes, Oliver D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis is increasingly common worldwide and there is growing concern that the long-term use of antipsychotic medications increases the risk of this disorder. In this review we consider whether antipsychotics may contribute to the development of osteoporosis through reductions in bone mineral density (BMD), discuss the possible mechanisms involved and consider the clinical implications of such a relationship. Methods We searched the literature for studies in this area published between 1966 and 2010 using the Medline and PubMed databases and the following search terms: (schizophrenia OR antipsychotic OR neuroleptic) AND (osteoporosis OR hyperprolactinaemia OR bone mineral density). Results The available data indicates that statistically significant reductions in bone mineral density are frequently seen in patients prescribed antipsychotic medications and suggests that there is a higher incidence of clinically significant reductions compared with the normal population. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware for the potential negative effects of antipsychotic medications on bone mineral density, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for osteoporosis. Recommendations regarding routine monitoring of bone mineral density for patients prescribed antipsychotic medications cannot be made on the basis of existing evidence and more research is required. Is antipsychotic treatment linked to low bone mineral density and osteoporosis? A review of the evidence and the clinical implications PMID:22228316

  3. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  4. Effects of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. I: empirical assessment.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, F; Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Carpi, G; Hauffe, H C; Valent, M; Tagliapietra, V; Kazimirova, M; Koci, J; Stanko, M; Lukan, M; Henttonen, H; Rizzoli, A

    2012-04-01

    Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to eastern and central Europe with broad temporal and spatial variation in infection risk. Although many studies have focused on understanding the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting exposure of humans to TBE, comparatively little research has been devoted to assessing the underlying ecological mechanisms of TBE occurrence in enzootic cycles, and therefore TBE hazard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main ungulate tick hosts on the pattern of tick infestation in rodents and TBE occurrence in rodents and questing adult ticks. In this empirical study, we considered three areas where endemic human TBE occurs and three control sites having no reported human TBE cases. In these six sites located in Italy and Slovakia, we assessed deer density using the pellet group count-plot sampling technique, collected questing ticks, live-trapped rodents (primarily Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) and counted ticks feeding on rodents. Both rodents and questing ticks were screened for TBE infection. TBE infection in ticks and rodents was positively associated with the number of co-feeding ticks on rodents and negatively correlated with deer density. We hypothesise that the negative relationship between deer density and TBE occurrence on a local scale (defined by the minimum overlapping area of host species) could be attributed to deer (incompetent hosts) diverting questing ticks from rodents (competent hosts), know as the 'dilution effect hypothesis'. We observed that, after an initial increase, the number of ticks feeding on rodents reached a peak for an intermediate value of estimated deer density and then decreased. Therefore, while at a regional scale, tick host availability has already been shown to be directly correlated with TBE distribution, our results suggest that the interactions between deer, rodents and ticks are much more complex on a local scale, supporting the possibility of a

  5. Long-term coffee consumption in relation to fracture risk and bone mineral density in women.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Helena; Byberg, Liisa; Glynn, Anders; Lemming, Eva Warensjö; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2013-09-15

    High consumption of coffee has been suggested to reduce the risk of some late-onset diseases and death but also to contribute to the development of osteoporotic fractures. Results of previous fracture studies have been inconsistent, and a comprehensive study is needed. The longitudinal population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 61,433 women born in 1914-1948, was followed up from 1987 through 2008. Coffee consumption was assessed with repeated food frequency questionnaires. During follow-up, 14,738 women experienced fracture of any type, and 3,871 had a hip fracture. In a subcohort (n = 5,022), bone density was measured and osteoporosis determined (n = 1,012). After multivariable adjustment, there was no evidence of a higher rate of any fracture (hazard ratio per 200 mL coffee = 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.00) or hip fracture (hazard ratio per 200 mL coffee = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.00) with increasing coffee consumption. A high coffee intake (≥4 cups daily) versus a low intake (<1 cup daily) was associated with a 2%-4% lower bone density, depending on site (P < 0.001), but the odds ratio for osteoporosis was only 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.87). Thus, high coffee consumption was associated with a small reduction in bone density that did not translate into an increased risk of fracture.

  6. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  7. A Review of the Effect of Anticonvulsant Medications on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard H.; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and seizure disorders are common diagnoses in older adults and often occur concomitantly. Objective The goal of this review was to discuss the current hypothesis for the pathogenesis of anticonvulsant-induced bone density loss and the evidence regarding the risk for osteoporosis and fractures in older individuals. Methods A review of the literature was performed, searching in MEDLINE and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and October 2009 with the following search terms: anticonvulsant OR antiepileptic; AND osteoporosis OR bone density OR fracture OR absorptiometry, photon. Studies within the pediatric population, cross-sectional studies, and studies whose results were published in a language other than English were excluded. Results A search of the published literature yielded >300 results, of which 24 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this review. Hepatic enzyme induction by certain anticonvulsant medications appears to contribute to increased metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to inactive metabolites, which results in metabolic bone disease. There is increasing evidence that anticonvulsant use is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis and clinical fractures, especially among older agents such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate. Several observational studies suggest a class effect among anticonvulsant agents, associated with clinically significant reductions in bone mineral density and fracture risk. The use of anticonvulsant medications increases the odds of fracture by 1.2 to 2.4 times. However, only 2 large-scale observational studies have specifically examined the risk among those aged >65 years. This review also identified a randomized controlled trial whose results suggest that supplementation with high-dose vitamin D may be associated with increased bone mineral density in patients taking anticonvulsant medications. However, no randomized controlled trials

  8. Copper deficit as a potential pathogenic factor of reduced bone mineral density and severe tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Sierpinska, T; Konstantynowicz, J; Orywal, K; Golebiewska, M; Szmitkowski, M

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated if men and women with severe tooth wear were at increased risk of general bone loss. Enamel biopsies obtained from 50 subjects aged 47.5 ± 5 years showed decreased copper content, which was associated with reduced spine bone mineral density, suggesting deficits of this trace element contributing to bone demineralization, enamel attrition, and deteriorated quality of mineralized tissues. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between enamel trace minerals and bone mineral density (BMD) in severe tooth wear. We hypothesized that similar factors contributed to both the excessive abrasion of dental enamel and reduced BMD in subjects with tooth wear. Fifty patients aged 47.5 ± 5 years with severe tooth wear and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers with normal dental status were studied regarding dietary intakes of trace elements, serum and salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) concentrations, and serum PTH, osteocalcin, and hydroxyvitamin D levels. Tooth wear was determined using clinical examination based on standard protocol according to Smith and Knight. In all subjects, acid biopsies of the maxillary central incisors were carried out to assess mineral composition of the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to measure Ca and Zn, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze Cu content. BMD was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tooth wear patients had reduced lumbar spine, but not femoral, BMD relative to controls (p < 0.001). No differences were found in enamel Ca concentration and Zn content was slightly higher in tooth wear patients than in controls whereas Cu content was significantly decreased in the patients: 19.59 ± 16.4 vs 36.86 ± 26.1 μg/l (p = 0.01) despite similar levels of Cu in serum and saliva. The differences were independent of serum 25-OH-D, osteocalcin concentrations or PTH

  9. Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6 g calcium and 6,500 IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2 g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with −51.2 ± 14.7 mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (−2.3 ± 11.8 mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4 nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4 nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

  10. Characterization of a novel calibration method for mineral density determination of dentine by X-ray micro-tomography.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Gao, Jinlong; Jones, Allen S; Hunter, Neil; Swain, Michael V

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory micro-CT systems, although limited by beam hardening effect and instability of the source, have been utilized to measure mineral density in combination with specific image processing methods. However, few attempts have been made to accurately determine mineral density profiles in dentine due to the lack of suitable calibration standards. The aim of this study was to develop a calibration method to evaluate mineral density profiles in dentine including changes associated with dentinal caries. A series of K(2)HPO(4) solution phantoms in a concentration range between 0 and 0.9 g cm(-3)--coupled to a set of water infiltrated porous solid hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms, with mineral densities ranging from 1.52 to 2.08 g cm(-3), was used in this investigation. First we evaluated the micrometer-scale homogeneity and noise in the HA phantoms using a commercial laboratory micro-CT system. Then an experimental validation was performed of the linearity over the entire density range of these two different calibration materials. The results show the HA phantoms extended the calibration curve obtained from K(2)HPO(4) solution phantoms to densities as high as 2.08 g cm(-3); the linearity remains stable at different energy levels. Finally, compared to the reference micro-CT calibration methods, the advantages of this new method are discussed. We conclude that this calibration method allows a more rational assessment of mineral density of dentine by micro-CT and has a promising potential for future studies.

  11. Association of testosterone and bone mineral density with tooth loss in men with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balendra P; Makker, Annu; Tripathi, Arvind; Singh, Man M; Gupta, Vivek

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the mean testosterone and bone mineral density (BMD) levels in men with and without tooth loss. Two hundred three male subjects aged 30-65 years satisfying the study criteria were selected and then examined for bone mineral density, testosterone level, clinical attachment loss, probing pocket depth, tooth mobility and tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 15.0) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA), and differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Independent sample "t" test was used to compare the results, and receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was performed to obtain the cut-off. The mean testosterone level in subjects without tooth loss was 4.41 ± 2.57, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 2.79 ± 1.15 (P = 0.001). The mean BMD in subjects without tooth loss was 0.99 ± 0.13, whereas that in subjects with tooth loss was 0.96 ± 0.12 (P = 0.046). The testosterone level and BMD in subjects with tooth loss were significantly lower than those in subjects without tooth loss. Testosterone is a good predictor of tooth loss, but its efficiency decreases with increasing tooth loss. BMD is not a good predictor of tooth loss.

  12. A systematic review on the correlation between skeletal and jawbone mineral density in osteoporotic subjects.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Elena; Donos, Nikolaos; Park, Jung-Chul; Petrie, Aviva; Mardas, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess whether the systemic skeletal reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) that characterizes osteoporotic subjects is also associated with a reduction of BMD in the jawbones. Two reviewers searched independently and in duplicate three databases up to May 2014 and assessed the risk of bias using a tailored version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Only papers reporting either Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between skeletal and jawbone mineral density in more than five osteoporotic subjects were selected. From 1763 citations, 64 full-text papers were screened and five papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. None of the included studies complied with all NOS criteria, and as only two studies were eligible for meta-analysis, this was not performed. Only limited conclusions can be drawn from this systematic review, due to the small number of studies included, their heterogeneity, and their high risk of bias. Future studies that take into consideration both upper and lower jaws, that use the same technique to measure skeletal and jaw BMD (ideally dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), and that account for confounding variables (such as medications/diseases affecting bone metabolism and demographics) are needed to provide more robust conclusions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of electromagnetic fields and protective effect of CAPE on bone mineral density in rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Cicek, Ekrem; Cerci, Sevim Sureyya; Cerci, Celal; Oral, Baha; Koyu, Ahmet

    2006-10-01

    Most mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz or 1800 MHz. An electromagnetic field has some biological effects on the behavior of the cell population of bone. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the radiation emitted by mobile phones on bone mineral density (BMD). The effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the radiation-induced changes were also investigated. In the study, 48 Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were divided into five groups as follows: control, irradiated with 900 MHz, irradiated with 900 MHz and treatment, irradiated with 1800 MHz, irradiated with 1800 MHz and treatment groups. The rats in the control group (first group) were left within the experimental setup during 30 min/day for 28 days without radiation exposure. Nine hundred-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both second and third groups for 28 days (30 min/day); 1800-MHz radiation group was exposed to irradiate both fourth and fifth groups for 28 days (30 min/day). Third and fifth groups were also treated by CAPE for 28 days. Treatment groups received 10 microml/kg/day CAPE i.p. before the irradiation. Bone mineral densities were determined in all groups. BMD was found to be decreased in the irradiated groups and to be increased in the treatment groups. The changes were not significant (p >0.05).

  14. Effects of estrogen deficiency and low bone mineral density on healthy knee cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Santos; Largo, Raquel; Calvo, Emilio; Bellido, Miriam; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of estrogen deficiency and bone mass loss on normal knee cartilage in mature rabbits. Bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 13 rabbits, 6 of which also received systemic glucocorticoid for 4 weeks. Seven additional healthy rabbits were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar spine, knee, and subchondral bone of the knee at baseline and 22 weeks after OVX. After sacrifice, the knees were dissected, macroscopy was assessed, and histological cartilage abnormalities were evaluated according to the Mankin score. Correlations of Mankin with BMD at different regions were also performed. When compared to baseline, differences in BMD were only found in spine and knee of the animals receiving glucocorticoids. All the animals subjected to OVX had a significantly higher Mankin score than controls. Mankin was upper in OVX animals receiving glucocorticoids, but differences were not significant. The Mankin score was inversely related with BMD in lumbar spine (r = -0.67; p < 0.01). Although low bone mineral density contributes to the minor osteoarthritic alterations observed in our model, estrogen deficiency itself seems to act directly to induce the main pathogenic effects in healthy cartilage of the rabbit.

  15. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  16. Do metabolic syndrome and its components have an impact on bone mineral density in adolescents?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Valéria Nóbrega; Fiorelli, Luciana Nunes Mosca; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing concern about the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at an early age and its effects on bone mass in adolescents. Adolescence is considered a critical period for bone mass gain. Impaired bone acquisition during this phase can lead to "suboptimal" peak bone mass and increase the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures in old age. The objective of this review was to perform a critical analysis of articles that specifically focus on this age group, evaluating the influence of MetS and its components on bone mineral density in adolescents. A possible relationship between this syndrome and bone mass has been demonstrated, but the number of studies addressing this topic in adolescents is small. Despite the scarcity of evidence, the results of those studies show that Metabolic Syndrome is negatively correlated with bone mass and also that some components of MetS are negatively correlated with bone mineral density in adolescents. However, the associations between MetS and bone mass development need to be further explored in the age group corresponding to adolescence. Further good-quality studies are necessary to complement the understanding of this relationship.

  17. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yizhong; Lin, Jinkuang; Cai, Siqing; Yan, Lisheng; Pan, Yuancheng; Yao, Xuedong; Zhuang, Huafeng; Wang, Peiwen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes.

  18. IGF-1 bioavailability is increased by resistance training in older women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Parkhouse, W S; Coupland, D C; Li, C; Vanderhoek, K J

    2000-02-07

    We investigated if long-term resistance training would increase insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) bioavailabilty at rest in older women (68+/-1 years) with low bone mineral density. IGF-1 levels were significantly lower (P<0.05), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins -1 and -3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3) significantly higher than an age-matched healthy normal group. Resistance training resulted in significant (P<0.05) increases in repetition maximums across all exercises (range 41-78%). Resting IGF-1 levels were significantly (P<0.05) elevated (70%) by the resistance training whereas no significant changes occurred in IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-1/IGF-1 and IGFBP-3/IGF-1 ratios were significantly decreased (approximately - 50%) as a result of resistance training (P<0.05). Thus, IGF-1 bioavailability was increased as a result of resistance training induced increases in IGF-1 levels in older women with low bone mineral density. These alterations in the IGF-1 system may be contributing to the significant strength gain observed with the resistance training in this population.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Bone Mineral Density of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    WILKIN, LINDA D.; JACKSON, MATTHEW C.; SIMS, TRISTAN D.; HADDOCK, BRYAN L.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1.5 million people suffer a bone disease-related fracture every year. Most work investigating bone mineral density (BMD) focuses on post-menopausal females but a report from the Surgeon General in 2004 stated that of particular concern are men, racial and ethnic minorities, poor individuals, individuals with disabilities, and individuals living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density of young adults and to investigate any correlations with variables suggested to influence BMD. BMD was assessed at a younger age than most studies based on the assumption that osteoporosis is a pediatric disorder that manifests in old age. Whole-body BMD, percent body fat (BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM) of 103 college-aged Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics (18 – 34 years of age) were measured using a Lunar Prodigy Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Blacks and Whites were taller than Hispanics. Blacks had higher BMD than Whites and Hispanics. Blacks and Whites had higher t-scores than Hispanics. Weight and LM correlated with BMD for all three groups. Height correlated with BMD for Blacks only. FM correlated with BMD for Hispanics only. In conclusion, BMD is suggested to be higher in Blacks than Whites and Hispanics. LM is suggested to be an important component of bone health. It is important to stress resistance training for building and maintaining bone health throughout life. PMID:27182348

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Bone Mineral Density of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Linda D; Jackson, Matthew C; Sims, Tristan D; Haddock, Bryan L

    An estimated 1.5 million people suffer a bone disease-related fracture every year. Most work investigating bone mineral density (BMD) focuses on post-menopausal females but a report from the Surgeon General in 2004 stated that of particular concern are men, racial and ethnic minorities, poor individuals, individuals with disabilities, and individuals living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density of young adults and to investigate any correlations with variables suggested to influence BMD. BMD was assessed at a younger age than most studies based on the assumption that osteoporosis is a pediatric disorder that manifests in old age. Whole-body BMD, percent body fat (BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM) of 103 college-aged Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics (18 - 34 years of age) were measured using a Lunar Prodigy Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Blacks and Whites were taller than Hispanics. Blacks had higher BMD than Whites and Hispanics. Blacks and Whites had higher t-scores than Hispanics. Weight and LM correlated with BMD for all three groups. Height correlated with BMD for Blacks only. FM correlated with BMD for Hispanics only. In conclusion, BMD is suggested to be higher in Blacks than Whites and Hispanics. LM is suggested to be an important component of bone health. It is important to stress resistance training for building and maintaining bone health throughout life.

  1. [Adolescents do not lose bone mineral density postpartum: comparative study with adult women].

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Morales, Rosa María; Flores-García, Adriana; Lira, Josefina; Isoard, Fernando; de Santiago, Soledad; Casanueva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the pattern of bone mineral density (BMD), serum concentrations of estradiol and calcium levels, dietary calcium, body mass index (BMI), and lactation in adolescents and adult women at 15, 90, and 365 postpartum days (ppd). A prospective cohort study was conducted of 33 adolescents and 39 adult women. Anthropometric and dietetic evaluations were performed, as well as evaluations of bone mineral density in L2-L4 and femur neck. Estradiol concentrations and calcium serum levels were determined. L2-L4 BMD increased by 16% in adolescents, and 3% in adult women from day 15 to 365 ppd. While age was associated with this change (β=13.779, EE=3.5, p=0.001), lactation was not (β=-0.705, EE=0.647, p=0.283). The adult women had a higher L2-L4 BMD at 15, 90, and 635 ppd (1.151 vs 0.978 g/cm², 1.195 vs 1.070 g/cm², 1.195 vs 1.123 g/cm², respectively) (p<0.003). Adolescents' BMD increased three times more than that of adult women. For all women, BMD was dependent of age and independent of lactation.

  2. Effects of Cushing disease on bone mineral density in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Serbis, Anastasios; Sinaii, Ninet; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Keil, Margaret F; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Reynolds, James C; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with Cushing disease before and after transphenoidal surgery (TSS). Hologic dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of 35 children with Cushing disease were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen of the 35 patients had follow-up DXA scans performed 13 to 18 months after TSS. BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) for lumbar spine (LS) L1 to L4 and femoral neck (FN) were calculated. Preoperatively, 38% and 23% of patients had osteopenia of the LS and FN, respectively. Both BMD and BMAD Z-scores of the LS were worse than those for the FN (-1.60 +/- 1.37 versus -1.04 +/- 1.19, P = .003), and (-1.90 +/- 1.49 versus -0.06 +/- 1.90, P < .001); postoperative improvement in BMD and BMAD were more pronounced in LS than in the FN (0.84 +/- 0.88 versus 0.15 +/- 0.62, P<.001; and 0.73 +/- 1.13 versus -0.26 +/- 1.21, P = .015). Pubertal stage, cortisol levels, and length of disease had no effect on BMD. In children with Cushing disease, vertebral BMD was more severely affected than femoral BMD and this effect was independent of degree or duration of hypercortisolism. BMD for the LS improved significantly after TSS; osteopenia in this group may be reversible. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Higher Serum Insulin Concentrations Positively Influence the Bone Mineral Density in African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ambika P; Alvarez, Jessica; Huisingh, Carrie; Casazza, Krista; Gower, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental stage of increased insulin resistance that also is a critical period for bone mass accrual. Historically, African Americans (AA) have lesser risk for osteoporotic fractures compared to European Americans (EA). AA also have higher incidence of insulin resistance. The possibility that bone health and insulin secretion or concentrations are linked has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the associations of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) with insulin sensitivity and secretion in healthy adolescent girls and healthy female adults and to evaluate ethnic differences in these associations. Observational cohort design. University of Alabama at Birmingham, between January 2010 and September 2011. Healthy, female, non-smoking adolescents and young adults (14-55 years) were enrolled in this observational cohort study. Adolescents had significantly higher fasting insulin (P=0.0002), insulin area under the curve [AUC] (P= 0.0004) and lower insulin sensitivity (P=0.0005) compared to adults. Among adolescents, AA race was significantly associated with BMD (β=0.086, P=0.01) and BMAD (β=0.0075, P=0.002); however, adjusting for insulin AUC explained this difference. Insulin AUC (β=0.0006, P=0.029) and fasting insulin (β=0.0005, P=0.01) were positively associated with BMAD only in AA adolescents. Insulin AUC and fasting insulin were not significant predictors of BMD for adults. The higher insulin concentration among AA adolescents is associated with increased BMD and higher BMAD.

  4. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  6. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  7. Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density among haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rafael Fernández; de la Rosa, Rafael José Esteban

    2009-03-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a serious problem for patients with chronic kidney disease. Measurements of bone mineral density, T-score and Z-score were taken in the lumbar region and femur of 73 patients who were being treated on the haemodialysis programme. These measurements were compared with the anthropometric values of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) obtaining a positive correlation between them. Alterations in the bone mineral metabolism are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among haemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Bone mass diminution, together with fracture risk, is a frequent finding in these patients; this fact is explained by different factors, amongst which are those related to their anthropometric values. Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied, T-score and Z-score measurements were taken in the neck of the femur, trochanter, intertrochanter, 1/3 of proximal femur, Ward's triangle and L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae; body composition was also studied. With this aim, DXA densitometry was used on 73 haemodialysis patients (40 men and 33 women). The mean of the total haemodialysis time in these patients was 9.7 years. The group showed a very significant positive correlation between BMD, weight, height, BMI, fractures, dialysis time and intact PTH. CKD patients undergoing the haemodialysis programme show a significant BMD reduction, which affects both lumbar spine and femur. Weight and height affect BMD and bone change, being thus important factors of prediction for fracture risk. Furthermore, BMI is the main determinant of BMD, a finding that is confirmed in the units in this study and with the evidence described by other authors (Negri et al. (2005).

  8. Maternal beef and postweaning herring diets increase bone mineral density and strength in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Olausson, Hanna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nookaew, Intawat; Khoomrung, Sakda; Andersson, Louise; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Holmäng, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    The maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the long-term health of the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal and postweaning crossover isocaloric diets based on fish or meat affect the geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties of bone in mouse offspring in adulthood. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. After weaning, half of the pups in each group were fed the same diet as their dams, and half were fed the other diet. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body and lumbar spine were measured in the offspring by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 21 weeks of age. At 22-26 weeks, tibia bone geometry (length, cortical volumetric (v) BMD, BMC, area and thickness) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and the biomechanical properties of the tibia were analyzed by the three-point bending test. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 was analyzed at 12 weeks. In comparison to the maternal herring diet, the maternal beef diet increased aBMD and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine of adult offspring, as well as cortical vBMD, BMC, bone area, and thickness at the mid-diaphyseal region of the tibia and the biomechanical properties of tibia strength. In contrast, a postweaning beef diet decreased aBMD in the lumbar spine and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine compared with a postweaning herring diet, which instead increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. The change from a maternal beef diet before weaning to a herring diet after weaning decreased body weight and increased the cortical area, vBMD, BMC, thickness, and strength of the tibia. These significant crossover effects indicate that a preweaning maternal beef diet and a postweaning herring diet are optimal for increasing BMC and bone strength in offspring in adulthood.

  9. [Effects on rats' bone mineral density and bone biomechanics by suspensory simulated weightlessness and removing suspension].

    PubMed

    Tong, Hai-ying; Hu, Su-min; Zhou, Peng; Fu, Qian; Li, Jin; Gao, Xue-min; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2008-04-01

    To study the effects on rats' bone mineral density and bone biomechanics by suspensory simulated weightlessness and removing suspension. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly as control group and model group. Suspend the model group rats for 14 days, then remove suspension and continue to feed for another 14 days. Feed control group rats for 28 days. Detect the bone mineral density (BMD) in vivo of cranial bone, second thoracic vertebra, fourth lumbar vertebra, pelvis, right radioulna and right femoral bone of each group at the 14th day. At the 28th day,execute all the rats and take out of right femoral bone and fourth lumbar vertebra for detecting BMD and the intensity of biomechanics. At the 14th day in experiment, being compared with control group,the BMD of femoral bone, pelvis and lumbar vertebra in model group decreased significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01) and the change of BMD of cranial bone, thoracic vertebra and radioulna in model group was not remarkable (P > 0.05). At the 28th day in experiment, the BMD of femoral bone and lumbar vertebra, the maximal load of femoral bone decreased significantly in model group as compared with control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.01). BMD in vive body showed that suspensory simulated weightlessness for 14 days could cause disorder of bone metabolism and remarkable mineral loss of weight bearing bone, even BMD and biomechanical intensity of weight bearing bone decrease obviously when removing suspension for 14 days. The results suggest that the disorder of bone metabolism could not be recovered in short time.

  10. Influence of nutrition and lifestyle on bone mineral density in children from adoptive and biological families.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Selma; Baric, Irena Colic; Satalic, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena; Bobic, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The precise contributions of hereditary and environmental factors to bone density are not known. We compared lifestyle predictors of bone density among adopted and biological children. The study comprised 18 adopted children (mean [SD] age, 14.0 [4.1] years) with their non-biological parents and 17 children with their biological parents. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) was measured at the lumbar spine, total femur, and distal radius. Nutritional intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Information on smoking and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients, corrected for energy intake, and all lifestyle characteristics except sleep duration were similar in biological children and their parents. As compared with their parents, adopted children had significantly different energy, protein, and calcium intakes and physical activity levels. In a regression model, BMD z scores of adopted children and their parents were significantly inversely associated at the spine and total femur, whereas BMD z scores of biological children and their parents were significantly positively associated at all measurement sites. The greatest proportion of total variance in BMD was accounted for by calcium intake among adopted children and by parental BMD among biological children. For some lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes, the differences between parents and children were more obvious among adoptive families than among biological families. The most important lifestyle predictor of bone density was calcium intake.

  11. Low-grade systemic inflammation and suboptimal bone mineral density throughout adolescence: a prospective study in girls.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Raquel; Ramos, Elisabete; Oliveira, Andreia; Monjardino, Teresa; Barros, Henrique

    2012-11-01

    We aimed at quantifying the associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and forearm bone mineral density (BMD) throughout adolescence in overweight and normal-weight girls. Prospective cohort study. 346 girls born in 1990 and attending schools in Porto, Portugal. Adolescents were evaluated at 13 and 17 years of age using a standard protocol. Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment included weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference. Girls were categorized according to age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles as normal weight in both evaluations or overweight in at least one assessment. Pubertal development was estimated using menarche age. Serum hs-CRP was determined using particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Hs-CRP was log-transformed, and associations were quantified using linear regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). An inverse association between hs-CRP and BMD was observed from 13 years of age in overweight girls [-11·26 mg/cm(2) (-21·99, -0·52)]. Among normal-weight adolescents, 13-year-old hs-CRP was negatively associated with prospective BMD variation between 13 and 17 years of age [-1·90 mg/cm(2) year (-3·35, -0·45)]. Overweight girls who maintained higher levels of hs-CRP throughout adolescence had lower 17-year-old BMD (adjusted mean 0·441 vs 0·483 g/cm(2) in those who remained with lower levels of hs-CRP). At 17 years of age, significant inverse associations were found between hs-CRP and BMD among normal-weight and overweight girls. Obesity-related early systemic inflammation might be involved in suboptimal bone accrual, particularly in overweight girls. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  13. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  14. Quantitative micro-computed tomography: a non-invasive method to assess equivalent bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Ara; Snyder, Brian D; Zurakowski, David; Müller, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    One of the many applications of micro computed tomography (microCT) is to accurately visualize and quantify cancellous bone microstructure. However, microCT based assessment of bone mineral density has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Specifically, the effects of varying imaging parameters, such as tube voltage (kVp), current (microA), integration time (ms), object to X-ray source distance (mm), projection number, detector array size and imaging media (surrounding the specimen), on the relationship between equivalent tissue density (rhoEQ) and its linear attenuation coefficient (micro) have received little attention. In this study, in house manufactured, hydrogen dipotassium phosphate liquid calibration phantoms (K2HPO4) were employed in addition to a resin embedded hydroxyapatite solid calibration phantoms supplied by Scanco Medical AG Company. Variations in current, integration time and projection number had no effect on the conversion relationship between micro and rhoEQ for the K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p>0.05 for all cases]. However, as expected, variations in scanning tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media (referring to the solution that surrounds the specimen in the imaging vial) significantly affected the conversion relationship between mu and rhoEQ for K2HPO4 and Scanco calibration phantoms [p<0.05 for all cases]. A multivariate linear regression approach was used to estimate rhoEQ based on attenuation coefficient, tube voltage, object to X-ray source distance, detector array size and imaging media for K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms, explaining 90% of the variation in rhoEQ. Furthermore, equivalent density values of bovine cortical bone (converted from attenuation coefficient to equivalent density using the K2HPO4 liquid calibration phantoms) samples highly correlated [R2=0.92] with the ash densities of the samples. In conclusion, Scanco calibration phantoms can be used to assess equivalent

  15. Relationship between bone turnover biomarkers, mandibular bone mineral density, and systemic skeletal bone mineral density in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women.

    PubMed

    Makker, Annu; Singh, Man Mohan; Mishra, Geetanjali; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Jain, Girish Kumar; Jadhav, Satyawan

    2012-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone disorders. Osteoporosis is reported to cause bone loss in the alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible, which provide bony framework for tooth anchorage. However, the association between systemic osteoporosis and oral health remains controversial. Available evidence suggests that Indian women have lower peak bone mass than their Western/other Asian counterparts. The present study evaluated the relationship between mandibular bone mineral density (mBMD), systemic skeletal BMD, and bone metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal Indian women. One hundred twenty-four premenopausal and 247 postmenopausal healthy women were included in the study. The BMD of the body of mandible, radius ultradistal, total hip, femur neck, and lateral spine were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urine biomarkers were determined using commercial kits. Univariate regression analysis followed by stepwise multivariate regression analysis to obtain the best fit model demonstrated the BMD of radius ultradistal, serum inorganic phosphorus, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin as significant predictors of mBMD in premenopausal women. The BMD of femur neck, serum ionized calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urine total pyridinoline were significantly associated with mBMD in postmenopausal women. The significant association between mBMD and number of teeth present was observed in the whole group of premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Varied predictors of mBMD were observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The results suggest that the screening for these biomarkers and serum ionized calcium should be useful (1) to assess the status of mBMD particularly in women requiring surgical dental intervention that include bone manipulation and (2) for early detection and management of women with the risk of developing osteoporosis.

  16. The choice of normative pediatric reference database changes spine bone mineral density Z-scores but not the relationship between bone mineral density and prevalent vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinhui; Siminoski, Kerry; Alos, Nathalie; Halton, Jacqueline; Ho, Josephine; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A; Fernandez, Conrad V; Grant, Ronald M; Rodd, Celia; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Scharke, Maya; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to assess the magnitude of the disparity in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD) Z-scores generated by different reference databases and to evaluate whether the relationship between LSBMD Z-scores and vertebral fractures (VF) varies by choice of database. Children with leukemia underwent LSBMD by cross-calibrated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, with Z-scores generated according to Hologic and Lunar databases. VF were assessed by the Genant method on spine radiographs. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between fractures and LSBMD Z-scores. Net reclassification improvement and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of LSBMD Z-scores for VF. For the 186 children from 0 to 18 years of age, 6 different age ranges were studied. The Z-scores generated for the 0 to 18 group were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.90), but the proportion of children with LSBMD Z-scores ≤-2.0 among those with VF varied substantially (from 38-66%). Odds ratios (OR) for the association between LSBMD Z-score and VF were similar regardless of database (OR = 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.44, 2.56 to OR = 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.70, 4.28). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification improvement ranged from 0.71 to 0.75 and -0.15 to 0.07, respectively. Although the use of a LSBMD Z-score threshold as part of the definition of osteoporosis in a child with VF does not appear valid, the study of relationships between BMD and VF is valid regardless of the BMD database that is used.

  17. The Choice of Normative Pediatric Reference Database Changes Spine Bone Mineral Density Z-scores But Not The Relationship Between Bone Mineral Density and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Siminoski, Kerry; Alos, Nathalie; Halton, Jacqueline; Ho, Josephine; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Grant, Ronald M.; Rodd, Celia; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Scharke, Maya; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to assess the magnitude of the disparity in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD) Z-scores generated by different reference databases and to evaluate whether the relationship between LSBMD Z-scores and vertebral fractures (VF) varies by choice of database. Patients and Design Children with leukemia underwent LSBMD by cross-calibrated dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with Z-scores generated according to Hologic and Lunar databases. VF were assessed by the Genant method on spine radiographs. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between fractures and LSBMD Z-scores. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of LSBMD Z-scores for VF. Results For the 186 children from 0–18 years of age, 6 different age ranges were studied. The Z-scores generated for the 0 to 18 group were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.90), but the proportion of children with LSBMD Z-scores ≤ −2.0 among those with VF varied substantially (from 38 to 66%). Odds ratios (OR) for the association between LSBMD Z-score and VF were similar regardless of database (OR = 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44, 2.56 to OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.70, 4.28). AUC and NRI ranged from 0.71 to 0.75 and −0.15 to 0.07 respectively. Conclusions Although the use of a LSBMD Z-score threshold as part of the definition of osteoporosis in a child with VF does not appear valid, the study of relationships between BMD and VF is valid regardless of the BMD database that is used. PMID:25494661

  18. Nanofibers grafted on titanium alloy: the effects of fiber alignment and density on osteoblast mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Peng, Zhao-Xiang

    2017-08-17

    The surface of medical implant alloy Ti-6Al-4V was chemically modified to allow it to covalently bond with collagen/PVA nanofibers. These nanofibers were successfully attached to the Ti-6Al-4V surface in three different morphologies: randomly oriented high-density fiber, COL(H); randomly oriented low-density fiber, COL(L); and aligned high-density fiber, COL(A). The effects of the morphology of these covalently-bound collagen nanofibers on the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts were studied for 21 days. The low-density nanofibers covered approximately 80% of the Ti64 surface, while the high-density nanofibers covered nearly 100%. These covalently attached fibrous coatings remained attached to the metal surface after 3 weeks of cell culture. In the first week the aligned fibers of COL(A) allowed the osteoblasts to stretch and elongate in the direction of the fibers. This directional elongation was not seen in the cells on the randomly-oriented samples. Cells proliferated and differentiated on all three surfaces over time. By the end of the test, the amount of type I collagen secreted by the cells on COL(H) was the highest, while the degree of mineralization was highest on COL(A) among the three samples (p < 0.05). Different nanofiber morphologies changed the cell morphology and the secretion of cellular products. The mechanisms remained to be investigated. The surface of medical implant alloy Ti-6Al-4V was chemically modified to allow it to covalently bond with collagen/PVA nanofibers. The SEM micrographs in the top row show the random and aligned morphology of the collagen-PVA nanofibers. The nanofibers on COL(A) were aligned in the general direction indicated by the arrow. The second row are images from EDX titanium element mapping. The location of the titanium elements are shown as bright dots. The low-density nanofibers, COL(L), covered approximately 80% of the Ti64 surface, while the high-density nanofibers, COL(H) and COL(A), covered nearly 100

  19. Bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) measurements as well as identify risk factors for low BMD and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 45 PsA women, 52 Ps women and 98 healthy female controls (HC). Clinical risk factors for low bone density and osteoporotic fracture were evaluated by a specific questionnaire. An X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine, total femur and total body was performed on all patients. Skin and joint outcomes were measured by specific tools (PASI, HAQ and DAS28). Morphometric vertebral fractures were evaluated by lumbar and thoracic spine X-ray, according to Genant's method. Results There were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), total lean mass and bone mineral density among the groups. However, the PsA group had a significantly higher body fat percentage (BF%) than the Ps and HC groups. Osteoporotic fractures were more frequently observed in PsA and Ps groups than in the HC group (P = 0.01). Recurrent falls and a longer duration of disease increased the risk of fracture (odds ratio (OR) = 18.3 and 1.08, respectively) in the PsA group (P = 0.02). Disability was the main factor related to osteoporotic fracture in the Ps group (odds ratio (OR) = 11.1) (P = 0.02). Conclusions Ps and PsA patients did not present lower BMD. However, they had a higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures and higher risk of metabolic syndrome. Patients with a longer duration of disease, disability and recurrent falls need preventive measures. PMID:21299865

  20. Relative Importance of Lean and Fat Mass on Bone Mineral Density in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Marjan; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Ayatollahi, Sayed Mohammad Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body weight is made up of lean and fat mass and both are involved in growth and development. Impression of these two components in bone density accrual has been controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat and lean mass and bone density in Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 472 subjects (235 girls, 237 boys) aged 9-18 years old in Fars Province. The participants' weight, height, waist circumference, stage of puberty, and level of physical activity were recorded. Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD), total body fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Results showed that 12.2% of boys and 12.3% of girls were overweight and 5.5% of boys and 4.7% of girls were obese. Obese individuals had greater total body BMD (0.96 ± 0.11) than normal-weight ones (0.86 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). We found the greatest correlation between total body BMD and total body lean mass (R = 0.78. P < 0.001) and the least correlation with total body fat percentage (R = 0.03, P = 0.44). Total lean mass in more active boys was 38.1 ± 10.9 and in less active boys was 32.3 ± 11.0 (P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that age and total body lean mass were independent factors of BMD in growing children and adolescents. Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of BMD in both genders. Physical activity appears to positively impact on lean mass and needs to be considered in physical education and health-enhancing programs in Iranian school children. PMID:26401143

  1. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  2. Bone Mineral Density as a Marker of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure in Psychotic Disorder: A 3 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037

  3. Lower extremity muscle strength does not independently predict proximal femur bone mineral density in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Owings, T M; Pavol, M J; Grabiner, M D

    2002-03-01

    The relationship described in the published literature between muscle strength and bone mineral density of older adults is not entirely certain. It is possible that the direct relationship reported in some studies is biased by failing to mathematically account for the biological influence of body weight and body height on both bone mineral density and muscle strength. This study sought to determine if the relationships between measures of lower extremity muscle strength and bone mineral density of the proximal femur are independent of body size (i.e., body height and body weight) in healthy older adults. We recruited 50 older women and 29 older men, all of whom were healthy community dwellers and not involved in resistance training. Quantitative analysis of the isometric strength of the bilateral ankle, knee, and hip joints and assessment of bone mineral density of the proximal femur were conducted. Muscle strength values were adjusted for the influence of body height and body weight using an allometric scaling procedure. The correlations between proximal femur bone mineral density and the unadjusted strength values were weak but statistically significant. After adjusting muscle strength to account for the influence of body height and body weight, the magnitudes of the correlations between bone mineral density and muscle strength diminished substantially and were not significantly different from zero. The results reveal that, for a typical sample of healthy older adults not involved in resistance training, the relationship between maximal isometric muscle strength of lower extremity joints and proximal femur bone mineral density is reliant on body size.

  4. Bone Mineral Density in Sheehan's Syndrome; Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Chaker, Fatma; Belouidhnine, Manel; Kanoun, Faouzi; Lamine, Faiza; Ftouhi, Bochra; Sahli, Hela; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is a known cause of bone mineral loss. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (SS) and to determine the risk factors. This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of SS that have had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected. The parameters of osteodensitometry at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine of 60 patients with SS were compared with those of 60 age-, height-, and weight-matched control women. The mean age at BMD measurement was 49.4 ± 9.9 yr (range: 25-76 yr). The mean duration of SS was 19.3 ± 8.5 yr (range: 3-41 yr). All patients had corticotropin deficiency and were treated with hydrocortisone at a mean daily dose of 26.3 ± 4.1 mg. Fifty-seven patients (95%) had thyrotropin deficiency and were treated with thyroxine at a mean daily dose of 124.3 ± 47.4 µg. Thirty-five of the 49 patients, aged less than 50 yr at diagnosis and having gonadotropin deficiency (71.4%), had estrogen-progesterone substitution. Osteopenia was present in 25 patients (41.7%) and osteoporosis in 21 (35.0%). The BMD was significantly lower in the group with SS than in the control group (p < 0.001). The odds ratio of osteopenia-osteoporosis was 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8) at the femoral neck and 3.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-7.8) at the lumbar spine. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected by low bone mineral mass (p < 0.05). The duration of the disease and the daily dose of hydrocortisone were independently and inversely associated with BMD at the femoral neck. The daily dose of thyroxine was independently and inversely associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy was not associated with BMD. Low bone mineral mass was very common in patients with SS. The lumbar spine was more frequently affected. The duration of the disease and the doses of

  5. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    PubMed

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index <40) in this cross-sectional study. In order to examine the association of serum adipokine levels with RMR and BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight <20 kcal/24 h/kg were more obese (p < 0.05). Another noteworthy finding was that participants with lower RMR/kg demonstrated higher total BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, other adipokines such as vaspin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and ANGPL6 did not affect the relationship between RMR and BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by

  6. Lack of biochemical hypogonadism in elderly Arab males with low bone mineral density disease.

    PubMed

    Al Attia, Haider M; Jaysundaram, Krishnasamy; Saraj, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the relationship between androgen levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Arab males. Forty-five elderly Arab males underwent Dual X-ray absorptiometry for measurement of BMD. The outcomes were defined as per WHO description. Assays for testosterone (T), gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and estradiol (E2), in the serum were carried out. The ratio of T/LH was used as a surrogate for the cFT assay. We excluded patients receiving hormonal ablation for prostatic neoplasm and patients with chronic liver or renal disease and patients receiving corticosteroids. Twelve were osteoporotic (26.5%); 22 osteopenic (49%); and 11(24.5%) had normal outcome. Osteoporotic patients were significantly older (78.17 +/- 7.59 years) than the osteopenic (70.14 +/- 5.92, P density that appears to be independent of androgen levels. Osteoporotics were significantly older than those with osteopenia or normal bone density. Aging seemed to have overridden the effect of normal sex hormones on bone density in these patients. Before considering these results as a possible exception to the widely established role of the hypoandrogenemia in male osteoporosis, other potential factors impacting on bone density need to be considered.

  7. [Changes in bone mineral density of postmenopausal women in relation to the menstrual cycle length].

    PubMed

    Enchev, E; Dimitrakova, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between the age of menarche, the length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding and fracture risk in the postmenopausal period. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle length and lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. We investigated three groups of postmenopausal women (each - n = 50). The first group included women with menstrual duration of 27 days during reproductive age, the second group included postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 28 days during the reproductive age, and the third group consisted of postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 30 days during reproductive age. The average age of women was 58.80 +/- 0.94 y. in the first group, 60.36 +/- 5.12 y. in the second group and -61.84 +/- 0.80 y. in the third group. Age, age of menarche, number of childbirths, length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding, and lumbar bone density were assessed and registered for each woman. We used DXA in a anterior-posterior projection to assess the bone density of the lumbar spine; the obtained results are shown in gram/cm2. The women from the third group, with average menstrual cycle length of 30 days, reach menopause at a significantly later age, have longer menstrual cycle and shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density, compared to the other two groups. The data from our research show that women with anamnesis for average normal menstrual cycle length of 30 days reach menopausal period at a significantly later age, have shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density compared to those with shorter menstrual cycle duration (27 and 28 days).

  8. Cross-sex pattern of bone mineral density in early onset gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, I R; Haug, E; Falch, J; Egeland, T; Opjordsmoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Hormonally controlled differences in bone mineral density (BMD) between males and females are well studied. The effects of cross-sex hormones on bone metabolism in patients with early onset gender identity disorder (EO-GID), however, are unclear. We examined BMD, total body fat (TBF) and total lean body mass (TLBM) in patients prior to initiation of sex hormone treatment and during treatment at months 3 and 12. The study included 33 EO-GID patients who were approved for sex reassignment and a control group of 122 healthy Norwegians (males, n=77; females, n=45). Male patients (n=12) received an oral dose of 50 mug ethinylestradiol daily for the first 3 months and 100 mug daily thereafter. Female patients (n=21) received 250 mg testosterone enantate intramuscularly every third week. BMD, TBF and TLBM were estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In male patients, the DXA measurements except TBF were significantly lower compared to their same-sex control group at baseline and did not change during treatment. In female patients, the DXA measurements were slightly higher than in same-sex controls at baseline and also remained unchanged during treatment. In conclusion, this study reports that body composition and bone density of EO-GID patients show less pronounced sex differences compared to controls and that bone density was unaffected by cross-sex hormone treatment.

  9. A comparison of bone mineral density in adolescent female swimmers, soccer players, and weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Bellew, James W; Gehrig, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the effect of sports of varying skeletal loading on bone density in adolescent female athletes. Bone mineral densities of female swimmers, soccer players, and weight lifters were examined. Between-sport comparisons were made using a one-way analysis of covariance with age and body mass index as covariates and group bone mass density (BMD) was compared to the World Health Organization's (WHO) normative values for adult females. BMD was significantly greater in the soccer group compared to the weight lifting (p = 0.025) and swimming groups (p = 0.001) with no difference between weight-lifting and swimming groups (p = 0.209). Compared to normative data from the WHO, soccer was the only sport whose participants' BMDs were significantly greater than adult norms (p = 0.003), while those of the swimmers were significantly less (p < 0.001) than adult females, and the weight lifters were not different (p = 0.103). Participation in sports such as soccer or weight lifting with significant skeletal loading may enhance BMD in adolescent females.

  10. How to determine the bone mineral density of the distal humerus with radiographic tools?

    PubMed

    Clavert, Philippe; Javier, R-M; Charrissoux, J L; Obert, L; Pidhorz, L; Sirveaux, F; Mansat, P; Fabre, T

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three methods of prediction of the bone quality of the distal humerus: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Ct-Scan and plain radiographs. The bone mineral density (BMD) of 21 cadaveric distal humerus was determined using DEXA at two levels. Then a CT-scan and anteroposterior radiographs were taken. The cancellous density was estimated with the CT-scan. The cortico-medullar index (CMI) was calculated as cortical thickness divided by total bone thickness on AP views. A significant positive correlation was found between the BMD of the epiphysis and the CMI of r = 0.61. The mean BMD of the distal humerus was 0.559 g/cm(2). Male specimens showed a significantly higher BMD than females. The mean CMI of diaphysis was 1.431 and the mean BMD of the metaphysis region was 0.444 g/cm(2). More than a direct evaluation of the bone density with a CT-scan, the CMI of the distal humerus diaphysis is a predictor of the bone quality of the distal humerus. This should be of great help for the surgeon's decision making in case of fracture of the distal humerus, as open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) of fractures of the distal humerus can lead to failure due to poor bone quality. Basic Science Study, Anatomic Cadaver Study.

  11. Capability of CBCT to identify patients with low bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete N S; Almeida, Fabiana T; Bezerra, Fernanda V; Figueiredo, Paulo T D S; Silva, Maria A G; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Leite, André F

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature about the capability of CBCT images to identify individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD). As the literature is scarce regarding this topic, the purpose of this systematic review is also to guide future research in this area. A detailed search was performed in five databases without restrictions of time or languages. Additionally, a grey literature search was conducted. The Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 was applied to evaluate the methodological design of selected studies. With the inclusion of only six studies, the evidence is limited to endorse the use of CBCT assertively as a diagnostic tool for low BMD. All of the three studies that analyzed radiomorphometric indices found that the linear measurements of the mandibular inferior cortex were lower in osteoporotic individuals. CBCT-derived radiographic density vertebral and mandibular measurements were also capable for differentiating individuals with osteoporosis from individuals with normal BMD. The analysis of the cervical vertebrae showed high accuracy measurements. This systematic review indicates a scarcity of studies regarding the potential of CBCT for screening individuals with low BMD. However, the studies indicate that radiomorphometric indices and CBCT-derived radiographic density should be promising tools for differentiating individuals with osteoporosis from individuals with normal BMD.

  12. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wesley K.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Zuber, Verena; LeBlanc, Marissa; Bettella, Francesco; Mills, Ian G.; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Dale, Anders M.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR) method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD) at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity. PMID:26695485

  13. The effect of anticonvulsant use on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S W; Ko, C H; Lee, C Y

    2016-06-01

    Studies showed that use of anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs) might be associated with reduced bone mineral density. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of anticonvulsants on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. The secondary objective was to identify their risk factors for low bone mineral density. This case series with internal comparisons was conducted in a paediatric residential rehabilitation centre in Hong Kong. Overall, 32 patients were enrolled. The study group comprised 18 patients (6 males, 12 females) aged 5.0 to 19.5 years (mean ± standard deviation, 13.8 ± 4.7 years); all were prescribed anticonvulsant therapy for more than 2 years. The comparison group comprised 14 patients (6 males, 8 females) aged 7.0 to 19.1 years (mean, 16.4 ± 3.0 years) who were concomitant non-ambulatory residents with cerebral palsy and were not prescribed any anticonvulsant therapy prior to study recruitment. Patients underwent a physical examination, blood tests, nutritional assessment, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the total body less head. Z-scores were calculated. There was no significant difference in Z-scores of total body less head between groups. Among children with low bone mineral density (Z-scores ≤-2.0) and normal bone mineral density, multivariate analysis revealed that higher weight-for-age Z-score (adjusted odds ratio=0.015) and presence of puberty (adjusted odds ratio=0.027) were independent factors for bone mineral density improvement. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test (P=0.315) was not significant. Nagelkerke R(2) was 0.677, signifying a relatively well-fitting model. There was no evidence that anticonvulsant therapy has any detrimental effect on bone mineral density in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. A low weight-for-age Z-score was associated with low bone mineral density. Early nutritional intervention to optimise body weight may help to increase bone mineral

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Baran, Rıza Taner; Baran, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. Methods: The study group included 33 adolescent girls with hypogonadism (14 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and 19 with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). FSH, luteinizing hormone, estradiol levels, and BMD (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the chronological age and bone age of the two patient groups, namely, with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. There was also no significant difference between BMD z-score values obtained from measurements from the spine and the femur neck of patients in the two groups (p-values were 0.841 and 0.281, respectively). In the hypergonadotropic group, a moderately negative correlation was detected between FSH level and BMD z-score measured from the femur neck (ρ=-0.69, p=0.001), whilst no correlation was observed between FSH levels and height adjusted BMD-z scores measured from the spine (ρ=0.17, p=0.493). FSH level was not found to be an independent variable affecting BMD z-score. Conclusion: BMD z-scores were detected to be similar in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and FSH levels were not found to have a clinically relevant impact on BMD. PMID:27087454

  15. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P < 0.01) while serum minerals and ALP concentrations showed no significant difference. The treatment group had dramatically decreased biomarkers and increased BMD than OVX group (P < 0.01). Histomorphometry analysis showed worse bone microarchitecture parameters in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group which were significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the OVX group (P < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  16. Relationship of focal erosions, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Maurizio; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frediani, Bruno; Iagnocco, Annamaria; LA Montagna, Giovanni; Minisola, Giovanni; Caminiti, Maurizio; Varenna, Massimo; Adami, Silvano

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship among focal bone erosions and bone mineral density (BMD), 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 1191 RA patients (1014 women, 177 men, mean age 58.9 ± 11.1 yrs) participating in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Radiographic evidence of typical bony erosions on hands or forefeet was found in 64.1% of patients. In those with bone erosions as compared to those without, mean BMD Z score values were significantly lower at both the spine (-0.74 ± 1.19 vs -0.46 ± 1.31; p = 0.05) and the hip (-0.72 ± 1.07 vs -0.15 ± 1.23; p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients not taking vitamin D supplements, PTH levels were significantly higher in those with erosive arthritis (25.9 ± 14.0 vs 23.1 ± 11.6 pg/ml; p = 0.01); whereas the 25OHD concentrations were very similar in the 2 groups. The mean differences for BMD and PTH among the erosive and nonerosive RA remained statistically significant when values were simultaneously adjusted for all disease and mineral metabolism factors (i.e., age, sex, menopause, disease duration, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire, activities of daily living, Steinbrocker functional state, glucocorticoid therapy, body weight, and bisphosphonate treatment). Our results suggest that the presence of bone erosions in RA correlates with low BMD levels and high PTH levels, and that these associations are independent of the degree of functional impairment and other common determinants of bone mass and mineral metabolism in adults with RA. These findings suggest that treatments to prevent bone loss or suppress PTH levels might positively affect the progression of bone erosions in RA.

  17. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Yu-xin; Zhu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Jian-min; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our meta-analysis was to assess the effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in epileptic children. Searches of PubMed and Web of Science were undertaken to identify studies evaluating the association between antiepileptic drugs and bone mineral density and bone metabolism. A total of 22 studies with 1492 subjects were included in our research. We identified: (1) a reduction in bone mineral density at lumbar spine (standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.61, -0.05]), trochanter (mean difference (MD)=-0.07, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.05]), femoral neck (MD=-0.05, 95% CI [-0.09, -0.02]), and total body bone mineral density (MD=-0.33, 95% CI [-0.51, -0.15]); (2) a reduction in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (MD=-3.37, 95% CI [-5.94, -0.80]) and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (SMD=0.71, 95% CI [0.38, 1.05]); (3) no significant changes in serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, or phosphorus. Our meta-analysis suggests that treatment with antiepileptic drugs may be associated with decreased bone mineral density in epileptic children.

  18. [Increased bone mineral density in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Robin-Lersundi, Alvaro; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Ochagavía Cámara, Santiago; Díez-Valladares, Luis; Torres García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Changes in bone metabolism and bone mineral density are observed in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The objective of this work was to analyse the increase in bone mineral density, as well the laboratory results, after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective study was conducted in which the bone mineral density values at femoral and lumbar level were analysed, together with the serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and alkaline phosphatase in 13 renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism before and after total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroidectomy is associated with an increase in bone mineral density at femoral and lumbar level, with an increase of 8.6 ± 6.7% at lumbar level, and 4 ± 16.1% at femoral level. The decrease in calcium after the parathyroidectomy was 2.8 mg/dL (95% CI; 1.9-4). The decrease in PTH was 172 pg/mL (95% CI; 98-354) and the decrease in alkaline phosphatase was 229 U/L (95% CI; 70-371). Total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation of the parathyroid glands in renal transplant patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism increases the bone mineral density. Furthermore, the calcium, PTH and alkaline phosphatase returned to normal in the long-term. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-07-01

    Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of parathyroid hormone in bone metabolism and health.

  20. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  1. Endochondral bone growth, bone calcium accretion, and bone mineral density: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-07-01

    Endochondral bone growth in young growing mammals or adult mammals with persistent growth plates progresses from proliferation, maturation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes to mineralization of cartilaginous matrix to form an osseous tissue. This complex process is tightly regulated by a number of factors with different impacts, such as genetics, endocrine/paracrine factors [e.g., PTHrP, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), IGF-1, FGFs, and prolactin], and nutritional status (e.g., dietary calcium and vitamin D). Despite a strong link between growth plate function and elongation of the long bone, little is known whether endochondral bone growth indeed determines bone calcium accretion, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or peak bone mass. Since the process ends with cartilaginous matrix calcification, an increase in endochondral bone growth typically leads to more calcium accretion in the primary spongiosa and thus higher BMD. However, in lactating rats with enhanced trabecular bone resorption, bone elongation is inversely correlated with BMD. Although BMD can be increased by factors that enhance endochondral bone growth, the endochondral bone growth itself is unlikely to be an important determinant of peak bone mass since it is strongly determined by genetics. Therefore, endochondral bone growth and bone elongation are associated with calcium accretion only in a particular subregion of the long bone, but do not necessarily predict BMD and peak bone mass.

  2. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  3. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Case study: Bone mineral density of two elite senior female powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Walters, Peter H; Jezequel, Joel J; Grove, Mary B

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the bone mineral density (BMD) of 2 women, aged 48 and 54 years, who had engaged in high-intensity resistance training for >30 years each and gained national prominence for their lifting performances. Each subject was measured using a dual x-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar Prodigy, Fairfield, CT, USA) for both the BMD (grams per centimeter squared) and bone mineral content (grams) of the lumbar spine, dual femur, and total body. The Z and T scores of the 49-year-old subject were significantly higher than either age and gender-matched or peak BMD norms (lumbar spine Z + 2.2, T + 1.8, femoral mean Z + 1.1, T + 0.6, total body Z + 2.4, T + 2.0). The Z and T scores of the 54-year-old mark the largest ever reported in the literature for a Caucasian woman of this age (lumbar spine Z + 2.8, T + 2.2, femoral mean Z + 1.4, T + 1.9, total body Z + 2.6, T + 3.0). Although these results do not prove any causal relationship between long-term high-intensity strength training and elevated BMDs among women, they do raise questions that some type of relationship may exist.

  5. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  6. The Impact of Freezing on Bone Mineral Density: Implications for Forensic Research.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amanda R; Ross, Ann H

    2017-03-01

    It is common for researchers using animal or human remains for scientific study to freeze samples prior to use. However, effects of freezing on bone macro- or microstructure are relatively unknown. The research objective of this study was to determine whether freezing could potentially bias experimental results by analyzing changes in bone mineral density (BMD) with the freezing of remains over time. Eight fetal pigs were scanned to determine their initial BMD before freezing. Three piglets underwent a freeze-thaw cycle to assess the effects of the freezing process. Four piglets were frozen and scanned weekly for 20 weeks to assess freezing over time. The overall average between the fresh initial scan and final frozen scan was significantly different (p < 0.001). Per contra, the final thawed BMD scans did not differ from the initial fresh scan (p = 0.418). Thus, completely thawed remains are recommended for experimental studies.

  7. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD.

  8. [Bone mineral density as a sign of age-related involution of human bones].

    PubMed

    Iurchenko, M A; Zolotenkova, G V; Pigolkin, Iu I; Fedulova, M V

    2013-01-01

    This review of the literature analyzes the current state of a problem of application of various morphological methods for the investigation of age-related involution of human bone system and their use in the course of forensic personality identification. The difficulties of the application of the available methods of quantitative morphology in determination of biological age, are emphasized. The possibilities of the practical use of radiological methods to study the skeleton, including the determination of the bone mineral density as an indicator of age-related changes of bone tissue, are analyzed. An ambiguity of the research results obtained is noted, and the possible reasons for and the factors contributing to the results variability are considered. It is concluded that the application of computer tomogram densitometry to the various regions of the bone skeleton in complex with some other methods, is promising for the determination of age interval in forensic identification examinations.

  9. Body composition and bone mineral density in competitive athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; Dieli, M; Vintaloro, G; Gibilaro, M; Giacone, G; Cottini, E

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the vertebral spine, appendicular skeleton, and whole body was studied in male athletes who chronically trained by different forms of skeletal loading. Eighteen subjects performed weight-bearing activity (canoeists, n = 18), and 14 performed non-weight-bearing activity (cyclists, n = 14). Twenty-eight age-matched male students served as non-athletic controls. The canoeists had significantly higher spine, pelvic and total body BMD than cyclists and controls. No intergroup difference was observed in the BMD of arms and legs despite the fact that physical activity of canoeists and cyclists were characterized by forceful muscular contractions. It is concluded that weight-bearing activity is essential to obtain beneficial skeletal effects on total and regional bone mass in young subjects.

  10. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  11. Effects of high versus low-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young males.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Shimokata, H; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K; Wasnich, R D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity and low-intensity resistance training upon bone mineral density (BMD) by comparing the BMD of young male powerlifters (n = 5), recreational trainees (n = 5), and controls (n = 5). Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The high-intensity group showed a significantly greater BMD when the whole body and trochanter regions were measured than the low-intensity and control group. The BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was greater in the high-intensity group compared with the control group. There was no significant BMD difference between the low-intensity and control group except at the trochanter region. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective for increasing BMD, but low-intensity resistance training is not.

  12. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  13. Premature ovarian insufficiency in young girls: repercussions on uterine volume and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Hanadi; Dei, Metella; Bucciantini, Sandra; Balzi, Daniela; Bruni, Vincenzina

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate biological differences among young subjects with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) commencing at different stages of life. Retrospective observational study. Careggi University Hospital Participants: One hundred sixty-two females aged between 15 and 29 years with premature ovarian insufficiency. Data were collected as a retrospective chart review of baseline evaluation at diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). About 162 participants were divided into four groups based on gynecological age. Two primary outcome variables (uterine development and bone mineral density (BMD)) were analyzed in terms of differences among groups and in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Uterine development was clearly jeopardized when estrogen insufficiency started at a very young age. Total body BMD showed significant differences among the four groups studied, clearly corresponding to the duration of ovarian function. Data were discussed in relation to the choice of hormone replacement therapy regimens.

  14. Bone mineral density and osteoporosis after preterm birth: the role of early life factors and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Wood, Alexander M; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  15. The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Botella Martínez, Sonsoles; Varo Cenarruzabeitia, Nerea; Escalada San Martin, Javier; Calleja Canelas, Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice. The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'.

  16. Inverse correlation between fibrinogen and bone mineral density in women: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic factors may be involved in bone health. The present preliminary study investigated the association between plasma fibrinogen and bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. A significant inverse correlation between fibrinogen and BMD was observed (correlation coefficient = -0.42, p < 0.01). This correlation appeared to be more clearly observed in the subgroup with a high level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than in that with a low level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and in the subgroup with a high level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (an oxidative stress marker) than in that with a low level of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites. Thus, fibrinogen may be a possible marker of BMD in this population. More studies on the associations among hemostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone metabolism are warranted in the clinical setting.

  17. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  18. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  19. Milk basic protein increases bone mineral density and improves bone metabolism in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, K; Ishida, H; Toba, Y; Aoe, S; Itabashi, A; Takada, Y

    2007-03-01

    Effect of milk basic protein on bone metabolism in healthy young women. Milk has more beneficial effects on bone health than other food sources. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that milk whey protein, especially its basic protein fraction (milk basic protein, MBP), contains several components capable of promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. The object of this study was to examine the effect of MBP on the bone mineral density and bone metabolism of healthy young women. Thirty-five healthy young women were randomly assigned to treatment with either placebo or MBP (40 mg per day) for 6 months. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 of each subject was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at 0 and 6 months of treatment. Serum and urine indexes of bone metabolism were measured at 0, 3 and 6 months. All subjects completed the study in accordance with the protocol. The mean rate of gain of lumbar BMD in the MBP group (1.57%) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (0.13%, P=0.042). When compared with the placebo group, urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type-I collagen (NTx) were significantly decreased, and serum osteocalcin was significantly increased in the MBP group at 6 months. These results suggested that MBP supplementation was effective in increasing BMD in young women and that this increase in BMD may be primarily mediated through the promotion of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption by MBP supplementation.

  20. Fracture Risk and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890

  1. Comparison of calibrated and uncalibrated bone mineral density by CT to DEXA in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyabara, Y; Holmes, D; Camp, J; Miller, V M; Kearns, A E

    2012-08-01

    Coronary artery disease and osteoporosis increase in women after menopause. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the heart used to evaluate coronary arterial calcification include images of the thoracic vertebrae. The utility of using these images to assess bone health in women remains to be defined. Analyses of thoracic spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) from CT scans of the heart were performed to determine how specific calibration affects the ability to assess vBMD in recently menopausal women and to evaluate how vBMD relates to areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Women (n = 111) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic underwent a CT scan of the heart that included calibration phantoms and a DEXA of the lumbar spine. The Spine Cancer Assessment program was used to determine vBMD of thoracic vertebrae with and without the calibration correction. Trabecular bone vBMD at T8 averaged 163.57±28.58 and 157.94±27.55 mg/cc (mean±standard deviation, SD) for calibrated and uncalibrated values, respectively. The relationship between calibrated and uncalibrated measures approached unity (R = 0.98). Lumbar spine (L2-4) aBMD was 1.19±0.16 g/cm(2) (mean±SD). Both calibrated and uncalibrated thoracic vBMD correlated positively and significantly with lumbar aBMD, but the relationship was less than unity (R = 0.63). Uncalibrated measures of thoracic spine vBMD obtained from CT scans of the heart may provide clinically relevant information about bone health and osteoporosis/osteopenia risk in recently menopausal women.

  2. Polymorphism of interleukin-17 and its relation to mineral density of bones in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boroń, Dariusz; Agnieszka, Seremak-Mrozikiewicz; Daniel, Kotrych; Anna, Bogacz; Adam, Kamiński

    2014-12-16

    Recognition of different genetic variants underlying osteoporosis would make it possible to introduce individual, symptomatic treatment as well as early prophylaxis of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of the rs2275913 (-197G > A) polymorphism of the IL-17 gene and assess the relation of this polymorphism with the clinical parameters of the osseous turnover and degree of the postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study included 800 women of postmenopausal (505) and reproductive (295) ages throughout the Wielkopolska region in Poland. The postmenopausal group included women with osteoporosis and osteopenia, and those who were healthy. Women at reproductive age were healthy. The frequency of the tested gene polymorphism was evaluated in the group where bone mineral density (BMD) was marked and in the control group. The results obtained showed that the T-score in the female population with osteopenia was remarkably lower in women showing the GG genotype of -197G > A polymorphism of IL-17 gene compared to patients with heterozygous GA genotype. It has been shown that the BMD value for L2-L4 YA in the evaluated female population with osteoporosis is significantly higher in women with the GA genotype of -197G > A polymorphism of IL-17 gene compared to women with the GG genotype (76.32% versus 59.93%, P <0.05). It has also been noted that the BMD value for L2 to L4 AM in patients with the GG genotype was lower than in women with the AA genotype (69.73% versus 80.88%, P <0.05). It is suggested that the -197G > A polymorphism of the IL-17 gene may be considered as a genetic factor of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This polymorphism can influence the bone mineral density and T-score value in young women and postmenopausal women.

  3. Polymorphism of vitamin D3 receptor and its relation to mineral bone density in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boroń, D; Kamiński, A; Kotrych, D; Bogacz, A; Uzar, I; Mrozikiewicz, P M; Czerny, B

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease with important genetic factors. We evaluated the frequency of polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 VDR gene receptor. The study included 800 women at the postmenopausal (505) and reproductive (295) age. Statistically significant changes, depending on the genotype, were shown. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease of strong genetic origin with population variability determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Recognition of different genetic variants underlying development of osteoporosis would make it possible to administer individual symptomatic treatment as well as early prophylactics of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 VDR gene receptor and assessment of its relations with the clinical parameters of osseous turnover and degree of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study included 800 women at the postmenopausal (505) and reproductive (295) age throughout the Wielkopolska region in Poland. The postmenopausal group included women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and the healthy ones. Women at the reproductive age were healthy. Frequency of the tested gene polymorphism was evaluated in the group where bone mineral density (BMD) was marked and in the control group. The obtained test results pointed to correlation of polymorphism VDR 283G/A with the BMD scores for the lumbar vertebrae in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis, therefore the ones at risk of fractures. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism correlated with reduced BMD values. Polymorphism 283G/A of the vitamin D3 receptor gene has been proved to be the genetic factor of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The polymorphism mentioned above has been proved to be a factor of mineral bone density changes of women.

  4. Variability of Tissue Mineral Density Can Determine Physiological Creep of Human Vertebral Cancellous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Tee, Boon Ching; Yeni, Yener N.

    2011-01-01

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877±2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797±1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r=0.94, p<0.001). The current results showed that smaller thickness, larger surface area, greater connectivity of trabeculae, less mean tissue mineral density (TMD, represented by gray levels) and higher variability of TMD are associated with increasing logarithmic creep rate. The TMD variability (GLCOV) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r=0.79, p<0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. PMID:21481880

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  6. Lean body mass and leg power best predict bone mineral density in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Witzke, K A; Snow, C M

    1999-11-01

    We evaluated anthropometric and performance measures that best predict bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in 54 adolescent girls (14.6 +/- 0.5 yr; 22.7 +/- 14.0 months past menarche). Whole body, femoral neck, greater trochanter, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and mid-femoral shaft BMD and BMC, and whole body bone-free lean mass and fat mass were assessed using DXA (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Knee extensor strength and leg power were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry and the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test, respectively. Whole body lean mass was correlated with BMD at all bone sites (r = 0.45-0.77; P < 0.001) and was more highly correlated with bone at all sites than was body weight. Leg power was also associated with BMD at all sites (r = 0.41-0.67; P < 0.001), whereas leg strength correlated significantly with all sites (r = 0.41-0.53; P < 0.001) except the lumbar spine. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that 59% of the variance in whole body BMD was predicted by lean mass alone. No other variables, including fat mass, height, months past menarche, leg power, or leg strength, contributed additionally to the regression model. Similarly, lean mass was the only predictor of lumbar spine and femoral shaft BMD (R2 = 0.25, R2 = 0.37, respectively), while femoral neck and trochanteric BMD were best predicted by leg power (R2 = 0.38, R2 = 0.36, respectively). Similar but stronger models emerged using BMC as the outcome, with lean mass and leg power explaining the most variance in BMC values. In this group of adolescent girls, lean body mass and leg power best predicted BMC and BMD of the whole body, lumbar spine, femoral shaft, and hip, which may suggest an important role for muscle mass development during growth to maximize peak bone density.

  7. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Type 1 Gaucher Disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Larroudé, M S; Aguilar, G; Rossi, I; Drelichman, G; Fernandez Escobar, N; Basack, N; Slago, M; Schenone, A; Fynn, A; Cuello, M F; Fernandez, R; Ruiz, A; Reichel, P; Guelbert, N; Robledo, H; Watman, N; Bolesina, M; Elena, G; Veber, S E; Pujal, G; Galvan, G; Chain, J J; Arizo, A; Bietti, J; Aznar, M; Dragosky, M; Marquez, M; Feldman, L; Muller, K; Zirone, S; Buchovsky, G; Lanza, V; Fernandez, I; Jaureguiberry, R; Barbieri, M A; Maro, A; Zarate, G; Fernandez, G; Rapetti, M; Degano, A; Kantor, G; Albina, A; Alvarez Bollea, M; Arrocena, H; Bacciedoni, V; Del Rio, F

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of osteoporosis (OP) in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) in Argentina. GD patients from 28 centers were consecutively included from April 2012 to 2014. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine and the femoral neck or the total proximal femur for patients ≥20 yr of age, and by whole-body scan in the lumbar spine in patients <20 yr of age. In children, mineral density was calculated using the chronological age and Z height. OP diagnosis was determined following adult and pediatric official position of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. A total of 116 patients were included, of which 62 (53.5%) were women. The median age was 25.8 yr. All patients received enzyme replacement therapy, with a median time of 9.4 yr. Normal BMD was found in 89 patients (76.7%), whereas low bone mass (LBM) or osteopenia was found in 15 patients (13%) and OP in 12 patients (10.3%). The analysis of the pediatric population revealed that 4 patients (9.3%) had LBM and 3 (7%) had OP (Z-score ≤ -2 + fractures height-adjusted by Z), whereas in the adult population (n = 73), 11 patients (15%) had LBM or osteopenia and 9 (12.3%) had OP. Bone marrow infiltration and the presence of fractures were significantly correlated with the presence of OP (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively). This is the first study in Argentina and in the region describing the frequency of OP or LBM in GD patients treated with imiglucerase using the official position of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

  8. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density by Computed Tomography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157

  9. Vitamin D status and bone mineral density in the Chinese population: a review.

    PubMed

    Man, P W; van der Meer, I M; Lips, P; Middelkoop, B J C

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D status is associated with low bone mass which, in turn, is an important predictor of fracture. However, data on this relationship in non-Caucasian populations are scarce. This review shows such an association in the Chinese population in five of the 11 included studies. In the elderly population, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is often inadequate. This may cause a lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is an important predictor of fracture. It is estimated that by 2050 more than half of all hip fractures worldwide will occur in Asia. However, data on the relationship between vitamin D status and BMD in a non-Caucasian population are scarce. Therefore, this study reviews the literature on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and BMD in the Chinese population. A search was made in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library (up to December 2014) to identify relevant studies using the terms vitamin D status, bone mineral density, and Chinese. Of the 293 studies identified, 11 fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations ranged from 29-82 nmol/L. In 5 of the 11 studies, an association was found between vitamin D status and BMD in the Chinese population. The evidence for a relationship between the serum 25(OH)D concentration and BMD in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population living in Asia appears to be limited and inconsistent.

  10. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and bone mineral density: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhu, Li-Ping; Yang, Xu-Li; Huang, He-Lang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2013-05-01

    The association between 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial because of conflicting findings from previous studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of statins on BMD reported in randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. We searched PubMed and Embase, using text, medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords "bone mineral density" and "statins" or "HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors". Our last PubMed and Embase queries were updated to August 2012. Data on participants, interventions, and outcomes from each study were abstracted independently by two authors. Five case-control studies, six cohort studies and four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Included studies involved 34,877 subjects (3824 in the intervention group and 31,053 in the control group) in 12 different countries with ages ranging from 44 to 66 years. Statins significantly increased BMD at lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.15, 95% CI 0.09-0.22], total hip (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27) and femoral neck (SMD 0.19, 95% CI 0.09-0.29). We carried out subgroup analyses on selected populations of the cohorts. Statistically significant increases were also observed in the lumbar spine (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.21), total hip (SMD 0.23, 95% CI 0.17-0.28) and femoral neck BMD (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.36). The results of this study suggest that statins may help improve and maintain BMD at the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck, especially in Caucasians and Asians. It also provides justification for prospective RCTs to evaluate the possible role of statins in BMD in different ethnic populations, such as Latin American and Africans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  12. Plasma homocysteine, B vitamins and bone mineral density in osteoporosis: a possible risk for bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Ebesunun, M O; Umahoin, K O; Alonge, T O; Adebusoye, L A

    2014-03-01

    Changes in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6 in individuals with osteoporosis are reported to impair collagen cross-linking and contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD). There is paucity of information on these associations in osteoporotic patients at risk of bone fractures in Nigeria. The study evaluated plasma tHcy, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, in relation to BMD in individuals with osteoporosis. Fifty osteoporotic patients age 57.05 +/- 1.9 years were selected and fifty non osteoporotic volunteer's age 54.8 +/- 0.9 years were included as controls. The osteoporotic group consisted of 11 males and 39 females (1:3.5) while the controls consisted of 13 males and 37 females (1:2.8) respectively. Bone mineral density, anthropometric indices plasma tHcy, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, were determined using standard procedures. The results showed remarkably significant increase in plasma tHcy (p < 0.001) (180%) compared with the control value. Striking significant decreases were observed in folic acid (62%), vitamins B12 (42%), B6 (59%) and BMI p < 0.001) compared with control values. Positive correlation was obtained between vitamin B12 and BMD (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Significant increase in tHcy with corresponding decreases in folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6 are related to decrease in BMD in osteoporotic patients. These changes could be important risk factors for bone fracture in osteoporotic Nigerians. Supplementation with the B vitamins may be beneficial to the patients.

  13. Long-term prophylaxis in severe haemophilia seems to preserve bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Khawaji, M; Akesson, K; Berntorp, E

    2009-01-01

    It has been previously shown that patients with severe haemophilia and not receiving any prophylactic treatment render a high risk of reduced bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with haemophilia of different severity types and treatment. The study group consisted of 26 patients with severe haemophilia (aged 33.6 +/- 2.1) and 16 patients with mild haemophilia (aged 40.2 +/- 3.3). The BMD (g cm(-2)) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Physical activity was scored as duration (h week(-)) and as metabolic physical activity score by weighing the intensity (MET-h week(-1)). Joints were evaluated according to a physical examination score. There was no significant difference in BMD at lumbar spine L1-L4 (mild, 1.214 vs. severe, 1.175; P = 0.329), total hip (1.085 vs. 1.001, P = 0.114), femoral neck (1.036 vs. 0.977, P = 0.265), trochanter (0.896 vs. 0.820, P = 0.131) and whole body (1.215 vs. 1.183, P = 0.325) between those with mild and severe haemophilia. Based on Z-score, both groups had normal BMD (Z score >-1). In patients with severe haemophilia, there was a significant correlation between joint evaluation score and BMD at total hip (P < 0.0001), femoral neck (P = 0.0003) and trochanter (P = 0.003). Physical activity did not correlate to disease severity. We did not observe a correlation between BMD and severity of haemophilia. The results indicate that the use of factor prophylaxis since early childhood may preserve normal BMD in severe haemophilia.

  14. Race/ethnic differences in associations between bone mineral density and fracture history in older men.

    PubMed

    Shin, M-H; Zmuda, J M; Barrett-Connor, E; Sheu, Y; Patrick, A L; Leung, P C; Kwok, A; Kweon, S-S; Nam, H-S; Cauley, J A

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether there are race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD) by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older, we performed cross-sectional analysis in five large independent cohorts. Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts, and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups. We aimed to determine whether there are race/ethnic and geographic differences in bone mineral density by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older. The datasets included the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study (5,342 White, 243 African-American, 190 Asian, and 126 Hispanic), MrOS Hong Kong (1,968 Hong Kong Chinese), Tobago Bone Health Study (641 Afro-Caribbean), Namwon Study (1,834 Korean), and Dong-gu Study (2,057 Korean). The two Korean cohorts were combined. The prevalence of self-reported non-traumatic fracture was US white, 17.1 %; Afro-Caribbean, 5.5 %; US African-American, 15.1 %; US Hispanic, 13.7 %; US Asian, 10.5 %; Hong Kong Chinese, 5.6 %, and Korean, 5.1 %. The mean differences in hip and lumbar spine BMD between subjects with fracture and without fracture were statistically significant in all cohorts except US African American and US Asian men. There was a significant race/ethnic interaction for lumbar spine BMD by fracture status (p for interaction = 0.02), which was driven by the small number of Hispanic men. There was no interaction for femoral neck or total hip BMD. There were no significant race/ethnic differences in the odds ratio of fracture by BMD. Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups suggesting homogeneity in the BMD-fracture relationship among older men.

  15. Updated association of tea consumption and bone mineral density: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Jun-Long; Jiang, Huan-Chang; Lai, Zheng; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Current studies evaluating the association of tea consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and BMD. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were comprehensively searched, and a meta-analysis performed of all observational studies assessing the association of tea consumption and BMD. Forest plots were used to illustrate the results graphically. The Q-test and I statistic were employed to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot. Four cohort, 1 case-control, and 8 cross-sectional studies including a total of 12,635 cases were included. Tea consumption was shown to prevent bone loss [odds ratio (OR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.94; P = 0.02], yielding higher mineral densities in several bones, including the lumbar spine [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.31; P = 0.001], hip (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.34; P = 0.01), femoral neck [mean difference (MD): 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.02; P = 0.04], Ward triangle (MD: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04; P = 0.001), and greater trochanter (MD: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.04; P < 0.00001), than the non-tea consumption group. This meta-analysis provided a potential trend that tea consumption might be beneficial for BMD, especially in the lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, Ward triangle, and greater trochanter, which might help prevent bone loss.

  16. Variability of tissue mineral density can determine physiological creep of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Ching Tee, Boon; Yeni, Yener N

    2011-06-03

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877 ± 2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797 ± 1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). The current results showed that smaller thickness, larger surface area, greater connectivity of trabeculae, less mean tissue mineral density (TMD, represented by gray levels) and higher variability of TMD are associated with increasing logarithmic creep rate. The TMD variability (GL(COV)) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on bone mineral density, bone markers, and body composition in older adults

    PubMed Central

    von Mühlen, D.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Bergstrom, J.; Bettencourt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We present results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of 50 mg daily oral DHEA supplementation for one year on bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism and body composition in 225 healthy adults aged 55 to 85 years. Introduction Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels decline dramatically with age, concurrent with the onset of osteoporosis, suggesting a role for DHEA supplementation in preventing age-related bone loss. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of 50 mg daily oral DHEA supplementation for one year on bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism and body composition in 225 healthy adults aged 55 to 85 years. Results DHEA treatment increased serum DHEA and DHEA sulfate levels to concentrations seen in young adults. Testosterone, estradiol and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels increased in women (all p<0.001), but not men, receiving DHEA. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type-1 collagen levels decreased in women (p=0.03), but not men, whereas bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were not significantly altered in either sex. After 12 months, there was a positive effect of DHEA on lumbar spine BMD in women (p=0.03), but no effect was observed for hip, femoral neck or total body BMD, and no significant changes were observed at any site among men. Body composition was not affected by DHEA treatment in either sex. Conclusion Among older healthy adults, daily administration of 50 mg of DHEA has a modest and selective beneficial effect on BMD and bone resorption in women, but provides no bone benefit for men. PMID:18084691

  18. Association between low C-peptide and low lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, T; Gallotti, P; Coppola, A; Zambianchi, V; Fodaro, M; Galliera, E; Marazzi, M G; Romeo, S; Giannini, S; Corsi Romanelli, M M; Pujia, A; Gazzaruso, C

    2015-05-01

    In this population-based, cross-sectional study in Italian postmenopausal females not affected by diabetes, we showed a link between serum C-peptide and lumbar bone mineral density, suggesting that C-peptide exerts an insulin-independent effect on bone mass. It is well known that type 1 (T1) diabetes, characterized by insulin and C-peptide deficiency, is associated with a low lumbar bone mineral density and an increased risk for fracture. While a role for insulin in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis has been demonstrated, the association between C-peptide and the bone mineral density has not been investigated. We conducted a study in a cohort of 84 postmenopausal women without diabetes to clarify the association between serum C-peptide and the lumbar bone mineral density. Participants underwent a bone mineral density evaluation by DXA and biochemical analysis including the C-peptide assay. rteen percent of the population had osteoporosis and 38% had osteopenia. With ANOVA test, we showed that women with the lowest C-peptide concentration had lower lumbar mineral density in comparison to those in all other C-peptide concentration group (p = 0.02 among groups after adjustment). The univariate and multivariate analysis showed that C-peptide was positively associated with both lumbar T-score and Z-score besides other well-known factors like age (with T-score p < 0.001; beta = -0.38) and BMI (with T-score p = 0.009; beta = 0.34), while insulin was not correlated with the lumbar bone mineral density. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for C-peptide to predict the absence of lumbar osteoporosis was 0.74 (SE = 0.073; p = 0.013). These results suggest that C-peptide may exert an insulin- and BMI-independent effect on lumbar bone mineral density and that further large-scale studies are needed in order to clarify its role in bone mineralization especially in subjects without diabetes.

  19. Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Bulakh, Andrei

    2004-06-01

    This introduction to mineralogy for undergraduate and graduate students in geology and materials science has been designed for a semester course. Covering all aspects of mineralogy in an integrated way, it links mineral properties with broader geological processes, and conveys their economic importance throughout the text. Handy reference tables and a glossary of terms make this study an indispensable guide for the next generation of mineralogy students.

  20. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN). Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7) after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses). Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036). The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p < 0.01), but not with BMC. Regular physical activity tended to show a positive effect on bone recovery, but the effect of hormone replacement therapy was not significant. Using age-related standards, the post-discharge sample for the substudy presented IGF-I levels below the 5th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to

  1. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  2. Bone mineral density and hip axis length in Singapore's multiracial population.

    PubMed

    Goh, James C H; Low, Siew Leng; Das De, Shamal; DasDe, Shamal

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic differences in bone density and hip geometry are known to exist, even within the same population. A recent study in Singapore showed that there were significant racial differences in hip fracture rates, with Chinese having the highest incidence of hip fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) and hip axis length in Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. A total of 1575 women aged 20-59 yr were recruited, of which 77.6% (1222) were Chinese, 7.7% (122) Malays, and 14.7% (231) Indians. There was no significant difference in peak BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck among the three ethnic groups. However, in the older age group (50-59 yr), both Chinese and Malay women had significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to Indian women. There was no significant loss in BMD of the lumbar spine between the second and fifth decades in all the three races. Between the second and fifth decade, Chinese and Malay women had significant bone loss in the femoral neck of 6.6% and 8.2%, respectively, whereas Indian women did not show any significant bone loss. Chinese women had significantly longer hip axis length compared to either Malay or Indian women (9.87 +/- 0.52 cm vs 9.67 +/- 0.49 cm; p < 0.005; and 9.69 +/- 0.55 cm, p < 0.05, respectively). The initial findings suggest racial differences in bone density and hip geometry exist in the local community. Future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies to determine the age-related bone loss in these three racial groups. It is also important to investigate the differences of spine and hip fracture rates and their relationship with bone density and hip axis length.

  3. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone--relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, J; Töyräs, J; Hakulinen, M A; Saarakkala, S; Jurvelin, J S; Lappalainen, R

    2003-03-21

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  4. Ibandronate dose response is associated with increases in bone mineral density and reductions in clinical fractures: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sebba, Anthony I; Emkey, Ronald D; Kohles, Joseph D; Sambrook, Philip N

    2009-03-01

    This meta-analysis pooled data from the four phase III clinical trials of ibandronate to assess the relationship between ibandronate dose, changes in bone mineral density, and rates of both clinical and non-vertebral fractures. Individual patient data from the intent-to-treat population of the BONE, IV fracture prevention, MOBILE, and DIVA studies were included for analysis. The relationship between ibandronate dose and bone mineral density at both the lumbar spine and at the total hip was assessed qualitatively. The relationship between lumbar spine bone mineral density and clinical fracture rate, and the relationship between total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate, were assessed both qualitatively and using mathematical models. A total of 8710 patients were included in this analysis. Both lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density were observed to increase with increasing ibandronate dose. The incidence of all clinical fractures was observed to decrease as lumbar spine bone mineral density increased. A statistically significant inverse linear relationship was observed between percent change in lumbar spine bone mineral density and the rate of clinical fractures (P=0.005). A non-significant curvilinear relationship was observed between percent change in total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate. Increased ibandronate exposure is associated with increasing gains in the lumbar spine bone mineral density and decreasing clinical fracture rates. A non-linear relationship may exist between increases in the total hip bone mineral density and non-vertebral fracture rate.

  5. Specimen size and porosity can introduce error into microCT-based tissue mineral density measurements.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Cory, Esther; Patel, Nipun D; Nazarian, Ara; Laib, Andres; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; DeSilva, Jeremy M; MacLatchy, Laura M; Snyder, Brian D; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2009-01-01

    The accurate measurement of tissue mineral density, rho(m), in specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral using polychromatic microCT systems is important, since studies often compare samples with a range of sizes and bone densities. We assessed the influence of object size on microCT measurements of rho(m) using (1) hydroxyapatite rods (HA), (2) precision-manufactured aluminum foams (AL) simulating trabecular bone structure, and (3) bovine cortical bone cubes (BCt). Two beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithms, determined using a 200 and 1200 mg/cm(3) HA wedge phantom, were used to calculate rho(m) of the HA and BCt. The 200 mg/cm(3) and an aluminum BHC algorithm were used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams. Equivalent rho(m) measurements of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg HA/cm(3) rods decreased (r(2)>0.96, p<0.05 for all) as HA rod diameter increased in the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC data. Errors averaged 8.2% across these samples and reached as high as 29.5%. Regression analyses suggested no size effects in the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC data but differences between successive sizes still reached as high as 13%. The linear attenuation coefficients of the AL foams increased up to approximately 6% with increasing volume fractions (r(2)>0.81, p<0.05 for all) but the strength of the size-related error was also BHC dependent. Equivalent rho(m) values were inversely correlated with BCt cube size (r(2)>0.92, p<0.05). Use of the 1200 mg/cm(3) BHC ameliorated the size-related artifact compared to the 200 mg/cm(3) BHC but errors with this BHC were still significant and ranged between 5% and 12%. These results demonstrate that object size, structure, and BHC algorithm can influence microCT measurements of rho(m). Measurements of rho(m) of specimens of unequal size or quantities of bone mineral must be interpreted with caution unless appropriate steps are taken to minimize these potential artifacts.

  6. Association between low bone mineral density and increased α-defensin in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Rosa; Migliaccio, Valeria; Savino, Rocco; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the concentration of α-defensin human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1; a peptide released by neutrophils) in salivary fluid among postmenopausal women and to compare bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of this peptide. We consecutively enrolled 61 postmenopausal women. Bone density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and α-defensin HNP-1 was identified by proteomic analysis of salivary fluid specimen. We found a significant difference in bone mineral density among postmenopausal women with different concentrations of α-defensin HNP-1 in salivary fluid. In particular, women with higher α-defensin concentrations had the lowest bone density in comparison with those with a lower concentration of defensin (P = 0.03 between groups). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses showed a significative inverse relationship between bone mineral density and age (r = -0.58, β = -0.56) and peak of α-defensin (r = -0.26, β = -0.21). Low bone mineral density is found in postmenopausal women with high α-defensin HNP-1 concentrations. Therefore, α-defensin HNP-1 could be a novel biomarker for osteoporosis.

  7. Serum levels of vitamin B12 are not related to low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Carvalho, Ariane Vieira; Maksud, Fabiana Alves Nunes; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis and vitamin B12 deficiency are conditions with an increasing prevalence over time. It has been described an association between low serum vitamin B12, osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures, but the studies are heterogeneous and the results are controversial. To investigate the association between plasma levels of vitamin B12 and bone mineral density in a group of asymptomatic women after menopause. Asymptomatic postmenopausal women were consecutively invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (lumbar spine and femur) was measured by DXA Lunar Prodigy Vision, and blood levels of vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAF), and parathyroid hormone were determined. For the diagnostic of osteoporosis the World Health Organization criteria were considered. Seventy women were included, mean age 62.5 ± 7 years. Eighteen (25.7%) women had normal bone mineral density, 33 (47.1%) had osteopenia and 19 (27.1%) had osteoporosis. Six (8.6%) patients had wrist fracture; two (2.8%) reported a diagnosis of vertebral fracture and only one (1.4%) patient had suffered a hip fracture. The levels of vitamin B12 (mean ± SD, pg/mL) of women with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia and osteoporosis were 590.2 ± 364.3, 536.6 ± 452.3, and 590.2 ± 497.9, respectively (P = 0.881). Multiple regression analysis showed that body mass index and BAF were the main predictors of lumbar spine bone mineral density. The results indicate that vitamin B12 serum levels are not related to bone mineral density in this group of Brazilian postmenopausal women.

  8. Reference data for bone mineral density in Swedish women using digital x-ray radiometry.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Bo; Bodin, Lennart; Rask, Eva; Schvarcz, Erik; Möller, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, digital X-ray radiometry (DXR) has been used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the metacarpal bones. The aim of this study was to establish Swedish reference material for bone mass in women, measured in the metacarpal bones with DXR, and compare these data with the data from the manufacturer. A sample of 1440 women aged 20-79yr living in Örebro County was randomly assigned from the population register. Microdose mammography was used (Sectra MDM L30; Sectra Imtec AB, Linköping, Sweden) to measure BMD. Cole's LMS method was used to calculate DXR. Six hundred sixty-nine (48.3%) women participated. Peak bone mass occurred at the age of 43.4yr with a BMD of 0.597g/cm(2) (standard deviation: 0.050). Our Swedish data correlated well with the manufacturer's material. Only among women aged 50-59yr did BMD differ, where the Swedish sample had lower values. The LMS method can be used to describe the DXR data and provide a more detailed picture of bone density distribution. DXR-BMD in Swedish women aged 20-79yr is equivalent to findings from other studies, showing the same distribution of BMD in most age groups except for ages 50-59yr. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  10. Coronary arterial calcification and thoracic spine mineral density in early menopause.

    PubMed

    Miyabara, Y; Camp, J; Holmes, D; Lahr, B; Bailey, K; Miller, V M; Kearns, A E

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis increase in women after menopause. While aortic calcification is associated with bone loss in women, a similar relationship for coronary arterial calcification (CAC), a risk factor for coronary artery disease in women, is less clear. This study was designed to examine the relationship between CAC and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in women (n=137) who were within a median of 18 months past their last menses at screening for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). CAC was measured using 64-slice computed tomography; vBMD was measured from these images using the Spine Cancer Assessment program. Concentrations of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resident acid phosphatase-5b and osteopontin as bone matrix protein in serum and plasma were evaluated by ELISA. CAC scores ranged from 0 to 327.6 Agatston Units (AU); 113 women had a score of 0 AU, 20 had a CAC score between 0 and 50 AU, and four had a CAC score>50 AU. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward decreasing central density of thoracic T9 with increasing CAC. On average, levels of markers of bone turnover were within the normal range but did not correlate with age or with months past menopause. Clinically significant CAC and spine vBMD are quantifiable from the same scans within the first 3 years of menopause. Additional work is needed to determine how these measurements change with increasing age or with estrogenic treatments.

  11. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  12. Reduced bone mineral density in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arikoski, P; Komulainen, J; Voutilainen, R; Riikonen, P; Parviainen, M; Tapanainen, P; Knip, M; Kröger, H

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis and pathologic fractures are occasionally found in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study was performed to determine the degree of possible osteopenia in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck bone mineral densities (BMDs) (g/cm2) were measured in 29 survivors (aged 12 to 30 years, median 17) of childhood ALL 2 to 20 (median 8) years after discontinuation of chemotherapy. These results were compared with those from 273 healthy controls and expressed as a percentage of the age- and sex-matched control values (mean +/- standard deviation). Lumbar and femoral BMDs were significantly reduced in survivors of childhood ALL. Particularly, male gender (lumbar: 91.7 +/- 10.4%, p = 0.008; femoral: 91.9 +/- 11.3%, p = 0.005) and a history of cranial irradiation (lumbar: 93.0 +/- 8.9%, p = 0.005; femoral: 94.4 +/- 13.3%, p = 0.03) were associated with low lumbar and femoral BMDs. The detected deficit in bone density in survivors of childhood ALL may predispose these patients to osteoporotic fractures later in adulthood. A follow-up of BMD in survivors of childhood ALL should facilitate the identification of patients who would require specific therapeutic interventions to prevent further decrease of their skeletal mass and preserve their BMD.

  13. Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R; Rutherford, O M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body scan also gave values for percentage body fat and regional bone densities. Calcium intake and physical activity levels were measured by questionnaire. The rowers had significantly higher BMD in the spine and total body than the triathletes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and sedentary controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). There were no differences between the triathletes and controls. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in the triathletes than in the controls (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the rowers and controls. All groups fell within the normal range for testosterone. In a step-wise multiple regression, including age, body mass, height, calcium intake and activity, no single factor had a significant effect on spine BMD. Body mass had a significant effect on total body BMD and could account for the differences between the groups. A significant positive correlation was found between calcium intake and total body BMD. The heavy weight training typical of rowing training seemed to result in significant bone accretion. The low testosterone levels in the triathletes may have negated any positive effect of the increased exercise on BMD.

  14. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  15. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  16. Induced current bio-impedance technique for monitoring bone mineral density--a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Katz, Sagie; Zlochiver, Sharon; Abboud, Shimon

    2006-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using induced current bio-impedance technique as a method to determine and monitor bone mineral density (BMD) was theoretically evaluated using computerized simulation model. A 2D polar coordinates numerical solver was developed using the Finite Volume Method (FVM) in order to simulate the developed potentials over an axial CT cross section of a human thigh. Varying femur BMD were simulated by varying femur relative permittivity values. At the chosen excitation current of 1 ampere at a frequency of 20 kHz, the real component of the surface potential was found to be more sensitive to BMD variation than the imaginary component (3.9 microV g(-1) cm3 compared with 0.174 microV g(-1) cm3). The correlation between varying femur permittivities and the real component of the developed surface potential was found to be quadratic and influenced by the coil geometry and the measuring point location. Measurement sensitivity was improved either by taking the measuring point closer to the femur location or by minimizing the distance between the excitation coil and the femur. These results provide the basic principle that may enable a future use of bio-impedance technique for bone density evaluation and monitoring.

  17. Relationship between Heavy Metal Exposure and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to heavy metals from environmental and industrial sources remains a concern of serious public health risk. This study was conducted to analysis the relationship between heavy metal concentrations and bone density. Methods This study used data from a nation-based sample of Koreans (n=2,429) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were obtained heavy metals (lead, mercury and cadmium), socioeconomic and demographic factors and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by T-score. Results Menopausal women, current smoker or the frequent alcohol drinking, low educational level and low family income were greater in the osteopenia or osteoporosis groups than normal group, and were associated with an increased blood heavy metal concentration levels. The highest quartile group in blood lead had a 1.47 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.87) risk of osteopenia or osteoporosis. In case of blood cadmium, the risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis increased 2.1 times (95% CI 1.64-2.68). Conclusions We observed a significant association between blood heavy metals (lead and cadmium) levels and low BMD. Our findings suggest that heavy metal exposure may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:27965944

  18. Anthropometric and fitness variables associated with bone mineral density and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-ling; Ke, Jyh-yuh; Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Chao-jan; Wu, Ching-yi; Liu, Wen-yu

    2011-05-01

    We investigated anthropometric and fitness variables associated with areal bone mineral densities and broadband ultrasound attenuation in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Thirty-four children with cerebral palsy, aged 4-12 years, and 33 normal development children were collected. There were significant differences in femoral bone densities and calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation, but not in lumbar bone densities, between cerebral palsy and normal groups. Regression analysis revealed that different anthropometric and fitness variables were linked to bone densities of different skeletal regions in children with cerebral palsy (adjusted r(2) = .41-.67). Growth variables were mainly related to femoral and lumbar bone densities, while muscular endurance was mainly related to femoral and calcaneus bone densities. These findings suggest multiple complex variables can contribute to bone density variations among different skeleton areas in these children. These data can allow clinicians to identifying early these children at risk for low bone density.

  19. Assessing Bone Quality in Terms of Bone Mineral Density, Buckling Ratio and Critical Fracture Load

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is used as a sole parameter in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Due to the ease of acquirement of BMD, clinical diagnosis still involves its usage although the limitations of BMD are quite well-established. Therefore, this preliminary study hoped to reduce the errors introduced by BMD alone by incorporating geometric and structural predictors simultaneously to observe if strength was implicitly dependent on the geometry and BMD. Hence, we illustrated the triadic relationship between BMD, buckling ratio (BR) and critical fracture load (Fcr). Methods The geometric predictor was the BR as it involves both the changes in the periosteum and the cortical thickness. Also, structural changes were monitored by finite element (FE) analysis-predicted Fcr. These BR and Fcr measurements were plotted with their respective femoral neck BMD values in elderly female patients (n=6) in a 3-year follow-up study, treated with ibandronate. Results In all the three-dimensional plots (baseline, mid and final year), high Fcr values were found at regions containing high BMD and low BR values. Quantitatively, this was also proven where an averaged highest Fcr across the three years had a relatively higher BMD (46%) and lower BR (19%) than that of the averaged lowest Fcr. The dependence of FE predicted strength on both the geometry and bone density was illustrated. Conclusions We conclude that use of triadic relationships for the evaluation of osteoporosis and hip fractures with the combination of strength, radiology-derived BR and bone density will lay the foundation for more accurate predictions in the future. PMID:25489572

  20. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Common Variable Immunodeficiency and X-Linked Agammaglobulinaemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Ali; Azizi, Gholamreza; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Karimipour, Mehdi; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Yazdani, Reza; Ebrahimi, Sareh Sadat; Ebrahimi, Mehran; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Tafaroji, Javad; Ziaee, Vahid; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the most common group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, resulting from different defects in the development and function of B cell lineage. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are two of the major types of PADs. Optimal growth and subsequently bone health could potentially compromise due to the interference of several factors in PAD with childhood onset. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with CVID and XLA. BMD of 37 CVID and 19 XLA patients was examined. Total BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the calculated scores were compared internally and externally with age-sex matched and ethnic-specific reference. Related factors associated with bone density including immune-related complications, serum calcium, phosphate, total alkaline phosphatase, 25(OH) vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were recorded. The median age at the time of study was 20 years among all patients and was not statistically different between CVID and XLA groups and the mean of body mass index (BMI) was 19.4±4.6 kg/cm². Thirty-eight (67.9%) of total patients had normal BMD and 18 (32.1%) patients had a low BMD. BMI was positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck. The number of low BMD patients in CVID (40.5%) group was more than the XLA (15.8%). Beside nutritional, gastrointestinal and infectious complications which are shared in both groups of patients, CVID patients are more prone to alteration of BMD due to association with lymphoproliferative and endocrine diseases. Therefore routine evaluation of bone density and treatment adjustment should be considered in all PAD patients particularly in CVID patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Densitometric study of the clavicle: bone mineral density explains the laterality of the fractures.

    PubMed

    Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra, Marcelo; Isabel Pozzi, Maria; Busin, Gabriela; Crestana Zanetti, Lucas; Antônio Lazzarotto Terra Lopes, José; Orso, Vinícius

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown laterality in clavicle fractures, such that the left side is more frequently fractured. The present study had the aim of evaluating whether the clavicle on the dominant side is denser and thus explaining the greater incidence of fractures on the non-dominant side. This was a descriptive study on 52 healthy patients, who were classified according to age, sex and whether the dominant or non-dominant side was affected. The participants comprised 28 women (53.8%) and 24 men (46.2%). Regarding the dominant side, 30 were right-handed (57.7%) and 22 were left-handed (42.3%). The mean age was 25 years. In this study, it could be seen that the non-dominant side had greater bone mass than the dominant side. It was also observed that the bone density was greater in the middle and distal thirds on the non-dominant side, with a statistically significant difference. In the women, the density was also greater on the non-dominant side; this difference was not significant in relation to the dominant side, but there were significant differences between the middle thirds (p < 0.001) and the distal thirds (p < 0.006). Variations in bone density, toward higher and lower bone mass, may have been responsible for the fractures. According to the findings from this study, fractures occur more in the middle third of the non-dominant clavicle, as a result of greater bone mineral mass, which gives rise to lower flexibility and fractures in the region.

  2. Assessment of trabecular bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Haengbok; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Youngjae; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Juhyung; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Kijeong; Chang, Jinhwa; Chang, Dongwoo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related changes and anatomic variation in trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD) using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in normal cats. Seventeen normal cats were included in this study and divided into the following 3 age groups:<6 months (n=4), 2-5 years (n=10) and >6 years (n=3). A computed tomographic scan of each vertebra from the 12th thoracic to the 7th lumbar spine and the pelvis was performed with a bone-density phantom (50, 100 and 150 mg/cm(3), calcium hydroxyapatite, CIRS phantom(®)). On the central transverse section, the elliptical region of interest (ROI) was drawn to measure the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) value. Those values were converted to equivalent tBMD (mg/cm(3)) by use of the bone-density phantom and linear regression analysis (r(2) >0.95). The mean tBMD value of the thoracic vertebrae (369.4 ± 31.8 mg/cm(3)) was significantly higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae (285 ± 58.1 mg/cm(3)). The maximum tBMD occurred at the T12, T13 and L1 levels in all age groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean tBMD value among the 3 age groups at the T12 (P<0.001), T13 (P<0.001) and L4 levels (P=0.013), respectively. The present study suggests that age-related changes and anatomic variation in tBMD values should be considered when assessing tBMD using QCT in cats with bone disorders.

  3. Exercise and regional bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analytic review of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kelley, G A

    1998-01-01

    By using the meta-analytic approach, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on regional bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. A total of 11 randomized trials yielding 40 outcome measures and a total of 719 subjects (370 exercise, 349 nonexercise) met the criteria for inclusion: (1) randomized trials; (2) exercise as a primary intervention in postmenopausal women; (3) changes in regional bone mineral density reported; (4) comparative nonexercise group included; (5) studies published in English-language journals between January 1975 and December 1995. Across all designs and categories, treatment effect changes in bone density, weighted by sample size, ranged from -17.10 to 17.30% (mean, 0.27%; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.37%). When analyzed separately, sample weighted decreases of approximately -0.51 and -0.86% were found for exercise and nonexercise groups, respectively. Larger effects were observed when groups that did not measure bone density specific to the site loaded and groups that received some type of supplementation (calcium or hormone replacement therapy) were deleted from the model (mean change, 0.76%; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-0.93). Both aerobic and strength training enhanced regional bone mineral density (mean change: aerobic, 1.62% and 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.12; strength, 0.65% and 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.83). In conclusion, meta-analytic review of included studies suggests that exercise may slow the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, it is premature to form strong conclusions regarding the effects of exercise on regional bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. A need exists for additional, well designed studies on this topic before a recommendation can be made regarding the efficacy of exercise as a nonpharmacologic therapy for maintaining and/or increasing regional bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

  4. Bone loading during young adulthood predicts bone mineral density in physically active, middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert S; Hinton, Pamela S

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity during growth induces skeletal adaptations that increase bone strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist into middle age. We sought to determine if bone loading during adolescence (ages 13-18 years) or young adulthood (ages 19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of low bone density in adulthood. We also sought to determine if participation in high-impact activities (ie, those that produce a ground reaction force [GRF] > 4 times the individual's body weight] during adolescence and/or young adulthood has a lasting positive effect on adult BMD. Eighty-six, apparently healthy, physically active men (aged 30-60 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone loading during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood were calculated based on GRFs of the reported physical activities. Whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Multiple linear regression was used to examine relationships between BMD and bone loading, including body weight and/or age as covariates; logistic regression was used to predict low bone density for age. Participants were grouped based on participation in high-impact activity (never [n = 42], adolescence only [n = 19], or both adolescence and young adulthood [n=23]), and BMDs were compared. Bone loading during young adulthood, but not adolescence, was a significant positive predictor of adult BMD, with the full models explaining 33.4%, 31.7%, 44.6%, and 50.6% of the variance in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD, respectively. Ten participants (11.6%) had low bone density for age based on z scores of the hip or spine. Body weight and lean body mass, but not bone loading, were associated with reduced risk of low bone density for age. Individuals who participated in high-impact activity during both adolescence and young adulthood had greater BMD at all

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  6. Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (p<0.01). While the number of years of participation was similar across tertiles of WBtotal, the number of months/year was significantly greater among athletes in the high tertile than athletes in the low tertile (9.2+/-3.4 month/year versus 5.0+/-2.9 month/year, respectively (p<0.001)). These results indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age.

  7. Subgroup variations in bone mineral density response to zoledronic acid after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Magaziner, Jay S; Orwig, Denise L; Lyles, Kenneth W; Nordsletten, Lars; Boonen, Steven; Adachi, Jonathan D; Recknor, Chris; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Mesenbrink, Peter; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Su, Guoqin; Johnson, Rasheeda; Pieper, Carl F

    2014-12-01

    Minimizing post-fracture bone loss is an important aspect of recovery from hip fracture, and determination of factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) response to treatment after hip fracture may assist in the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. A post hoc analysis of the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial was done to determine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in subgroups with low-trauma hip fracture. A total of 2127 patients were randomized (1:1) to yearly infusions of ZOL 5 mg (n = 1065) or placebo (n = 1062) within 90 days of operation for low-trauma hip fracture. The 1486 patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline BMD assessment at TH or FN (ZOL = 745, placebo = 741) were included in the analyses. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD was assessed at months 12 and 24 and compared across subgroups of hip fracture patients. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD at months 12 and 24 was greater (p < 0.05) in ZOL-treated patients compared with placebo in most subgroups. Treatment-by-subgroup interactions (p < 0.05) indicated that a greater effect on BMD was observed for TH BMD at month 12 in females, in patients in the lower tertile body mass index at baseline (≤22.6 kg/m(2) ), and in patients with baseline FN BMD T-score of ≤ -2.5; for FN BMD in patients who received ZOL for >6 weeks post-surgery; and for TH and FN BMD in patients with a history of one or more prior fractures. All interactions were limited to the first 12 months after treatment with none observed for the 24-month comparisons. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00046254.) © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Water Treatment by Magnetic Field Increases Bone Mineral Density of Rats.

    PubMed

    Balieiro Neto, Geraldo; Engracia Filho, Jair Rodini; de Oliveira, Bruna Rezende Silva Martins; Coelho, Cássia Maria Molinaro; de Souza, Lilian Francisco Arantes; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino

    2017-08-11

    Water treatment using a magnetic field is an attractive but controversial issue with regard to its effects on human health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of water treatment using a magnetic field on the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone resistance (BR), blood gas analysis, blood viscosity, and blood biochemical profile of rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 24) and magnetic water-treated (n = 24). Each of these groups was subdivided into 3 groups to evaluate 3 consumption periods (15, 30, and 45 d). The animals were kept in metabolic cages throughout the experiment. A completely randomized design distributed to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used. No significant difference was found in the water intake, dry matter intake, BA, or femoral head resistance between the groups. However, higher anion gap and lower CHCO3 were found in the arterial blood of the magnetic water-treated group. There was significant interaction between the water consumption period and the BR, BMD, and BMC. With 15 d of consumption, there was no difference in the BMC and BR. With 30 d of consumption, the BR (midshaft), BMD, and BMC showed increases; the increases were greater with 45 d of consumption. In adulthood, every month of the animal is approximately equivalent to 2.5 human years. The consumption of water treated by magnetic field for 45 d provided an effective way to improve BMD, BMC and BR in rats. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D–Binding Protein Modifies the Vitamin D–Bone Mineral Density Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E; Ricciardi, Catherine; Berg, Anders H; Erdenesanaa, Delger; Collerone, Gina; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi; Bhan, Ishir

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between total circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded mixed results. Vitamin D–binding protein (DBP), the major carrier protein for 25(OH)D, may alter the biologic activity of circulating vitamin D. We hypothesized that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels, would be more strongly associated with BMD than levels of total 25(OH)D. We measured total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels in 49 healthy young adults enrolled in the Metabolic Abnormalities in College-Aged Students (MACS) study. Lumbar spine BMD was measured in all subjects using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical, diet, and laboratory information also was gathered at this time. We determined free and bioavailable (free + albumin-bound) 25(OH)D using previously validated formulas and examined their associations with BMD. BMD was not associated with total 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.172, p = .236). In contrast, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with BMD (r = 0.413, p = .003 for free, r = 0.441, p = .002 for bioavailable). Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with BMD in multivariate regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race (p = .03). It is concluded that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D are more strongly correlated with BMD than total 25(OH)D. These findings have important implications for vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D–deficient states. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship between free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and health outcomes. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21416506

  10. Correlations between indentation modulus and mineral density in bone-fracture calluses

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Pui L.; Morgan, Elise F.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a healing bone fracture depend not only on the geometry of the fracture callus but also on the material properties of the callus tissues. Despite the biomechanical importance of callus tissues in restoring mechanical integrity to the injured bone, little is known about the material properties of these tissues and whether these properties can be estimated non-invasively. This study used nanoindentation to quantify the spatial variations in indentation modulus throughout the fracture callus and correlated the measurements of modulus with measurements of tissue mineral density (TMD) obtained from images from micro-computed tomography (µCT). Fracture calluses were harvested from rats 24 days following creation of a full-thickness, transverse osteotomy in the femoral mid-diaphysis. Calluses were imaged using µCT, and the average TMD and the median grayvalue (X-ray attenuation) of five, pre-defined volumes of interest (VOIs) in each callus were computed. Nanoindentation was then performed at multiple, regularly spaced locations across 150 µm-thick, sagittal sections of the calluses. The indentation modulus ranged from 0.51 to 1680 MPa throughout the callus, with the highest moduli in the center of the fracture gap and the lowest in the periphery of the gap (P < 0.05). TMD was also highest in the center of the gap (P < 0.05). An increasing trend in both modulus and TMD was observed in the regions of the callus adjacent to the periosteal surfaces of the cortex. While no correlation was found between the average indentation modulus in a given VOI and the median grayvalue of that VOI, the average indentation modulus and the average TMD were positively correlated (R = 0.70, P < 0.05). Together, these findings establish the spatial heterogeneity in the mechanical behavior of tissues in fracture calluses and indicate that the indentation modulus of these tissues can be estimated by non-invasive measurements of tissue mineralization. PMID:21669846

  11. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P < 0.001) and direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.

  12. Relationships between lumbar bone mineral density and biochemical parameters in phenylketonuria patients.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Martijn J; Hoeksma, Marieke; van Rijn, Margreet; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2012-04-01

    The etiology of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in phenylketonuria (PKU) is unknown. Reduced BMD may be inherent to PKU and/or secondary to its dietary treatment. Lumbar BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 53 early and continuously treated PKU patients (median age 16, range 2-35 years). First, Z-scores of BMD were correlated to age group, clinical severity of PKU, mean phenylalanine (Phe) concentration and Phe variation in the year prior to DXA scanning, as well as to blood vitamin, mineral, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. Second, parameters were compared between subjects with reduced BMD (Z-score<-2 SD) and subjects with normal BMD. BMD was significantly reduced in our cohort (p=0.000). Z-scores of BMD were neither significantly correlated to age group, nor clinical severity of PKU. Both mean Phe concentration and Phe variation in the year prior to DXA scanning did not significantly correlate with Z-scores of BMD. Higher blood calcium concentrations were significantly associated with lower BMD (r(2)=-0.485, p=0.004). Other biochemical parameters, including vitamin B12 availability markers, did not show significant correlations with Z-score of BMD. Subjects with reduced BMD had significantly higher blood phosphorus concentrations than subjects with normal BMD (p=0.009). No other significant differences were found between both BMD groups. Reduced BMD in PKU is present from early age onward and does not progress with age. Therefore, BMD deserves attention from early age onward in PKU patients. Our findings are consistent with increased bone turnover in PKU. It remains unclear whether reduced BMD is inherent to PKU and/or secondary to its dietary treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between high-molecular-weight adiponectin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Nobuyuki; Otsubo, Shigeru; Iwasa, Yuko; Onuki, Takako; Nitta, Kosaku

    2013-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder is a regular complication seen in hemodialysis patients and leads to substantial increases in the fracture rate, morbidity, and mortality. Discovered a few years ago, several clinical studies have shown a negative correlation between adiponectin and bone mineral density (BMD) independently of confounding factors. The relationship between adiponectin and bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients has not been fully described yet. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and the BMD in hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 92 hemodialysis patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis therapy at Towa Hospital. A peripheral blood sample was obtained, and standard biological data and the serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin level were measured. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. In male hemodialysis patients, BMD was negatively related to age (r = -0.299, P = 0.012), duration of hemodialysis therapy (r = -0.31, P = 0.009), and log [HMW-adiponectin] (r = -0.31, P = 0.009) and positively related to body weight (r = 0.332, P = 0.004) and BMI (r = 0.297, P = 0.013). In female hemodialysis patients, BMD was negatively related to age (r = -0.499, P = 0.018) and log [HMW-adiponectin] (r = -0.46, P = 0.030) and positively related to triglyceride (r = 0.491, P = 0.020). HMW adiponectin may affect bone metabolism in both male and female hemodialysis patients.

  14. Estrogen Deficiency Increases Variability of Tissue Mineral Density of Alveolar Bone Surrounding Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Matthew S.; Hong, Semi; Lee, Hye Ri; Fields, Henry W.; Johnston, William M.; Kim, Do-Gyoon

    2010-01-01

    Objective Estrogen deficiency increases bone remodeling leading to increased variability of tissue mineral density (TMD). Due to the functional demands of mastication, alveolar bone around teeth is inherently a highly remodeled region of bone tissue with a highly variable distribution of TMD. This study investigated the effect of estrogen deficiency on the TMD distribution of alveolar bone. Design Using three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of sham surgery (Sham) and ovariectomized (OVX) rat mandible sections, alveolar bone region (AB) and control bone region (CB) of interest were isolated. Based on histograms of gray levels equivalent to TMD values, mean (Mean), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (COV=SD/Mean) were computed. Fifth and 95th percentile gray level values were also obtained (Low5 and High5, respectively). Absolute value of percentage (%) differences of the gray level parameters between AB and CB regions were computed. Results Both SD and COV were significantly higher in AB region than those in CB region for all specimens of both Sham and OVX groups (p<0.001). The mean values of % differences for SD were moderately higher (p<0.073) and those for COV and Low5 were significantly higher for the OVX group than for the Sham group (p<0.04). Conclusions Higher variability of mineralization observed in AB of OVX group indicates that estrogen deficiency amplifies the active bone remodeling of AB already present due to mastication. These findings provide an insight that the increased variability of TMD induced by estrogen deficiency may compromise the mechanical stability of the tooth-bearing alveolar bone. PMID:20541742

  15. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  16. The effect of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on bone mineral density in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Semra; Kara, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    1) To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) doses on bone mineral density (BMD) in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 2) Investigate other factors influencing BMD. Twenty-six children with CAH and 11 healthy controls included in the study. All of the patients were examined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer. The metabolic control state, age at diagnosis GC dose (mg/m2/day), pubertal status, 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP) levels, bone age (BA), and lumber BMD were evaluated in all cases. BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR) values were determined. Patients were grouped according to mean on-therapy serum 17 OHP levels as tight control (17 OHP<10 nmol/L) (n:13) and poor control (17 OHP>10 nmol/L) (n:13). All groups were compared with each other. The age range was 2.1-15.7 years and the mean age (+/- SD) 9.3 (+/- 3.5) years. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of GC doses, lumbar BMD values [BMD (g/cm2), BMD z-score corrected to National Standards (cNS-BMD z-score), BMD z-score corrected to BA (cBABMD), bone mineral content (BMC), BMC corrected to puberty (cPBMC), and bone area (BAR)]. However, the BMI value was higher in children with CAH than normal healthy controls. The BA of the poor control, late diagnosed groups and male patients were higher than tight control, early diagnosed group and female patients, respectively. BMC and BA were lower than the control group in tight control with early diagnosed patients. The cBABMD z-score was lower in males with poor control than males with tight control. There were no similar results in female patients. Although GC treatment seems not to influence BMD in CAH patients in our study, further studies are needed to additionally evaluate daily calcium (Ca) intake

  17. Antineoplastic treatment effect on bone mineral density in Mexican breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Cisneros, Karina; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E; Guevara-Torres, Alfonso G; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2016-11-08

    Breast cancer is the most deadly malignancy in Mexican women. Although treatment has improved, it may significantly affect bone mineral status in those who receive it. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), in patients with breast cancer and explore the interaction of menopausal status and clinical stage with cancer treatment on such changes. A quasi-experimental design was applied with measurements before and after a chemotherapy treatment in 40 patients with primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. BMD and body composition measurements were taken by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and changes in these variables due to therapy were analyzed using mixed regression for repeated measurements. Significant loss was found in femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD (p < 0.001). Patients diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis received calcium + vitamin D supplementation (600 mg/200 IU day). It showed a protective effect in the decrease of femoral neck BMD and total BMC. BMD loss in both femoral neck and L2-L4 BMD was higher in premenopausal women: 0.023 g/cm(2) in femoral neck and 0.063 g/cm(2) in L2-L4 (p < 0.001), while in postmenopausal women BMD loss was 0.015 g/cm(2) in femoral neck and 0.035 g/cm(2) in L2-L4 (p = 0.021 and p = 0.001 respectively). Change in lumbar spine BMD was prominent in premenopausal women with advanced clinical stage (IIB, IIIA, IIIB): 0.066 g/cm(2) (p = 0.003). The antineoplastic breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy had a negative impact on BMD, in premenopausal women overall, although a differential effect was found according to clinical stage and calcium supplementation status.

  18. Prediction of Bone Mineral Density and Fragility Fracture by Genetic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ho-Le, Thao P; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Hung T; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2017-02-01

    Although the susceptibility to fracture is partly determined by genetic factors, the contribution of newly discovered genetic variants to fracture prediction is still unclear. This study sought to define the predictive value of a genetic profiling for fracture prediction. Sixty-two bone mineral density (BMD)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 557 men and 902 women who had participated in the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. The incidence of fragility fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports between 1990 and 2015. Femoral neck BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A weighted polygenic risk score (genetic risk score [GRS]) was created as a function of the number of risk alleles and their BMD-associated regression coefficients for each SNP. The association between GRS and fracture risk was assessed by the Cox proportional hazards model. Individuals with greater GRS had lower femoral neck BMD (p < 0.01), but the variation in GRS accounted for less than 2% of total variance in BMD. Each unit increase in GRS was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.38) for fracture, and this association was independent of age, prior fracture, fall, and in a subset of 33 SNPs, independent of femoral neck BMD. The significant association between GRS and fracture was observed for the vertebral and wrist fractures, but not for hip fracture. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model with GRS and clinical risk factors was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.74). With GRS, the correct reclassification of fracture versus nonfracture ranged from 12% for hip fracture to 23% for wrist fracture. A genetic profiling of BMD- associated genetic variants could improve the accuracy of fracture prediction over and above that of clinical risk factors alone, and help stratify individuals by fracture status. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  19. Genome-wide QTL mapping of nine body composition and bone mineral density traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rothammer, Sophie; Kremer, Prisca V; Bernau, Maren; Fernandez-Figares, Ignacio; Pfister-Schär, Jennifer; Medugorac, Ivica; Scholz, Armin M

    2014-10-28

    Since the pig is one of the most important livestock animals worldwide, mapping loci that are associated with economically important traits and/or traits that influence animal welfare is extremely relevant for efficient future pig breeding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was a genome-wide mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nine body composition and bone mineral traits: absolute (Fat, Lean) and percentage (FatPC, LeanPC) fat and lean mass, live weight (Weight), soft tissue X-ray attenuation coefficient (R), absolute (BMC) and percentage (BMCPC) bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD). Data on the nine traits investigated were obtained by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for 551 pigs that were between 160 and 200 days old. In addition, all pigs were genotyped using Illumina's PorcineSNP60 Genotyping BeadChip. Based on these data, a genome-wide combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis was conducted. Thus, we used 44 611 sliding windows that each consisted of 20 adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). For the middle of each sliding window a variance component analysis was carried out using ASReml. The underlying mixed linear model included random QTL and polygenic effects, with fixed effects of sex, housing, season and age. Using a Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significance threshold of P < 0.001, significant peaks were identified for all traits except BMCPC. Overall, we identified 72 QTL on 16 chromosomes, of which 24 were significantly associated with one trait only and the remaining with more than one trait. For example, a QTL on chromosome 2 included the highest peak across the genome for four traits (Fat, FatPC, LeanPC and R). The nearby gene, ZNF608, is known to be associated with body mass index in humans and involved in starvation in Drosophila, which makes it an extremely good candidate gene for this QTL. Our QTL mapping approach identified 72 QTL, some of which confirmed results of previous

  20. Determinants of bone mineral density in immobilization: a study on hemiplegic patients.

    PubMed

    del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Mandes, M G; Mantova, D; Scarpa, R; Oriente, P

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis that develops during immobilization is a severe condition that confers increased risk of fractures with their burden of mortality and disability. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of immobilization osteoporosis. As a model of this condition we studied hemiplegic subjects, measuring bone mineral density in the paralyzed lower limb as compared with the non-paralyzed one. In spite of the limits related to the loss of nervous stimulation, this model offers the advantage of a proper control for the complex genetic and environmental cofactors involved. We examined 48 hemiplegic subjects (31 men, 17 women in menopause) admitted consecutively over a 9-month period. Mean length immobilization was 10.9 months for men (range 1-48 months) and 7.8 months for women (range 1-40 months). The average time since menopause was 14.9 years (range 1.7-23.9 years). For each subject the following were performed: questionnaire, medical examination, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the scores for spasticity and for lower limb motor capacity in order to account for the different degrees of disability among patients. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at both femoral necks. For each patient we defined a percentage difference in bone loss between the paralyzed and non-paralyzed limb. Regression coefficient were calculated by multiple logistic regression. There was significant bone loss in the paralyzed limb in both sexes, accounting for up to 6.3% in women. Multiple regression analysis showed that the degree of bone loss depends significantly and directly on the length of immobilization, even when controlling for age and sex in the regression model (R = 0.193, p = 0.034). However, when time since menopause was included in the regression model, with length of immobility as a covariate, it was the only significant determinant of bone loss (R = 0.312, p = 0.039). No additional factors were observed among

  1. Impact of pioglitazone on bone mineral density and bone marrow fat content.

    PubMed

    Pop, L M; Lingvay, I; Yuan, Q; Li, X; Adams-Huet, B; Maalouf, N M

    2017-07-22

    Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of pioglitazone treatment on femoral neck bone marrow (BM) fat content and on bone mineral density (BMD), and to establish if any correlation exists between the changes in these parameters. In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 42 obese volunteers with metabolic syndrome were randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/day) or matching placebo for 1 year. The following measurements were conducted at baseline and during the treatment: liver, pancreas, and femoral neck BM fat content (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy), BMD by DXA, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, and beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Results were available for 37 subjects who completed the baseline and 1-year evaluations. At 12 months, BM fat increased with pioglitazone (absolute change, +4.1%, p = 0.03), whereas BM fat content in the placebo group decreased non-significantly (-3.1%, p = 0.08) (p = 0.007 for the pioglitazone-placebo response difference). Total hip BMD declined in the pioglitazone group (-1.4%) and increased by 0.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.03 between groups). The change in total hip BMD was inversely and significantly correlated with the change in BM fat content (Spearman rho = -0.56, p = 0.01) in the pioglitazone group, but not within the placebo group (rho = -0.29, p = 0.24). Changes in BM fat with pioglitazone were predominantly

  2. Determinants of change in bone mineral density and fracture risk during bisphosphonate holiday.

    PubMed

    Xu, L H R; Adams-Huet, B; Poindexter, J R; Maalouf, N M

    2016-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 208 osteoporotic patients followed during a bisphosphonate holiday, lower body weight and risedronate use were associated with a more rapid decline in bone mineral density during the bisphosphonate holiday, while bone mineral density (BMD) trends were similar in patients who sustained vs. did not sustain a fracture. A drug holiday has been suggested for some bisphosphonate-treated patients with osteoporosis to minimize potential side effects from prolonged use. However, there is limited information on the evolution of BMD during a bisphosphonate holiday. Our study analyzed the longitudinal course of BMD following bisphosphonate discontinuation and assessed its determinants. Retrospective single-center cohort study of osteoporosis patients treated with alendronate or risedronate for at least 2 years and then discontinued their bisphosphonate for a drug holiday. Patients were stratified by bisphosphonate type and by fracture occurrence during drug holiday. A total of 208 patients were included in this analysis (87.5 % female). At the time of bisphosphonate cessation, mean ± SD age was 66.9 ± 8.9 years and BMI 24.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). Duration of bisphosphonate treatment was 5.2 ± 2.3 years, and follow-up during holiday was 3.3 ± 1.7 years. During the first 2 years of the holiday, BMD remained stable at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but declined significantly at the total hip. BMD declined significantly at all sites thereafter. Significant predictors of BMD decline during bisphosphonate holiday included lower BMI at the start of the holiday and change in body weight during the holiday. BMD decline was more pronounced in former risedronate compared to former alendronate users. BMD trends were similar in patients who sustained vs. did not sustain a fracture during the holiday. BMD at the total hip declines significantly within 1 year of bisphosphonate discontinuation, particularly in lean patients

  3. Changes in bone mineral density over time by body mass index in the health ABC study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J T; Alley, D E; Hochberg, M C; Waldstein, S R; Harris, T B; Kritchevsky, S B; Schwartz, A V; Strotmeyer, E S; Womack, C; Orwig, D L

    2016-06-01

    Obesity appears protective against osteoporosis in cross-sectional studies. However, results from this longitudinal study found that obesity was associated with bone loss over time. Findings underscore the importance of looking at the longitudinal relationship, particularly given the increasing prevalence and duration of obesity among older adults. Cross-sectional studies have found a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), but little is known about the longitudinal relationship in US older adults. We examined average annual rate of change in BMD by baseline BMI in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Repeated measurement of BMD was performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and years 3, 5, 6, 8, and 10. Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to predict mean BMD (femoral neck, total hip, and whole body) by baseline BMI (excluding underweight), adjusting for covariates. In the sample (n = 2570), 43 % were overweight and 24 % were obese with a mean baseline femoral neck BMD of 0.743 g/cm(2), hip BMD of 0.888 g/cm(2), and whole-body BMD of 1.09 g/cm(2). Change in total hip or whole-body BMD over time did not vary by BMI groups. However, obese older adults lost 0.003 g/cm(2) of femoral neck BMD per year more compared with normal weight older adults (p < 0.001). Femoral neck BMD change over time did not differ between the overweight and normal weight BMI groups (p = 0.74). In year 10, adjusted femoral neck BMD ranged from 0.696 g/cm(2) among obese, 0.709 g/cm(2) among normal weight, and 0.719 g/cm(2) among overweight older adults. Findings underscore the importance of looking at the longitudinal relationship between body composition and bone mineral density among older adults, indicating that high body mass may not be protective for bone loss over time.

  4. Effects of physical training on bone mineral density in fertile women with idiopathic osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Brinck, Jonas; Sääf, Maria

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate physical training can improve the bone mineral density (BMD) in women with idiopathic osteoporosis. Ten pre-menopausal women aged 24-44 years diagnosed with idiopathic osteoporosis were included in the study. The physical training program consisted of three fast 30-min walks plus one or two sessions of 1-h training per week during 1 year at a training centre separate from the hospital. All patients were given supplements of vitamin D and calcium. Bone mineral density was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements were performed at baseline and after 12 months of training and compared with the measurements at the time of diagnosis, 1-3 years before the study. Eight women fulfilled the 12-month training period, and their mean (SD) BMD at start was 0.88 (0.08) g/cm(2) in the spine and 0.76 (0.13) g/cm(2) in the femoral neck. The mean spine BMD increase was 0.031 g/cm(2) (3.5%) after 1 year of training, which was significant (Wilcoxon's non-parametric test, p = 0.018). The mean increment in BMD in the femoral neck was insignificant, 0.007 g/cm(2) (0.9%) after the intervention (p = 0.74). However, the bone loss during the 1- to 3-year period from diagnosis to study start was, on average, 0.045 g/cm(2) or 5.0% in the femoral neck (p = 0.042), thus indicating a positive indirect effect of the intervention. There is no evidence-based therapy for women with idiopathic osteoporosis. It is therefore of importance to elucidate the impact of moderate physical activity in this group of patients. A 1-year training program was sufficient to induce a small but significant change in the spine BMD.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Bisphosphonates for Low Bone Mineral Density After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Shun-Li; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Zhou, Yong; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) after kidney transplantation, the role of bisphosphonates remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates. We retrieved trials from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception through May 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared bisphosphonate-treated and control groups of patients with low bone mineral density after kidney transplantation were included. The primary outcomes were the percent change in BMD, the absolute change in BMD, and the BMD at the end of study at the lumbar spine. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). We used a random-effects model to pool the outcomes. We included 17 randomized controlled trials with 1067 patients. Only 1 included trial was found to be at low risk of bias. The rest of the included studies were found to have high to uncertain risk of bias. Compared with the control group, those who received bisphosphonates had a significant increase in percent change in BMD (mean difference [MD] = 5.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–7.79, P < 0.00001) and absolute change in BMD (MD = 0.05, 95% CI 0.04–0.05, P < 0.00001), but a nonsignificant increase in BMD at the end of the study (MD = 0.02, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.05, P = 0.25) at the lumbar spine. Bisphosphonates resulted in a significant improvement in percent change in BMD (MD = 4.95, 95% CI 2.57–7.33, P < 0.0001), but a nonsignificant improvement in absolute change in BMD (MD = 0.03, 95% CI −0.00 to 0.06, P = 0.07) and BMD at the end of the study (MD = −0.01, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, P = 0.40) at the femoral neck. No significant differences were found in vertebral fractures, nonvertebral fractures, adverse events, and gastrointestinal adverse events

  6. Curcumin improves bone microarchitecture and enhances mineral density in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Wei; Wang, Tong-Hao; Yan, Pei-Pei; Chu, Li-Wei; Yu, Jiang; Gao, Zhi-Da; Li, Yuan-Zhou; Guo, Bao-Lei

    2011-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis are often observed to co-occur in clinical practice. The present study aimed to evaluate the bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal tibia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to search for evidence that curcumin can be used to reduce bone mineral losses and treat osteoporosis after senile dementia in these transgenic mice. Three-month-old female mice were divided into the following groups (n=9 per group): wild-type mice (WT group); APP/PS1 transgenic mice (APP group); and APP/PS1 transgenic mice with curcumin treatment (APP+Cur group). Between 9 and 12 months of age, the APP+Cur group were administered curcumin orally (600ppm). CT scans of the proximal tibia were taken at 6, 9 and 12 months. At 6 months, there were little differences in the structural parameters. At 9 months, the APP groups displayed loss of bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and connectivity density (Conn.D) and increases in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and geometric degree of anisotropy (DA) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with significant changes in the BMD parameters. At 12 months, curcumin treatment led to constant increases in the trabecular bone mass of the metaphysis and clearly improved the BMD. By the same time, we measured the TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum among the different groups at 6, 9 and 12 months by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA). These results suggest that APP/PS1 transgenic mice are susceptible to osteoporosis, and that curcumin can prevent further deterioration of the bone structure and produce beneficial changes in bone turnover. The change of inflammation cytokine, including TNF-α and IL-6, may play an important role in the mechanisms of action of curcumin, but the detail mechanism remains unknown.

  7. Relation of parity and homocysteine to bone mineral density of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Necat; Kepkep, Necip; Ciçek, Hülya Kanbur; Celik, Ahmet; Meram, Iclal

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major problem in contemporary society. However, there is not enough data on multiparity and osteoporosis from developing and/or undeveloped countries on a large scale. Selection of participants in this study was aimed at the detection of bone status in healthy (normal bone mineral density) postmenopausal (n = 46, 55.3 +/- 6.7 years) and osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n: 33) of similar age. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At the DEXA evaluation, 33 women had osteoporotic (T score below -2.5) and 46 had normal BMD values. The number of pregnancies was found to range from 3 to 12 (with an overall mean of 6.7 +/- 2.5), while 2.6 +/- 1.9 (range, 1-7) were miscarriages in all of the 33 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Serum homocysteine (t-Hcy) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (11.96 +/- 3.84 micromol/L, 15.4 +/- 7.0 nM/mM cr) than in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women (10.93 +/- 3.6 micromol/L, 10.6 +/- 9.1 nM/mM cr), p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. Surprisingly, in postmenopausal osteoporotic women the homocysteine (t-Hcy) levels were positively associated with the number of deliveries (multiparity; 6.7 +/- 2.5), and positively associated with the number of curettages (2.6 +/- 1.9), r = 0.401, p < 0.038 and r = 0.520, p < 0.029, respectively. The mechanism linking serum t-Hcy to the number of pregnancies is unclear, and the relationship may only be by chance. In conclusion, the present study firstly suggests that the number of pregnancies has an effect on the t-Hcy levels. In addition, our study indicates that there is a significant negative correlation between the number of pregnancies and the lumbar spine BMD.

  8. Effect of bone mineral density and parathyroidectomy on fracture risk in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    VanderWalde, Lindi H; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Haigh, Philip I

    2009-03-01

    Bone mineral density is one parameter used to decide whether patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should undergo parathyroidectomy. However, the influence of bone mineral density and parathyroidectomy on subsequent fracture risk is unclear. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with PHPT based on administrative discharge abstract data. The dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan T-scores at the femur were collected by chart review, and 10-year fracture-free survival (FFS) was the main outcome measured. A total of 533 patients were identified, most of them > or = 50 years old (89%) and female (87%). Seventeen percent of the patients were black. Mean initial calcium, parathormone, and creatinine levels were 11.1 mg/dl, 116 pg/ml, and 0.9 mg/dl, respectively. Parathyroidectomy was performed in 159 (30%) patients, and 374 (70%) were observed. The 10-year FFS after PHPT diagnosis was 94% in patients treated with parathyroidectomy and 81% in those observed (p = 0.006). Compared to observation, parathyroidectomy improved the 10-year FFS by 9.1% (p = 0.99), 12% (p = 0.92), and 12% (p = 0.02) in patients with normal bones (T-score > or = -1.0), osteopenia (T-score < or = -1.0, > or = -2.5), and osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5), respectively. On multivariate analysis, parathyroidectomy was independently associated with decreased fracture risk (HR = 0.41; 95%CI 0.18, 0.93), whereas non-black race (HR = 2.94; 95%CI 1.04, 8.30) and T-score < -2.5 (HR = 2.29; 95%CI 1.08, 4.88) remained independently associated with increased fracture risk. Parathyroidectomy decreases the risk of fracture in patients with normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic bones. The largest impact from parathyroidectomy is in patients with osteoporosis. The highest risk of fracture is in non-blacks and in patients with osteoporosis.

  9. Effects of cadmium, calcium, age and parity on bone mineral, density and strength in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, B.F.

    1985-06-01

    Weanling female rats were fed diets containing one of three levels of calcium and one of four levels of cadmium in the drinking water. Approximately 10 animals from each group were sacrificed after the first pregnancy and the remaining animals after the fourth pregnancy. Reproductive performance, plasma and bone Ca and P and bone density and strength were measured. After the first pregnancy, offspring of dams treated with 5 or 10 ppM Cd were smaller at birth than offspring of dams treated with 0 or 1 ppM Cd. Offspring of dams fed 5 or 10 ppM Cd or the 0.3% Ca diet had decreased weaning weight regardless of parity. Cadmium treatment had no effect on the plasma Ca or the Ca-P ratio. At Cd levels of 5 or 10 ppM the plasma P was increased. The 0.3% Ca diet depressed the plasma Ca and the 0.9% Ca diet elevated the plasma Ca and depressed the plasma P when compared to the 0.6% diet. Parity did not affect plasma Ca but, after four pregnancies, plasma P was decreased. Plasma Ca of mature dams was higher than that of adolescent dams but plasma P was unaffected. Bone mineral, density and strength were decreased by the 0.3% Ca diet especially when Cd levels reached 10 ppM. Increasing dietary Ca above normal increased femur Ca of dams fed 1 ppM Cd but did not increase the Ca of the femur of dams given higher levels of Cd. After the first pregnancy, femur Ca of mature dams was greater than that of adolescent dams. After the fourth pregnancy, femurs of mature dams were less strong than those of adolescent dams; however, the density was the same. Increasing dietary Ca above 0.6% lessened the detrimental effects of 5 ppM Cd ingestion on bone density. Mature dams were less affected by the 0.3% Ca 10 ppM Cd treatment than were adolescent dams. 60 refs., 3 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Interpretation of hip fracture patterns using areal bone mineral density in the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Sng, Weizhong Jonathan; Lim, Joel Louis Zongwei; Tan, Chuen Seng; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Ng, Jun Han Charles; Kagda, Fareed H Y

    2015-12-01

    Bone mineral density scans are currently interpreted based on an average score of the entire proximal femur. Improvements in technology now allow us to measure bone density in specific regions of the proximal femur. The study attempts to explain the pathophysiology of neck of femur (NOF) and intertrochanteric/basi-cervical (IT) fractures by correlating areal BMD (aBMD) scores with fracture patterns, and explore possible predictors for these fracture patterns. This is a single institution retrospective study on all patients who underwent hip surgeries from June 2010 to August 2012. A total of 106 patients (44 IT/basi-cervical, 62 NOF fractures) were studied. The data retrieved include patient characteristics and aBMD scores measured at different regions of the contralateral hip within 1 month of the injury. Demographic and clinical characteristic differences between IT and NOF fractures were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test and two-sample t test. Relationship between aBMD scores and fracture patterns was assessed using multivariable regression modeling. After adjusted multivariable analysis, T-Troc and T-inter scores were significantly lower in intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures compared to neck of femur fractures (P = 0.022 and P = 0.026, respectively). Both intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures (mean T.Tot -1.99) and neck of femur fractures (mean T.Tot -1.64) were not found to be associated with a mean T.tot less than -2.5. However, the mean aBMD scores were consistently less than -2.5 for both intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures and neck of femur fractures. Gender and calcium intake at the time of injury were associated with specific hip fracture patterns (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). Hip fracture patterns following low energy trauma may be influenced by the pattern of reduced bone density in different areas of the hip. Intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures were associated with significantly lower T-Troc and T-Inter scores

  11. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  12. Bone Mineral Density and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Male Individuals with Mental Retardation (with and without Down Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…

  13. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  14. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women.

  15. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  16. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  17. Jumping exercise preserves bone mineral density and mechanical properties in osteopenic ovariectomized rats even following established osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Okubo, R; Sanada, L S; Castania, V A; Louzada, M J Q; de Paula, F J A; Maffulli, N; Shimano, A C

    2017-04-01

    The effects of jump training on bone structure before and after ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats were investigated. Jumping exercise induced favorable changes in bone mineral density, bone mechanical properties, and bone formation/resorption markers. This exercise is effective to prevent bone loss after ovariectomy even when osteopenia is already established.

  18. Bone Mineral Density and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Male Individuals with Mental Retardation (with and without Down Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…

  19. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  20. Associations of low vitamin D and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations with bone mineral density in perinatally HIV-infected children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. ...

  1. Socioeconomic status and bone mineral density in adults by race/ethnicity and gender: the Louisiana osteoporosis study.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Zhao, L-J; Xu, Q; Wu, K-H; Deng, H-W

    2017-02-24

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis have become a public health problem. We found that non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults with extremely low education and personal income are more likely to have lower BMD. This relationship is gender-specific. These findings are valuable to guide bone health interventions.

  2. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  3. [Effect of high impact movements on body composition, strength and bone mineral density on women over 60 years].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Villada, Jhon F; León-Ariza, Henry H; Argüello-Gutiérrez, Yenny P; Porras-Ramírez, Keyla A

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by loss of bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue microarchitecture that leads to fragility related to the risk of fractures. The aim of the study is to analyse the effects of a training program based on explosive movements and impact, assessed in a swimming pool, on body composition, explosive strength and bone mineral density in women over 60 years old. A total of 35 healthy physically active women (60±4.19 years) were divided into a training pool group using multi jumps (JG) and a control group (CG). JG trained for 24 weeks, 3 times a week, an hour and a half per session. Body composition testing, explosive strength, and bone mineral density were assessed before and after the program. There were differences in the explosive force (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .001) and the estimated power (JG vs CG=P<.05 to .002) between JG vs CG, with significant increases in JG. There were no significant differences in the percentage of fat and lean mass, bone mineral density lumbar and femoral between groups, although slightly significant increases in bone mineral density lumbar and femoral could be seen in JG after program implementation (JG pre-test vs JG post- test=P<.05). The training program with impact and explosive movements assessed in a pool induces gains in muscle strength and power with slight adaptations in body mass index in women over 60 years. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of the Lipid Profile, BMI and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Balaban, Jagoda; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To the reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contribute elevated lipid parameters and Body Mass Index (BMI). Goal: The goal of our study was to determine the correlation between lipid parameters, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study was carried out by matched type between experimental group and controls. The experimental group consisted of 100 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (± 2 years). To all participants of the study were carried out biochemical analysis of blood, or the analysis of the lipid profile that included total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol, and was determined the values of BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Analysis of the data of our research shows that by the univariate logistic regression the values of lipid parameters total cholesterol (p=0.000), LDL (p=0.005) and TG (p=0.033) were significantly associated with osteoporosis, while in multivariate logistic model only total cholesterol (p= 0.018) was found as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BMI values were not statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis (p=0.727). Conclusion: On the decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women influence many risk factors whose identification has the aim to develop more effective prevention of this disease in the elderly. PMID:28144189

  5. Possible role of lymphocytes in glucocorticoid-induced increase in trabecular bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Grahnemo, Louise; Jochems, Caroline; Andersson, Annica; Engdahl, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Claes; Islander, Ulrika; Carlsten, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids is associated with osteoporosis. Many of the treated patients are postmenopausal women, who even without treatment have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lymphocytes have been shown to play a role in postmenopausal and arthritis-induced osteoporosis, and they are targeted by glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind effects of glucocorticoids on bone during health and menopause, focusing on lymphocytes. Female C57BL/6 or SCID mice were therefore sham-operated or ovariectomized and 2 weeks later treatment with dexamethasone (dex), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen, or vehicle was started and continued for 2.5 weeks. At the termination of experiments, femurs were phenotyped using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution micro-computed tomography, and markers of bone turnover were analyzed in serum. T and B lymphocyte populations in bone marrow and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dex-treated C57BL/6 mice had increased trabecular bone mineral density, but lower cortical content and thickness compared with vehicle-treated mice. The dex-treated mice also had lower levels of bone turnover markers and markedly decreased numbers of spleen T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, these effects could not be repeated when mice were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. In addition, dex did not increase trabecular bone in ovariectomized SCID mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes. In contrast to most literature, the results from this study indicate that treatment with dex increased trabecular bone density, which may indicate that this effect is associated with corticosteroid-induced alterations of the lymphocyte populations. PMID:25359897

  6. Premature greying of the hair is not associated with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Beardsworth, S A; Kearney, C E; Steel, S A; Newman, J; Purdie, D W

    1999-01-01

    In two recent case-control studies premature greying of the hair was associated with a lowering of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk marker for osteoporosis. We report a further re-examination of this proposal in 52 prematurely grey-haired women from East Yorkshire who responded to an advertisement inviting them for bone densitometry. Thirty-five had no clinical or drug history that could influence bone density. All were Caucasian with a mean age of 52.8 years. In the group as a whole the mean BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were no different from those of a young adult, but there was a trend toward a greater than average BMD than that of the local age-matched population (p = 0.097 and 0.218, respectively). Twenty women were premenopausal, with an average age of 45.3 years. Mean BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in this group were no different from those of young adults. There was, however, a trend toward a BMD greater than that of the local age-matched population at the femoral neck (p = 0.117). Fifteen women were postmenopausal with an average age of 62.9 years and an average age at menopause of 51.1 years. Mean BMD values at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck in this group were lower than those of young adults, but no different from those of the local age-matched population. In conclusion, our group of prematurely grey-haired women had average BMD for their age, and we are therefore unable to support the proposed clinical usefulness of premature greying as a risk marker for osteoporosis.

  7. Participation in high-impact sports predicts bone mineral density in senior olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; Francis, Kimberly; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Games (the Senior Olympics). Cross-sectional methods. The athletes completed a detailed health history questionnaire and underwent calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to measure BMD. Athletes were classified as participating in high impact sports (basketball, road race [running], track and field, triathalon, and volleyball) or non-high-impact sports. Stepwise linear regression was used to determine the influence of high-impact sports on BMD. On average, participants were 65.9 years old (range, 50 to 93). There were 298 women (53.2%) and 289 men (51.6%) who participated in high-impact sports. Average body mass index was 25.6 ± 3.9. The quantitative ultrasound-generated T scores, a quantitative measure of BMD, averaged 0.4 ± 1.3 and -0.1 ± 1.4 for the high-impact and non-high-impact groups, respectively. After age, sex, obesity, and use of osteoporosis medication were controlled, participation in high-impact sports was a significant predictor of BMD (R(2) change 3.2%, P < .001). This study represents the largest sample of BMD data in senior athletes to date. Senior participation in high-impact sports positively influenced bone health, even in the oldest athletes. These data imply that high-impact exercise is a vital tool to maintain healthy BMD with active aging.

  8. Bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabil; Ferns, Gordon A

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that osteoporosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms and related risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between several traditional cardiovascular risk factors and measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with and without clinically significant CAD defined angiographically. A case-control study was undertaken of 180 postmenopausal women (aged between 48 and 88 years) who were recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Study subjects underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and coronary angiography. The presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and physical activity was identified from clinical examination and history. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were measured. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to explore the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors, including BMD, and the presence of CAD. CAD patients were more likely to have a lower BMD and T-score at the femoral neck than those without CAD (P<0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups for fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and anthropometric measures (P<0.05). Conditional logistic regression showed that 3 risk factors were significantly related with the presence of CAD: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (odds ratio, OR: 0.226, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.062-0.826), fasting plasma glucose (OR: 1.154, 95% CI: 1.042-1.278) and femoral neck T-score (OR: 0.545, 95% CI: 0.374-0.794). This study suggests an association of low BMD and elevated CAD risk. Nevertheless, additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine the temporal sequence of this association.

  9. Bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M; Alnahdi, Wafa A; Alama, Nabil; Ferns, Gordon A

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that osteoporosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms and related risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between several traditional cardiovascular risk factors and measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with and without clinically significant CAD defined angiographically. A case–control study was undertaken of 180 postmenopausal women (aged between 48 and 88 years) who were recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Study subjects underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and coronary angiography. The presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and physical activity was identified from clinical examination and history. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were measured. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to explore the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors, including BMD, and the presence of CAD. CAD patients were more likely to have a lower BMD and T-score at the femoral neck than those without CAD (P<0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups for fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and anthropometric measures (P<0.05). Conditional logistic regression showed that 3 risk factors were significantly related with the presence of CAD: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (odds ratio, OR: 0.226, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.062–0.826), fasting plasma glucose (OR: 1.154, 95% CI: 1.042–1.278) and femoral neck T-score (OR: 0.545, 95% CI: 0.374–0.794). This study suggests an association of low BMD and elevated CAD risk. Nevertheless, additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine the temporal sequence of this association. PMID:26587227

  10. Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorban-Sabbagh, Mahin; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadi-Simab, Saeedeh; Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal. Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed. Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass. Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment. PMID:27689105

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ye Seul; Im, Sun-Wha; Kang, Mi So; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Hang; Cho, Be Long; Park, Jin Ho; Nam, You-Seon; Son, Ho-Young; Yang, San Deok; Sung, Joohon; Oh, Kwang Ho; Yun, Jae Moon; Kim, Jong Il

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7), rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7) in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD), while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7) was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD). Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009) in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033) in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248) in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057) in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012) in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114) in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population. PMID:27445649

  12. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gray, M; Di Brezzo, R; Fort, I L

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this 48-week exercise intervention was designed to examine the effects of power and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD). Premenopausal women were recruited and randomly assigned to either a power (N.=8) or resistance (N.=11) training group. The power exercises included jumping rope, skipping, hopping, and other power-type exercises. The resistance training group performed 8-10 whole-body strengthening exercises at 70% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Before and after the exercise intervention, BMD was measured via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the total-body, lumbar spine, left femoral neck, and left greater trochanter. Muscular strength was measured by hand grip dynamometer and 1RM of chest press and leg press. Muscular power was assessed by the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. There were no statistical differences between the two training groups for any of the BMD measurements. Chest press strength was different between the two groups, increasing 6.41 and 1.1kg for the resistance and power groups, respectively over the course of the training period (F[1.15]=9.44, P<0.01). There was a significant time effect for leg press 1RM (F[1.15]=6.04, P=0.03). The participants increased by 12.37kg after the 48-week intervention. Hand grip strength also increased after the study intervention (F[1.16]=46.32, P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that power and resistance training are comparable techniques for maintaining bone density.

  13. European bone mineral density loci are also associated with BMD in East-Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Tang, Nelson L S; Koh, Jung-Min; Xiao, Su-mei; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Kim, Ghi Su; Chan, Juliana C N; Cherny, Stacey; Lee, Seung Hun; Kwok, Anthony; Ho, Suzanne; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Kostic, Jelena Pop; Palsson, Stefan Th; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sham, Pak C; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kung, Annie W C; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping-C; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-10-07

    Most genome-wide association (GWA) studies have focused on populations of European ancestry with limited assessment of the influence of the sequence variants on populations of other ethnicities. To determine whether markers that we have recently shown to associate with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Europeans also associate with BMD in East-Asians we analysed 50 markers from 23 genomic loci in samples from Korea (n = 1,397) and two Chinese Hong Kong sample sets (n = 3,869 and n = 785). Through this effort we identified fourteen loci that associated with BMD in East-Asian samples using a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05; 1p36 (ZBTB40, P = 4.3×10(-9)), 1p31 (GPR177, P = 0.00012), 3p22 (CTNNB1, P = 0.00013), 4q22 (MEPE, P = 0.0026), 5q14 (MEF2C, P = 1.3×10(-5)), 6q25 (ESR1, P = 0.0011), 7p14 (STARD3NL, P = 0.00025), 7q21 (FLJ42280, P = 0.00017), 8q24 (TNFRSF11B, P = 3.4×10(-5)), 11p15 (SOX6, P = 0.00033), 11q13 (LRP5, P = 0.0033), 13q14 (TNFSF11, P = 7.5×10(-5)), 16q24 (FOXL1, P = 0.0010) and 17q21 (SOST, P = 0.015). Our study marks an early effort towards the challenge of cataloguing bone density variants shared by many ethnicities by testing BMD variants that have been established in Europeans, in East-Asians.

  14. Association of Bone Mineral Density With Hearing Impairment in Postmenopausal Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Jung; Cho, Hyun Ho; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies examining the association between osteoporosis (OP) and hearing loss (HL) have shown conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between hearing impairment and OP in postmenopausal women, using appropriate statistical analyses. Methods Total 1,009 participants were included in the current study. The propensity score matched (PSM) cohort was defined as the cohort including participants diagnosed with OP and participants without OP. Three statistical models were developed where model 1 was unadjusted, model 2 included age, and model 3 included age, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride level, vitamin D, and alkaline phosphatase. Results There were 776 and 233 participants in the groups diagnosed without and with OP, respectively. For propensity score matching, 233 pairs were selected from the 776 participants without OP. In the total cohort, using statistical models 2 and 3, no significant difference in the four hearing thresholds was identified between the 2 groups. Logistic regression indicated that, in model 3, participants with OP had a 1.128 (P=0.323) increased risk HL. A significant HL risk was not observed in participants with OP. Using statistical model 3, there were no significant associations among lumbar spine or femoral neck T-scores and changes in the hearing thresholds. In the PSM cohort, statistical models also showed similar results. Conclusion The current study did not demonstrate and association between bone mineral density and hearing impairment in the study population of postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:27136368

  15. Osteoporosis Risk Prediction for Bone Mineral Density Assessment of Postmenopausal Women Using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Sung Kean; Choi, Joon Yul; Lee, Wan Hyung; Oh, Ein; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of clinical decision tools for osteoporosis risk assessment have been developed to select postmenopausal women for the measurement of bone mineral density. We developed and validated machine learning models with the aim of more accurately identifying the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women compared to the ability of conventional clinical decision tools. Materials and Methods We collected medical records from Korean postmenopausal women based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The training data set was used to construct models based on popular machine learning algor